Publications by authors named "Lin Jiang"

998 Publications

Deficiency of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase increases type 2 diabetes risk in males via autophagy dysregulation.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China Institute of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001408DOI Listing
April 2021

Non-classic splicing mutation in the CPLANE1 (C5orf42) gene cause Joubert syndrome in a fetus with severe craniocerebral dysplasia.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Mar 29:104212. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Departments of a , Gynecology and Obstetrics, b, Ultrasound Medicine, The Sixth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100048. China.

Backgroud: Joubert syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. The characteristic molar tooth sign, resulted from cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and midbrain anomalies, is expected to be the key diagnostic feature for this disease, but it is difficult to make a definite diagnosis in prenatal only based on the imageology due to its clinical heterogeneity.

Case Report: We report on a fetus, who was detected cerebellum dysplasia and encephalocele by ultrasound at 19 and 23 weeks' gestation, confirmed by MRI examination. The pregnancy was terminated at 23 weeks' gestation. The induced fetus was identified postaxial polydactyly and deficient of occipital bone and skin.

Results: The whole exome sequencing identified a novel compound heterozygous variation in the Joubert syndrome related CPLANE1 gene including a 2-bp insertion, NM_023073.3:c.1383_1384dup;p.(Gly462Glufs*3) and a non-classic splicing variation, NC_000005.10(NM_023073.3):c.7691-5_7691-4del. The pathogenicity of the non-classic splicing variation was further confirmed by cDNA level sequencing, which showed a exon 39 skipping that would introduce a premature termination. The novel compound heterozygous variation caused a completed function loss of CPLANE1 gene.

Conclusion: The cerebellum dysplasia fetus without obvious molar tooth sign was finally diagnosed as Joubert syndrome, combined with the results from genetic detecting and the postnatal clinical symptoms. We also highlight the clinical heterogeneity of encephalodysplasia in Joubert syndrome which increases the difficulty of clinical diagnosis especially for prenatal diagnosis. Our findings provides a new perspective for the prenatal diagnosis of Joubert syndrome with severe craniocerebral dysplasia and expanded the variation spectrum of CPLANE1 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104212DOI Listing
March 2021

Emerging Clues of Regulatory Roles of Circular RNAs through Modulating Oxidative Stress: Focus on Neurological and Vascular Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 1;2021:6659908. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are novel noncoding RNAs that play regulatory roles in gene expression. Dysregulation of circRNAs is associated with the development and progression of several diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, nervous system diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. CircRNAs functionally participate in cell physiological activities through various molecular mechanisms. However, these molecular mechanisms are unclear. Oxidative stress is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurological diseases. Emerging roles of circRNAs have been identified in different systems in response to oxidative stress. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of circRNA biogenesis, properties, expression profiles, and the clues indicating the regulatory roles of circRNAs through oxidative stress in various systems, especially the nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6659908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943259PMC
March 2021

Assessing the role of genome-wide DNA methylation between smoking and risk of lung cancer using repeated measurements: the HUNT study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Public Health and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: It is unclear if smoking-related DNA methylation represents a causal pathway between smoking and risk of lung cancer. We sought to identify novel smoking-related DNA methylation sites in blood, with repeated measurements, and to appraise the putative role of DNA methylation in the pathway between smoking and lung cancer development.

Methods: We derived a nested case-control study from the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), including 140 incident patients who developed lung cancer during 2009-13 and 140 controls. We profiled 850 K DNA methylation sites (Illumina Infinium EPIC array) in DNA extracted from blood that was collected in HUNT2 (1995-97) and HUNT3 (2006-08) for the same individuals. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) were performed for a detailed smoking phenotype and for lung cancer. Two-step Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to assess the potential causal effect of smoking on DNA methylation as well as of DNA methylation (13 sites as putative mediators) on risk of lung cancer.

Results: The EWAS for smoking in HUNT2 identified associations at 76 DNA methylation sites (P < 5 × 10-8), including 16 novel sites. Smoking was associated with DNA hypomethylation in a dose-response relationship among 83% of the 76 sites, which was confirmed by analyses using repeated measurements from blood that was collected at 11 years apart for the same individuals. Two-step MR analyses showed evidence for a causal effect of smoking on DNA methylation but no evidence for a causal link between DNA methylation and the risk of lung cancer.

Conclusions: DNA methylation modifications in blood did not seem to represent a causal pathway linking smoking and the lung cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab044DOI Listing
March 2021

Chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia induced by high-salt and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine intake in rats.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Apr 3;21(4):315. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to induce chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) with intestinal metaplasia (IM) in rats by administering saturated salt and methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) via oral gavage. Changes in gastric mucosal blood microcirculation and activation of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2)/hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway during CAG and IM development were investigated. After administering saturated salt and MNNG for 25 weeks, mild atrophy was detected in the stomach of model rats using hematoxylin and eosin staining. CAG with IM was successfully induced in the gastric mucosa of the model rats after 35 weeks. Gastric mucosal blood flow was decreased in comparison with controls as early as 15 weeks after treatment to induce CAG and the mRNA expression levels of COX-2, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)1 and VEGFR2 were increased in comparison with untreated rats as early as 25 weeks after treatment. HIF-1α, COX-2 and VEGFR2 expression levels were increased as early as 25 weeks after CAG induction treatment when compared to controls and HIF-1α, COX-2, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression levels were significantly increased after 35 weeks. These findings indicated that administering saturated salt and MNNG by gavage for 35 weeks successfully induced CAG and IM in rats. Furthermore, the microcirculation was disturbed before activation of the COX-2/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885066PMC
April 2021

Enhancement of sludge dewaterability by a magnetic field combined with coagulation/flocculation: a comparative study on municipal and citric acid-processing waste-activated sludge.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu Province, China.

The difficulties in dewatering waste-activated sludge (WAS) using mechanical devices have caused great problems in sludge transportation and disposal. Herein, coagulation and flocculation are combined with the use of a magnetic field as a clean and low-energy physical treatment method to enhance the dewaterability of municipal and citric acid-processing WAS. It is shown that the use of the magnetic field had a significant effect on the capillary suction time (CST) of municipal WAS but not on the specific resistance filtration (SRF) and CST of the citric acid WAS. The differences in the magnetic field effects were due to differences in the sludge properties. For municipal WAS, the particle size decreased, the zeta potential remained unchanged, and the viscosity decreased, whereas in the citric acid WAS, the particle size increased, the absolute value of the zeta potential decreased, and the viscosity increased. In addition, these effects were also confirmed with studies of the water state and micro-morphology analyses. It is shown that the acidification of the municipal WAS and coagulation of citric acid WAS were likely the reasons for the enhancement of their dewaterability, respectively. This study confirmed that the use of a magnetic field combined with coagulation/flocculation may serve as an effective sludge conditioning method; however, the treatment conditions may vary with the sludge type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13278-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of selenium on thyroid autoimmunity and regulatory T cells in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A prospective randomized-controlled trial.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in human. Recent studies of Se supplementation on the effect of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) have been reported, but the exact benefit is unclear as well as the underlying immunologic mechanism. We aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of Se supplement in patients with HT, and explore the potential mechanism against thyroid autoimmunity. A prospective, randomized-controlled study was performed in patients with HT assigned to two groups. Se-treated group (n = 43) received selenious yeast tablet (SYT) for 6 months, whereas no treatment in control group (n = 47). The primary outcome is the change of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) or thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb). Second, thyroid function, urinary iodine, Se, Glutathione peroxidase3 (GPx3), and Selenoprotein P1 (SePP1) levels were measured during the SYT treatment. Meanwhile, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their subsets activated Tregs (aTregs), resting Tregs, and secreting Tregs, as well as Helios and PD-1 expression on these cells were also detected. The results showed that SYT treatment significantly decreased TPOAb, TGAb, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, accompanied with the increased Se, GPx3, and SePP1, compared with the control group. Subgroup analysis revealed that subclinical HT may benefit more from this treatment in the decrease of TSH levels by interaction test. Moreover, the percentage of aTregs, Helios/Tregs, and Helios/aTregs were significantly higher in the Se-treated group than control. In conclusion, Se supplementation may have a beneficial effect on thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid function by increasing the antioxidant activity and upregulating the activated Treg cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12993DOI Listing
March 2021

A comprehensive review of edible bird's nest.

Food Res Int 2021 Feb 3;140:109875. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Edible bird's nest (EBN) is built by seven species of Aerodramus and Collocalia (Apodidae), using salivary gland secretion mixed with feathers or grass during the breeding. Its rich nutritional values such as anti-aging activity, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity make consumers flock to it. Consumers' pursuit, on the one hand, aroused the arrogance of counterfeiters, which eventually leads to food safety problems. On the other hand, it promotes the in-depth studies of EBN in all aspects, such as compositions, biological activities, authenticity identification, quality control, and so on. This paper presented the origins and classifications of EBN and the current situation of EBN industry in detail; reviewed the nutritional compositions, pharmacological actions, identification, inspection and content determination of EBN comprehensively; and prospected the future research directions to provide suggestions for the further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109875DOI Listing
February 2021

Asthma and asthma symptom control in relation to incidence of lung cancer in the HUNT study.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 25;11(1):4539. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Postbox 8905, MTFS, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway.

Large prospective studies on asthma, especially asthma symptom control, as a potential risk factor for lung cancer are limited. We followed up 62,791 cancer-free Norwegian adults from 1995-1997 to 2017. Self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma was categorized into active and non-active asthma. Levels of asthma symptom control were classified into controlled and partially controlled (including partly controlled and uncontrolled) according to the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. Incident lung cancer cases were ascertained from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for possible associations. Totally, 984 participants developed lung cancer during a median follow-up of 21.1 years. After adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders, an increased incidence of lung cancer was found for adults with partially controlled asthma (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.00-1.92) compared with those without asthma at baseline. Adults with active asthma had a tendency of increased lung cancer incidence (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.95-1.75). Sensitivity analyses indicated that the observed associations were less likely resulted from reverse causation or residual confounding by smoking. Our findings suggested that proper control of asthma symptoms might contribute to a reduced incidence of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84012-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907333PMC
February 2021

Identification of key genes in sheep fat tail evolution Based on RNA-seq.

Gene 2021 May 23;781:145492. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

College of Animal Science, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China. Electronic address:

Fat tail is one of the most important domesticated characteristics in sheep; however its molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here we took small-tailed F2 hybrid of wild Argali sheep and typical fat-tailed Bashby sheep as research object. First, histological analysis revealed that the mean diameter and area in tail and subcutaneous fat cells, and surface density in tail fat in Bashby sheep were significantly larger than that in F2 sheep, and surface density of fat in subcutaneous fat in Bashby sheep was significantly lower than that in F2 sheep. Second, 873 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of tail fat between Bashby and F2 sheep were identified by RNA-seq. Third, the tissue expression profile and relative expression difference between Bashby and F2 sheep of 7 of 873 DEGs were analyzed by RT-PCR. SCD, ESR1, EMR1, PHYH, STAT3 and GPAM genes were highly expressed in fat, muscle and liver, and ALDH1A1 were highly expressed in small intestine. In addition, the expressions of SCD, PHYH and CPAM genes in tail fat of F2 sheep were lower than that of Bashby sheep, while the expression patterns of ESR1 and EMR1 were reversed. Our findings will not only help understand molecular mechanism of fat tail, but also provide theoretical material in sheep evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145492DOI Listing
May 2021

Serum complement 3 is a potential biomarker for assessing disease activity in Takayasu arteritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 02 24;23(1):63. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Rheumatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a rare disease, lacking convenient and feasible biomarkers to identify disease activity. We aimed to evaluate the value of complements in distinguishing active TA.

Methods: Consecutive patients were enrolled from the prospective East China TA cohort from April 2008 to June 2019. Patients were divided into two groups according to their baseline Kerr score. The value of complements and other biomarkers in identifying disease activity were analysed with cluster analysis, ROC curves, and combined tests. An independent group of patients from July 2019 to December 2019 were employed to validate the results.

Results: Of the enrolled 519 patients, 406 (72.2%) cases were identified as active disease. Higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and complement 3 (C3) levels were observed in the active group. Elevated C3 (≥ 1.085 g/L) had a high value to identify active TA with a sensitivity of 69.9%, specificity of 66.7%, and AUC of 0.715. Combining the CRP (≥ 10.65 g/L; sensitivity, 50.7%; specificity, 82.4%) and C3, the sensitivity could be improved to 85.1% in parallel test and the specificity could be improved to 94.1% in serial test. Validation was further performed to confirm the value of C3 for disease activity assessment. The accuracy of the parallel test of CRP and C3 in external validation with independent 53 TA cases was 72.73% with the AUC of 0.721.

Conclusion: Elevated C3 could effectively evaluate the disease activity of TA, and C3 combining with CRP could further improve the disease activity evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-021-02433-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903686PMC
February 2021

Neural Mechanism of Affective Perception: Evidence from Phase and Causality Analysis in the Cerebral Cortex.

Neuroscience 2021 Feb 17;461:44-56. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Henan Key Laboratory of Imaging and Intelligent Processing, PLA Strategy Support Force Information Engineering University, Zheng Zhou 450001, China; The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China. Electronic address:

Emotion plays an important role in people's lives. However, the neural mechanism of affective perception is still unclear. In this study, steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) were used to explore information processing speed and interactions among cortical structures involved in affective perception. Pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System were presented either in intact or phase-scrambled form at a fixed frequency, where the induced SSVEPs could be used as a frequency marker of brain activity with high temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Source estimation methods were used to reconstruct the cortical signals. The information processing of affective images was studied by phase and causal connection analysis in the cortical space to investigate the information processing speed of the local brain region and the dynamic interactions across brain regions. Experimental results showed that affective and semantic perception was accompanied by the acceleration of information processing speed in the ventral pathway. Unpleasant emotions had the fastest information processing speed in the ventral stream compared with pleasant and neutral emotions, including the middle occipital gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus, with a right hemisphere bias. In addition, unpleasant emotions were stronger than pleasant emotions in long-term causal connections in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the direction was from the right hemisphere to the left hemisphere. These results provide unique insights into the cortical activities for affective perception and support the view that unpleasant emotions have priority in information perception in the middle temporal gyrus compared with pleasant and neutral emotions, with a right hemisphere bias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.02.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Electrochemical synthesis of versatile ammonium oxides under metal catalyst-, exogenous-oxidant-, and exogenous-electrolyte-free conditions.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Mar;57(22):2768-2771

National Research Center for Carbohydrate Synthesis, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, P. R. China. and College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies (IAS), Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China.

An electrochemical oxidative cross-coupling reaction between 2.5-substituted-pyrazolin-5-ones and ammonium thiocyanate has been developed, which resulted in a series of unprecedented cross-coupling products under metal catalyst-, exogenous-oxidant-, and exogenous-electrolyte-free conditions. It is worth noting that since the resulting cross-coupling products are nearly insoluble in MeCN, the pure product could be afforded without silica gel column purification. In addition, the prepared ammonium oxides are versatile building blocks for synthesizing functionalized pyrazole derivatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00486gDOI Listing
March 2021

Pulmonary findings on high-resolution computed tomography in Takayasu arteritis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Rheumatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: This study aimed to describe pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in Takayasu arteritis (TA) and to determine possible causes.

Methods: A total of 243 TA patients were enrolled from a prospective cohort after excluding patients with other pulmonary disorders or incomplete data. Patients were divided into two groups: those with normal lung HRCT and those with abnormal lung HRCT. Clinical characteristics were compared between groups and binary logistic regression analysis was applied to identify possible causes of the lung lesions. Follow-up HRCT (obtained in 64 patients) was analysed to study changes in pulmonary lesions after treatment.

Results: Of the 243 patients, 107 (44.0%) had normal lung HRCT while 136 (56.0%) had abnormal lung HRCT, including stripe opacity (60.3%), nodules (44.9%), patchy opacity (25.0%), pleural thickening (15.4%), pleural effusion (10.3%), ground-glass opacity (8.1%), pulmonary infarction (6.6%), mosaic attenuation (4.4%), bronchiectasis (3.7%), and pulmonary oedema (2.2%). Patients with abnormal HRCT were significantly more likely to have type II arterial involvement (25% vs. 12.2%, P = 0.04), pulmonary arterial involvement (PAI; 21.3% vs. 5.6%, P < 0.001), pulmonary hypertension (20.6% vs. 8.4%, P = 0.01), and abnormal heart function (27.9% vs. 7.6%, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that PAI, worsened heart function, and age were associated with presence of pulmonary lesions. Pulmonary infarction, pleural effusion, and patchy opacities improved partially after treatment.

Conclusion: Pulmonary lesions are not rare in patients with TA. Age, PAI, and worsened heart function are potential risk factors for presence of pulmonary lesions in TA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keab163DOI Listing
February 2021

Detection of mural inflammation with low b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with active Takayasu Arteritis.

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of low b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflamed vessels in active Takayasu arteritis (TA).

Methods: Forty patients with active TA involving the thoracic aorta and its super-aortic branches underwent low b-value (50 s/mm) DWI, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and delayed enhancement T1-weighted imaging (DEI). Corresponding images on these 3 sequences at the same diseased level were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis test, and the agreement between them in detection of inflamed vessels was assessed using Cochran's Q test.

Results: The overall image quality of DEI, DWI, and T2WI was scored 7.97 ± 1.15, 7.32 ± 1.73, and 6.51 ± 1.69 respectively. The score of DEI and DWI was higher than that of T2WI (p < 0.001). The quality of blood suppression was rated higher in DWI than T2WI and DEI (p < 0.001). Both the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the diseased vessel walls measured on DEI and DWI were significantly higher than those on T2WI (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in SNR and CNR between DEI and DWI (p = 0.283 and 0.063). In detection of mural inflammation, significant advantage was observed when comparing the findings from DEI/DWI to those from T2WI (p < 0.001). But no significant difference was found between the findings of DWI and DEI (p > 0.99).

Conclusions: Low b-value DWI may be used as a promising alternative to DEI for detecting inflamed vessels in active TA.

Key Points: • Currently, the most widely used imaging modality in detection of mural inflammation is contrast-enhanced MRI. • Low b-value DWI is shown comparable to contrast-enhanced MRI and superior to T2WI in identifying mural inflammation in patients with active Takayasu arteritis. • Low b-value DWI is a fast and unenhanced MRI technique which may potentially replace contrast-enhanced MRI in identifying disease activity of Takayasu arteritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07725-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Robust Delay-Dependent Load Frequency Control of Wind Power System Based on a Novel Reconstructed Model.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Feb 10;PP. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

This article presents a novel reconstructed model for the delayed load frequency control (LFC) schemes considering wind power, which aims to improve the computational efficiency for PID controllers while retaining their dynamic performance. Via fully exploiting system states influenced by time delays directly, this novel reconstructed method is proposed with a controller isolated. Hence, when the PID controllers are unknown, the stability criterion based on this model can resolve controller gains with less time consumed. For given PID gains, this model can be employed to establish criteria for stability analysis, which can realize the tradeoff between the calculation accuracy and efficiency. The case study is first based on a two-area traditional LFC system to validate the merits of a novel reconstructed model, including accurately estimating the influence of time delay on system frequency stability with increased computational capability. Then, under traditional and deregulated environments, case studies are carried out on the two-area and three-area schemes, respectively. Through the novel reconstructed model, the efficiency of obtaining controller parameters is highly improved while their robustness against the random wind power, tie-line power changes, inertial reductions, and time delays remains almost unchanged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3051160DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinicopathological factors affecting the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Feb 9;19(1):44. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujin, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an important part of the comprehensive treatment of advanced gastric cancer (GC). The effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plays a key role in the prognosis of GC patients. Pathological response can represent the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, evidence focused on pathological response and associated clinicopathological factors in GC patients is quite little. In this retrospective study, the clinicopathological factors affecting the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in GC patients were investigated, and suggestions were proposed to improve the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on GC.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on GC patients who received radical surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy from February 2016 to December 2019 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Relevant clinicopathological data was collected to analyze the factors influencing the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to determine the cutoff value of variables which significantly influenced the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Results: A total of 203 GC patients were included in the study. Analyses showed that patients < 60 years old (OR = 1.840 [1.016-3.332], P = 0.044), histological type of poor differentiation or signet-ring cell carcinoma (OR = 2.606 [1.321-5.140], P = 0.006), and weight loss during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR = 2.110 [1.161-3.834], P = 0.014) were independent risk factors for neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect. In ROC analysis of weight change and neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect, area under the curve (AUC) was 0.593 (P = 0.024) and cutoff value of weight change was - 2.95%. Chi-square test showed that patients without weight loss during neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a higher rate of oral nutritional supplement (ONS) than patients with weight loss (P = 0.039).

Conclusions: Patients <60 years old, histological type of poor differentiation or signet-ring cell carcinoma, and weight loss during neoadjuvant chemotherapy were independent risk factors for neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect in GC patients. Patients with weight loss > 2.95% during neoadjuvant may have a worse chemotherapy effect. Timely nutritional support such as ONS to maintain patients' body weight is crucial for improving the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-021-02157-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874458PMC
February 2021

Gastrointestinal disturbance and effect of fecal microbiota transplantation in discharged COVID-19 patients.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Feb 8;15(1):60. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Laboratory Center, The Affiliated People's Hospital of Jiangsu University, 8 Dianlilu, Zhenjiang, 212000, People's Republic of China.

Background: To investigate the potential beneficial effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on gastrointestinal symptoms, gut dysbiosis and immune status in discharged COVID-19 patients.

Case Presentation: A total of 11 COVID-19 patients were recruited in April, 2020, about one month on average after they were discharged from the hospital. All subjects received FMT for 4 consecutive days by oral capsule administrations with 10 capsules for each day. In total, 5 out of 11 patients reported to be suffered from gastrointestinal symptoms, which were improved after FMT. After FMT, alterations of B cells were observed, which was characterized as decreased naive B cell (P = 0.012) and increased memory B cells (P = 0.001) and non-switched B cells (P = 0.012).The microbial community richness indicated by operational taxonomic units number, observed species and Chao1 estimator was marginally increased after FMT. Gut microbiome composition of discharged COVID-19 patients differed from that of the general population at both phylum and genera level, which was characterized with a lower proportion of Firmicutes (41.0%) and Actinobacteria (4.0%), higher proportion of Bacteroidetes (42.9%) and Proteobacteria (9.2%). FMT can partially restore the gut dysbiosis by increasing the relative abundance of Actinobacteria (15.0%) and reducing Proteobacteria (2.8%) at the phylum level. At the genera level, Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium had significantly increased after FMT.

Conclusions: After FMT, altered peripheral lymphocyte subset, restored gut microbiota and alleviated gastrointestinal disorders were observe, suggesting that FMT may serve as a potential therapeutic and rehabilitative intervention for the COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-020-02583-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868905PMC
February 2021

Impact of body composition on clinical outcomes in people with gastric cancer undergoing radical gastrectomy after neoadjuvant treatment.

Nutrition 2021 May 5;85:111135. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The influence of body composition on clinical outcomes in individuals with gastric cancer (GC) undergoing radical gastrectomy after neoadjuvant treatment (NT) remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the association between body composition before NT or after NT and clinical outcomes in individuals with GC receiving multimodal treatments.

Methods: This retrospective study included individuals with GC who received NT followed by radical gastrectomy between January 2016 and December 2018. Skeletal muscle, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured by cross-sectional areas at the level of third lumbar vertebra based on single-slice computed tomography scan prior to NT and prior to the surgical operation. Sarcopenia, high VAT, and high SAT were defined using cutoff points of skeletal muscle index, visceral fat area, and subcutaneous fat area. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors of NT-related adverse events, postoperative complications and predictors of long-term survival.

Results: A total of 110 individuals with GC were enrolled in this study. Sarcopenia was present in 62.7% of them before NT and in 56.4% after NT. Sarcopenia before NT was associated with more NT-related adverse events (odds ratio, 2.901; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.205-6.983; P = 0.018). High VAT after NT (≥106 cm) was associated with an increasing incidence of postoperative complications (odds ratio, 4.261; 95% CI, 1.332-13.632; P = 0.015). No body-composition parameter was relevant to tumor pathologic response to NT. As for long-term survival, poor overall survival was associated with both low VAT before NT (<120 cm; hazard ratio [HR], 2.542; 95% CI, 1.111-5.817; P = 0.027) and low SAT after NT (<99.5 cm; HR, 2.743; 95% CI, 1.248-6.027; P = 0.012). Similarly, shorter disease-free survival was associated with low VAT before NT (<120 cm; HR, 2.502; 95% CI, 1.222-5.124; P = 0.012) and low VAT after NT (<106 cm; HR, 2.505; 95% CI, 1.172-5.358; P = 0.018).

Conclusions: Body composition measured by computed tomography could predict NT-related adverse events, postoperative complications, and long-term survival in multimodal treatments for GC. More meaningfully, adipose-tissue status has significant prognostic value for individuals with advanced GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111135DOI Listing
May 2021

Radiation-Induced Sarcoma of the Head and Neck Following Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Single Institutional Experience and Literature Review.

Front Oncol 2020 21;10:526360. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Basic Medical Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Cancer Hospital of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

Background And Objective: Radiotherapy (RT) is the primary treatment option for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but it is associated with radiation-induced sarcomas (RISs). This study aims to investigate clinicopathological features and head and neck RIS prognosis after NPC RT.

Methods: The medical and radiological records of the NPC patients (n =14,074) referred to Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hang Zhou, China between January 1995 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 22 patients were determined to have RIS after RT for NPC. The clinicopathological data, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up results of 22 patients with RIS were analyzed in this retrospective research. All 22 patients underwent surgery as the main treatment. The levels of Overall Survival (OS) were determined through the Log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Among these patients, 13 were males and nine females with the male/female ratio of 1.44:1. The age during the primary RT of NPC ranged from 25 to 61 years old (median age: 37 years old). Patients' ages ranged from 33 to 73 years old (median age: 52.5 years old) when diagnosed with RIS. The latency period for development of the RIS was between 3 and 36 years (median: 8.5 years) after RT. In this cohort, R0 resection was achieved in 13 cases, R1 resection in five cases, and R2 resection in four cases. During the follow-up period ranged from 2 to 102 months (median 14 months), 15 patients had died of the disease. Kaplan-Meier method showed that the 2-year, 3-year, and the 5-year cumulative OS rate was 50.3, 43.2, and 14.4%, respectively. The median survival time was 34 months. Surgical resection with R0 resection achieves a significantly better prognosis (P = 0.012). Patients under the age of 37 years old at the time of initial RT had a relatively better prognosis (P = 0.035).

Conclusions: Although the incidence of RIS after RT of NPC is generally low, the treatment of RIS is very difficult. The RISs are associated with poor overall prognosis. R0 resection can improve the prognosis thus it should be considered as the primary and optimal choice for the treatment of RIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.526360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858657PMC
January 2021

Blockade of Spinal EphA4 Reduces Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice.

Neurol Res 2021 Feb 4:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, Taizhou People's Hospital , Taizhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

: Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Ephs) receptor and their ligands, ephrins, orchestrate the induction of cell proliferation and migration, axonal guidance, synaptic genesis and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Previous studies demonstrated that EphBs/ephrinBs participate in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain and bone cancer pain, but the role of EphA4 in the regulation of pain in the spinal cord is unknown. Therefore, we explored the role of EphA4 receptor in regulating chronic inflammatory pain. We established a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain through plantar injection of complete freund's adjuvant (CFA) and assessed EphA4 expression in spinal cord by western blotting. EphA4 receptor was blocked by intrathecal injection of EphA4-Fc, an EphA4 antagonist, and pain behaviors were measured by assessing thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Finally, immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the changes in the expression of Fos protein in spinal cord after blocking EphA4 receptor. Plantar injection of CFA produced persistent thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, which was accompanied by significant increases in spinal EphA4 and Fos expression. Blocking spinal EphA4 receptor suppressed CFA-induced pain behaviors and reduced the expression of Fos protein in spinal cord. Our study demonstrated that EphA4 receptor is involved in the generation and maintenance of CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain and that blocking the spinal EphA4 receptor could relieve persistent pain behaviors in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2021.1884798DOI Listing
February 2021

The positive effects of running exercise on hippocampal astrocytes in a rat model of depression.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Feb 1;11(1):83. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Medical University, 400016, Chongqing, P. R. China.

Running exercise has been shown to alleviate depressive symptoms, but the mechanism of its antidepressant effect is still unclear. Astrocytes are the predominant cell type in the brain and perform key functions vital to central nervous system (CNS) physiology. Mounting evidence suggests that changes in astrocyte number in the hippocampus are closely associated with depression. However, the effects of running exercise on astrocytes in the hippocampus of depression have not been investigated. Here, adult male rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 5 weeks followed by treadmill running for 6 weeks. The sucrose preference test (SPT) was used to assess anhedonia of rats. Then, immunohistochemistry and modern stereological methods were used to precisely quantify the total number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytes in each hippocampal subregion, and immunofluorescence was used to quantify the density of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and GFAP cells in each hippocampal subregion. We found that running exercise alleviated CUS-induced deficit in sucrose preference and hippocampal volume decline, and that CUS intervention significantly reduced the number of GFAP cells and the density of BrdU/GFAP cells in the hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus (DG), while 6 weeks of running exercise reversed these decreases. These results further confirmed that running exercise alleviates depressive symptoms and protects hippocampal astrocytes in depressed rats. These findings suggested that the positive effects of running exercise on astrocytes and the generation of new astrocytes in the hippocampus might be important structural bases for the antidepressant effects of running exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01216-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851162PMC
February 2021

Contrast Induced Nephropathy and 2-Year Outcomes of Iso-Osmolar Compared with Low-Osmolar Contrast Media after Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Korean Circ J 2021 Feb;51(2):174-181

Department of Cardiology, The State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background And Objectives: This study investigated the relative incidence of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) and long-term outcomes between iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) and low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: A total of 9,431 patients receiving elective PCI were enrolled in the cohort. The patients were divided into IOCM group and LOCM group. Propensity score matching (PSM) was applied to minimize the selection bias between groups.

Results: The multivariate analysis showed that the use of IOCM compared with LOCM did not affect the CIN incidence (odds ratio [OR], 0.912; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.576-1.446; p=0.696). After PSM, the incidence of CIN was 1.5% and 4.0% in IOCM group (n=979) and LOCM group (n=979), respectively, p=0.001. IOCM significantly reduced the incidence of CIN compared with LOCM (OR, 0.393; 95% CI, 0.214-0.722; p=0.003). After 2 years of follow-up, the all-cause mortality was higher in IOCM group than LOCM group (2.1% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001). Cox regression analysis showed IOCM was not independent risk factor of 2-years all-cause mortality (OR, 0.849; 95% CI, 0.510-1.412; p=0.528). After PSM, the difference of all-cause death between groups disappeared (1.7% vs. 1.9%, p=0.739). Cox regression analysis showed that the use of IOCM compared with LOCM did not affect the incidence of 2-year all-cause mortality (OR, 1.037; 95% CI, 0.534-2.014; p=0.915).

Conclusions: Compared with LOCM, IOCM significantly reduced the incidence of CIN after elective PCI, but had no significant effect on 2-year all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853897PMC
February 2021

Fluoxetine Promotes Hippocampal Oligodendrocyte Maturation and Delays Learning and Memory Decline in APP/PS1 Mice.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 13;12:627362. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Oligodendrogenesis dysfunction impairs memory consolidation in adult mice, and an oligodendrocyte abnormality is an important change occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While fluoxetine (FLX) is known to delay memory decline in AD models, its effects on hippocampal oligodendrogenesis are unclear. Here, we subjected 8-month-old male amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) mice to the FLX intervention for 2 months. Their exploratory behaviors and general activities in a novel environment, spatial learning and memory and working and reference memory were assessed using the open-field test, Morris water maze, and Y maze. Furthermore, changes in hippocampal oligodendrogenesis were investigated using stereology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blotting techniques. FLX delayed declines in the spatial learning and memory, as well as the working and reference memory of APP/PS1 mice. In addition, APP/PS1 mice exhibited immature hippocampal oligodendrogenesis, and FLX increased the numbers of 2'3'cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and newborn CNPase oligodendrocytes in the hippocampi of APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, FLX increased the density of SRY-related HMG-box 10 protein (SOX10) cells and reduced the percentage of oligodendrocyte lineage cells displaying the senescence phenotype (CDKN2A/p16INK4a) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, FLX had no effect on the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) content or number of 5-HT1AR oligodendrocytes, but it reduced the content and activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Taken together, FLX delays the senescence of oligodendrocyte lineage cells and promotes oligodendrocyte maturation in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. FLX may regulate GSK3β through a mechanism other than 5-HT1AR and then inhibit the negative effect of GSK3β on oligodendrocyte maturation in the hippocampus of an AD mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.627362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838348PMC
January 2021

Application of Rough Ant Colony Algorithm in Adolescent Psychology.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 14;2021:6636150. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

With the rapid development of big data, big data research in the security protection industry has been increasingly regarded as a hot spot. This article mainly aims at solving the problem of predicting the tendency of juvenile delinquency based on the experimental data of juvenile blindly following psychological crime. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a rough ant colony classification algorithm, referred to as RoughAC, which first uses the concept of upper and lower approximate sets in rough sets to determine the degree of membership. In addition, in the ant colony algorithm, we use the membership value to update the pheromone. Experiments show that the algorithm can not only solve the premature convergence problem caused by stagnation near the local optimal solution but also solve the continuous domain and combinatorial optimization problems and achieve better classification results. Moreover, the algorithm has a good effect on predicting classification and can provide guidance for predicting the tendency of juvenile delinquency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6636150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822700PMC
January 2021

Progress on genetic mapping and genetic mechanism of cattle and sheep horns.

Yi Chuan 2021 Jan;43(1):40-51

Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing 100193, China.

Horns are cranial appendages, which are unique in ruminants. Cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep (Ovis aries) cranial appendages exhibit various forms of morphology, including wild-type two-horn phenotype, polled phenotype and scur phenotype. These animals provide an ideal model for studies on the underlying relationship between quality and quantitative traits of cattle and sheep horn and the molecular mechanisms of horn phenotype as a polygenic regulation for quality traits. In recent years, some research progresses of cattle and sheep horns are successively reported, which helps us better understand the evolutionary origin of new organ, the effects of natural selection, sex selection and artificial selection on horn phenotypes. In this review, we introduce in details the recent advances on the research of horn traits in cattle and sheep, and summarize the genetic mapping of multi-horned phenotypes, the genetic mapping of polled locus, and studies on scur phenotype. Moreover, we discuss potential problems in such research, thereby providing a reference for investigation on the genetic mechanisms of horn traits in ruminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.20-229DOI Listing
January 2021

Predictors of Ipsilateral New Ischemic Lesions on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging after Carotid Artery Stenting in Asymptomatic Patients: A Retrospective Observational Study with Conventional Multicontrast MRI.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Institute of Vascular Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the independent risk factors for ipsilateral new ischemic lesions (NILs) during carotid artery stenting (CAS).

Methods: In patients treated with CAS, the association between postoperative ipsilateral NILs on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and patient demographics, intraoperative factors, the presence of plaque components, the semiquantitative grading of component size on multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Ipsilateral NILs on DWI were detected in 85 (39.2%) patients. The debris was observed on the surface embolic protection devices in 70.97% of patients. Univariate analysis showed that different stages of intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) (along with lipid-rich necrotic core [LRNC]) (P < 0.001), size of IPH (P < 0.001), calcification (CA) (P = 0.045), and LRNC (without IPH) (P < 0.001) as well as postdilation (P < 0.001)), stent type (P = 0.001), and aortic arch ulcer (P = 0.004) were associated with postoperative ipsilateral NILs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the acute and recent IPH (along with LRNC) (odds ratio [OR]: 5.77, P < 0.002 and OR: 28.66, P < 0.001, respectively), LRNC size in Grade 2 (OR: 6.10, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for ipsilateral NILs. Aortic arch ulcer (OR: 3.44, P = 0.002), postdilation (OR: 4.72, P = 0.04) and open cell stent (OR: 2.88, P < 0.016) were also significantly related to ipsilateral NILs on DWI after CAS. There was a significant correlation between IPH at different stages and their grade of size (correlation coefficient: 0.89; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The IPH and larger LRNC along with the aortic arch ulcer, postdilation and open cell stent are associated with increased risk of ipsilateral NILs on DWI after CAS procedure. Preoperative staging of IPH and semiquantitative grading of size of plaque components based on multi-contrast MRI may be useful for predicting ipsilateral cerebral ischemic events after CAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.12.022DOI Listing
January 2021

Eff ects of metabolic syndrome on onset age and long-term outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

World J Emerg Med 2021 ;12(1):36-41

Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China.

Background: We aim to investigate effects of metabolic syndrome on onset age and long-term outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods: Patients with ACS (=6,431) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from January to December 2013 were enrolled. After excluding patients with previous coronary artery disease, 1,558 patients were diagnosed with early-onset ACS (men aged ≤50 years; women aged ≤60 years) and 3,044 patients with late-onset ACS. Baseline characteristics and five-year clinical outcomes were measured.

Results: Body mass index, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and uric acid concentrations were significantly higher, while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration was lower in the early-onset ACS group (<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression revealed obesity (odds ratio [] 1.590, 95% confidence interval [] 1.345-1.881), hypertriglyceridemia ( 1.403, 95% 1.185-1.660), and low HDL-C ( 1.464, 95% 1.231-1.742) as independent risk factors for early-onset ACS (all <0.001). The five-year follow-up showed that the incidences of all cause death (1.5% vs. 3.8%, <0.001), cardiac death (1.1% vs. 2.0%, =0.023), and recurrent stroke (2.2% vs. 4.2%, <0.001) were lower, while bleeding events were more frequent in the early-onset ACS group. A subgroup analysis showed higher incidences of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) and revascularization in patients with early-onset ACS and metabolic syndrome.

Conclusions: Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and lower HDL-C level are independent risk factors for early-onset ACS, recurrent MI, and revascularization. The control of metabolic syndrome may reduce the incidence of early-onset ACS and improve the long-term prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2021.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790713PMC
January 2021

Effect of hydroxychloroquine on angiographic progression in routine treatment of Takayasu arteritis.

Mod Rheumatol 2021 Jan 26:1-17. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Rheumatology, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an anti-malarial drug, is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. However, the benefits of HCQ in the treatment of Takayasu arteritis (TA) remain unclear, especially in terms of alleviation of vascular progression.

Methods: This longitudinal observational retrospective study was based on the East China TA cohort. Patients received routine treatment with prednisone and immunosuppressants. Fifty TA patients who underwent magnetic resonance angiography two times within a 1.5-year follow-up period of monitoring vascular changes were divided into HCQ and non-HCQ groups according to whether HCQ was prescribed. Changes in angiographic features were compared. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was employed to further validate the results.

Results: Of 50 TA patients, 21 were prescribed HCQ. The two groups shared a similar disease course, vascular types, prednisone with immunosuppressants intervention strategy, globin level, and disease remission rate at 6 months. The HCQ group showed greater reduction in the inflammatory indices erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein (CRP) level ( < .05), and a significantly lower incidence of angiographic progression than the non-HCQ group (19.0% vs. 51.7%,  = .035). After adjustment for age and usage of tocilizumab, angiographic progression was found to be independently associated with CRP (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], HR [95% CI]: 1.102 [1.000-1.024],  = .046), and the usage of HCQ (HR [95% CI]: 0.266 [0.075-0.940],  = .040).

Conclusions: HCQ enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of routine treatment strategies with prednisone and immunosuppressants, and alleviated angiographic progression in TA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14397595.2021.1879347DOI Listing
January 2021

Magnetite drives self-dechlorination of 4-chlorophenol in anoxic aquatic sediments.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 18;273:129668. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China. Electronic address:

The lack of available electron donors is well known as a major factor limiting the efficiency of microbial dechlorination of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) in anoxic aquatic sediments. Considering that Fe(III) minerals largely contained in sediments can especially enrich Fe(III)-reducing bacteria and unlock the ring-like intermediates produced by dechlorination of 4-CP via dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction, a strategy of self-dechlorination of 4-CP utilizing its metabolism intermediates such as short-fatty acids (SCFAs) as the endogenous electron donors with magnetite was proposed in this study. The results showed that the removal efficiency of 4-CP increased by 156-203% in magnetite-supplemented biotic groups compared with the magnetite-free biotic group. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) and gas chromatography (GC) revealed the possible metabolic pathway of anoxic 4-CP degradation with magnetite: 4-CP→phenol→cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid→2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid→hexanoic acid/valeric acid→butyric/propionic acids→CO. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that the abundance of functional bacteria, Desulfuromonas, Pseudomonas and Bacillus species, were increased by 1.38-1.97, 1.50-2.04, and 11.60-17.18 folds in magnetite-supplemented biotic groups, compared with the magnetite-free biotic groups. Analysis of Fe concentration and cyclic voltammetry (CV) suggested that the potential Fe(III)/Fe(II) transformation occurred and proceeded the anoxic 4-CP degradation continuously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129668DOI Listing
January 2021