Publications by authors named "Lin Yao"

536 Publications

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) MsCML46 gene encoding calmodulin-like protein confers tolerance to abiotic stress in tobacco.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Key Laboratory of Molecular and Cytogenetics, College of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin, 150025, Heilongjiang, China.

Key Message: MsCML46 enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses through alleviating osmotic stress and oxidative damage by regulating the expression of stress-related genes to optimize osmolytes levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in transgenic tobacco. Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that constraint crop productivity worldwide. Various stimuli regulate intracellular calcium levels and calcium-mediated signal transduction, and cellular responses. Ca signals are perceived by different Ca receptors. Calmodulin-like protein (CML) is one of the best-characterized Ca sensors which shares sequence similarity with highly conserved calmodulin (CaM) ubiquitously expressed in plants. Currently, the molecular and physiological functions of CMLs are largely unknown. In this study, the MsCML46 was characterized in alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Zhaodong) under freezing stress. Results showed that MsCML46 was localized to the cytoplasm of Arabidopsis, and its expression was strongly elevated by cold, drought, salt, saline-alkali, and ABA treatments. Overexpressing MsCML46 in tobacco enhanced tolerance to freezing, drought, and salt stresses as evidenced by improved contents of osmotic regulatory solutes and antioxidant enzyme activity but decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Furthermore, cold, drought, and salt stresses increased the expression of stress-related genes in transgenic tobacco. MsCML46 binds free Ca to promote signal transduction and maintain higher K/Na ratio. In this way, it protects intracellular homeostasis under sodium ion toxicity. These results suggest that MsCML46 plays a crucial role in resisting abiotic stresses and can be exploited in genetic engineering for crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02757-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Long non-coding RNAs: Emerging roles in periodontitis.

J Periodontal Res 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Periodontitis is a major burden of public health, affecting 20%-50% of the global population. It is a complex inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of supporting structures of the teeth, leading to tooth loss and the emergence or worsening of systematic diseases. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiopathology of periodontitis is beneficial for targeted therapeutics. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), transcripts made up of more than 200 nucleotides, have emerged as novel regulators of many biological and pathological processes. Recently, an increasing number of dysregulated lncRNAs have been found to be implicated in periodontitis. In this review, an overview of lncRNAs, including their biogenesis, characteristics, function mechanisms and research approaches, is provided. And we summarize recent research reports on the emerging roles of lncRNAs in regulating proliferation, apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and osteogenesis of periodontal cells to elucidate lncRNAs related physiopathology of periodontitis. Furthermore, we have highlighted the underlying mechanisms of lncRNAs in periodontitis pathology by interacting with microRNAs. Finally, the potential clinical applications, current challenges, and prospects of lncRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for periodontitis disease are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jre.12910DOI Listing
July 2021

Circular RNA hsa_circ_0033144 (CircBCL11B) regulates oral squamous cell carcinoma progression via the miR-579/LASP1 axis.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):4111-4122

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Meizhou People's Hospital, Meizhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors of the head and neck. Increasing evidence suggests that various non-coding RNAs, such as circRNAs, are implicated in a myriad of biological processes supporting tumor progression. Recent studies have revealed that several circRNAs are dysregulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, their functional role in OSCC and the underlying mechanism remains to be further investigated. In this study, we aim to evaluate the biological role and survey the molecular mechanism of circBCL11B in regulating the progression of OSCC. We demonstrated that circBCL11B was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues and cell lines, and the expression level was correlated with the malignancy. Silencing cirCBCL11B inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and also included cell apoptosis in OSCC cells. miR-145 was identified as a downstream target mediating the effect of circBCL11B by targeting LASP1. miR-145 negatively regulated LASP1 expression, which could be rescued by miR-145 inhibitor. Collectively, our study uncovered a functional role of circBCL11B/miR-579/LASP1 axis in OSCC, implying that targeting these molecules could be an intervention approach in OSCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1953214DOI Listing
December 2021

The role of macrophage polarization and associated mechanisms in regulating the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture: a literature review and perspectives.

Chin Med 2021 Jul 19;16(1):56. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Research Center of Experimental Acupuncture Science, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No.10 Poyang Lake Road, Tuanbo New Town, Jinghai District, Tianjin, 301617, People's Republic of China.

Acupuncture is used in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory conditions and diseases. However, the mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory action are complex and have not been systematically investigated. Macrophages are key components of the innate immune system, thus, balancing the M1/M2 macrophage ratio and modulating cytokine levels in the inflammatory environment may be desirable therapeutic goals. Evidence has shown that acupuncture has anti-inflammatory actions that affect multiple body systems, including the immune, locomotory, endocrine, nervous, digestive, and respiratory systems, by downregulating pro-inflammatory M1 and upregulating anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, as well as by modulating associated cytokine secretion. Macrophage polarization is controlled by the interlocking pathways of extrinsic factors, the local tissue microenvironment, and the neural-endocrine-immune systems. It has been suggested that polarization of T lymphocytes and cytokine secretions resulting in modulation of the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, may be upstream mechanisms of acupuncture-induced macrophage polarization. We further propose that macrophage polarization could be the principal pathway involved in acupuncture immune regulation and provide the scientific basis for the clinical application of acupuncture in inflammatory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-021-00466-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287695PMC
July 2021

A Stretchable and Transparent Electrode Based on PEGylated Silk Fibroin for In Vivo Dual-Modal Neural-Vascular Activity Probing.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 18:e2100221. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Innovative Centre for Flexible Devices (iFLEX), Max Planck-NTU Joint Lab for Artificial Senses, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798, Singapore.

Transparent electrodes that form seamless contact and enable optical interrogation at the electrode-brain interface are potentially of high significance for neuroscience studies. Silk hydrogels can offer an ideal platform for transparent neural interfaces owing to their superior biocompatibility. However, conventional silk hydrogels are too weak and have difficulties integrating with highly conductive and stretchable electronics. Here, a transparent and stretchable hydrogel electrode based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and PEGylated silk protein is reported. PEGylated silk protein with poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) improves the Young's modulus to 1.51-10.73 MPa and the stretchability to ≈400% from conventional silk hydrogels (<10 kPa). The PEGylated silk also helps form a robust interface with PEDOT:PSS thin film, making the hydrogel electrode synergistically incorporate superior stretchability (≈260%), stable electrical performance (≈4 months), and a low sheet resistance (≈160 ± 56 Ω sq ). Finally, the electrode facilitates efficient electrical recording, and stimulation with unobstructed optical interrogation and rat-brain imaging are demonstrated. The highly transparent and stretchable hydrogel electrode offers a practical tool for neuroscience and paves the way for a harmonized tissue-electrode interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100221DOI Listing
July 2021

Characterization of Hypoxia-Related Molecular Subtypes in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma to Aid Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy Multi-Omics Analysis.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 25;8:684050. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Tumor hypoxia is a key factor in resistance to anti-cancer treatment. Herein, this study aimed to characterize hypoxia-related molecular subtypes and assess their correlations with immunotherapy and targeted therapy in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We comprehensively analyzed copy number variation (CNV), somatic mutation, transcriptome expression profile and clinical information for ccRCC from TCGA and ICGC databases. Based on 98 prognosis-related hypoxia genes, samples were clustered using unsupervized non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) analysis. We characterized the differences between subtypes concerning prognosis, CNV, somatic mutations, pathways, immune cell infiltrations, stromal/immune scores, tumor purity, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), response to immunotherapy and targeted therapy and CXC chemokines. Based on differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between subtypes, a prognostic signature was built by LASSO Cox regression analysis, followed by construction of a nomogram incorporating the signature and clinical features. Two hypoxia-related molecular subtypes (C1 and C2) were constructed for ccRCC. Differential CNV, somatic mutations and pathways were found between subtypes. C2 exhibited poorer prognosis, higher immune/stromal scores, and lower tumor purity than C1. Furthermore, C2 had more sensitivity to immunotherapy and targeted therapy than C1. The levels of CXCL1/2/3/5/6/8 chemokines in C2 were distinctly higher than in C1. Consistently, DEGs between subtypes were significantly enriched in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and immune responses. This subtype-specific signature can independently predict patients' prognosis. Following verification, the nomogram could be utilized for personalized prediction of the survival probability. Our findings characterized two hypoxia-related molecular subtypes for ccRCC, which can assist in identifying high-risk patients with poor clinical outcomes and patients who can benefit from immunotherapy or targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.684050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267011PMC
June 2021

Characterization of a broad-spectrum endolysin LysSP1 encoded by a Salmonella bacteriophage.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 9;105(13):5461-5470. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Aquatic Product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No. 106, Nanjing Road, Qingdao, 266071, People's Republic of China.

Foodborne pathogens have caused many public health incidents and heavy economic burden. Endolysins have been proven to have efficient bactericidal activity against pathogens with low incidence of resistance. In this study, the recombinant endolysin LysSP1 encoded by Salmonella Typhimurium lytic bacteriophage SLMP1 was obtained by prokaryotic expression, and its characteristics were analyzed. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can be used as the outer membrane permeabilizer to increase the bactericidal activity of LysSP1. Under the synergism of 5 mmol/L EDTA, LysSP1 exhibited a strong bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC14028. LysSP1 was stable at 4°C for 7 days and at -20°C for 180 days. LysSP1 remained the optimal activity at 40°C and was efficiently active at alkaline condition (pH 8.0-10.0). Divalent metal ions could not enhance the bactericidal activity of LysSP1 and even caused the significant reduction of bactericidal activity. LysSP1 not only could lyse Salmonella, but also could lyse other Gram-negative strains and Gram-positive strains. These results indicated that LysSP1 is a broad-spectrum endolysin and has potential as an antimicrobial agent against Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens. KEY POINTS: • Recombinant endolysin LysSP1 can be prepared by prokaryotic expression. • LysSP1 has stable nature and strong bactericidal activity on Salmonella Typhimurium with EDTA. • LysSP1 has a broad range of hosts including Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11366-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Loss of Hepatic Angiotensinogen Attenuates Sepsis-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction.

Circ Res 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, CHINA.

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a complex regulatory network that maintains normal physiological functions. The role of the RAS in sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) is poorly defined. Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the unique precursor of the RAS and gives rise to all angiotensin peptides. The effects and mechanisms of AGT in development of SIMD have not been defined. To determine a role of AGT in SIMD and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Either intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) significantly enhanced AGT abundances in liver, heart, and plasma. Deficiency of hepatocyte-derived AGT (hepAGT), rather than cardiomyocyte-derived AGT (carAGT), alleviated septic cardiac dysfunction in mice and prolonged survival time. Further investigations revealed that the effects of hepAGT on SIMD were partially associated with augmented angiotensin II (AngII) production in circulation. In addition, hepAGT was internalized by LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in cardiac fibroblasts (CF), and subsequently activated NLRP3 inflammasome via an AngII-independent pathway, ultimately promoting SIMD by suppressing Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) abundances in cardiomyocytes (CM). HepAGT promoted SIMD via both AngII-dependent and AngII-independent pathways. We identified a liver-heart axis by which AGT regulated development of SIMD. Our study may provide a potential novel therapeutic target for SIMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.318075DOI Listing
July 2021

[Using electroencephalogram for emotion recognition based on filter-bank long short-term memory networks].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;38(3):447-454

School of Computer Science, Zhejiang Universty, Hangzhou 310000, P.R.China.

Emotion plays an important role in people's cognition and communication. By analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to identify internal emotions and feedback emotional information in an active or passive way, affective brain-computer interactions can effectively promote human-computer interaction. This paper focuses on emotion recognition using EEG. We systematically evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art feature extraction and classification methods with a public-available dataset for emotion analysis using physiological signals (DEAP). The common random split method will lead to high correlation between training and testing samples. Thus, we use block-wise fold cross validation. Moreover, we compare the accuracy of emotion recognition with different time window length. The experimental results indicate that 4 s time window is appropriate for sampling. Filter-bank long short-term memory networks (FBLSTM) using differential entropy features as input was proposed. The average accuracy of low and high in valance dimension, arousal dimension and combination of the four in valance-arousal plane is 78.8%, 78.4% and 70.3%, respectively. These results demonstrate the advantage of our emotion recognition model over the current studies in terms of classification accuracy. Our model might provide a novel method for emotion recognition in affective brain-computer interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202012054DOI Listing
June 2021

A gain-of-function NLRP3 3'-UTR polymorphism causes miR-146a-mediated suppression of NLRP3 expression and confers protection against sepsis progression.

Sci Rep 2021 06 25;11(1):13300. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

The Key Laboratory of Sepsis Translational Medicine, The Intensive Care Unit, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Minyou Road 12, Xiashan District, Zhanjiang City, 524001, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing family protein 3 (NLRP3) regulated the maturation of inflammation-related cytokines by forming NLRP3 inflammasome, which plays pivotal roles in sepsis pathogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the genetic association of NLRP3 polymorphisms with sepsis (640 patients and 769 controls) and characterized the impact of NLRP3 polymorphisms on NLRP3 expression and inflammatory responses. No significant differences were observed in genotype/allelic frequencies of NLRP3 29940G>C between sepsis cases and controls. The G allele was significantly overrepresented in patients with septic shock than those in sepsis subgroup, and the GC/GG genetypes were related to the 28-day mortality of sepsis. Lipopolysaccharide challenge to peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a significant suppression of NLRP3 mRNA expression and release of IL-1β and TNF-α in CC compared with the GC/GG genotype category. Functional experiments with luciferase reporter vectors containing the NLRP3 3'-UTR with the 29940 G-to-C variation in HUVECs and THP-1 cells showed a potential suppressive effect of miR-146a on NLRP3 transcription in the presence of the C allele. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the 29940 G-to-C mutation within the NLRP3 3'-UTR was a gain-of-function alteration that caused the suppression of NLRP3 expression and downstream inflammatory cytokine production via binding with miR-146a, which ultimately protected patients against susceptibility to sepsis progression and poor clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92547-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233413PMC
June 2021

Beta1-integrin/Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling pathway fuels the diameter-dependent osteoblast differentiation on different TiO nanotubes: The optimal-diameter nanotubes for osteoblast differentiation.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 Aug 17;137:106026. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

The Department of Stomatology, Jieyang Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Jieyang, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Micro/nanotextured topographies (MNTs) can modulate cell-biomaterial interactions mostly by their controllable geometrics. Among them, TiO nanotubes, regarded as having a highly controllable nanoscale geometry, have been extensively investigated and applied and significantly affect diameter-dependent cell biological behaviors. In this study, we used five typical MNTs decorated with TiO nanotubes with diameters of 30, 50, 70, 100 and 120 nm to explore the optimal nanotube diameter for improving the biofunctional properties and to more deeply understand the underlying mechanisms by which these MNTs affect osteogenic differentiation by revealing the effect of beta1-integrin/Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling on this process. The MNTs affected MG63 osteoblast-like cell spreading, osteogenic gene expression (BMP-2, Runx2 and ALP), mineralization and ALP activity in a diameter-dependent pattern, and the optimal TiO nanotube diameter of 70 nm provided the best microenvironment for osteogenic differentiation as well as beta1-integrin/Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling activation. This enhanced osteogenic differentiation by the optimal-diameter TiO nanotubes of 70 nm was attenuated via suppression of the beta1-integrin/ Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling, which indicated a significant role of this pathway in mediating the diameter-dependent osteogenic differentiation promotional effect of MNTs with different TiO nanotube diameters. These results might provide deeper insights into the signal transduction mechanisms by which different nanoscale geometries influence cellular functions for biomaterial modification and biofunctionalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2021.106026DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficacy of programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor in resection transformation treatment of esophageal cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

The First Department of Thoracic Surgery, Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Background: Surgery is an important component in the treatment of esophageal cancer. For patients not eligible for R0 resection, defined as locally advanced unresectable esophageal cancer, a new approach is to transform the cancer into a resectable state by preoperative treatment. However, preoperative chemo/radiation is unsatisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of chemo/radiotherapy combined with a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor in the preoperative transformation of unresectable esophageal cancer.

Methods: Patients were evaluated as having unresectable, locally advanced esophageal cancer at baseline and were re-evaluated as possible R0 resection candidates after PD-1 inhibitor treatment. Patient data were derived from the prospective database of Peking University Cancer Hospital Thoracic Surgery I. Preoperative chemotherapy plus PD-1 inhibitor treatment was defined as "transformation treatment." The objective response rate, operation rate (proportion of patients who underwent surgery), R0 rate, and treatment safety were analyzed retrospectively.

Results: A total of 36 patients were enrolled into the study, and 94.4% (34/36) completed the planned transformation treatment. The objective response rate was 71.4% (25/35), and 75% (27/36) of the patients who completed transformation treatment underwent surgery. For these surgical patients, 81.5% (22/27) obtained R0 resection, and 22.2% (6/22) had pathological complete response (pCR). During transformation treatment, 22.2% (8/36) patients had ≥ grade 3 complications. There were no reoperations or perioperative deaths. After surgery, 29.6% (8/27) had ≥ grade 3 complications.

Conclusions: Esophagectomy after immunotherapy is safe with acceptable complications. Compared with chemotherapy alone, chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy had a more favorable transformation effect for patients with unresectable esophageal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14054DOI Listing
June 2021

"Adjusting Internal Organs and Dredging Channel" Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Regulating the Intestinal Flora and Inhibiting Inflammation.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 9;14:2595-2607. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Northeast Asia Institute of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Jilin, 130117, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Traditional Chinese acupuncture has been demonstrated to be beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The mechanism of acupuncture on T2DM is crucial for their biological activity as well as their usefulness as tools in biology and medicine. However, its mechanism is poorly understood.

Methods: In an effort to explore the mechanism, eight db/db mice (a type of spontaneous T2DM mouse) were treated with adjusting internal organs and dredging channel electroacupuncture (AODCEA) for 2 weeks. Another eight db/db mice were fed as T2DM group (T2DMG), and eight db/m mice were set as normal control group (NCG). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and diabetes-related indicators, such as fasting blood glucose (FBG) and triglyceride (TG), were detected by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). The V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was analyzed by Illumina sequencing to evaluate the effect of AODCEA on intestinal flora. The amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the feces were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: Our results indicate that AODCEA treatment can reduce diabetes-related indicators. We observed the increased probiotics such as Blautia and Lactobacillus and decreased opportunist pathogens (Alistipes, Helicobacter, Prevotella) by AODCEA interventions. Importantly, the total amount of SCFAs in the feces of T2DM mice was promoted by AODCEA. Finally, obviously alleviated systemic inflammation was exhibited through AODCEA treatment by detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum.

Conclusion: AODCEA can reshape the structure of intestinal flora, which can increase intestinal SCFAs, affect the circulating LPS level, and reduce the inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S306861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200173PMC
June 2021

The effectiveness of acupoint application of traditional Chinese medicine in treating primary dysmenorrhea: A protocol for meta-analysis and data mining.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26398

Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, No. 1035, Boshuo Rd, Jingyue Economic Development District, Changchun 130117, China.

Background: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a functional disease of the female reproductive system, which has adverse effects on patients' physical and mental health and quality of life. At present, acupoint application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as adjuvant therapy is undergoing clinical trials in different medical centers. However, there is no systematic review or meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of acupoint application of TCM in the treatment of PD. There is also a lack of systematic evaluation and analysis of acupoints and herbs.

Methods: All randomized controlled trials related to acupoint catgut embedding therapy on PD will be searched in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Registry of controlled trials, PubMed, Wed of Science, EMBASE, Science Net, China Biomedical Literature Database, China Science Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wan-Fang Database, from inception to May, 2021 were searched without language restrictions. The primary outcomes contain visual analog score, The Cox Menstrual Symptom Scale, while the secondary outcomes consist of adverse events and the recurrence rate. Two reviewers will independently perform data selection, data synthesis, and quality assessment. Data meeting the inclusion criteria will be extracted and analyzed by Revman v.5.3 software. Two reviewers will evaluate the study using the Cochrane collaborative bias risk tool. We will use the scoring method to assess the overall quality of the evidence supporting the main results. We will also use Spass software (version 19.0) for complex network analysis to explore the potential core prescription of acupoint application of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of PD.

Results: This study will analyze the clinical effective rate, functional outcomes, quality of life, improvement of clinical symptoms of PD, and effective prescriptions of acupoint application for patients with PD.

Conclusion: Our findings will provide evidence for the effectiveness and potential treatment prescriptions of acupoint application for patients with PD.PROSPERO registration number: CRD 42021244357.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213294PMC
June 2021

Identification and biological analysis of LncSPRY4-IT1-targeted functional proteins in photoaging skin.

Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Dermato-venereology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background/purpose: Skin photoaging, main causes of skin aging, is induced by chronic UV irradiation. LncSPRY4-IT1, a broadly expressed lncRNA, takes part in various biological functions by combining with functional protein molecules. However, the role of LncSPRY4-IT1 in skin photoaging process has not been characterized. This study is to investigate the interacting proteins of LncSPRY4-IT1 by combining RNA pull-down, high-throughput, and bioinformatic analysis.

Methods: Human skin fibroblasts (HDFs) were exposed to 10 J/cm UVA irradiation, once a day for 14 days. LncSPRY4-IT1 expression was qualified via RT-PCR. In vitro RNA pull-down assays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were used to identify the LncSPRY4-IT1-related proteins. Functional annotation analysis and pathway enrichment were preformed via Gene Ontology and KEGG.

Results: LncSPRY4-IT1 expression in photoaging fibroblasts was increased 1.66 ± 0.23 folds. 181 LncSPRY4-IT1-interacting proteins in UVA-induced photoaging skin fibroblast irradiation were identified, of which 56 proteins with two or more unique peptides, 73 proteins related to RNA processing, and 5 proteins related to DNA processing. High-throughput and bioinformatic analysis showed that LncSPRY4-IT1-targeting proteins were involved in cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, and cell part in skin photoaging process. The KEGG revealed that LncSPRY4-IT1-targeting proteins were mainly enriched in metabolic pathways.

Conclusion: The results of our studies illuminate how LncSPRY4-IT1 formed a LncRNA-protein regulatory network in skin photoaging mechanisms and suggest that LncSPRY4-IT1 may serve as a novel upstream intervention target for the prevention and treatment of photoaging and related skin diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/phpp.12705DOI Listing
June 2021

Methanol-Enhanced Liquid Electrode Discharge Microplasma-Induced Vapor Generation of Hg, Cd, and Zn: The Possible Mechanism and Its Application.

Anal Chem 2021 06 2;93(23):8257-8264. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of MOE, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, China.

Despite increased interest in microplasma-induced vapor generation (μPIVG) over the past several years, applications in real sample analyses remain limited due to their relatively low vapor generation efficiency and ambiguous mechanism. In this work, a novel method using methanol for significantly enhancing the liquid electrode discharge μPIVG efficiency was developed for the simultaneous and sensitive determination of Hg, Cd, and Zn by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It is worth noting that the possible enhancement mechanism was investigated the characterizations of volatile products by AFS, microplasma optical emission spectrometry, online gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which involved the reductive species such as electrons, hydrogen radicals (·H), methyl radicals (·CH), and other intermediates in the argon plasma adding methanol. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection of 0.007, 0.05, and 0.5 μg L were obtained for Hg, Cd, and Zn, respectively, with relative standard deviations of 3.1, 3.7, and 5.2% for these elements, respectively. Vapor generation efficiencies of 90, 83, and 55% were achieved for Hg, Cd, and Zn, respectively, and improved 2.7-, 4.8-, and 7.9-fold, respectively, compared to those obtained in the absence of methanol. The accuracy and practicability of the proposed method were validated by the determination of Hg, Cd, and Zn in a certified reference material (CRM, Lobster hepatopancreas, TORT-3) and crayfish samples collected from three different provinces of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01091DOI Listing
June 2021

Microplasma-induced vapor generation for rapid, sample preparation-free screening of mercury in fruits and vegetables.

Analyst 2021 Jun;146(12):3852-3857

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, China.

A method for the rapid screening of toxic elements in fruits and vegetables is of significant importance to prevent human exposure to these elements. In this work, a simple method used for microplasma-induced vapor generation (μPIVG) was developed for the rapid screening and quantification of mercury in fruits and vegetables without sample preparation. A stainless-steel capillary was partly inserted into a juice droplet from the tested fruits and then the sample liquid automatically moved to the end of the capillary with the assistance of inherent capillary driving force. Subsequently, a high voltage was applied between the capillary and a tungsten electrode to generate microplasma wherein the juice was sprayed and the mercury ions contained in the juice were converted to mercury cold vapor (Hg0). The Hg0 was finally separated from the liquid phase and swept to an atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS) for rapid screening. A standard addition method coupled with μPIVG atomic fluorescence spectrometry was further used for the quantitative analysis of the suspected sample. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.4 μg L-1 were obtained for the tested tomato, lemon, and orange samples, respectively. The proposed technique provides a simple and cost-effective tool for the rapid screening of mercury in fruits and vegetables by atomic spectrometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an00515dDOI Listing
June 2021

Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing by stimulated Raman scattering metabolic imaging and morphological deformation of bacteria.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jul 7;1168:338622. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Medical Photonics, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address:

Methods for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are urgently needed to address the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Here, we report a new method based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, which measures both the metabolic activity and the morphological deformation of bacteria to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of β-lactam antibiotics rapidly. In this approach, we quantify single bacteria's metabolic activity by the carbon-deuterium (C-D) bond concentrations in bacteria after DO incubation. In the meantime, bacterial morphological deformation caused by β-lactam antibiotics is also measured. With these two quantifiable markers, we develop an evaluation method to perform AST of cefotaxime on 103 E. coli strains. Our method achieved a 93.2% categorical agreement and a 93.2% essential agreement with the standard reference method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338622DOI Listing
July 2021

BDNF modulated KCC2 ubiquitylation in spinal cord dorsal horn of mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Sep 25;906:174205. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, PR China. Electronic address:

The K-Cl co-transporter 2 (KCC2) is a neuron-specific Cl extruder in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. The low intracellular Cl concentration established by KCC2 is critical for GABAergic and glycinergic systems to generate synaptic inhibition. Peripheral nerve lesions have been shown to cause KCC2 dysfunction in adult spinal cord through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, which switches the hyperpolarizing inhibitory transmission to be depolarizing and excitatory. However, the mechanisms by which BDNF impairs KCC2 function remain to be elucidated. Here we found that BDNF treatment enhanced KCC2 ubiquitination in the dorsal horn of adult mice, a post-translational modification that leads to KCC2 degradation. Our data showed that spinal BDNF application promoted KCC2 interaction with Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cbl-b), one of the E3 ubiquitin ligases that are involved in the spinal processing of nociceptive information. Knockdown of Cbl-b expression decreased KCC2 ubiquitination level and attenuated the pain hypersensitivity induced by BDNF. Spared nerve injury significantly increased KCC2 ubiquitination, which could be reversed by inhibition of TrkB receptor. Our data implicated that KCC2 was one of the important pain-related substrates of Cbl-b and that ubiquitin modification contributed to BDNF-induced KCC2 hypofunction in the spinal cord.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174205DOI Listing
September 2021

Acupuncture for type 2 diabetes mellitus with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(21):e26043

Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Nanguan District, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Background: T2DM with NAFLD is a common disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism affecting the quality of life of patients. Due to the limitations and adverse reactions of drug treatment, acupuncture has been proved to be an effective method for the treatment of T2DM with NAFLD. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of NAFLD in T2DM class, and to provide high-quality evidence for acupuncture in the treatment of this disease.

Methods: From establishment of the database to 31 July 2021, We will search the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of science. Five Chinese databases, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang database, VIP, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and the Chinese clinical trial registry. There are no restrictions on language or publication, and they are independently screened and collected by two reviewers. Review Manager 5.3 software will be used for meta analysis. If necessary, heterogeneity testing, data synthesis, and subgroup analysis will be performed.

Results: The effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of T2DM with NAFLD will be assessed by the outcomes of test's, including: imaging indicators, biomarkers of hepatic steatosis, serological indicators of hepatic fibrosis, improvement of serum NAFLD liver fat score, BMI, blood glucose indexes, blood lipid indexes, insulin level and safety indicators.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis will further determine the beneficial efficacy and safety of acupuncture for T2DM combined with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154503PMC
May 2021

Silent existence of eosinopenia in sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 24;21(1):471. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening and time-critical medical emergency; therefore, the early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to timely treatment and favorable outcomes for patients susceptible to sepsis. Eosinopenia has been identified as a potential biomarker of sepsis in the past decade. However, its clinical application progress is slow and its recognition is low. Recent studies have again focused on the potential association between Eosinopenia and severe infections. This study analyzed the efficacy of Eosinopenia as a biomarker for diagnosis of sepsis and its correlation with pathophysiology of sepsis.

Method: The protocol for this meta-analysis is available in PROSPERO (CRD42020197664). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRAL databases to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. Two authors performed data extraction independently. The pooled outcomes were calculated by TP (true positive), FP (false positive), FN (false negative), TN (true negative) by using bivariate meta-analysis model in STATA 14.0 software. Meanwhile, possible mechanisms of sepsis induced Eosinopenia was also analyzed.

Results: Seven studies were included in the present study with a total number of 3842 subjects. The incidence of Eosinopenia based on the enrolled studies varied from 23.2 to 92.7%. For diagnosis of sepsis, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio of Eosinopenia were 0.66 (95%CI [0.53-0.77]), 0.68 (95%CI [0.56-0.79]), 2.09 (95%CI [1.44-3.02]), 0.49 (95%CI [0.34-0.71]) and 4.23 (95%CI [2.15-8.31]), respectively. The area under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (SROC) was 0.73 (95%CI [0.68-0.76]). Meta-regression analysis revealed that no single parameter accounted for the heterogeneity of pooled outcomes. For each subgroup of different eosinopenia cutoff values (50, 40, ≤25, 100), the sensitivity was 0.61, 0.79, 0.57, 0.54, and the specificity was 0.61, 0.75, 0.83, 0.51, respectively.

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that Eosinopenia has a high incidence in sepsis but has no superiority in comparison with conventional biomarkers for diagnosis of sepsis. However, eosinopenia can still be used in clinical diagnosis for sepsis as a simple, convenient, fast and inexpensive biomarker. Therefore, further large clinical trials are still needed to re-evaluate eosinopenia as a biomarker of sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06150-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142617PMC
May 2021

Study on acupuncture improving insomnia comorbid with depression and anxiety based on rs-fMRI: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(20):e25988

Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Nanguan District, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Background: Long term insomnia and low sleep quality often lead to depression, anxiety and other negative emotions, and often interact with each other. Many studies have confirmed the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of insomnia comorbid with emotional disorders, but its specific mechanism needs to be further explored. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance (rsfMRI) is an important means to study the changes of brain activity. However, the results are inconsistent and lack of systematic evaluation and analysis.

Methods: Nine databases will be searched, including PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCOhost-medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database and Wan-Fang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database from inception to January 2021. And screening clinical registration platform related research, in order to obtain more relevant studies. The outcomes include the change of rs-fMRI, sleep quality, depression, and anxiety. Quality assessment of the included studies will be performed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Evidence quality will be assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method. RevMan software (Version 5.3) and stata13.1will be used for statistical analyses. Subgroup analysis will be performed if necessary. If the data is insufficient, qualitative synthesis will be conducted instead of quantitative synthesis.

Results: This study will analyze the effect of acupuncture on the brain activity changes, improvement of sleep quality and clinical symptoms of anxiety and depression with insomnia comorbid with emotional disorders.

Conclusion: This study used meta-analysis method to explore the characteristics of acupuncture on brain activity changes in insomnia comorbid with emotional disorders, so as to provide effective evidence for clarifying its pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136997PMC
May 2021

Persistence of Antibody and Cellular Immune Responses in COVID-19 patients over Nine Months after Infection.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Background: The duration of humoral and T and cell response after the infection of SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study to assess the virus-specific antibody and memory T and B cell responses in COVID-19 patients up to 343 days after infection. Neutralizing antibodies and antibodies against the receptor-binding domain, spike, and nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured. Virus-specific memory T and B cell responses were analyzed.

Results: We enrolled 59 COVID-19 patients, including 38 moderate, 16 mild, and five asymptomatic patients; 31 (52.5%) were men, and 28 (47.5%) were women. The median age was 41 (interquartile range [IQR]: 30-55). The median day from symptom onset to enrollment was 317 days (range 257 to 343 days). We found that approximately 90% of patients still have detectable IgG antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid proteins and neutralizing antibodies against pseudovirus, whereas ~60% of patients had detectable IgG antibodies against receptor binding domain and surrogate virus-neutralizing antibodies. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG + memory B cell and IFN-γ secreting T cell responses were detectable in over 70% of patients.

Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2-specific immune memory response persists in most patients nearly one year after infection, which provides a promising sign for prevention from reinfection and vaccination strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243600PMC
May 2021

Identification of an apoptosis-related prognostic gene signature and molecular subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).

J Cancer 2021 2;12(11):3265-3276. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

The Fifth Hospital of Xiamen, Xiamen 361101, Fujian Province, China.

Previously studies have shown that apoptosis-related genes play an essential role in normal cell turnover, maintaining the immune system function, and inducing cell death. However, their prognostic roles in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, apoptosis-related genes expression profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) database were used as training dataset and external validation dataset, respectively. According to the systematical analysis of the apoptosis-related gene expression profile, we constructed a gene signature to determine the role of apoptosis-related genes in the survival of ccRCC. We discovered that patients in the low-risk group have a better survival than high-risk group and the signature could serve as an independent prognostic factor. A nomogram, including a signature and clinical factors, were constructed to estimate the individual survival probability. The Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identified some significant pathways which may contribute to understanding the underlying mechanism of ccRCC. In addition, the prognostic efficiency of the risk model was further validated in the disease free survival (DFS) and the ICGC dataset, respectively. We also identified three molecular subtypes (named C1, C2, and C3) based on apoptosis-related gene expression. We found that C1 was corresponding to a worse survival outcome and showed a high drug sensitivity of sorafenib and sunitinib. C2 and C3 were corresponding to a better survival outcome and presented a low drug sensitivity to sorafenib and sunitinib. Moreover, we found that C2 and C3 have more likelihood to be respond to immunotherapy. Together, the apoptosis-related gene signature and three molecular subtypes may promote the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism of ccRCC, and provided reference for developing individualized treatment of the ccRCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.51812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100811PMC
April 2021

Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Following Chemical Vapor Generation for Ultrasensitive, Matrix Effect-Free Detection of Nitrite by Microplasma Optical Emission Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2021 05 29;93(18):6972-6979. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of MOE, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, China.

A new chemical vapor generation method coupled with headspace solid-phase microextraction miniaturized point discharge optical emission spectrometry (HS-SPME-μPD-OES) for the sensitive and matrix effect-free detection of nitrite in complex samples is described. In an acidic medium, the volatile cyclohexene was generated from cyclamate in the presence of nitrite, which was volatilized to the headspace of the container, efficiently separated, and preconcentrated by HS-SPME. Consequently, the SPME fiber was transferred to a laboratory-constructed thermal desorption chamber wherein the cyclohexene was thermally desorbed and swept into μPD-OES for its sensitive quantification monitoring the carbon atomic emission line at 193.0 nm. As a result, the quantification of nitrite was accomplished through the determination of cyclohexene. The application of HS-SPME as a sampling technique not only simplifies the experimental setup of μPD-OES but it also preconcentrates and separates cyclohexene from N and sample matrices, thus eliminating the interference from water vapor and N and significantly improving the analytical performance on the determination of nitrite. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a limit of detection of 0.1 μg L was obtained, which is much better than that obtained by conventional methods. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was better than 3.0% at a concentration of 10 μg L. The proposed method provides several advantages of portability, simplicity, high sensitivity, and low energy consumption and eliminates expensive instruments and matrix interference, thus retaining a promising potential for the rapid, sensitive, and field analysis of nitrite in various samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c05254DOI Listing
May 2021

Pretreatment with metformin protects mice from whole-body irradiation.

J Radiat Res 2021 Jul;62(4):618-625

Department of Radiation Medical Protection, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

Metformin, a first-line oral drug for type II diabetes mellitus, not only reduces blood glucose levels, but also has many other biological effects. Recent studies have been conducted to determine the protective effect of metformin in irradiation injuries. However, the results are controversial and mainly focus on the time of metformin administration. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of metformin in BALB/c mice exposed to 6 Gy or 8 Gy of a 60Co source of γ-rays for total body irradiation (TBI). Survival outcomes were assessed following exposure to 8 Gy or 6 Gy TBI, and hematopoietic damage and intestinal injury were assessed after exposure to 6 Gy TBI. Metformin prolonged the survival of mice exposed to 8 Gy TBI and improved the survival rate of mice exposed to 6 Gy TBI only when administered before exposure to irradiation. Moreover, pretreatment with metformin reduced the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in the bone marrow of mice exposed to 6 Gy TBI. Pretreatment of metformin also protected the intestinal morphology of mice, reduced inflammatory response and decreased the number of apoptotic cells in intestine. In conclusion, we demonstrated that pretreatment with metformin could alleviate irradiation injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrab012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273805PMC
July 2021

Tibetan Y-STR trait in the eleven regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Forensic Toxicological Analysis, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, 8Th Floor, Fa Yi Building, No.16, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Y-Chromosomal short-tandem repeats (Y-STRs) could provide highly valuable information for forensic investigation and demographic studies. However, there is still no systematic Y-STR information on Tibetan as obtained from different regions of the broad Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In this study, an analysis was conducted on 585 male individuals, classed into 3 different dialect branches as Ü-Tsang, Amdo, and Khams and originating from 11 scattered regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The gene diversity values of the 41 Y-STRs in Tibetan ranged from 0.3636 to 0.9322. Additionally, a total of 563 distinct haplotypes were obtained with an overall haplotype diversity of 0.9999 and a discrimination capacity of 0.9624. As suggested by the inter-population diversity analysis, there were two main separated clades of Tibetan subgroups. The visualization of pairwise genetic distances between 11 Tibetan subgroups and 59 reference populations using cladogram revealed the distribution of various populations, which was basically consistent with the patterns of geographic origin and linguistic affinity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-021-02611-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Moxibustion therapy for treating patients with postpartum urinary retention: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25683

Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Chaoyang, Beijing, China.

Background: Postpartum urinary retention (PUR) is one of the most common complications after parturition which affect women's recovery after childbirth. Many clinical trials have shown that moxibustion, a traditional Chinese medicine therapy, is effective in treating PUR. But its effectiveness has not been evaluated scientifically and systematically. Therefore, this review aims to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of moxibustion therapy in treating patients with PUR.

Methods: We will search the following electronic databases, regardless of publication status and languages, from their respective inception dates to February 2021: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails, Pubmed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-Fang Database. Clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to moxibustion therapy for treating PUR will be included. Study selection, data collection, and quality assessment will be independently conducted by 2 researchers. For data synthesis, we will select either the fixed-effects or random-effects model according to heterogeneity assessment. Cure rates and postvoid residual volume (PVRV) will be the primary outcomes. The total effective rate and first urination time will be the second outcomes. Review Manager Software (RevMan) V.5.3 will be used if it is appropriate for meta-analysis. Otherwise, a systematic narrative synthesis will be conducted. The results will be presented as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous data and weight mean difference (WMD) or standard mean difference (SMD) 95% CI for continuous data.

Trial Registration Number: INPLASY 202140037.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084072PMC
April 2021

In-site and solvent-free exfoliation of porous graphene oxide from pencil lead fiber for solid-phase microextraction of cadmium ion before GF-AAS determination.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Apr 23;188(5):172. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of MOE, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan, China.

Graphene oxide (GO)-functionalized pencil lead fiber was prepared for the first time by in situ oxidation and exfoliation of graphite contained in pencil lead fiber to porous graphene oxide structure via a one-step solvent-free dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) microplasma treatment. This new fiber was demonstrated as a highly efficient and low-cost solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for the determination of toxic metal ions. The fiber extraction performance was evaluated by using cadmium as a model analyte in a direct immersing SPME mode. Unlike most commercially available and other lab-built fibers, the preparation of the graphene oxidized pencil lead fiber is environmentally friendly, low cost, and non-toxic without using any organic solvents. The fiber is robust due to its coating-free configuration. Furthermore, high extraction efficiency and high sensitivity for cadmium can be obtained due to the abundant oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the novel fiber. After extraction, the cadmium adsorbed on the fiber was desorbed to 150-μL solution. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) with low sample consumption was used to determine cadmium. The calibration curve for cadmium ions was linear in a range 0.04-0.26 μg L with a detection limit of 0.005 μg L. A relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) of 2.1% was obtained at 0.1 μg L of cadmium. The sensitivity enhancement factor (EF) value of the proposed SPME method was 25. The SPME fiber was successfully applied to determine cadmium in tap water, river water, and pond water with spike recoveries ranging from 94 to 105%. Pipe network water samples were also analyzed to evaluate the cadmium release to drinking water due to the corrosion of tubes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04823-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Kinetic Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose in an Open, Inhibition-Free System.

Langmuir 2021 05 19;37(17):5180-5192. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, United States.

Due to the complexity of cellulases and the requirement of enzyme adsorption on cellulose prior to reactions, it is difficult to evaluate their reaction with a general mechanistic scheme. Nevertheless, it is of great interest to come up with an approximate analytic description of a valid model for the purpose of developing an intuitive understanding of these complex enzyme systems. Herein, we used the surface plasmonic resonance method to monitor the action of a cellobiohydrolase by itself, as well as its mixture with a synergetic endoglucanase, on the surface of a regenerated model cellulose film, under continuous flow conditions. We found a phenomenological approach by taking advantage of the long steady state of cellulose hydrolysis in the open, inhibition-free system. This provided a direct and reliable way to analyze the adsorption and reaction processes with a minimum number of fitting parameters. We investigated a generalized Langmuir-Michaelis-Menten model to describe a full set of kinetic results across a range of enzyme concentrations, compositions, and temperatures. The overall form of the equations describing the pseudo-steady-state kinetics of the flow-system shares some interesting similarities with the Michaelis-Menten equation. The use of familiar Michaelis-Menten parameters in the analysis provides a unifying framework to study cellulase kinetics. The strategy may provide a shortcut for approaching a quantitative while intuitive understanding of enzymatic degradation of cellulose from top to bottom. The open system approach and the kinetic analysis should be applicable to a variety of cellulases and reaction systems to accelerate the progress in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00115DOI Listing
May 2021
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