Publications by authors named "Lin Long"

144 Publications

Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Microwave-Assisted Extraction for the Chromatographic Analysis of Bioactive Flavonoids in Spirodela polyrrhiza.

J Chromatogr Sci 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Engineering Research Center of Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China.

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are regarded as promising solvents to extract chemicals from plant materials. In this study, a DES-based microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was developed for the chromatographic analysis of four bioactive flavonoids in Spirodela polyrrhiza. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Promosil C18-column. Prior to the HPLC analysis, the flavonoids were rapidly extracted by a DES-MAE process using choline chloride/levulinic acid (1:2, mol/mol) as the solvent. The extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology, and the optimal DES-MAE was fast and efficient compared with conventional solvent-based MAE and ultrasonic-assisted extraction using DES. The recoveries of optimized DES-MAE for the four flavonoids ranged from 97.80 to 103.29%. This study demonstrates that the validated DES-MAE-HPLC method is efficient, accurate and applicable to the determination of flavonoids in S. polyrrhiza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmab092DOI Listing
July 2021

Electrochemical Oxidative Syntheses of NH-Sulfoximines, NH-Sulfonimidamides and Dibenzothiazines via Anodically Generated Hypervalent Iodine Intermediates.

ChemSusChem 2021 Aug 22;14(16):3277-3282. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Lu, Shanghai, 201620, P. R. China.

Herein, we report a general method for the synthesis of NH-sulfoximines and NH-sulfonimidamides through direct electrochemical oxidative catalysis involving an iodoarene(I)/iodoarene(III) redox couple. In addition, dibenzothiazines can be synthesized from [1,1'-biaryl]-2-sulfides under standard conditions. Notably, only a catalytic amount of iodoarene is required for the generation in situ of an active hypervalent iodine catalyst, which avoids the need for an excess of a hypervalent iodine reagent relative to conventional approaches. Moreover, this protocol features broad substrate scope and wide functional group tolerance, delivering the target compounds with good-to-excellent yields even for a scale of more than 10 g.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202101002DOI Listing
August 2021

Antifungal weapons of Lysobacter, a mighty biocontrol agent.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

College of Plant Protection, Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Nanjing Agricultural University, No. 1 Weigang, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.

Bacteria interact with fungi in a variety of ways to inhibit fungal growth, while the underlying mechanisms remain only partially characterized. The plant-beneficial Bacillus and Pseudomonas species are well-known antifungal biocontrol agents, whereas Lysobacter are far less studied. Members of Lysobacter are easy to grow in fermenters and are safe to humans, animals and plants. These environmentally ubiquitous bacteria use a diverse arsenal of weapons to prey on other microorganisms, including fungi and oomycetes. The small molecular toxins secreted by Lysobacter represent long-range weapons effective against filamentous fungi. The secreted hydrolytic enzymes act as intermediate-range weapons against non-filamentous fungi. The contact-dependent killing devices are proposed to work as short-range weapons. We describe here the structure, biosynthetic pathway, action mode and applications of one of the best-characterized long-range weapons, the heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) produced by Lysobacter enzymogenes. We discuss how the flagellar type III secretion system has evolved into an enzyme secretion machine for the intermediate-range antifungal weapons. We highlight an intricate mechanism coordinating the production of the long-range weapon, HSAF and the proposed contact-dependent killing device, type VI secretion system. We also overview the regulatory mechanisms of HSAF production involving specific transcription factors and the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15674DOI Listing
July 2021

Study on the Effect of Antiplatelet and Gastric Mucosal Protection of Traditional Chinese Medicine Invigorating Qi and Hemostasis.

J Inflamm Res 2021 7;14:3023-3037. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Gastroenterology, Wangjing Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100102, People's Republic of China.

Background: To investigate the effects of Chinese herbal medicine in tonifying qi and attaining hemostasis caused by the metabolism of the drug clopidogrel and as a result of platelet and gastric mucosa injury in an ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

Methods: A pharmacokinetic model was established to record the drug metabolism parameters of clopidogrel metabolites. Then, absorption of the drug was compared with approaches using the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) approach of tonifying qi and establishing hemostasis, to using the drug pantoprazole and applying these approaches in combination with clopidogrel. Intragastric administration was performed, and all indicators were tested.

Results: The area under the curve (AUC; 0-T, 300.342 ± 35.832 mg/L* h; AUC 0-∞, 320.462 ± 40.213 mg/L* h), the plasma peak concentration (30.622 ± 9.917 mg/L*), and the peak time and half-life (7.954 ± 1.121 h) in the clopidogrel and the TCM groups were higher than those in the clopidogrel and pantoprazole groups. In terms of antiplatelet aggregation, compared with model group, the platelet aggregation rate induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was significantly decreased by the TCM approach of tonifying qi and stopping bleeding (p < 0.05). The ADP, thromboxane A2, GPII B/Pa-A, CD62P and platelet factor 4 content in the TCM yiqi decoction and hemostasis approach were significantly decreased (p < 0.01). Compared with the clopidogrel group, the gastrin and motilin in the serum, the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and prostaglandin E2 in gastric tissue, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor messenger ribonucleic acid in the serum were all significantly increased using TCM approach to protect against gastric mucosal injury (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: TCM invigorating qi and hemostasis has an inhibitory effect on platelet activation. It can reduce the local inflammatory reaction at the same time as protecting gastric mucosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S316862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274831PMC
July 2021

Clp is a "busy" transcription factor in the bacterial warrior, .

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 16;19:3564-3572. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

College of Plant Protection, Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Nanjing Agricultural University, No.1 Weigang, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, PR China.

Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is a well-characterized group of global transcription factors in bacteria. They are known to regulate numerous cellular processes by binding DNA and/or cAMP (a ligand called bacterial second messenger) to control target gene expression. Gram-negative is a soilborne, plant-beneficial bacterium without flagella that can fight against filamentous fungi and oomycete. Driven by the type IV pilus (T4P) system, this bacterium moves to nearby pathogens and uses a "mobile-attack" antifungal strategy to kill them via heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and abundant lyases. This strategy is controlled by a unique "busy" transcription factor Clp, which is a CRP-like protein that is inactivated by binding of c-di-GMP, another ubiquitous second messenger of bacteria. In this review, we summarize the current progress in how Clp initiates a "mobile-attack" strategy through a series of previously uncharacterized mechanisms, including binding to DNA in a unique pattern, directly interacting with or responding to various small molecules, and interacting specifically with proteins adopting distinct structure. Together, these characteristics highlight the multifunctional roles of Clp in , a powerful bacterial warrior against fungal pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.06.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246147PMC
June 2021

Genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in the UAE reveals novel virus mutation, patterns of co-infection and tissue specific host immune response.

Sci Rep 2021 07 7;11(1):13971. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Group42 Healthcare, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

To unravel the source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction and the pattern of its spreading and evolution in the United Arab Emirates, we conducted meta-transcriptome sequencing of 1067 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected between May 9th and Jun 29th, 2020 during the first peak of the local COVID-19 epidemic. We identified global clade distribution and eleven novel genetic variants that were almost absent in the rest of the world and that defined five subclades specific to the UAE viral population. Cross-settlement human-to-human transmission was related to the local business activity. Perhaps surprisingly, at least 5% of the population were co-infected by SARS-CoV-2 of multiple clades within the same host. We also discovered an enrichment of cytosine-to-uracil mutation among the viral population collected from the nasopharynx, that is different from the adenosine-to-inosine change previously reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and a previously unidentified upregulation of APOBEC4 expression in nasopharynx among infected patients, indicating the innate immune host response mediated by ADAR and APOBEC gene families could be tissue-specific. The genomic epidemiological and molecular biological knowledge reported here provides new insights for the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and transmission and points out future direction on host-pathogen interaction investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92851-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263779PMC
July 2021

Promotion of rs3746804 (p. L267P) polymorphism to intracellular SLC52A3a trafficking and riboflavin transportation in esophageal cancer cells.

Amino Acids 2021 Aug 5;53(8):1197-1209. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Institute of Oncologic Pathology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shantou University Medical College, 22 Xinling Road, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, China.

Riboflavin is an essential micronutrient for normal cellular growth and function. Lack of dietary riboflavin is associated with an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Previous studies have identified that the human riboflavin transporter SLC52A3a isoform (encoded by SLC52A3) plays a prominent role in esophageal cancer cell riboflavin transportation. Furthermore, SLC52A3 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms rs3746804 (T>C, L267P) and rs3746803 (C >T, T278M) are associated with ESCC risk. However, whether SLC52A3a (p.L267P) and (p.T278M) act in riboflavin transportation in esophageal cancer cell remains inconclusive. Here, we constructed the full-length SLC52A3a protein fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP-SLC52A3a-WT and mutants L267P, T278M, and L267P/T278M). It was confirmed by immunofluorescence-based confocal microscopy that SLC52A3a-WT, L267P, T278M, and L267P/T278M expressed in cell membrane, as well as in a variety of intracellular punctate structures. The live cell confocal imaging showed that SLC52A3a-L267P and L267P/T278M increased the intracellular trafficking of SLC52A3a in ESCC cells. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of GFP-tagged SLC52A3a meant that intracellular trafficking of SLC52A3a-L267P and L267P/T278M was rapid dynamics process, leading to its stronger ability to transport riboflavin. Taken together, the above results indicated that the rs3746804 (p.L267P) polymorphism promoted intracellular trafficking of SLC52A3a and riboflavin transportation in ESCC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-021-03025-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Deep sequencing of 1320 genes reveals the landscape of protein-truncating variants and their contribution to psoriasis in 19,973 Chinese individuals.

Genome Res 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Dermatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China.

Protein-truncating variants (PTVs) have important impacts on phenotype diversity and disease. However, their population genetics characteristics in more globally diverse populations are not well defined. Here, we describe patterns of PTVs in 1320 genes sequenced in 10,539 healthy controls and 9434 patients with psoriasis, all of Han Chinese ancestry. We identify 8720 PTVs, of which 77% are novel, and estimate 88% of all PTVs are deleterious and subject to purifying selection. Furthermore, we show that individuals with psoriasis have a significantly higher burden of PTVs compared to controls ( = 0.02). Finally, we identified 18 PTVs in 14 genes with unusually high levels of population differentiation, consistent with the action of local adaptation. Our study provides insights into patterns and consequences of PTVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.267963.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256863PMC
June 2021

Biphasic anaphylaxis manifested as type I Kounis syndrome induced by ingestion of raw fish gallbladder: A case report.

World J Emerg Med 2021 ;12(3):238-240

Department of Emergency Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2021.03.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188290PMC
January 2021

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N-anthraniloyl tryptamine derivatives as pleiotropic molecules for the therapy of malignant glioma.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Oct 29;222:113564. Epub 2021 May 29.

School of Pharmaceutical Science, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001, China; School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China. Electronic address:

COX-2 and STAT3 are two key culprits in the glioma microenvironment. Herein, to inhibit COX-2 and block STAT3 signaling, we disclosed 27 N-anthraniloyl tryptamine compounds based on the combination of melatonin derivatives and N-substituted anthranilic acid derivatives. Among them, NP16 showed the best antiproliferative activity and moderate COX-2 inhibition. Of note, NP16 decreased the level of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, and blocked the nuclear translocation of STAT3 in GBM cell lines. Moreover, NP16 downregulated the MMP-9 expression of BV2 cells in a co-culture system of BV2 and C6 glioma cells, abrogated the proliferative/invasive/migratory abilities of GBM cells, induced apoptosis by ROS and the Bcl-2-regulated apoptotic pathway, and induced obvious G/M arrest in glioma cells in vitro. Furthermore, NP16 displayed favorable pharmacokinetic profiles covering long half-life (11.43 ± 0.43 h) and high blood-brain barrier permeability. Finally, NP16 effectively inhibited tumor growth, promoted the survival rate, increased the expression of E-cadherin and reduced overproduction of PGE, MMP-9, VEGF-A and the level of p-STAT3 in tumor tissue, and improved the anxiety-like behavior in C6 glioma model. All these evidences demonstrated N-anthraniloyl tryptamine derivatives as multifunctional anti-glioma agents with high potency could drain the swamp to beat glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113564DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of the Gut Microbiome on the Progression of Hepatitis B Virus Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 6;11:573923. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

The relationship between the progression of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) and the gut microbiota is poorly understood, and an HBV-ACLF-related microbiome has yet to be identified. In this study alterations in the fecal microbiome of 91 patients with HBV-ACLF (109 stool samples), including a cohort of nine patients at different stages of HBV-ACLF, were determined by high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing. The operational taxonomic units and Shannon indexes indicated that the diversity and abundance of the gut microbiome significantly decreased with the progression of HBV-ACLF (p <0.05). The relative abundance of the phylum in the microbiome was significantly reduced, whereas the abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as , , , and , was highly enriched in the HBV-ACLF group compared with the healthy control group. The abundance of was negatively correlated with the level of serum alpha fetoprotein, and the abundance of was positively correlated with serum total bilirubin (TBIL). Furthermore, the abundance of was significantly negatively correlated with the level of serum TBIL and the international normalized ratio and positively correlated with prothrombin time activity. Our findings suggest that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of HBV-ACLF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.573923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056260PMC
June 2021

RTKN-1/Rhotekin shields endosome-associated F-actin from disassembly to ensure endocytic recycling.

J Cell Biol 2021 05;220(5)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Cargo sorting and the subsequent membrane carrier formation require a properly organized endosomal actin network. To better understand the actin dynamics during endocytic recycling, we performed a genetic screen in C. elegans and identified RTKN-1/Rhotekin as a requisite to sustain endosome-associated actin integrity. Loss of RTKN-1 led to a prominent decrease in actin structures and basolateral recycling defects. Furthermore, we showed that the presence of RTKN-1 thwarts the actin disassembly competence of UNC-60A/cofilin. Consistently, in RTKN-1-deficient cells, UNC-60A knockdown replenished actin structures and alleviated the recycling defects. Notably, an intramolecular interaction within RTKN-1 could mediate the formation of oligomers. Overexpression of an RTKN-1 mutant form that lacks self-binding capacity failed to restore actin structures and recycling flow in rtkn-1 mutants. Finally, we demonstrated that SDPN-1/Syndapin acts to direct the recycling endosomal dwelling of RTKN-1 and promotes actin integrity there. Taken together, these findings consolidated the role of SDPN-1 in organizing the endosomal actin network architecture and introduced RTKN-1 as a novel regulatory protein involved in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202007149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047894PMC
May 2021

High-Rate CO Electroreduction to C Products over a Copper-Copper Iodide Catalyst.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 17;60(26):14329-14333. Epub 2021 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023, China.

Electrochemical CO reduction reaction (CO RR) to multicarbon hydrocarbon and oxygenate (C ) products with high energy density and wide availability is of great importance, as it provides a promising way to achieve the renewable energy storage and close the carbon cycle. Herein we design a Cu-CuI composite catalyst with abundant Cu /Cu interfaces by physically mixing Cu nanoparticles and CuI powders. The composite catalyst achieves a remarkable C partial current density of 591 mA cm at -1.0 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode in a flow cell, substantially higher than Cu (329 mA cm ) and CuI (96 mA cm ) counterparts. Induced by alkaline electrolyte and applied potential, the Cu-CuI composite catalyst undergoes significant reconstruction under CO RR conditions. The high-rate C production over Cu-CuI is ascribed to the presence of residual Cu and adsorbed iodine species which improve CO adsorption and facilitate C-C coupling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202102657DOI Listing
June 2021

Single Living Cell Analysis Nanoplatform for High-Throughput Interrogation of Gene Mutation and Cellular Behavior.

Nano Lett 2021 06 8;21(11):4878-4886. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

The genetic heterogeneities in cancer cells pose challenges to achieving precise drug treatment in a widely applicable manner. Most single-cell gene analysis methods rely on cell lysis for gene extraction and identification, showing limited capacity to provide the correlation of genetic properties and real-time cellular behaviors. Here, we report a single living cell analysis nanoplatform that enables interrogating gene properties and drug resistance in millions of single cells. We designed a Domino-probe to identify intracellular target RNAs while releasing 10-fold amplified fluorescence signals. An on-chip addressable microwell-nanopore array was developed for enhanced electro-delivery of the Domino-probe and in situ observation of cell behaviors. The proof-of-concept of the system was validated in primary lung cancer cell samples, revealing the positive-correlation of the ratio of EGFR mutant cells with their drug susceptibilities. This platform provides a high-throughput yet precise tool for exploring the relationship between intracellular genes and cell behaviors at the single-cell level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00199DOI Listing
June 2021

Endovascular Stent Graft Treatment of Stanford Type B Aortic Dissection with Retrograde Type A Intramural Haematoma: A Multicentre Retrospective Study.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 07 30;62(1):140-141. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.02.027DOI Listing
July 2021

Low-Cost and Scalable Platform with Multiplexed Microwell Array Biochip for Rapid Diagnosis of COVID-19.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 12;2021:2813643. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center, Chengdu 610041, China.

Sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 is of great importance for inhibiting the current pandemic of COVID-19. Here, we report a simple yet efficient platform integrating a portable and low-cost custom-made detector and a novel microwell array biochip for rapid and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2. The instrument exhibits expedited amplification speed that enables colorimetric read-out within 25 minutes. A polymeric chip with a laser-engraved microwell array was developed to process the reaction between the primers and the respiratory swab RNA extracts, based on reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). To achieve clinically acceptable performance, we synthesized a group of six primers to identify the conserved regions of the ORF1ab gene of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical trials were conducted with 87 PCR-positive and 43 PCR-negative patient samples. The platform demonstrated both high sensitivity (95.40%) and high specificity (95.35%), showing potentials for rapid and user-friendly diagnosis of COVID-19 among many other infectious pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2021/2813643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982056PMC
March 2021

Ferromagnetism and optical properties of SnS doped with two impurities: first-principles calculations.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar 11;23(11):6574-6582. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Henan Key Laboratory of Materials on Deep-Earth Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan, China.

Based on the first principles of the GGA method, the magnetic and optical properties of intrinsic SnS; Fe, Cr mono-doped SnS; and (Fe, Cr) co-doped SnS are studied. The results show that the ground states of Fe, Cr mono-doped SnS are spin polarized, and the magnetic moments caused are 1.99 μ and 3.00 μ, respectively. The magnetic moment of Fe mono-doped SnS is mainly produced by Fe:3d orbitals, and the magnetic moment of Cr mono-doped SnS is mainly produced by Cr:3d and Sn:4d orbitals. We calculate that in the (Fe, Cr) co-doped SnS system, Fe, Cr and the adjacent S atoms form a strong hybrid, that is, the closest S atom between Fe and Cr atoms mediates the spin polarization and ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. This promotes the formation of a Fe:3d-S:3p-Cr:3d coupling chain, so that (Fe, Cr) co-doped SnS obtains FM stability. In addition, with the introduction of Fe and Cr atoms, the absorption coefficient is the largest in the long-wavelength infrared region of 0.23-1.63 eV. This shows that Fe and Cr doping can make up for the lack of absorption of intrinsic materials in the infrared region. In summary, Fe, Cr doped SnS dilute magnetic semiconductors may be a good candidate in the field of spintronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp06322cDOI Listing
March 2021

Micro/nanodevices for assessment and treatment in stomatology and ophthalmology.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2021 29;7:11. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA.

Micro/nanodevices have been widely applied for the real-time monitoring of intracellular activities and the delivery of exogenous substances in the past few years. This review focuses on miniaturized micro/nanodevices for assessment and treatment in stomatology and ophthalmology. We first summarize the recent progress in this field by examining the available materials and fabrication techniques, device design principles, mechanisms, and biosafety aspects of micro/nanodevices. Following a discussion of biochemical sensing technology from the cellular level to the tissue level for disease assessment, we then summarize the use of microneedles and other micro/nanodevices in the treatment of oral and ocular diseases and conditions, including oral cancer, eye wrinkles, keratitis, and infections. Along with the identified key challenges, this review concludes with future directions as a small fraction of vast opportunities, calling for joint efforts between clinicians and engineers with diverse backgrounds to help facilitate the rapid development of this burgeoning field in stomatology and ophthalmology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-021-00238-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844113PMC
January 2021

Electrochemical Tandem Fluoroalkylation-Cyclization of Vinyl Azides: Access to Trifluoroethylated and Difluoroethylated N-Heterocycles.

J Org Chem 2020 12 23;85(23):15708-15716. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

A transition-metal- and oxidant-free electrochemical strategy for radical fluoroalkylation of vinyl azides was developed. The reaction was carried out under mild conditions by using inexpensive and bench-stable RSONa (R = CF, CFH) as fluorination reagents. Depending on the starting material, both the electrochemical radical cyclization and dearomatization products could be obtained. This method provides a green and safe approach to synthesize fluorinated nitrogen heterocycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c02213DOI Listing
December 2020

Correction: Dietary riboflavin deficiency induces genomic instability of esophageal squamous cells that is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in rats.

Food Funct 2020 Dec 19;11(12):10979. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for High Cancer Incidence Coastal Chaoshan Area, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China.

Correction for 'Dietary riboflavin deficiency induces genomic instability of esophageal squamous cells that is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in rats' by Feng Pan et al., Food Funct., 2020, DOI: .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo90058cDOI Listing
December 2020

Dietary riboflavin deficiency induces genomic instability of esophageal squamous cells that is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in rats.

Food Funct 2020 Nov;11(11):10070-10083

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for High Cancer Incidence Coastal Chaoshan Area, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China.

Scope: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that riboflavin (RBF) deficiency is a specific nutritional predisposition for esophageal cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential roles of gut microbiota in esophageal tumorigenesis caused by the RBF deficiency.

Methods: Male F344 rats were subcutaneously injected with the chemical carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA, 0.35 mg kg-1). Rats were assigned to 4 groups, denoted as R6 (normal RBF, 6 mg kg-1), R6N (normal RBF combined with NMBA), R6N → R0N (normal RBF conversion to RBF-deficiency), and R0N → R6N (RBF-deficiency conversion to normal RBF). Bacterial communities were analyzed based on high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Oxidative DNA damage and double-strand break markers were studied by immunohistochemistry.

Results: The R6N → R0N diet enhanced the incidence of esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN, 40 weeks 66.7% vs. 25 weeks 16.7%, P < 0.05). RBF deficiency and replenishment modulated the gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota (e.g. Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonas and Bradyrhizobium) affected xenobiotic biodegradation and the genomic instability of the host. Furthermore, the RBF deficiency aggravated oxidative DNA damage and DNA double-strand breaks (immunohistochemistry) in the esophageal epithelium, whereas the RBF replenishment had the opposite effect (P < 0.05, respectively).

Conclusions: RBF deficiency promotes NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, which is associated with gut microbiota-associated genomic instability, and offers new insights into the role of RBF deficiency in esophageal carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01944eDOI Listing
November 2020

Filamentous Pathogens Deploy Effectors to Interfere With Bacterial Growth and Motility.

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:581511. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

comprises a group of filamentous plant pathogens that cause serious crop diseases worldwide. It is widely known that a complex effector repertoire was secreted by pathogens to manipulate plant immunity and determine resistance and susceptibility. It is also recognized that pathogens may inhabit natural niches within complex environmental microbes, including bacteria. However, how pathogens interact with their cohabited microbes remains poorly understood. Here, we present such an intriguing case by using -bacteria interaction as a working system. We found that under co-culture laboratory conditions, several pathogens appeared to block the contact of an ecologically relevant bacterium, including and a model bacterium, . We further observed that utilizes a conserved Crinkler (CRN) effector protein, PsCRN63, to impair bacterial growth. deploys another CRN effector, PcCRN173, to interfere with bacterial flagellum- and/or type IV pilus-mediated motility whereas a -derived RxLR effector, PcAvh540, inhibits bacterial swimming motility, but not twitching motility and biofilm formation, suggesting functional diversification of effector-mediated -bacteria interactions. Thus, our studies provide a first case showing that the filamentous pathogens could deploy effectors to interfere with bacterial growth and motility, revealing an unprecedented effector-mediated inter-kingdom interaction between pathogens and bacterial species and thereby uncovering ecological significance of effector proteins in filamentous plant pathogens besides their canonical roles involving pathogen-plant interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.581511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554372PMC
September 2020

Adsorption of gas molecules of CH, CO and HO on the vanadium dioxide monolayer: Computational method and model.

J Phys Condens Matter 2020 Sep 30. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan, CHINA.

Inspired by the recent use of two-dimensional nanomaterials as gas sensors, we used density functional theory calculations to study the adsorption of gas molecules (CH$_4$, CO and H$_2$O) on sandwich vanadium dioxide tablets. The results showed that of all these gases, only the CH$_4$ gas molecule was the electron acceptor with significant charge transfer on the VO$_2$ sheet. The adsorption energies of CH$_4$, CO and H$_2$O are -229.5 meV, -239.1 meV and -388.3 meV, respectively. We have also compared the adsorption energy of three different gas molecules on the VO$_2$ surface, our calculation results show that when the three kinds of gases are adsorbed on the VO$_2$ surface, the order of the surface adsorption energy is H$_2$O$>$ CO$>$ CH$_4$. It is also found that after adsorption of CH$_4$, CO and H$_2$O molecules, the electronic properties of VO$_2$ sheet changed obviously. However, due to the strong adsorption of H$_2$O molecule on VO$_2$ sheet, it is difficult to desorption, which hinders its application in gas molecular sensors. The optical properties of VO$_2$ sheet are further calculated. The absorption of CH$_4$, CO and H$_2$O molecules is introduced to red-shift the dielectric function of the thin film, which indicates that the optical properties of the thin film have changed significantly. According to the change of optical properties of VO$_2$ sheet before and after molecular adsorption, VO$_2$ can be used as a highly selective optical gas sensor for CH$_4$, CO and H$_2$O detection. These results provide a new approach for the potential application of VO$_2$ based optical gas sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abbcfaDOI Listing
September 2020

LET-502/ROCK Regulates Endocytic Recycling by Promoting Activation of RAB-5 in a Distinct Subpopulation of Sorting Endosomes.

Cell Rep 2020 09;32(12):108173

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030 Hubei, China. Electronic address:

To explore the mechanism of Rab5/RAB-5 activation during endocytic recycling, we perform a genome-wide RNAi screen and identify a recycling regulator, LET-502/ROCK. LET-502 preferentially interacts with RAB-5(GDP) and activates RABX-5 GEF activity toward RAB-5, presumably by disrupting the self-inhibiting conformation of RABX-5. Furthermore, we find that the concomitant loss of LET-502 and another CED-10 effector, TBC-2/RAB-5-GAP, results in an endosomal buildup of RAB-5, indicating that CED-10 directs TBC-2-mediated RAB-5 inactivation and re-activates RAB-5 via LET-502 afterward. Then, we compare the functional position of LET-502 with that of RME-6/RAB-5-GEF. Loss of LET-502-RABX-5 module or RME-6 leads to diminished RAB-5 presence in spatially distinct endosome groups. We conclude that in the intestine of C. elegans, RAB-5 resides in discrete endosome subpopulations. Under the oversight of CED-10, LET-502 synergizes with RABX-5 to revitalize RAB-5 on a subset of endosomes in the deep cytosol, ensuring the progress of basolateral recycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108173DOI Listing
September 2020

Enhancing CO Electroreduction to Methane with a Cobalt Phthalocyanine and Zinc-Nitrogen-Carbon Tandem Catalyst.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Dec 7;59(50):22408-22413. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023, China.

Developing copper-free catalysts for CO conversion into hydrocarbons and oxygenates is highly desirable for electrochemical CO reduction reaction (CO RR). Herein, we report a cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) and zinc-nitrogen-carbon (Zn-N-C) tandem catalyst for CO RR to CH . This tandem catalyst shows a more than 100 times enhancement of the CH /CO production rate ratio compared with CoPc or Zn-N-C alone. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electrochemical CO reduction reaction results suggest that CO is first reduced into CO over CoPc and then CO diffuses onto Zn-N-C for further conversion into CH over Zn-N site, decoupling complicated CO RR pathway on single active site into a two-step tandem reaction. Moreover, mechanistic analysis indicates that CoPc not only generates CO but also enhances the availability of *H over adjacent N sites in Zn-N , which is the key to achieve the high CH production rate and understand the intriguing electrocatalytic behavior which is distinctive to copper-based tandem catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202009191DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical Features, Risk Factors, and Prognostic Markers of Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

Indian J Dermatol 2020 Jul-Aug;65(4):274-278

Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Background: The liver and skin are the most common organs involved in Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). Drug reactions rarely affect both organs concurrently. The clinical features, risk factors, and prognostic markers of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in patients with SJS/TEN are not well studied.

Materials And Methods: The clinical features, risk factors, and prognostic markers of DILI in patients with SJS/TEN hospitalized at the dermatology department of our hospital from January 2009 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: A total of 298 patients with SJS/TEN were enrolled in this study. Of them, 40 had liver injury and the rest served as control. Causative drugs mainly included antipodagrics (xanthine oxidase inhibitors occupying 100% among antipodagrics), anticonvulsants (dibenzazepine occupying 76.92% among anticonvulsants), and traditional Chinese medicines. There was a statistically significant difference between the patients with liver injury and the control group in the history of liver disease, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia ( < 0.05). Nine of the 40 patients with liver injury died. High serum total bilirubin and creatinine levels were significantly associated with poor prognosis of DILI in patients with SJS/TEN ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: DILI usually occurs in patients with SJS/TEN. Pre-existing liver disease, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are independent risk factors for DILI in patients with SJS/TEN. High serum total bilirubin and creatinine levels may be useful prognostic markers for DILI in patients with SJS/TEN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijd.IJD_217_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7423232PMC
August 2020

Transitions of microbial communities in the solid and liquid phases during high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 3;317:123951. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

This study presents a microbiological diagnosis of a mesophilic high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) system with percolate recirculation. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in microbial diversity in both the solid digestate and the liquid percolate. Also, the digestate from the top and middle sections of the digester had similar diversity, whereas the digestate from the bottom of the tank had a slightly lower diversity. These results suggest that despite percolate recirculation, substrate gradients might have developed across the system. Archaeal communities showed shifts towards known hydrogenotrophic and ammonia-tolerant methanogens (genera Methanocelleus, Methanolinea, Methanosarcina, vadin CA11, etc.), which was a consequence of decreased volatile fatty acids and increased ammonia-nitrogen levels over time. Compared to initial solid and liquid inoculum, the relative abundances of some bacteria (phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) and archaea of the genus Methanosarcina changed between two phases in the opposite direction, indicating a shift of microbes between two phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123951DOI Listing
December 2020

Transitions of microbial communities in the solid and liquid phases during high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 3;317:123951. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

This study presents a microbiological diagnosis of a mesophilic high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) system with percolate recirculation. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in microbial diversity in both the solid digestate and the liquid percolate. Also, the digestate from the top and middle sections of the digester had similar diversity, whereas the digestate from the bottom of the tank had a slightly lower diversity. These results suggest that despite percolate recirculation, substrate gradients might have developed across the system. Archaeal communities showed shifts towards known hydrogenotrophic and ammonia-tolerant methanogens (genera Methanocelleus, Methanolinea, Methanosarcina, vadin CA11, etc.), which was a consequence of decreased volatile fatty acids and increased ammonia-nitrogen levels over time. Compared to initial solid and liquid inoculum, the relative abundances of some bacteria (phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) and archaea of the genus Methanosarcina changed between two phases in the opposite direction, indicating a shift of microbes between two phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123951DOI Listing
December 2020

Kidney manifestations of mild, moderate and severe coronavirus disease 2019: a retrospective cohort study.

Clin Kidney J 2020 Jun 9;13(3):340-346. Epub 2020 May 9.

Renal Department and Nephrology Institute, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has affected more than 3 million patients globally. Previous data from Wuhan city showed that acute kidney injury (AKI), proteinuria and hematuria occurred frequently in patients with severe COVID-19. However, the prevalence of kidney injury in milder cases remains unclear.

Methods: This retrospective study included two major consecutive cohorts of COVID-19 patients in Sichuan Province. Baseline characteristics, laboratory data including renal function, proteinuria and dipstick hematuria, and other laboratory parameters were collected. A subgroup of patients was followed up for 2-4 weeks to evaluate the short-term outcome of renal impairment.

Results: Overall, 168 COVID-19-positive patients were included in the study. The majority of patients (79.7%) were diagnosed with mild or moderate disease. Half of patients presented with fever; however, in The Tibetan cohort, fever only occurred in 13.4% of patients. On hospital admission, proteinuria and dipstick hematuria were noted in 18.4% and 17.4% of patients, respectively, while AKI only occurred in one patient. Further analysis showed that severe or critical COVID-19 was associated with higher risk of proteinuria [relative risk (RR) 7.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.45-22.18, P = 3.8 × 10] and dipstick hematuria (RR 8.30, 95% CI 2.69-25.56, P = 2.3 × 10). Proteinuria, dipstick hematuria, or the combination of proteinuria and hematuria could significantly predict severe or critical severe COVID-19.

Conclusions: Proteinuria and dipstick hematuria are not uncommon in patients with COVID-19 infection, especially in severe or critical cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfaa083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239220PMC
June 2020
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