Publications by authors named "Lin Wang"

5,070 Publications

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Effects of ultrasound-assisted vacuum tumbling on the oxidation and physicochemical properties of pork myofibrillar proteins.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 May 4;74:105582. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, Jiangsu Synergetic Innovation Center of Meat Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China. Electronic address:

The present research aimed to investigate the effects of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU, 20 kHz, 0 W, 100 W, 300 W and 500 W)-assisted vacuum tumbling (UVT) for 60 min and 120 min on the oxidation and physicochemical properties of the pork myofibrillar proteins (MPs). Compared with the vacuum tumbling (VT) groups without the HIU assistance, the carbonyl content increased, while the total sulfhydryl (SH) content was reduced with the increase of HIU power and treatment time (P < 0.05). The reactive SH content was increased significantly after treated by UVT with 300 W compared with the VT group (P < 0.05) regardless of the treatment time. Similarly, the surface hydrophobicity (S), the intrinsic tryptophan intensity, and the solubility in the UVT group (300 W) were remarkably higher than those of the VT group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the α-helix content and the particle size of MPs significantly decreased when the HIU power was at 100 W and 300 W (P < 0.05). The results suggest that UVT treatment could change the structure and physicochemical properties of MPs accompanied by protein oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105582DOI Listing
May 2021

Dietary Supplements for COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:499-515

The Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious infectious disease that can rapidly escalate to respiratory failure and death. It has infected millions of people worldwide. The trajectory of this disease continues to progress in some areas of the United States and worldwide. The Institute for Health Metrics now predicts a resurgence of infections in the fall of 2020. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 includes an inflammatory phase with either resolution or the potential to accelerate to a cytokine storm, characterized by high interleukin (IL)-6 and other inflammatory markers. COVID-19 is a condition without a gold-standard treatment. The US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization for remdesivir in severe cases of COVID-19, which shortened the recovery time in hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infection in one study. Although several vaccine trials are underway, no vaccines are available for primary prevention of COVID-19 at this time. Dietary supplement sales have dramatically risen during the COVID-19 pandemic despite depressed economic conditions. Commonly used immune-modulating dietary supplements, including vitamin D, ascorbic acid, zinc, and melatonin, are reviewed in this manuscript highlighting biological plausibility for salutary benefit against COVID-19. Ongoing clinical trials recruiting subjects at the time of this writing are provided for each dietary supplement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63761-3_29DOI Listing
May 2021

Cross-Disorder Analysis of De Novo Mutations in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Department of Geriatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Xiangya Road, Kaifu District, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

The clinical similarity among different neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) suggested a shared genetic basis. We catalogued 23,109 coding de novo mutations (DNMs) from 6511 patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 4,293 undiagnosed developmental disorder (UDD), 933 epileptic encephalopathy (EE), 1022 intellectual disability (ID), 1094 schizophrenia (SCZ), and 3391 controls. We evaluated that putative functional DNMs contribute to 38.11%, 34.40%, 33.31%, 10.98% and 6.91% of patients with ID, EE, UDD, ASD and SCZ, respectively. Consistent with phenotype similarity and heterogeneity in different NPDs, they show different degree of genetic association. Cross-disorder analysis of DNMs prioritized 321 candidate genes (FDR < 0.05) and showed that genes shared in more disorders were more likely to exhibited specific expression pattern, functional pathway, genetic convergence, and genetic intolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-05031-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Cryopreservation Preserves Cell-Type Composition and Gene Expression Profiles in Bone Marrow Aspirates From Multiple Myeloma Patients.

Front Genet 2021 21;12:663487. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals gene expression differences between individual cells and also identifies different cell populations that are present in the bulk starting material. To obtain an accurate assessment of patient samples, single-cell suspensions need to be generated as soon as possible once the tissue or sample has been collected. However, this requirement poses logistical challenges for experimental designs involving multiple samples from the same subject since these samples would ideally be processed at the same time to minimize technical variation in data analysis. Although cryopreservation has been shown to largely preserve the transcriptome, it is unclear whether the freeze-thaw process might alter gene expression profiles in a cell-type specific manner or whether changes in cell-type proportions might also occur. To address these questions in the context of multiple myeloma clinical studies, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to compare fresh and frozen cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates of six multiple myeloma patients, analyzing both myeloma cells (CD138) and cells constituting the microenvironment (CD138-). We found that cryopreservation using 90% fetal calf serum and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide resulted in highly consistent gene expression profiles when comparing fresh and frozen samples from the same patient for both CD138 myeloma cells ( ≥ 0.96) and for CD138 cells ( ≥ 0.9). We also demonstrate that CD138 cell-type proportions showed minimal alterations, which were mainly related to small differences in immune cell subtype sensitivity to the freeze-thaw procedures. Therefore, when processing fresh multiple myeloma samples is not feasible, cryopreservation is a useful option in single-cell profiling studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.663487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099152PMC
April 2021

Non-targeted metabolomics of intestinal flora in seborrheic patients based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) techniques.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr;10(4):4354-4368

Department of Dermatology, Dongguan Tungwah Hospital, Dongguan, China.

Background: To explore the role of intestinal flora in seborrhea, non-targeted metabolomics analysis was carried out.

Methods: Fecal samples were collected from 5 seborrheic patients and 5 healthy controls from October 2019 to April 2020. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) was used to detect metabolic fingerprinting in feces samples, and high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of 16S rRNA for intestinal flora. The variable importance in projection (VIP) values of orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and P values of univariate statistical analysis were used to determine the differential metabolites between the seborrhea group and the control group. The interaction between flora and metabolites was analyzed using several approaches.

Results: A total of 45 metabolites with significantly different intensities were found between the seborrhea group and the healthy control group. A positive correlation between flora and metabolites was found in 57 pairs and a negative correlation was found in 104 pairs. In addition, 11 metabolic pathways were significantly altered, including 4 amino acid metabolic pathways, 2 bile acid metabolic pathways, and 2 basic metabolic signaling pathways (ABC transporters pathway and mTOR signaling pathway). Central carbon metabolism in cancer, glutathione metabolism, protein digestion and absorption were also involved.

Conclusions: The occurrence of seborrhea may be related to changes in intestinal flora and metabolic pathways. There is a close association between seborrhea and amino acid metabolic pathways or ABC transporters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-331DOI Listing
April 2021

Asymmetric Reduction of Aromatic α-Dehydroamino Acid Esters with Water as Hydrogen Source.

J Org Chem 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources (Yunnan Minzu University), State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650504, Yunnan, China.

The asymmetric reduction of aromatic α-dehydroamino acid esters with water as the hydrogen source was developed by a Rh/Cu co-catalytic system. The reaction tolerates various functional groups, providing a valuable synthetic tool to access chiral α-amino acid esters readily. Moreover, the present methodology also was applied in the cost-effective and easy to handle preparation of chiral deuterated α-amino esters by using DO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c00426DOI Listing
May 2021

Cd immobilization and soil quality under Fe-modified biochar in weakly alkaline soil.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 29;280:130606. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Rural Energy & Environment Agency, MARA, Beijing, 100125, China. Electronic address:

Cost-effective and environment-friendly implementation techniques are critical to the success of remediation in large-scale cadmium (Cd) contaminated agricultural soil. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of Fe-modified biochar on Cd bioavailability in soils and uptake by maize (Zea mays L.), soil aggregate distribution and stability, and microbial community composition in weakly alkaline Cd-contaminated soil. Results showed that Fe-modified biochar optimized the structure and stability of soil aggregates. Moreover, the content of soil organic carbon increased by 6.59%-20.36% when compared with the control groups. However, DTPA-Cd concentration under the treatment of Fe-modified biochar was suffered by 37.74%-41.65% reduction in contrast with CK, and the significant decrease (P < 0.05) was obtained at 0.5% Fe-modified biochar. Moreover, sequential extraction procedures showed that the acid soluble and reducible states of Cd was converted into oxidizable and residual form. The addition of Fe-modified biochar inhibited Cd accumulation in maize, being 41.31%-76.64% (Zhengdan 958), 38.19%-70.95% (Liyu 86) and 52.30%-59.95% (Sanbei 218) reduction, respectively, in contrast with CK. The activity of catalase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil increased gradually with the addition of Fe-modified biochar. The enhancement in the number of soil bacterial OTUs and the values of Shannon, Chao1, ACE index indicated that Fe-modified biochar promoted the richness and diversity of bacterial communities. Therefore, the improvements of soil environment and biological quality indicated that Fe-modified biochar should be an alternative agent on remediation of Cd-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130606DOI Listing
April 2021

Antitumor effects of iPSC-based cancer vaccine in pancreatic cancer.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, 265 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and cancer cells share cellular similarities and transcriptomic profiles. Here, we show that an iPSC-based cancer vaccine, comprised of autologous iPSCs and CpG, stimulated cytotoxic antitumor CD8 T cell effector and memory responses, induced cancer-specific humoral immune responses, reduced immunosuppressive CD4 T regulatory cells, and prevented tumor formation in 75% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) mice. We demonstrate that shared gene expression profiles of "iPSC-cancer signature genes" and others are overexpressed in mouse and human iPSC lines, PDAC cells, and multiple human solid tumor types compared with normal tissues. These results support further studies of iPSC vaccination in PDAC in preclinical and clinical models and in other cancer types that have low mutational burdens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.04.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Current management of melanoma patients with nodal metastases.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, Morsani School of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

The management of melanoma patients with nodal metastases has undergone dramatic changes over the last decade. In the past, the standard of care for patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was a completion lymph node dissection (CLND), while patients with palpable macroscopic nodal disease underwent a therapeutic lymphadenectomy in cases with no evidence of systemic spread. However, studies have shown that SLN metastases present as a spectrum of disease, with certain SLN-based factors being prognostic of and correlated with outcomes. Furthermore, the results of key clinical trials demonstrate that CLND provides no survival benefit over nodal observation in positive SLN patients, while other clinical trials have shown that adjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy or targeted therapy after CLND is associated with a recurrence-free survival benefit. Given the efficacy of these systemic therapies in the adjuvant setting, these agents are now being evaluated and utilized as neoadjuvant treatments in patients with regionally-localized or resectable metastatic melanoma. Multiple options now exist to treat melanoma patients with nodal disease, and determining the best treatment course for a particular case requires an in-depth knowledge of current data and an informed discussion with the patient. This review will provide an overview of the various options for treating melanoma patients with nodal metastases and will discuss the data that supported the development of these treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10585-021-10099-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102663PMC
May 2021

Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Is a Risk Factor for Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:633022. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Objective: To explore the association between lipoprotein-related phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD).

Methods: A case-control study involving 58 hospitalized PD patients and 60 healthy controls was carried out. Serum Lp-PLA2 level was detected. According to the disease course and severity, PD patients were subdivided to analyze the clinical value of Lp-PLA2. Relationship between Lp-PLA2 and PD risk was analyzed by logistic regression. Diagnostic value of Lp-PLA2 in PD patients was investigated using receiver's operator characteristic curves.

Results: Lp-PLA2 level was significantly higher in the PD patients compared with the controls, and was significantly and positively correlated with the Hoehn-Yahr (H&Y) stage. The serum Lp-PLA2 level and H&Y stage of PD patients with a longer disease course were significantly higher than those with a shorter disease course. PD patients with milder conditions had significantly lower serum Lp-PLA2 levels than patients with severe conditions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated higher Lp-PLA2 level was an independent risk factor of PD patients. Moreover, the area under the curve for Lp-PLA2 was 0.703, which was between those of homocysteine and serum amylase A.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that increased level of Lp-PLA2 is associated with the risk of PD. Lp-PLA2 may be used for early detection of PD, and provides an effective intervention target for clinical treatment of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.633022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093434PMC
April 2021

Extracellular polymeric substances induced cell-surface interactions facilitate bacteria transport in saturated porous media.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 3;218:112291. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Soil and Water Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Bacteria often respond to dynamic soil environment through the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS modifies cell surface properties and soil pore-scale hydration status, which in turn, influences bacteria transport in soil. However, the effect of soil particle size and EPS-mediated surface properties on bacterial transport in the soil is not well understood. In this study, the simultaneous impacts of EPS and collector size on Escherichia coli (E. coli) transport and deposition in a sand column were investigated. E. coli transport experiments were carried out under steady-state flow in saturated columns packed with quartz sand with different size ranges, including 0.300-0.425 mm (sand-I), 0.212-0.300 mm (sand-II), 0.106-0.150 mm (sand-III) and 0.075-0.106 mm (sand-IV). Bacterial retention increased with decreasing sand collector size, suggesting that straining played an important role in fine-textured media. Both experiment and simulation results showed a clear drop in the retention rate of the bacterial population with the presence of additional EPS (200 mg L) (EPS+). The inhibited retention of cells in sand columns under EPS+ scenario was likely attributed to enhanced bacteria hydrophilicity and electrostatic repulsion between cells and sand particles as well as reduced straining. Calculations of the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) interactions energies revealed that high repulsive energy barrier existed between bacterial cells and sand particles in EPS+ environment, primarily due to high repulsive electrostatic force and Lewis acid-base force, as well as low attractive Lifshitz-van der Waals force, which retarded bacterial population deposition. Steric stabilization of EPS would also prevent the approaching of cells close to the quartz surface and thereby hinder cell attachment. This study was the first to show that EPS reduced bacterial straining in saturated porous media. These findings provide new insight into the functional effects of extrinsic EPS on bacterial transport behavior in the saturated soil environment, e.g., aquifers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112291DOI Listing
May 2021

Barriers to Access to Treatment for Hypertensive Patients in Primary Health Care of Less Developed Northwest China: A Predictive Nomogram.

Int J Hypertens 2021 14;2021:6613231. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Hypertension Center of People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Hypertension Institute, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Hypertension Clinical Research, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

Background: This study aims to evaluate the risk factors associated with untreated hypertension and develop and internally validate untreated risk nomograms in patients with hypertension among primary health care of less developed Northwest China.

Methods: A total of 895 eligible patients with hypertension in primary health care of less developed Northwest China were divided into a training set ( = 626) and a validation set ( = 269). Untreated hypertension was defined as not taking antihypertensive medication during the past two weeks. Using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model, we identified the optimized risk factors of nontreatment, followed by establishment of a prediction nomogram. The discriminative ability, calibration, and clinical usefulness were determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration curve, and decision analysis. The results were assessed by internal validation in the validation set.

Results: Five independent risk factors were derived from LASSO regression model and entered into the nomogram: age, herdsman, family income per member, altitude of habitation, and comorbidity. The nomogram displayed a robust discrimination with an AUC of 0.859 (95% confidence interval: 0.812-0.906) and good calibration. The nomogram was clinically useful when the intervention was decided at the untreated possibility threshold of 7% to 91% in the decision curve analysis. Results were confirmed by internal validation.

Conclusions: Our nomogram showed favorable predictive accuracy for untreated hypertension in primary health care of less developed Northwest China and might help primary health care assess the risk of nontreatment in patients with hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6613231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062209PMC
April 2021

ChIP-sequencing analysis of E2F transcription factor 2 reveals its role in various biological processes of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

Biosci Trends 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Biomedical Sciences College & Shandong Medicinal Biotechnology Centre, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji'nan, China.

The development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are complex and the pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) affects the development and progression of many diseases. To identify the mechanisms underlying the role of E2F2 in RA, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) using the E2F2 antibody. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment of captured downstream target genes and Metascape analysis of 22 protein molecules partly elucidated the mechanism by which E2F2 affects the progression of RA. Results indicated that E2F2 affects the metabolism of RASFs and the development of ribosome synthesis as well as the stress response. Results indicated that E2F2 can affect multiple biological processes involving RASFs and indicate a unique possibility of targeting E2F2 in the treatment of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2021.01046DOI Listing
April 2021

Salivary Porphyromonas gingivalis predicts outcome in oral squamous cell carcinomas: a cohort study.

BMC Oral Health 2021 May 3;21(1):228. Epub 2021 May 3.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospita1 of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Studies suggest Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) increased the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, fimA genotypes distribution of Pg, the origination of Pg in tissue, and its prognostic value are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the frequency of fimA genotypes in OSCC patients, study the association between Pg and OSCC, and explore the prognostic value of Pg.

Methods: The abundance of Pg in saliva from the OSCC group and the OSCC-free group was analysed by qPCR. The presence of Pg was explored in OSCC tissue and para-cancerous tissue by in situ hybridization. The frequency of fimA genotypes in saliva and OSCC tissue was determined by PCR, then PCR products were sequenced and compared. Clinical data were extracted, and patients followed up for a median period of 23 months. Clinicopathological variables were compared with the abundance of Pg using Pearson Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. The disease-free survival (DFS) rate was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests.

Results: Comparing the OSCC-free group, 95 patients with OSCC showed a high abundance of Pg in saliva (P = 0.033), and OSCC tissue showed strong in situ expression of Pg compared with paired normal tissue. Patients with OSCC showed a dominant distribution of Pg with genotype I + Ib (21.1%), II (31.6%), and IV (21.1%). FimA genotypes detected in saliva were in accordance with those in OSCC tissue, there was, moreover, a significant similarity in amplified Pg fragments. Of the 94 responsive OSCC patients, the recurrence rate was 26.6% (25/94). Overabundance of Pg in saliva showed advanced pathologic staging (P = 0.008), longer disease-free time (P = 0.029) and lower recurrence rate (P = 0.033). The overabundance of Pg in saliva was associated with improved disease-free survival (P = 0.049).

Conclusions: This study indicated that Pg might involve in the pathogenesis of OSCC, Pg carrying fimA I, Ib, II, and IV were prevalent genotypes in patients with OSCC, the provenance of Pg in OSCC tissue might be from the salivary microbial reservoir, and the abundance of Pg in saliva might consider as a favorable potential prognostic indicator in OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01580-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091688PMC
May 2021

ZIF-8@s-EPS as a novel hydrophilic multifunctional biomaterial for efficient scale inhibition, antibacterial and antifouling in water treatment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 6;773:145706. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China. Electronic address:

The hydrophilic biomaterial was constructed based on the soluble extracellular polysaccharides (s-EPS) secreted by Bacillus megaterium and zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), namely ZIF-8@s-EPS, wrapped in s-EPS shell with ZIF-8 as the core. ZIF-8@s-EPS was used as a novel multifunctional biomaterial in water treatment for the first time. Unexpectedly, results showed ZIF-8@s-EPS with strong synergistic effect presented multifunctional performances including descaling, antifouling and antibacterial. Scale inhibition efficiency reached 98.63% for CaCO and as high as 99.40% for CaSO at concentration 20.00 mg/L. The synergy of s-EPS and ZIF-8 demonstrated effective antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and inhibitory effect on biofilms, and result presented that ZIF-8@s-EPS could inhibit the growth of nearly 89.4% P. aeruginosa. Therefore, the obtained insights will shed light on the development of s-EPS modified biomaterials in water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145706DOI Listing
June 2021

Aqueous phase oxidation of bisulfite influenced by nitrate and its photolysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 26;785:147345. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Jiangwan Campus, Fudan University, No. 2205 Songhu Road, Shanghai 200438, China.

Nitrate aerosol is ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Nitrate in the particulate and aqueous phase can affect various atmospheric chemical processes through its hygroscopicity and photolysis. The impacts of nitrate photolysis on the heterogeneous oxidation of SO have been attracting attention. However, the influence of nitrate on heterogeneous aqueous phase formation of atmospheric sulfate aerosol is still not very clear. In this study, the effects of nitrate on aqueous phase oxidation of bisulfite under different conditions were investigated. Results show that nitrate photolysis can promote the oxidation of bisulfite to sulfate, especially in the presence of O. It is found that pH plays a significant role in the reaction, and ammonium sulfate has significant impacts on the enhancement of aqueous phase sulfate production through regulating the pH of solution. An apparent synergism is found among halogen chemistry, nitrate and its photochemistry and S (IV) aqueous oxidation, especially the oxidation of halide ions by nitrate and its photolysis and by the intermediate products produced by the free radical chain oxidation of S (IV) in acidic solution, leading to the coupling of the redox cycle of halogen with the oxidation of bisulfite, which promotes the continuous aqueous oxidation of bisulfite and the formation of sulfate. In addition, the role of nitrate itself in the aqueous phase oxidation of bisulfite is revealed. These results provide a new insight into the heterogeneous aqueous phase oxidation pathways and mechanisms of SO in cloud and fog droplets and haze particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147345DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparison of carrier particles in the gas-liquid-solid inverse fluidized bed bioreactor.

Environ Technol 2021 Apr 28:1-31. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, People's Republic of China.

The performance and energy consumption of a gas-liquid-solid inverse fluidized bed bioreactor (GLS-IFBBR) using polyethylene (PE) particles with different surface coatings (zeolite, lava rock, activated carbon and multi-plastic) as media for synthetic wastewater treatment were investigated at loading rates of 1.64-3.38 kg COD/(m·d) and 0.17-0.34 kg N/(m·d) to determine the optimum carrier media. The results showed that PE coated with other inorganic materials could increase the nutrient removal efficiency at the same influent conditions. Compared with other media, PE coated with zeolite (PEZ) was the optimal carrier particles in this study as reflected by the highest COD and nitrogen removal, stable effluent, low biomass yield at different hydraulic retention times (HRT). In addition, the energy consumption of lavarock-coated PE (PEL) with a highest density was the lowest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1924287DOI Listing
April 2021

A Photolabile Carboxyl Protecting Group for Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis.

ChemistryOpen 2021 Apr;10(4):497-502

Faculty of Environment & Life, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China.

A new kind of photolabile protecting group (PLPG) for carboxyl moieties was designed and synthesized as the linker between resin and peptide. This group can be used for the protection of amino acid carboxyl groups. The peptide was synthesized on Nph (2-hydroxy-3-(2-nitrophenyl)-heptanoic acid)-derivatized resins and could be cleaved under UV exposure, thus avoiding the necessity for harsh acid-mediated resin cleavage. The PLPG has been successfully used for solid-phase synthesis of peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/open.202000324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080293PMC
April 2021

Zinc salt-catalyzed reduction of α-aryl imino esters, diketones and phenylacetylenes with water as hydrogen source.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Apr;19(16):3601-3610

Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources (Yunnan Minzu University), State Ethnic Affairs Com-mission & Ministry of Education, Kunming, 650500, China. and Chongqing Key Laboratory of traditional Chinese medicine health, Chongqing Accademy of Chinese Materia Medica, Chongqing, China.

The zinc salt-catalyzed reduction of α-aryl imino esters, diketones and phenylacetylenes with water as hydrogen source and zinc as reductant was successfully conducted. The presented method provides a low-cost, environmentally friendly and practical preparation of α-aryl amino esters, α-hydroxyketones and phenylethylenes. By using D2O as deuterium source, the corresponding products were obtained in high efficiency with excellent deuterium incorporation rate, which gives a cheap and safe tool for access to valuable deuterium-labelled compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00155hDOI Listing
April 2021

A multi-targeting drug design strategy for identifying potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Life Science and Technology, and Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, 201210, China.

The COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is threatening public health, and there is no effective treatment. In this study, we have implemented a multi-targeted anti-viral drug design strategy to discover highly potent SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors, which simultaneously act on the host ribosome, viral RNA as well as RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, and nucleocapsid protein of the virus, to impair viral translation, frameshifting, replication, and assembly. Driven by this strategy, three alkaloids, including lycorine, emetine, and cephaeline, were discovered to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 with EC values of low nanomolar levels potently. The findings in this work demonstrate the feasibility of this multi-targeting drug design strategy and provide a rationale for designing more potent anti-virus drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00668-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076879PMC
April 2021

Prognostic value of SH3PXD2B (Tks4) in human hepatocellular carcinoma: a combined multi-omics and experimental study.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 Apr 28;14(1):115. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650101, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and fatal cancers worldwide. HCC invasion and metastasis are crucial for its poor prognosis. SH3PXD2B is a scaffold protein and critical for intravascular and extravascular invasion and metastasis of various types of tumors. However, the role of SH3PXD2B in HCC progression remains unclear.

Methods: The levels of SH3PXD2B mRNA transcripts in the TCGA database and SH3PXD2B protein expression in the Human Protein Atlas were analyzed. Furthermore, the levels of SH3PXD2B expression in clinical samples were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The potential association of the levels of SH3PXD2B expression with clinicopathological characteristics, overall survival (OS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of HCC patients was analyzed. The impact of SH3PXD2B silencing by shRNA-based lentivirus transduction on the proliferation and invasion of human HCC Hep3B and Huh7 cells was determined.

Results: SH3PXD2B expression was up-regulated in HCC tissues in the TCGA and Human Protein Atlas as well as clinical samples, relative to that of non-tumor liver samples. The levels of SH3PXD2B expression in HCC tissues were significantly associated with higher HBV infection rate, higher HCC grades and TNM stages, higher Ki-67 expression, higher serum α-fetoprotein (AFP), a shorter OS and RFS of HCC patients. Functionally, SH3PXD2B silencing significantly inhibited the formation and function of invadopodia and the invasion of Hep3B and Huh7 cells, but did not affect their proliferation in vitro.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that SH3PXD2B may promote the invasion and metastasis of HCC and be a valuable therapeutic target and biomarker for treatment and prognosis of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-021-00963-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080318PMC
April 2021

Mapping Responses of Lumbar Paravertebral Muscles to Single-Pulse Cortical TMS Using High-Density Surface Electromyography.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 5;29:831-840. Epub 2021 May 5.

Motor evoked potential (MEP), which was elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), has been widely used to detect corticospinal projection from TMS cortical site to trunk muscles. It can help to find the stimulation hotspot in the scalp. However, it fails to precisely describe coordinated activities of trunk muscle groups with only single-channel myoelectric signal. In this study, we aimed to use high-density surface electromyography (sEMG) to explore the effect of cortical TMS on lumbar paravertebral muscles in healthy subjects. The cortical site at 1 cm anterior and 4 cm lateral to vertex was chosen to simulate using a single-pulse TMS with different intensities and forward-bending angles. A high-density electrode array (45 channels) was placed on the surface of lumbar paravertebral muscles to record sEMG signals during a TMS experiment. MEP signals elicited by TMS were extracted from 45-channel recordings and one topographic map of the MEP amplitudes with six spatial features was constructed at each sampling point. The results showed TMS could successfully evoke an oval area with high intensity in the MEP topographic map, while this area mainly located in ipsilateral side of the TMS site. Intensity features related to the high intensity area rose significantly with TMS intensity and forward-bending angle increasing, but location features showed no change. The optimal stimulation parameters were 80% of maximum stimulator output (MSO) for TMS intensity and 30/60 degree for forward-bending angle. This study provided a potentially effective mapping tool to explore the hotspot for transcranial stimulation on trunk muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2021.3076095DOI Listing
May 2021

Facilities for Centralized Isolation and Quarantine for the Observation and Treatment of Patients with COVID-19: Experience from Wuhan, China.

Engineering (Beijing) 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic increased the burden on many healthcare systems and in the process, exposed the need for medical resources and physical space. While few studies discussed the efficient utilization of medical resources and physical space so far. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize experiences related to facilities used for centralized isolation for medical observation and treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic in China and to provide suggestions to further improve the management of confirmed cases, suspected cases, and close contacts. In China, three types of facilities for centralized isolation (Fangcang shelter hospitals, refitted non-designated hospitals, and quarantine hotels) underwent retrofitting for the treatment and isolation of confirmed and suspected cases. These facilities mitigated the immediate high demand for space. Moreover, in order to minimize infection risks in these facilities, regulators and governmental agencies implemented new designs, management measures, and precautionary measures to minimize infection risk. Other countries and regions could refer to China's experience in optimally allocating social resources in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a conclusion, government should allocate social resources and construct centralized isolation and quarantine facilities for an emergency response, health authorities should issue regulations for centralized isolation facilities and pay strict attention to the daily management of these facilities, a multidisciplinary administration team is required to support the daily operation of a centralized isolation facility, in-depth studies and international collaboration on the centralized isolation policy are encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2021.03.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061092PMC
April 2021

The prosthetic screw loosening of two-implant supported screw-retained fixed dental prostheses in the posterior region: A retrospective evaluation and finite element analysis.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 8;122:110423. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The study was aimed to investigate the prosthetic screw loosening of two splinted implants-supported, screw-retained (2-4-unit) fixed dental prostheses (TIS-FDPs) in posterior region and to explore the underlying mechanism. In the retrospective study, a study group of TIS-FDPs (n = 23) presenting prosthetic screw loosening and a control group of TIS-FDPs (n = 32) absent of prosthetic screw loosening during observation period were included. The prosthesis height (PH), inter-implant distance (ID) and cantilever distance (CD) of TIS-FDPs were measured and compared within two groups. In the finite element analysis (FEA) part, three serials of models presenting different clinical scenarios were constructed based on the abovementioned PH, ID and CD values respectively. In the clinical evaluation, the values of pH and CD in study group were statistically higher than those in control group, whereas the values of ID had no significant difference. In the FEA, the results indicated that there was no linear correlation between the increased ID values and the maximum von Mises stresses and the rotation angles. On the other hand, the increased PH and CD values would result in a strong linear growth of the maximum von Mises stresses and the rotation angles. Besides, it was found that the regression coefficients in PH model were all higher than those in ID and CD models. When TIS-FDPs were delivered in posterior region, the PH and the CD, rather than the ID, seemed to have a significant impact on the stress concentration of the prosthetic screws and the incident of prosthetic screws loosening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110423DOI Listing
April 2021

Adsorption characteristics and the removal mechanism of two novel Fe-Zn composite modified biochar for Cd(II) in water.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 31;333:125078. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Innovation Team of Remediation for Heavy Metal Contaminated Farmlands, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Original Environmental Pollution Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191, People's Republic of China.

In this study, adsorbents (Fe/Zn-RBC and Fe/Zn-DBC) for the removal of Cd(II) in water were successfully prepared by iron/zinc composite modified biochar derived from the branches of Robinia pseudoacacia biochar (RBC) and durian shells biochar (DBC). The results revealed that the iron and zinc ions were successfully loaded onto the biochar. The adsorption data of Cd(II) on Fe/Zn-BC conformed to the models of pseudo-second-order kinetic, Langmuir isothermal, and Redlich-Paterson. According to the results of batch experiments, the maximum sorption capacities of Fe/Zn-RBC and Fe/Zn-DBC for Cd(II) were approximately five times and three times higher than RBC and DBC, respectively. As the most dominant adsorption mechanisms, Cd(II) and CO, Fe-O, Zn-O, and oxygen-containing functional groups on the Fe/Zn-BC surfaces precipitated CdCO, Cd(OH), and CdO. Therefore, Fe/Zn-BC is an excellent adsorbent that removes Cd(II) from aqueous solutions, and also can be used in waste resource utilization, which has potential applications prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125078DOI Listing
March 2021

Analysis of the variation in potential evapotranspiration and surface wet conditions in the Hancang River Basin, China.

Authors:
Han Zhang Lin Wang

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 21;11(1):8607. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China.

Evapotranspiration is an important component of the water cycle, and possible trends in evapotranspiration can, among others, influence water management and agricultural production. Potential evapotranspiration (ET) is a measure of the ability of the atmosphere to remove water from the surface through the processes of evaporation and transpiration. It plays an important role in assessing regional dry-wet conditions and variations in meteorological conditions. This study analyzed the change trends of monthly ET and surface dryness and wetness in the Hancang River Basin and, through principal component analysis and correlation analysis, explored the main meteorological factors that affected ET and the interactions between meteorological factors; ET values were estimated using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method. The results showed that there was a large gap in ET between different months in the Hancang River Basin, with a trend of first increasing and then decreasing within a year. The highest monthly evapotranspiration was 114.119 mm (July), and the lowest was 42.761 mm (January). The maximum relative humidity index was 0.822 (August), and the minimum was -0.979 (January). The average temperature, precipitation, average relative humidity, and solar radiation are positive factors that affect ET, while average air pressure is a negative factor that affects ET. This study provides a reference for the wet conditions of small watersheds and for countermeasures to address climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88162-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060405PMC
April 2021

Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Assay of Doramectin and Estimation of its Related Substances in Commercial Batches of Doramectin Drug Substance.

J AOAC Int 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health (BIAH), Global Pharmaceutical Technical Support (GPTS), 631 Route 1 South, North Brunswick, NJ 08902.

Background: Doramectin is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug used in veterinary medicine. It belongs to the family of avermectins which possess a macrocyclic lactone structure and is widely used for the treatment of parasites. Objective: This study was aimed to develop a stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for assay and identification of doramectin including identification and estimation of its related substances in commercial batches of doramectin drug substance.

Method: Methanol (MeOH) was used to dissolve and prepare doramectin samples. Doramectin and its related substances were separated on a HALO C8 (100 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 2.7 µm particle size) column maintained at 40 °C using an isocratic HPLC method with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile (ACN)-water (70 + 30, v/v). Analytes were detected with UV detection at 245 nm and quantitated against a single point external reference standard of doramectin. The quantitation limit (QL) of the method is 0.1% of target concentration as described in the method. Results: The HPLC method can separate all analytes of interest by an isocratic elution within 10 min. The method was validated according to the guidelines described in The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2(R1). Conclusions: The HPLC method for assay of doramectin and estimation of its related substances was successfully developed, validated, and demonstrated to be accurate, robust, specific, and stability-indicating. Highlights: This is the first known paper to report a HPLC method for assay of doramectin and estimation of its related substances in commercial batches of doramectin drug substance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jaoacint/qsab060DOI Listing
April 2021

Computationally Prospecting Potential Pathways from Lignin Monomers and Dimers toward Aromatic Compounds.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States.

The heterogeneity of the aromatic products originating from lignin catalytic depolymerization remains one of the major challenges associated with lignin valorization. Microbes have evolved catabolic pathways that can funnel heterogeneous intermediates to a few central aromatic products. These aromatic compounds can subsequently undergo intra- or extradiol ring opening to produce value-added chemicals. However, such funneling pathways are only partially characterized for a few organisms such as sp. SYK-6 and KT2440. Herein, we apply the pathway design tool (novoStoic) to computationally prospect possible ways of funneling lignin-derived mono- and biaryls. novoStoic employs reaction rules between molecular moieties to hypothesize conversions by flagging known enzymes that carry out the same biotransformation on the most similar substrate. Both reaction rules and known reactions are then deployed by novoStoic to identify a mass-balanced biochemical network that converts a source to a target metabolite while minimizing the number of steps. We demonstrate the application of novoStoic for (i) designing alternative pathways of funneling S, G, and H lignin monomers, and (ii) exploring cleavage pathways of β-1 and β-β dimers. By exploring the uncharted chemical space afforded by enzyme promiscuity, novoStoic can help predict previously unknown native pathways leveraging enzyme promiscuity and propose new carbon/energy efficient lignin funneling pathways with few heterologous enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.0c00598DOI Listing
April 2021

Mst1/2-ALK promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell apoptosis during Listeria monocytogenes infection.

J Microbiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Medical Laboratory, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300203, P. R. China.

Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a Gram-positive intracellular foodborne pathogen that causes severe diseases, such as meningitis and sepsis. The NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been reported to participate in host defense against pathogen infection. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying NLRP3 inflammasome activation remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the roles of mammalian Ste20-like kinases 1/2 (Mst1/2) and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome induced by L. monocytogenes infection were investigated. The expression levels of Mst1/2, phospho (p)-ALK, p-JNK, Nek7, and NLRP3 downstream molecules including activated cas-pase-1 (p20) and mature interleukin (IL)-1β (p17), were up-regulated in L. monocytogenes-infected macrophages. The ALK inhibitor significantly decreased the expression of p-JNK, Nek7, and NLRP3 downstream molecules in macrophages infected with L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, the Mst1/2 inhibitor markedly inhibited the L. monocytogenes-induced activation of ALK, subsequently downregulating the expression of p-JNK, Nek7, and NLRP3 downstream molecules. Therefore, our study demonstrated that Mst1/2-ALK mediated the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by promoting the interaction between Nek7 and NLRP3 via JNK during L. monocytogenes infection, which subsequently increased the maturation and release of proinflammatory cytokine to resist pathogen infection. Moreover, Listeriolysin O played a key role in the process. In addition, we also found that the L. monocytogenes-induced apoptosis of J774A.1 cells was reduced by the Mst1/2 or ALK inhibitor. The present study reported, for the first time, that the Mst1/2-ALK-JNK-NLRP3 signaling pathway plays a vital proinflammatory role during L. monocytogenes infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-021-0638-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Capturing protein droplets: label-free visualization and detection of protein liquid-liquid phase separation with an aggregation-induced emission fluorogen.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr 19;57(31):3805-3808. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Key Lab of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

We developed a new method for protein droplet visualization by means of a droplet probe (DroProbe) based on an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorogen. A simple method for viscosity comparison of the protein condensed phase based on the lifetime of the DroProbe was also developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00947hDOI Listing
April 2021