Publications by authors named "Lin Sørensen"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Goal management training for adults with ADHD - clients' experiences with a group-based intervention.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 Feb 19;21(1):113. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: There is growing evidence for the efficacy of group-based interventions for adults with ADHD. However, there is still a lack of research investigating how clients experience participating in such interventions. The aim of the current study was to explore how adults with ADHD experience participating in a group-based intervention (Goal Management Training) for ADHD.

Method: We conducted individual, semi-structured, interviews with ten adults with ADHD who had participated in Goal Management Training administered as a group intervention. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis within a hermeneutic phenomenological framework.

Results: Our analysis identified three main themes. The participants' starting point captured the participants' motivation and expectations prior to treatment. The ambiguity of the group - the various meanings of the group consisted of three sub-themes (The group created a sense of belonging - "I am not alone"; The personal cost of participating in the group - "At times it was a hot mess"; and The group supported the learning experience - "We worked with it together"). The group promoted positive change - How the group affected the participants' everyday lives consisted of two sub-themes (Managing ADHD in daily life - "It's much easier to handle everyday life", and Personal growth - "Gaining new perspectives").

Conclusion: The group format was experienced as a valuable aspect of treatment. The structure provided by Goal Management Training allowed participants to expand their perspectives and experience improved management of ADHD, as well as personal growth. The opportunity to exchange experiences with others in similar situations was seen as particularly beneficial and brought feelings of recognition and belonging. However, some also experienced the group as a burden at times, for instance by stealing one's focus. This study expands existing knowledge by exploring clients' experiences of participating in group-based interventions for ADHD and shows how the group format provided participants with more than they had hoped for. While expecting a more instrumental outcome of treatment, such as tools to manage ADHD, participants also gained a welcomed, but unexpected outcome of personal growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03114-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893765PMC
February 2021

Cortical thickness and resting-state cardiac function across the lifespan: A cross-sectional pooled mega-analysis.

Psychophysiology 2020 Oct 10. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Understanding the association between autonomic nervous system [ANS] function and brain morphology across the lifespan provides important insights into neurovisceral mechanisms underlying health and disease. Resting-state ANS activity, indexed by measures of heart rate [HR] and its variability [HRV] has been associated with brain morphology, particularly cortical thickness [CT]. While findings have been mixed regarding the anatomical distribution and direction of the associations, these inconsistencies may be due to sex and age differences in HR/HRV and CT. Previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes, which impede the assessment of sex differences and aging effects on the association between ANS function and CT. To overcome these limitations, 20 groups worldwide contributed data collected under similar protocols of CT assessment and HR/HRV recording to be pooled in a mega-analysis (N = 1,218 (50.5% female), mean age 36.7 years (range: 12-87)). Findings suggest a decline in HRV as well as CT with increasing age. CT, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex, explained additional variance in HRV, beyond the effects of aging. This pattern of results may suggest that the decline in HRV with increasing age is related to a decline in orbitofrontal CT. These effects were independent of sex and specific to HRV; with no significant association between CT and HR. Greater CT across the adult lifespan may be vital for the maintenance of healthy cardiac regulation via the ANS-or greater cardiac vagal activity as indirectly reflected in HRV may slow brain atrophy. Findings reveal an important association between CT and cardiac parasympathetic activity with implications for healthy aging and longevity that should be studied further in longitudinal research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13688DOI Listing
October 2020

The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on risk and protective factors of depressive relapse - a randomized wait-list controlled trial.

BMC Psychol 2020 Jun 5;8(1):57. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: The aim of this randomized wait-list controlled trial was to explore the effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on risk and protective factors for depressive relapse within the domains of cognition, emotion and self-relatedness.

Methods: Sixty-eight individuals with recurrent depressive disorder were randomized to MBCT or a wait-list control condition (WLC).

Results: Completers of MBCT (N = 26) improved significantly on measures assessing risk and protective factors of recurrent depression compared to WLC (N = 30) on measures of rumination (d = 0.59, p = .015), emotion regulation (d = 0.50, p = .028), emotional reactivity to stress (d = 0.32, p = .048), self-compassion (d = 1.02, p < .001), mindfulness (d = 0.59, p = .010), and depression (d = 0.40, p = .018). In the Intention To Treat sample, findings were attenuated, but there were still significant results on measures of rumination, self-compassion and depression.

Conclusions: Findings from the present trial contribute to evidence that MBCT can lead to reduction in risk factors of depressive relapse, and strengthening of factors known to be protective of depressive relapse. The largest changes were found in the domain of self-relatedness, in the form of large effects on the participants' ability to be less self-judgmental and more self-compassionate.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN18001392. Registered 29 June 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00417-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275325PMC
June 2020

Lower Cardiac Vagal Activity Predicts Self-Reported Difficulties With Emotion Regulation in Adolescents With ADHD.

Front Psychiatry 2020 17;11:244. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objective: To investigate the relation between cardiac vagal activity (CVA), a measure of autonomic nervous system (ANS) flexibility, and self-reported emotion regulation (ER) difficulties in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls.

Methods: The sample comprised 11-17-year-old adolescents with ADHD (=34) and controls ( = 33). Multiple linear regression analyses investigated the relation between CVA, as indexed by high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and ER difficulties as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Supplemental analyses were performed in ADHD and control groups separately. Analyses assessed effects of body mass index (BMI), physical activity levels, and HF peak as a surrogate of respiration on CVA.

Results: Lower CVA was associated with ER difficulties, and specifically with limited access to effective ER strategies. When investigating the relation between CVA and ER in the ADHD and control groups separately, there was a tendency of lower CVA predicting limited access to effective ER strategies in the ADHD group, and not in the control group.

Conclusion: The results suggest that lower CVA, i.e., reduced ANS flexibility, in adolescents with ADHD and controls is associated with self-reported ER difficulties, and specifically with limited access to effective ER strategies. There was a tendency for lower CVA to predict limited ER strategies only in the adolescents with ADHD and not controls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181562PMC
April 2020

Is Dispositional Self-Compassion Associated With Psychophysiological Flexibility Beyond Mindfulness? An Exploratory Pilot Study.

Front Psychol 2020 9;11:614. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Dispositional mindfulness and self-compassion are shown to associate with less self-reported emotional distress. However, previous studies have indicated that dispositional self-compassion may be an even more important buffer against such distress than dispositional mindfulness. To our knowledge, no study has yet disentangled the relationship between dispositional self-compassion and mindfulness and level of psychophysiological flexibility as measured with vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV). The aim was thus to provide a first exploratory effort to expand previous research relying on self-report measures by including a psychophysiological measure indicative of emotional stress reactivity.

Methods: Fifty-three university students filled out the "Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire" (FFMQ) and the "Self-Compassion Scale" (SCS), and their heart rate was measured during a 5 min resting electrocardiogram. Linear hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the common and unique variance explained by the total scores of the FFMQ and the SCS on level of resting vmHRV.

Results: Higher SCS total scores associated significantly with higher levels of vmHRV also when controlling for the FFMQ total scores. The SCS uniquely explained 7% of the vmHRV. The FFMQ total scores did not associate with level of vmHRV.

Conclusion: These results offer preliminary support that dispositional self-compassion associates with better psychophysiological regulation of emotional arousal above and beyond mindfulness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160328PMC
April 2020

The Association Between Juvenile Onset of Depression and Emotion Regulation Difficulties.

Front Psychol 2019 18;10:2262. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Juvenile onset of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with increased likelihood of recurrent episodes of depression and more detrimental clinical trajectories. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of juvenile onset of MDD on emotion regulation as measured by self-report and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Furthermore, we wanted to assess whether juvenile onset impacted the association between rumination and depressive symptoms. Sixty-four individuals with at least three prior episodes of MDD were recruited and filled out self-report questionnaires measuring rumination and emotion regulation abilities. In addition, electrocardiographic assessments were used to calculate HRV. Based on self-reported age of MDD onset, individuals were divided in two groups: Juvenile onset of MDD (first MDD episode before the age of 18, = 30) and adult onset of MDD (first MDD episode after the age of 18, = 34). Results showed that individuals whose first depressive episode occurred in childhood and adolescence reported more rumination and less emotional clarity compared to individuals who had their first episode of MDD in adulthood. Moreover, the tendency to ruminate was strongly associated with depressive symptoms in the juvenile onset of MDD group, whereas no such association was found in the adult onset group. There was no significant group difference for HRV. The findings are discussed in light of existing literature, in addition to suggesting how our findings may inform clinical practice and future research. We conclude that juvenile onset of MDD may lead to difficulties in emotion regulation and that these difficulties may increase depressive symptoms and vulnerability for relapse in this particular subgroup.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6816416PMC
October 2019

Dispositional Mindfulness and Attentional Control: The Specific Association Between the Mindfulness Facets of Non-judgment and Describing With Flexibility of Early Operating Orienting in Conflict Detection.

Front Psychol 2018 29;9:2359. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

A state of mindfulness refers to a present-centered attentional awareness without judging. Being mindful seems to increase the ability to be flexible and adaptive in attention focus according to situational contingencies. The way mindfulness affects such attentional control is often measured with three different but interacting attentional networks of alerting (preparedness), orienting (selection of stimulus), and conflict detection (suppression of irrelevant stimuli). In the current study, the aim was to study the effects of dispositional mindfulness on these attention networks, and specifically the effects on the interactions between these attention networks. Fifty participants between 19 and 29 years old filled out the questionnaire Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and performed the revised version of the Attention Network Test (ANT-R). The five FFMQ facets of Describing, Non-Judgment, Orienting, Non-Reactivity, and Acting with Awareness were included as predictors in multiple linear regression analyses with the ANT-R scores of alerting, orienting, conflict detection, and the interaction scores of alerting by conflict detection and orienting by conflict detection as outcome variables, respectively. Higher dispositional mindfulness as measured with the five FFMQ facets predicted interaction scores (faster reaction times) of orienting by conflict detection, but none of the other ANT-R scores. It was specifically the FFMQ facets of Describing and non-judgment that predicted this lower interaction score of orienting by conflict detection. Our findings indicate that being mindful is associated with a more flexible and efficient orienting attention. It is associated with a higher ability to disengage from salient stimuli that is irrelevant to pursue goal-directed behavior (conflict detection).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282922PMC
November 2018

Keeping Emotions in Mind: The Influence of Working Memory Capacity on Parent-Reported Symptoms of Emotional Lability in a Sample of Children With and Without ADHD.

Front Psychol 2018 2;9:1846. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

The Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Emotional lability (EL) often co-occurs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. However, difficulties of regulating intense emotions in ADHD are still poorly understood. We investigated the potential role of working memory (WM) as a protective factor against EL in children with ADHD by building on models describing the close relationship between WM and regulation of emotions. The parents of 41 children with ADHD and 34 typically developing children (TDC) filled out the emotional control scale (ECS) from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning and the child behavior checklist (CBCL). The children themselves completed the backward conditions of the digit span (DS) and spatial span (SS) tasks as well as the letter-umber sequencing (LNS) task. The results of a stepwise regression analysis confirmed the negative relationship between parent reported EL measured using the ECS and scores on the LNS, when controlling for symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). WM thus seems to be important for the ability of the children to express emotions in an adaptive and flexible way. We therefore suggest that a poorer WM capacity, which is often found in children with ADHD, may be a predictor of high levels of EL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176092PMC
October 2018

Development of Performance and ERPs in a Flanker Task in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome-A Follow-Up Study.

Front Neurosci 2017 12;11:305. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

K.G. Jebsen Centre for Research on Neuropsychiatric Disorders, University of BergenBergen, Norway.

Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with childhood-onset, with a typical decline in tic severity, as well as an increasing ability to suppress tics in late childhood and adolescence. These processes develop in parallel with general improvement of self-regulatory abilities, and performance monitoring during this age-span. Hence, changes in performance monitoring over time might provide insight into the regulation of tics in children and adolescents with TS. We measured reaction time, reaction time variability, accuracy, and event-related potentials (ERP) in 17 children with TS, including 10 children with comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 24 children with ADHD, and 29 typically developing children, using a modified Eriksen Flanker task in two testing sessions administered on average 4.5 years apart. We then compared task performance, as well as ERP components across groups, and over time using regression models. Task performance improved in all groups with age, and behavioral differences between children with TS and controls diminished at second assessment, while differences between controls and children with ADHD largely persisted. In terms of ERP, the early P3 developed earlier in children with TS compared with controls at the first assessment, but trajectories converged with maturation. ERP component amplitudes correlated with worst-ever tic scores. Merging trajectories between children with TS and controls are consistent with the development of compensatory self-regulation mechanisms during early adolescence, probably facilitating tic suppression, in contrast to children with ADHD. Correlations between ERP amplitudes and tic scores also support this notion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2017.00305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466959PMC
June 2017

The Association between Self-Reported Difficulties in Emotion Regulation and Heart Rate Variability: The Salient Role of Not Accepting Negative Emotions.

Front Psychol 2017 9;8:328. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Bergen Bergen, Norway.

Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with development and maintenance of psychopathology. Typically, features of emotion regulation are assessed with self-report questionnaires. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective measure proposed as an index of emotional regulation capacity. A limited number of studies have shown that self-reported difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with HRV. However, results from prior studies are inconclusive, and an ecological validation of the association has not yet been tested. Therefore, further exploration of the relation between self-report questionnaires and psychophysiological measures of emotional regulation is needed. The present study investigated the contribution of self-reported emotion regulation difficulties on HRV in a student sample. We expected higher scores on emotion regulation difficulties to be associated with lower vagus-mediated HRV (vmHRV). Sixty-three participants filled out the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and their resting HRV was assessed. In addition, a subsample of participants provided ambulatory 24-h HRV data, in order to ecologically validate the resting data. Correlation analyses indicated that self-reported difficulties in emotion regulation was negatively associated with vmHRV in both resting HRV and 24-h HRV. Specifically, when exploring the contribution of the different facets of emotion dysregulation, the inability to accept negative emotions showed the strongest association with HRV. The results are discussed and need for future research is described.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5343522PMC
March 2017

Trait Self-Compassion Reflects Emotional Flexibility Through an Association with High Vagally Mediated Heart Rate Variability.

Mindfulness (N Y) 2016;7(5):1103-1113. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, Bergen, 5009 Norway ; KG Jebsen Center for Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Bergen, Norway.

Converging evidence shows a positive effect of self-compassion on self-reported well-being and mental health. However, few studies have examined the relation between self-compassion and psychophysiological measures. In the present study, we therefore examined the relation between trait self-compassion and vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) in 53 students (39 female, mean age = 23.63). Trait self-compassion was assessed using the Self-Compassion Scale, and resting vmHRV was measured during a 5-min ECG baseline period. We hypothesized that higher levels of trait self-compassion would predict higher levels of resting vmHRV. Controlling for potential covariates (including age, gender, and BMI), the results confirmed our hypotheses, showing that higher levels of trait self-compassion predicted higher vmHRV. These results were validated with a 24-h measure of vmHRV, acquired from a subsample of the participants ( = 26, 16 female, mean age = 23.85), confirming the positive correlation between high trait self-compassion and higher vmHRV. The relation between trait self-compassion, vmHRV, self-reported trait anxiety (the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; STAI) and self-reported rumination (the Rumination subscale of the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire; RRQ-Rum) was also investigated. Higher levels of trait anxiety and rumination were highly correlated with low levels of trait self-compassion. Trait anxiety, but not rumination, correlated marginally significantly with the level of vmHRV. The findings of the present study indicate that trait self-compassion predicts a better ability to physiologically and psychologically adapt emotional responses. Possible implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0549-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010618PMC
June 2016

Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample.

Scand J Psychol 2016 Oct;57(5):399-405

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway.

Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12324DOI Listing
October 2016

Suboptimal decision making by children with ADHD in the face of risk: Poor risk adjustment and delay aversion rather than general proneness to taking risks.

Neuropsychology 2017 02 6;31(2):119-128. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Child and Adolescent Centre of Mental Health, Capital Region.

Objective: Suboptimal decision making in the face of risk (DMR) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be mediated by deficits in a number of different neuropsychological processes. We investigated DMR in children with ADHD using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) to distinguish difficulties in adjusting to changing probabilities of choice outcomes (so-called risk adjustment) from general risk proneness, and to distinguish these 2 processes from delay aversion (the tendency to choose the least delayed option) and impairments in the ability to reflect on choice options. Based on previous research, we predicted that suboptimal performance on this task in children with ADHD would be primarily relate to problems with risk adjustment and delay aversion rather than general risk proneness.

Method: Drug naïve children with ADHD (n = 36), 8 to 12 years, and an age-matched group of typically developing children (n = 34) performed the CGT.

Results: As predicted, children with ADHD were not more prone to making risky choices (i.e., risk proneness). However, they had difficulty adjusting to changing risk levels and were more delay aversive-with these 2 effects being correlated.

Conclusions: Our findings add to the growing body of evidence that children with ADHD do not favor risk taking per se when performing gambling tasks, but rather may lack the cognitive skills or motivational style to appraise changing patterns of risk effectively. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000297DOI Listing
February 2017

Performance Monitoring in Medication-Naïve Children with Tourette Syndrome.

Front Neurosci 2016 1;10:50. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

K.G. Jebsen Centre for Research on Neuropsychiatric Disorders, University of BergenBergen, Norway; Child and Adolescent Mental Health Center, Mental Health Services Capital RegionCopenhagen, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of CopenhagenCopenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder and its impact on cognitive development needs further study. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies suggests that the decline in tic severity and the ability to suppress tics relate to the development of self-regulatory functions in late childhood and adolescence. Hence, tasks measuring performance monitoring might provide insight into the regulation of tics in children with TS.

Method: Twenty-five children with TS, including 14 with comorbid Attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 39 children with ADHD and 35 typically developing children aged 8-12 years were tested with a modified Eriksen-Flanker task during a 34-channel electroencephalography (EEG) recording. Task performance, as well as stimulus-locked and response-locked event-related potentials (ERP) were analyzed and compared across groups.

Results: Participants did not differ in their behavioral performance. Children with TS showed higher amplitudes of an early P3 component of the stimulus-locked ERPs in ensemble averages and in separate trial outcomes, suggesting heightened orienting and/or attention during stimulus evaluation. In response-locked averages, children with TS had a slightly higher positive complex before the motor response, likely also reflecting a late P3. Groups did not differ in post-response components, particularly in the error-related negativity (ERN) and error-related positivity (Pe).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that children with TS may employ additional attentional resources as a compensatory mechanism to maintain equal behavioral performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4771943PMC
March 2016

Co-occurring symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based sample of adolescents screened for depression.

BMC Psychiatry 2016 Feb 25;16:46. Epub 2016 Feb 25.

Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research, Bergen, 5002, Norway.

Background: Depression is common in adolescents, with a gender bias towards girls. Symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to co-occur in depressed adolescents. This may be related to common features between the two symptom domains, but co-occurring ADHD symptoms may also inflate the severity of depression. The present study investigates the frequency and influence of ADHD symptoms co-occurring with depression in a gender balanced population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents.

Methods: A sample of 9614 adolescents (16-19 years) completed a questionnaire including the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), with items reflecting symptoms associated with depression and ADHD, respectively. The sMFQ sum score was used as a proxy for severity of depression, and adolescents with a score equal to or above the 90th percentile were defined as depressed. A high response on any of the ASRS items was used to define the presence of an ADHD symptom, and the number of high scores was used to indicate severity.

Results: ADHD symptoms were frequently reported by the adolescents, with a higher frequency in girls than in boys. The gender differences were, however, minor when the analysis was restricted to the adolescents defined as depressed. Each severe symptom reported on the ASRS contributed significantly to increase the sum score on the sMFQ, and more than 20 % of the adolescents defined as depressed reported six or more symptoms within the ASRS inattention subscale.

Conclusions: The results emphasize the importance of screening for symptoms associated with ADHD when assessing adolescents presenting symptoms indicating depression. Although girls reported higher frequency of symptoms within both domains, the gender bias was dependent on the overall symptom severity. Awareness of co-occurrence of symptoms and gender biases are of importance for both clinical work and future research on mental health and service use in adolescence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-0739-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4768418PMC
February 2016

Reduced error signalling in medication-naive children with ADHD: associations with behavioural variability and post-error adaptations.

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2016 Mar;41(2):77-87

From the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Capital Region Psychiatry, Copenhagen, Denmark (Plessen); the Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (Plessen); the Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (Plessen, Høvik, Worren); the K.G. Jebsen Center for Research on Neuropsychiatric Disorders, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (Plessen, Allen, Sørensen, Hugdahl, Eichele); the Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Allen, Eichele); the Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (Allen, Eichele, Hugdahl, Eichele); the Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway (van Wageningen); the Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway (Hugdahl); the Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway (Hugdahl); the Section for Clinical Neurophysiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway (Eichele).

Background: We examined the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in brain regions that signal errors and their association with intraindividual behavioural variability and adaptation to errors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: We acquired functional MRI data during a Flanker task in medication-naive children with ADHD and healthy controls aged 8-12 years and analyzed the data using independent component analysis. For components corresponding to performance monitoring networks, we compared activations across groups and conditions and correlated them with reaction times (RT). Additionally, we analyzed post-error adaptations in behaviour and motor component activations.

Results: We included 25 children with ADHD and 29 controls in our analysis. Children with ADHD displayed reduced activation to errors in cingulo-opercular regions and higher RT variability, but no differences of interference control. Larger BOLD amplitude to error trials significantly predicted reduced RT variability across all participants. Neither group showed evidence of post-error response slowing; however, post-error adaptation in motor networks was significantly reduced in children with ADHD. This adaptation was inversely related to activation of the right-lateralized ventral attention network (VAN) on error trials and to task-driven connectivity between the cingulo-opercular system and the VAN.

Limitations: Our study was limited by the modest sample size and imperfect matching across groups.

Conclusion: Our findings show a deficit in cingulo-opercular activation in children with ADHD that could relate to reduced signalling for errors. Moreover, the reduced orienting of the VAN signal may mediate deficient post-error motor adaptions. Pinpointing general performance monitoring problems to specific brain regions and operations in error processing may help to guide the targets of future treatments for ADHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4764484PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/jpn.140353DOI Listing
March 2016

Verbal Memory Function in Intellectually Well-Functioning Adults With ADHD: Relations to Working Memory and Response Inhibition.

J Atten Disord 2019 Aug 22;23(10):1188-1198. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

1 Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway.

To investigate verbal memory function with relation to working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) in adults with ADHD. Verbal memory function was assessed by the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), WM by the Paced Serial Addition Test, and RI by the Color-Word Interference Test from Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System in a sample of adults with normal to high intellectual function (IQ). The ADHD group ( = 74) obtained lower scores than controls on measures of learning, recall, and immediate memory (CVLT-II). WM and RI explained a substantial part of verbal memory performance in both groups. A group to executive function (EF) interaction effect was identified for the total number of intrusions and false positive responses on the CVLT-II recognition trial. Verbal memory performance only partially overlaps with EF in intellectually well-functioning adults with ADHD. Both EF and verbal memory function should be assessed as part of a neuropsychological evaluation of adults with ADHD. .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054715580842DOI Listing
August 2019

Occupational Status Is Compromised in Adults With ADHD and Psychometrically Defined Executive Function Deficits.

J Atten Disord 2019 01 2;23(1):76-86. Epub 2015 Jan 2.

1 University of Bergen, Norway.

Objective: Problems related to executive function (EF) are frequently reported in adults with ADHD. However, only a subgroup of patients show deficits on common neuropsychological tests designed to measure EF. We investigated whether this subgroup also had higher levels of functional impairments, including unemployment, than the ADHD group without such deficits.

Method: We defined executive function deficit (EFD) from selected tests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and assessed ADHD symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity with the use of questionnaires in 79 ADHD patients and 77 controls (IQ above 80 in both groups).

Results: In the ADHD group, 24.3% had EFD. This subgroup showed significantly higher frequency of unemployment, more reading and writing problems, lower IQ scores, and more self-reported ADHD symptoms in childhood than the ADHD subgroup without EFD.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that it may be possible to identify individuals at risk of functional impairments, and emphasizes the importance of effective treatment programs targeting EF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054714564622DOI Listing
January 2019

A longitudinal examination of the developmental executive function hierarchy in children with externalizing behavior problems.

J Atten Disord 2015 Jun 15;19(6):496-506. Epub 2013 May 15.

University of Bergen, Norway Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research, Bergen, Norway.

Objective: Using a 4-year longitudinal design, we evaluated two hypotheses based on developmental executive function (EF) hierarchy accounts in a sample of children with externalizing problems.

Method: The participants performed EF tasks when they were between 8 and 12 years (M = 9.93), and again approximately 4 years later when they were between 12 and 15 years (M = 13.36).

Results: Inhibition in middle childhood predicted working memory (WM) 4 years later. Further, deficits in inhibition and sustained attention were more prominent in middle rather than late childhood, whereas poor WM was salient throughout these periods.

Conclusions: These findings support the hypotheses that EFs develop hierarchically and that EF deficits in ADHD are more prominent in actively developing EFs. They also emphasize ADHD as a developmental disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054713488439DOI Listing
June 2015

Attention Deficits in Children With Combined Autism and ADHD: A CPT Study.

J Atten Disord 2016 07 31;20(7):599-609. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

Uni Research, Bergen, Norway Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Objective: To investigate characteristics of attention in children with the combination of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD.

Method: Four groups of 8- to 10-year-old children were compared on the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-Second Edition (CCPT-II): (a) ASD + ADHD (n = 11), (b) ASD only (n = 9), (c) ADHD only (n = 38), and (d) no diagnosis (n = 134).

Results: There was an overall effect of group on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) index and measures of hit reaction time, accuracy, response style, variability, and consistency. The ASD + ADHD group, much like the ADHD only group, had a more risky response style, a higher variability, and a lower consistency than the ASD only group. The impact of intellectual function on CCPT-II performance was considerable in children within the ASD subgroups.

Conclusion: The findings underscore the importance of including measures of attention and intellectual function when assessing children with the combination of ASD and ADHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453168DOI Listing
July 2016

The impact of inattention and emotional problems on cognitive control in primary school children.

J Atten Disord 2012 Oct 23;16(7):589-99. Epub 2011 Aug 23.

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objective: The present study investigated the predictive value of parent/teacher reports of inattention and emotional problems on cognitive control function in 241 children in primary school.

Method: Cognitive control was measured by functions of set-shifting and working memory as assessed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and performance-based tests (i.e., Color Trail Test and Digit Span Test). Symptoms of inattention and emotional problems were measured with parent and teacher reports on Swanson Nolan and Pelham-IV questionnaire and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively.

Results: Clinical symptoms of inattention and emotional problems explained the children's performance on test measures. However, symptoms of inattention made a significant contribution on all the selected measures of cognitive control, whereas reports concerning emotional problems uniquely explained the variance on the Shift scale from the BRIEF.

Conclusion: Valid information on cognitive control function in primary school children should thus include simultaneous information concerning problems of inattention and emotion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054711417394DOI Listing
October 2012

Teacher reports of hypoactivity symptoms reflect slow cognitive processing speed in primary school children.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011 Mar 29;20(3):121-6. Epub 2010 Dec 29.

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

The mediating effect of cognitive processing speed on the ability of a primary school child to achieve his/her full potential of intellectual functioning emphasizes the importance of methods to detect "slow" children. Primary school teachers may be the first to have concerns about inattentive pupils who show symptoms of hypoactivity, but may find the symptoms difficult to interpret. In the present study we ask if a primary school teacher's report of hypoactivity symptoms can be explained by the child's performance on tests of processing speed. The 255 children included in the present study were part of the first wave of the Bergen Child Study, in which teachers completed a questionnaire including two hypoactivity items from the Five to Fifteen (FTF) questionnaire. Processing speed was measured by the Processing Speed Index (PSI) from the WISC-III, 1-2 years after the teacher rating. Teachers reported "certainly true" on at least one FTF item of hypoactivity for 11.8% of the children. These children obtained lower scores on the PSI than the remaining children in the sample. The PSI accounted for a considerable proportion of the variance of teacher reports on the FTF item "difficulty getting started on a task/activity". The risk of a PSI score below 85 was increased in children with teacher-reported hypoactivity symptoms. The results indicate that teacher reports of hypoactivity symptoms reflect slow cognitive processing speed and should be followed up by a psychometric examination. Still, future studies are needed to improve detection and treatment of children with slow processing speed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-010-0153-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3046358PMC
March 2011

Is behavioral regulation in children with ADHD aggravated by comorbid anxiety disorder?

J Atten Disord 2011 Jan 13;15(1):56-66. Epub 2010 Jan 13.

University of Bergen, Norway.

Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior.

Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) × 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design.

Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children.

Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD children is aggravated by comorbid anxiety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054709356931DOI Listing
January 2011

Enduring cognitive dysfunction in unipolar major depression: a test-retest study using the Stroop paradigm.

Scand J Psychol 2010 Aug 23;51(4):304-8. Epub 2009 Dec 23.

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

The aim of the study was to investigate automatic and effortful information processing with the Stroop paradigm in a long term perspective in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients were tested at two test occasions: at inclusion with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score >18, and after 6 months, when most patients had experienced symptom reduction. The Stroop paradigm is considered to measure aspects of attention and executive functioning and consists of three conditions/cards: naming the color of the patches (Color), reading of the color-words (Word) and naming the ink color of color-words (Color-Word). The Color-Word condition is proved to be the most cognitive demanding task and requires the proband to actively suppress interference and is therefore considered to require more effortful information processing, whereas naming the color of the patches and reading the color-words are expected to be more automatic and less cognitive demanding. A homogenous group of 19 patients with unipolar recurrent MDD according to DSM-IV and a HDRS score of >18 were included in the study. A control group was individually matched for age, gender and level of education. Depressed patients performed equal to the control group on the Color and Word cards at both test occasions. However, the patients were impaired compared with the control group on the Color-Word card task at both test occasions. Thus, the depressed patients showed no improvement of effortful attention/executive performance as a function of symptom reduction. The results indicate that the depressed patients showed impaired cognitive performance on cognitive demanding tasks when symptomatic and that this impairment prevailed after 6 months, despite significant improvement in their depressive symptoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00765.xDOI Listing
August 2010

Intellectual deficits in children with ADHD beyond central executive and non-executive functions.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2009 Dec 13;24(8):769-82. Epub 2009 Oct 13.

Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

This study aimed to specify the deficit in intellectual ability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), by studying the mediating role of impairments in central executive function (EF)-related components (working memory, inhibition, sustained attention) and non-EFs (short-term memory and processing speed). Two hundred and thirty children aged 8-11 years from a population-based sample were assigned to either the ADHD group, the clinical comparison group, or the normal comparison group. The results showed that children with ADHD had poorer fluid and crystallized intelligence, relative to both comparison groups. Further, regarding fluid intelligence, these deficits were not fully mediated by, but rather went beyond, poorer functioning on the studied EF-related components and non-EFs. We tentatively interpret these fluid deficits in children with ADHD as representing deficiencies in a general intellectual resource reflecting executive attentional processes. Concerning crystallized ability, in contrast, the deficit signified impairment in the studied cognitive functions, as indicated by the significant full mediation effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acp075DOI Listing
December 2009

The attention network test: a characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

Behav Brain Funct 2008 Feb 12;4. Epub 2008 Feb 12.

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, The Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, 5009 Bergen, Norway.

Background: The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test.

Methods: The sample included 157 children (M = 10 years) who performed the child version of ANT as participants of the Bergen Child Study. Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N = 45) were compared to a group of children with other diagnoses (N = 55) and a group of children without any diagnosis (N = 57).

Results: The group of children with ADHD showed low accuracy scores and a variable response set, indicating an inattentive response style. No differences were found between the groups on RT and accuracy measures of the alerting, orienting, and conflict networks. A high correlation between full scale IQ (FSIQ) and ANT measures was only found in the ADHD group. When FSIQ score was included as a covariate, the group differences were not statistically significant on any ANT measure.

Conclusion: The present study showed that accuracy and variability measures rather than measures of the three attention networks conveyed the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD. The results emphasized the importance of including these measures to extend the sensitivity of the ANT, and the importance of reporting results both with and without FSIQ as a covariate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-4-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2265730PMC
February 2008

Emotional symptoms in inattentive primary school children: a population-based study.

J Atten Disord 2008 Mar 29;11(5):580-7. Epub 2007 Oct 29.

University of Bergen, Norway.

Objective: The present study investigates teacher and parent reports of inattention and emotional symptoms in 6,229 primary school children.

Method: The assessment included the Emotional Symptoms subscale and the Impact scale from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the inattention items from the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV Questionnaire.

Results: Children defined as inattentive showed a high risk of being defined as high scorers on the Emotional Symptoms subscale. A high score on both the Inattention and Emotional Symptoms subscales was associated with a high impact score. Teachers but not parents reported a higher risk of such co-occurrence of symptoms in girls than in boys.

Conclusion: Inattentive children should be screened for emotional problems by use of the multi-informants method.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054707308491DOI Listing
March 2008