Publications by authors named "Liming Liu"

363 Publications

Evidence of band filling in PbS colloidal quantum dot square superstructures.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 10;13(33):14001-14007. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.

PbS square superstructures are formed by the oriented assembly of PbS quantum dots (QDs), reflecting the facet structures of each QD. In the square assembly, the quantum dots are highly oriented, in sharp contrast to the conventional hexagonal QD assemblies, in which the orientation of QDs is highly disordered, and each QD is connected through ligand molecules. Here, we measured the transport properties of the oriented assembly of PbS square superstructures. The combined electrochemical doping studies by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) and spectroelectrochemistry showed that more than fourteen electrons per quantum dot are introduced. Furthermore, we proved that the lowest conduction band is formed by the quasi-fourth degenerate quantized (1S) level in the PbS QD square superstructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr09189hDOI Listing
September 2021

Antifibrotic Effects of Kangxian Ruangan Capsule on Rats with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Fibrosis and Hepatic Stellate Cells through Regulation of TGF- and TLR4 Signaling Pathways.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 10;2021:5649575. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Liver Medicine, Hubei No. 3 People's Hospital, Jianghan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Kangxian ruangan (KXRG) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula consisting of 12 herbs. TCM syndrome differentiation proposes that KXRG exerts pharmacological effects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis. This work investigates the effect of KXRG on NAFLD fibrosis and . , the NAFLD fibrosis model was constructed in Wistar rats using methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet, followed by KXRG (0.92 g/kg/d) treatment for 8 weeks. , primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were activated using platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and treated with KXRG. Molecular mechanisms underlying fibrosis were investigated. After 8 weeks, compared with the control groups, the histological lesions, degree of fibrosis, and inflammatory reaction increased with the MCD diet as demonstrated by histological changes and increased fibrosis-related (-SMA, TGF-, COL1A1, and desmin, < 0.01) and inflammation-related factors (TNF-, MCP-1, and F4/80, < 0.01), whereas they decreased with KXRG treatment ( < 0.01). KXRG not only inhibited the proliferation of activated HSCs and promoted their apoptosis but also resulted in G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, KXRG suppressed HSC activation ( < 0.01), collagen synthesis ( < 0.01), and -SMA expression ( < 0.01) with PDGF stimulation. In both the MCD diet-induced animal model and PDGF-induced cell model, KXRG inhibited TGF- and TLR4 signaling ( < 0.01), similar to corresponding small-molecule inhibitors. These results demonstrated that KXRG might exert suppressive effects against NAFLD fibrosis via regulating TGF- and TLR4 signaling. KXRG may act as a natural and potent therapeutic agent against NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5649575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371615PMC
August 2021

Rational design of a highly efficient catalytic system for the production of PAPS from ATP and its application in the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

The compound 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) serves as a sulfate group donor in the production of valuable sulfated compounds. However, elevated costs and low conversion efficiency limit the industrial applicability of PAPS. Here, we designed and constructed an efficient and controllable catalytic system for the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (disodium salt) into PAPS without inhibition from by-products. In vitro and in vivo testing in Escherichia coli identified adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase from Penicillium chrysogenum (PcAPSK) as the rate-limiting enzyme. Based on analysis of the catalytic steps and molecular dynamics simulations, a mechanism-guided "ADP expulsion" strategy was developed to generate an improved PcAPSK variant (L7), with a specific activity of 48.94 U·mg and 73.27-fold higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) that of the wild-type enzyme. The improvement was attained chiefly by reducing the ADP-binding affinity of PcAPSK, as well as by changing the enzyme's flexibility and lid structure to a more open conformation. By introducing PcAPSK L7 in an in vivo catalytic system, 73.59 mM (37.32 g·L ) PAPS was produced from 150 mM ATP in 18.5 h using a 3-L bioreactor, and achieved titer is the highest reported to date and corresponds to a 98.13% conversion rate. Then, the PAPS catalytic system was combined with the chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase using a one-pot method. Finally, chondroitin sulfate was transformed from chondroitin at a conversion rate of 98.75%. This strategy has great potential for scale biosynthesis of PAPS and chondroitin sulfate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.27919DOI Listing
August 2021

The Role of Exosomes and Their Cargos in the Mechanism, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 28;8:712828. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common persistent arrhythmia, but the mechanism of AF has not been fully elucidated, and existing approaches to diagnosis and treatment face limitations. Recently, exosomes have attracted considerable interest in AF research due to their high stability, specificity and cell-targeting ability. The aim of this review is to summarize recent literature, analyze the advantages and limitations of exosomes, and to provide new ideas for their use in understanding the mechanism and improving the diagnosis and treatment of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.712828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355361PMC
July 2021

miRNA-146a Mimic Inhibits NOX4/P38 Signalling to Ameliorate Mouse Myocardial Ischaemia Reperfusion (I/R) Injury.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 27;2021:6366254. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China.

Evidence suggests that miR-146a is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases; however, the role of miR-146a in myocardial ischaemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the functional role of miR-146a in myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 45 min of ischaemia and 1 week of reperfusion to establish a myocardial I/R injury model. A miR-146a mimic (0.5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously at the beginning of the ischaemia process. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were also subjected to hypoxia/reperfusion (H/R). Cells were treated with the miR-146a mimic or antagonist. As a result, the miR-146a mimic attenuated H/R-induced cardiomyocyte injury, as evidenced by increased cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. In addition, the miR-146a mimic inhibited oxidative stress in cells suffering from H/R injury. Moreover, the miR-146a antagonist exerted adverse effects in vitro. In mice with myocardial I/R injury, the miR-146a mimic preserved cardiac function and reduced the infarction area and fibrosis. Moreover, the miR-146a mimic decreased the inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in mouse hearts. Mechanistically, we found that miR-146a directly regulated the transcription of NOX4, which subsequently affected P38 signalling in cardiomyocytes. When we knocked down NOX4, the effects of the miR-146a antagonist in worsening the cell condition were counteracted in in vitro experiments. Taken together, the results suggest that miR-146a protects against myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury by inhibiting NOX4 signalling. The miR-146a mimic may become a potential therapeutic approach for patients with myocardial ischaemia reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6366254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8337110PMC
July 2021

Reprogramming Metabolism for Bioplastics Synthesis from Waste Cooking Oil.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 08 2;10(8):1966-1979. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 214122 Wuxi, China.

The recycle and reutilization of food wastes is a promising alternative for supporting and facilitating circular economy. However, engineering industrially relevant model organisms to use food wastes as their sole carbon source has remained an outstanding challenge so far. Here, we reprogrammed metabolism using modular pathway engineering followed by laboratory adaptive evolution to establish a strain that can efficiently utilize waste cooking oil (WCO) as the sole carbon source to produce monomers of bioplastics, namely, medium-chain α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (MCDCAs). First, the biosynthetic pathway of MCDCAs was designed and rewired by modifying the β-oxidation pathway and introducing an ω-oxidation pathway. Then, metabolic engineering and laboratory adaptive evolution were applied for improving the pathway efficiency of fatty acids utilization. Finally, the engineered strain AA0306 was able to produce 15.26 g/L MCDCAs with WCO as the sole carbon source. This study provides an economically attractive strategy for biomanufacturing bioplastics from food wastes, which has a great potentiality to be developed as a wide range of enabling biotechnologies for achieving green revolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.1c00155DOI Listing
August 2021

Dynamic regulation of membrane integrity to enhance l-malate stress tolerance in Candida glabrata.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Microbial cell factories provide a sustainable and economical way to produce chemicals from renewable feedstocks. However, the accumulation of targeted chemicals can reduce the robustness of the industrial strains and affect the production performance. Here, the physiological functions of Mediator tail subunit CgMed16 at l-malate stress were investigated. Deletion of CgMed16 decreased the survival, biomass, and half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC ) by 40.4%, 34.0%, and 30.6%, respectively, at 25 g/L l-malate stress. Transcriptome analysis showed that this growth defect was attributable to changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, tolerance transcription factors CgUSV1 and CgYAP3 were found to interact with CgMed16 to regulate sterol biosynthesis and glycerophospholipid metabolism, respectively, ultimately endowing strains with excellent membrane integrity to resist l-malate stress. Furthermore, a dynamic tolerance system (DTS) was constructed based on CgUSV1, CgYAP3, and an l-malate-driven promoter P to improve the robustness and productive capacity of Candida glabrata. As a result, the biomass, survival, and membrane integrity of C. glabrata 012 (with DTS) increased by 22.6%, 31.3%, and 53.8%, respectively, compared with those of strain 011 (without DTS). Therefore, at shake-flask scale, strain 012 accumulated 35.5 g/L l-malate, and the titer and productivity of l-malate increased by 32.5% and 32.1%, respectively, compared with those of strain 011. This study provides a novel strategy for the rational design and construction of DTS for dynamically enhancing the robustness of industrial strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.27903DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of Back-Gate Voltage on the High-Frequency Performance of Dual-Gate MoS Transistors.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jun 17;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Zhongshan Institute, Zhongshan 528402, China.

As an atomically thin semiconductor, 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS) has demonstrated great potential in realizing next-generation logic circuits, radio-frequency (RF) devices and flexible electronics. Although various methods have been performed to improve the high-frequency characteristics of MoS RF transistors, the impact of the back-gate bias on dual-gate MoS RF transistors is still unexplored. In this work, we study the effect of back-gate control on the static and RF performance metrics of MoS high-frequency transistors. By using high-quality chemical vapor deposited bilayer MoS as channel material, high-performance top-gate transistors with on/off ratio of 10 and on-current up to 179 μA/μm at room temperature were realized. With the back-gate modulation, the source and drain contact resistances decrease to 1.99 kΩ∙μm at = 3 V, and the corresponding on-current increases to 278 μA/μm. Furthermore, both cut-off frequency and maximum oscillation frequency improves as the back-gate voltage increases to 3 V. In addition, a maximum intrinsic of 29.7 GHz was achieved, which is as high as 2.1 times the without the back-gate bias. This work provides significant insights into the influence of back-gate voltage on MoS RF transistors and presents the potential of dual-gate MoS RF transistors for future high-frequency applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11061594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235638PMC
June 2021

Expanding the lysine industry: biotechnological production of l-lysine and its derivatives.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 18;115:1-33. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China; Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China; International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:

l-lysine is an essential amino acid that contains various functional groups including α-amino, ω-amino, and α-carboxyl groups, exhibiting high reaction potential. The derivatization of these functional groups produces a series of value-added chemicals, such as cadaverine, glutarate, and d-lysine, that are widely applied in the chemical synthesis, cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Here, we review recent advances in the biotechnological production of l-lysine and its derivatives and expatiate key technological strategies. Furthermore, we also discuss the existing challenges and potential strategies for more efficient production of these chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aambs.2021.02.001DOI Listing
March 2021

Morphometric Variations and Growth Analysis of the Side Face Profiles of Chinese Children.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Jun 15:10556656211022919. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Ethnology and Sociology, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China.

Objective: We aim to use geometric morphometric methods to analyze the contours of the side face profile and its variations in 116 children in Hunan province, China, in order to reveal common morphological features and growth of the side face profiles of Chinese children.

Design: We photographed the side faces with consistent standardized procedures. Thirty-seven landmarks were recorded, which comprehensively reflected the facial sagittal plane. The collection of coordinate data regarding landmarks was conducted by tpsDig software. Other analyses, such as average shape analysis, principal component analysis, variations analysis, and allometric analysis, were conducted using tpsRelw and tpsRegr.

Result: Based on the 37 landmarks, principal component analysis was used on the profiles of boys and girls. The result shows that PC1 and PC2 account for 35.46% and 27.44% of the side face contour variations, respectively. There is no significant difference in the side profiles of boys and girls. Overlapping distributions between the boys and girls occurred. A significant difference occurs when principal component analysis was used on the side profiles of children and adults.

Conclusions: There is a significant difference in the side face profiles between adult males and females. Adult males have a higher brow (the 8th landmark) than females, and adult females have a more curved forehead. However, the side face profiles of boys and girls around 10 years of age are generally similar, which suggests that the significant difference in side face profiles between adult males and females may be formed after the age of 10. This study is of great significance for both orthodontists and pediatricians to use different norms for kids and adults and different norms for males and females for each of those age groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10556656211022919DOI Listing
June 2021

Case Report: Giant Biatrial Myxoma Mimicking Malignant Cardiac Tumor in a Patient With a Hepatic Angiomatous Mass.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 28;8:676807. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Cardiac myxomas, primarily originating from the left atrium, are the most prevalent types of benign cardiac tumors; however, biatrial myxomas are extremely rare. Herein, we present a rare case of a 55-year old male with exertional dyspnea and intermittent chest discomfort due to a giant biatrial mass with concomitant atrial fibrillation and hepatic hemangioma. The giant tumor with its peduncle at the interatrial septum involved both atria; however, bulging through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle during systole. Hence, excision of the giant cardiac tumor (which grossly composed of three parts: stiff, fleshy, and soft) and Cox-Maze IV procedure was performed with the resected specimen measuring 100 × 80 × 40 mm. The patient who was in a stable condition was discharged home on the 12th post-operative day. Thus, given the excellent post-operative results achieved, surgical treatment in large multi-cavitary benign cardiac tumors is feasible and should be considered a potentially curative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.676807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192690PMC
May 2021

Dynamic control of the distribution of carbon flux between cell growth and butyrate biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11;105(12):5173-5187. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Microbial cell factories offer an economic and environmentally friendly method for the biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA-derived chemicals. However, the static control of carbon flux can cause direct and indirect competition for acetyl-CoA between cell growth and chemical biosynthesis, limiting the efficiency of microbial cell factories. Herein, recombinase-based genetic circuits were developed to achieve the optimal distribution of acetyl-CoA between cell growth and butyrate biosynthesis. First, three dynamic devices-a turn-on switch, a turn-off switch, and a recombinase-based inverter (RBI)-were constructed based on Bxb1 recombinase. Then, the turn-on switch was used to dynamically control the butyrate biosynthetic pathway, which directly improved the consumption of acetyl-CoA. Next, the turn-off switch was applied to dynamically control cell growth, which indirectly enhanced the supply of acetyl-CoA. Finally, an RBI was adopted for the dynamic dual control of the distribution of acetyl-CoA between cell growth and butyrate biosynthesis. The final butyrate production rate was increased to 34 g/L, with a productivity of 0.405 g/L/h. The strategy described herein will pave the way for the development of high-performance microbial cell factories for the production of other desirable chemicals. KEY POINTS: • Competition for acetyl-CoA between cell growth and synthesis limits productivity. • Recombinase-based genetic circuits were developed to dynamic control of acetyl-CoA. • Optimal distribution of acetyl-CoA between cell growth and synthesis was achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11385-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) mediates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-drived resistance of breast cancer to doxorubicin.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):1874-1889

Department of Dermatology, Shenzhen People's Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, the First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.

Excessive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated in breast cancer (BC) chemoresistance, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. There are STAT3 binding sites in fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) promoter region, thus STAT3 may regulate the transcription of FTO. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between FTO and STAT3 in BC chemoresistance. Herein, FTO and STAT3 were highly expressed in doxorubicin-resistant BC (BC-DoxR) cells. CHIP assay verified the binding between STAT3 and FTO promoter in BC-DoxR cells. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that FTO promoter activity was inhibited by S3I-201 (STAT3 inhibitor) but enhanced by epidermal growth factor (EGF, STAT3 activator) in BC-DoxR and BC cells. FTO mRNA and protein expression were suppressed by S3I-201 in BC-DoxR cells and EGF-stimulated BC cells. Notably, FTO regulated total N6-methyladenosine (m6A) levels in BC-DoxR and BC cells but could not affect STAT3 mRNA expression, indicating that FTO was not involved in the m6A modification of STAT3. However, FTO could activate STAT3 signaling in BC-DoxR and BC cells. Besides, FTO knockdown inhibited the doxorubicin resistance of BC-DoxR cells, while FTO overexpression enhanced the doxorubicin resistance and weakened the doxorubicin sensitivity of BC cells. Moreover, decreased doxorubicin resistance by STAT3 knockdown was abolished by FTO overexpression and decreased doxorubicin sensitivity by STAT3 overexpression was reversed by FTO knockdown, indicating that FTO was implicated in STAT3-mediated doxorubicin resistance and impairment of doxorubicin sensitivity of BC cells. Altogether, our findings provide a mechanism underlying BC doxorubicin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1924544DOI Listing
December 2021

Design of Driving Waveform for Shortening Red Particles Response Time in Three-Color Electrophoretic Displays.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 19;12(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Three-color electrophoretic displays (EPDs) have the advantages of multi-color display and low power consumption. However, their red particles have the disadvantage of long response time. In this paper, a driving waveform, which is based on electrophoresis theory and reference gray scale optimization, was proposed to shorten the response time of red particles in three-color EPDs. The driving waveform was composed of erasing stage, reference gray scale forming stage, red driving stage, and white or black driving stage. Firstly, the characteristics of particle motion were analyzed by electrophoresis theory and Stokes law. Secondly, the reference gray scale of the driving waveform was optimized to shorten the distance between red particles and a common electrode plate. Finally, an experimental platform was developed to test the performance of the driving waveform. Experimental results showed that the proposed driving waveform can shorten the response time of red particles by 65.57% and reduce the number of flickers by 66.67% compared with the traditional driving waveform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12050578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161037PMC
May 2021

Immunogenicity and safety of a high-dose and prolonged-schedule hepatitis B vaccine among chronic kidney disease patients: a randomized, parallel-controlled trial.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Jun 31;20(6):743-751. Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

: The immunogenicity against hepatitis B vaccine is unsatisfactory in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and studies evaluating augmented vaccine regimens to enhance immunogenicity have been inconclusive.: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of four-standard-dose and four-triple-dose regimens hepatitis B vaccine among CKD patients in China.: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, parallel-controlled trial including 273 patients with CKD who were randomly allocated to receive 3 or 4 doses of 20 or 60 µg of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.: Seroconversion rates, high-level response rates, and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of anti-HBs at months 3 and 7.: The seroconversion rates and high-level responses in the IM20 × 4 group and the IM60 × 4 group were higher than those in the IM20 × 3 group at months 3 and 7 ( < 0.05). The IM60 × 4 group had better immune responses than the IM20 × 4 group at month 3 ( < 0.05); however, no significant difference was noted at month 7 ( > 0.05).: Both the four-standard-dose and four-triple-dose regimens improved immune response compared to the three-standard-dose regimen of hepatitis B vaccination in CKD patients, and the additional effect of higher dose was minimal.: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (CT.gov identifier: NCT03962881).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2021.1915777DOI Listing
June 2021

Crystal-Plane Controlled Spontaneous Polarization of Inorganic Perovskite toward Boosting Triboelectric Surface Charge Density.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 28;13(22):26196-26203. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Information Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, PR China.

Triboelectric generators (TENGs) have been extensively studied as a new energy for low cost and the universally applicable prospect. Meanwhile, perovskites have been applied in TENG and show a good performance in view of high carrier mobility, long life and dielectric properties. The asymmetry structure of the orthogonal phase CsPbBr perovskite endows it with ferroelectric property and induces the misalignment of the positive and negative charge centers. Herein, the surface energy of halogen doped inorganic CsPbX (X = Cl, Br) perovskites are theoretically investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, the crystal polarizability of pristine CsPbBr is improved from 0.47 Ry a.u. to 0.52 Ry a.u. (CsPbCl), indicating the polarizability of CsPbCl is higher than CsPbBr. In addition, the build-in electric field () of perovskite materials can be enhanced by the spontaneous polarization and the aligned dipoles in the could further improve the tribo-electrostatic electric field by retaining more triboelectric surface charges. In the end, CsPbCl achieved a power of 3.06 W m compared to the power of 1.34 W m of CsPbBr. This work focuses on the regulation of crystal planes using spontaneous polarization of perovskite toward achieving a high built-in electric field for enhancing triboelectric surface charge density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05796DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessment of the Psychological Burden Among Family Caregivers of People Living with Alzheimer's Disease Using the Zarit Burden Interview.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;82(1):285-291

College of Administration, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: In China, family caregivers play a major role in caring for people living with Alzheimer's disease (PLWAD), but little is known about the burden this creates.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the burden among family caregivers of PLWAD and the factors influenced it.

Methods: Family caregivers of PLWAD were recruited from a hospital in China from January 2018 to July 2018. All data were collected online using the Chinese version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), and the participants' sociodemographic and caregiving details were obtained. T-tests and Kruskal-Wallis H (K) tests were used to compare ZBI scores between groups. Factors related to the caregiver psychological burden were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis.

Results: A total of 300 participants were assessed, of which 213 (71.00%) were female. More than half of the caregivers were the patient's daughter (51.0%, n = 153). The average ZBI score of the caregivers was 43.05 (13.42). The level of burden was influenced by age, the relationship of the caregiver to the patient, the severity of AD, the caregiver's retirement status, the income level of the caregiver, and the caring time. Regression analysis showed that retired caregivers were more likely to have higher levels of burden and that burden increased with AD severity.

Conclusion: Most family caregivers of PLWAD have a considerable caregiver psychological burden. The findings increase the understanding of factors that influence family caregiver burden, and pave the way for potential interventions, such as social support and caregiver empowerment, to reduce their burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210025DOI Listing
September 2021

Predicting related factors of immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine in hemodialysis patients based on integration of decision tree classification and logistic regression.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Sep 14;17(9):3214-3220. Epub 2021 May 14.

Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, Beijing, China.

The non/hypo-response rate of the hepatitis B vaccine among hemodialysis (HD) patients is still high, it is of great significance to explore the influencing factors and their relationships. To study the related factors and their relationships using logistic regression model and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) decision tree model. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between February 2014 and May 2015 in China. HD patients being serologically negative for HBsAg and anti-HBs were randomly assigned to receive three intramuscular injections of the standard dose (20 µg) or high dose (60 µg) of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at months 0, 1, and 6. Those with anti-HBs concentrations <100 mIU/mL, and ≥100 mIU/mL at month 7 were considered as non/hypo-response and high-level response, respectively. The non/hypo-response was 31.34% (89/284). After adjustment for confounders, logistic analysis showed that males (= 2.203, 95%: 1.109-4.367) and those with higher dialysis frequency (>4 times per 2 weeks) (= 1.918, 95%: 1.015-3.626) had a significant risk of non/hypo-response. While the CHAID analysis showed that gender, dose, and dialysis frequency were influencing factors of non/hypo-response, and gender is most important. The interaction between gender and dialysis frequency had the greatest effect on immunization, and followed by the interaction between dialysis frequency and vaccine dose. Taken together, gender, dose and dialysis frequency were influencing factors of hepatitis B vaccine in HD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1895603DOI Listing
September 2021

[Application of chronological lifespan in the construction of Escherichia coli cell factories].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Apr;37(4):1277-1286

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China.

Microbial cell factories capable of producing valuable chemicals from renewable feedstocks provide a promising alternative towards sustainability. However, environmental stress remarkably affects the performance of microbial cell factories. By extending the chronological lifespan of microbial cells, the performance of microbial cell factories can be greatly improved. Firstly, an evaluation system for chronological lifespan and semi-chronological lifespan was established based on the changes in survival rates. Secondly, the addition of anti-aging drugs such as cysteine, carnosine, aminoguanidine and glucosamine increased the chronological lifespan of E. coli by 80%, 80%, 50% and 120%, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that extending the chronological lifespan of E. coli increased the yield of metabolites produced by E. coli cell factories with endogenous (lactic acid and pyruvic acid) or exogenous (malic acid) metabolic pathway by 30.0%, 25.0%, and 27.0%, respectively. The strategy of extending chronological lifespan of E. coli provides a potential approach for enhancing the performance of microbial cell factories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200430DOI Listing
April 2021

Beyond the single average tumor: Understanding IO combinations using a clinical QSP model that incorporates heterogeneity in patient response.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 Jul 5;10(7):684-695. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey, USA.

A quantitative systems pharmacology model for metastatic melanoma was developed for immuno-oncology with the goal of predicting efficacy of combination checkpoint therapy with pembrolizumab and ipilimumab. This literature-based model is developed at multiple scales: (i) tumor and immune cell interactions at a lesion level; (ii) multiple heterogeneous target lesions, nontarget lesion growth, and appearance of new metastatic lesion at a patient level; and (iii) interpatient differences at a population level. The model was calibrated to pembrolizumab and ipilimumab monotherapy in patients with melanoma from Robert et al., specifically, waterfall plot showing target lesion response and overall response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] version 1.1), which additionally considers nontarget lesion growth and appearance of new metastatic lesions. We then used the model to predict waterfall and RECIST version 1.1 for combination treatment reported in Long et al. A key insight from this work was that nontarget lesions growth and appearance of new metastatic lesion contributed significantly to disease progression, despite reduction in target lesions. Further, the lesion level simulations of combination therapy show substantial efficacy in warm lesions (intermediary immunogenicity) but limited advantage of combination in both cold and hot lesions (low and high immunogenicity). Because many patients with metastatic disease are expected to have a mixture of these lesions, disease progression in such patients may be driven by a subset of cold lesions that are unresponsive to checkpoint inhibitors. These patients may benefit more from the combinations which include therapies to target cold lesions than double checkpoint inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp4.12637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302246PMC
July 2021

High-Performance CVD Bilayer MoS Radio Frequency Transistors and Gigahertz Mixers for Flexible Nanoelectronics.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Zhongshan Institute, Zhongshan 528402, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) MoS have attracted tremendous attention due to their potential applications in future flexible high-frequency electronics. Bilayer MoS exhibits the advantages of carrier mobility when compared with monolayer mobility, thus making the former more suitable for use in future flexible high-frequency electronics. However, there are fewer systematical studies of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) bilayer MoS radiofrequency (RF) transistors on flexible polyimide substrates. In this work, CVD bilayer MoS RF transistors on flexible substrates with different gate lengths and gigahertz flexible frequency mixers were constructed and systematically studied. The extrinsic cutoff frequency () and maximum oscillation frequency () increased with reducing gate lengths. From transistors with a gate length of 0.3 μm, we demonstrated an extrinsic of 4 GHz and of 10 GHz. Furthermore, statistical analysis of 14 flexible MoS RF transistors is presented in this work. The study of a flexible mixer demonstrates the dependence of conversion gain versus gate voltage, LO power and input signal frequency. These results present the potential of CVD bilayer MoS for future flexible high-frequency electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12040451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072592PMC
April 2021

Is Valgus Cut Angle Based on Radiographic Measurements in Total Knee Arthroplasty Really Inaccurate? A Comparison of Two- and Three-Dimensional Measurements.

J Knee Surg 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Center for Joint Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Radiographs are widely used to measure distal femoral valgus cut angle (VCA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but its accuracy is controversial. This study used three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction models to verify the accuracy of VCA measurements on radiographs, and explore the correlation of VCA with hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle and lateral femoral bowing angle (FBA). A total of 444 osteoarthritis knees of 444 patients from August 2016 to June 2018 was included retrospectively. On radiographs, two-dimensional VCA (VCA-2D) was measured between the femoral mechanical axis and the distal femoral anatomical axis, and HKA was measured between the femoral mechanical axis and the tibial mechanical axis. On the coronal projection of computed tomography 3D models, the anatomical landmarks used for VCA-3D measurements were the same as those on the radiographs, FBA was measured between the proximal and distal femoral anatomical axis. The distributions of VCA-2D and VCA-3D were evaluated by means and variances. The correlation between HKA and VCA and between FBA and VCA was explored. There was a statistical difference between VCA-2D and VCA-3D ( < 0.001), but the deviation was very small (0.15 ± 0.69 degrees), 83.3% of the deviations were less than 1 degree. VCA would increase both in 2D and 3D with increasing of FBA and HKA varus. There was no statistically significant difference between VCA-2D and VCA-3D in patients with moderate varus knees (0-8 degrees of varus) and mild bowing femurs (FBA <5 degrees). Overall, the deviation caused by using radiography to measure VCA was negligible. VCA measurements using radiographs were accurate in patients with moderate varus knees and mildly bowed femurs. This study reflects level of evidence III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1728785DOI Listing
April 2021

Engineering the Cad pathway in Escherichia coli to produce glutarate from L-lysine.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 27;105(9):3587-3599. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, 214122, China.

For the efficient industrial production of glutarate, an important C5 platform chemical that is widely used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, a five-enzyme cascade pathway was designed and reconstructed in vitro to synthesize glutarate from L-lysine. Then, the imbalanced enzyme expression levels of L-lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli (EcCA), putrescine aminotransferase (KpcPA) and γ-aminovaleraldehyde dehydrogenase (KpcPD) from Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the poor catalytic efficiency of KpcPA were identified as the rate-limiting bottlenecks. To this end, ribosome binding site regulation was employed to coordinate the enzyme molar ratio of EcCA:KpcPA:KpcPD at approximately 4:8:7 (the optimum ratio obtained in vitro), and volume scanning and hydrophobicity scanning were applied to increase KpcPA activity toward cadaverine from 15.89 ± 0.52 to 75.87 ± 1.51 U·mg. Furthermore, the extracellular accumulation of 5-aminovalerate (5AVA) was considerably reduced by overexpressing gabP encoding the 5AVA importer. Combining these strategies into the engineered strain Glu-02, 77.62 g/L glutarate, the highest titer by E. coli to date, was produced from 100 g/L L-lysine in 42 h, with a yield and productivity of 0.78 g/g L-lysine and 1.85 g/L/h, respectively, at a 5-L scale. The results presented here provide a novel and potential enzymatic process at industrial-scale to produce glutarate from cheaper amino acids. KEY POINTS: • The bioconversion of l-lysine to glutarate using the Cad pathway was first achieved. • Enhancing the conversion efficiency of the Cad route maximizes glutarate in E. coli. • Achieving the highest titer of glutarate by E. coli to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11275-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Enhancing L-malate production of Aspergillus oryzae by nitrogen regulation strategy.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 5;105(8):3101-3113. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Regulating morphology engineering and fermentation of Aspergillus oryzae makes it possible to increase the titer of L-malate. However, the existing L-malate-producing strain has limited L-malate production capacity and the fermentation process is insufficiently mature, which cannot meet the needs of industrial L-malate production. To further increase the L-malate production capacity of A. oryzae, we screened out a mutant strain (FMME-S-38) that produced 79.8 g/L L-malate in 250-mL shake flasks, using a newly developed screening system based on colony morphology on the plate. We further compared the extracellular nitrogen (N1) and intracellular nitrogen (N2) contents of the control and mutant strain (FMME-S-38) to determine the relationship between the curve of nitrogen content (N1 and N2) and the L-malate titer. This correlation was then used to optimize the conditions for developing a novel nitrogen supply strategy (initial tryptone concentration of 6.5 g/L and feeding with 3 g/L tryptone at 24 h). Fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor under the optimized conditions further increased the titer and productivity of L-malate to 143.3 g/L and 1.19 g/L/h, respectively, corresponding to 164.9 g/L and 1.14 g/L/h in a 30-L fermentor. This nitrogen regulation-based strategy cannot only enhance industrial-scale L-malate production but also has generalizability and the potential to increase the production of similar metabolites.Key Points• Construction of a new screening system based on colony morphology on the plate.• A novel nitrogen regulation strategy used to regulate the production of L-malate.• A nitrogen supply strategy used to maximize the production of L-malate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11149-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-term persistent immunogenicity after successful standard and triple-dosed hepatitis B vaccine in hemodialysis patients: A 3-year follow-up study in China.

Vaccine 2021 04 2;39(18):2537-2544. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, China; Center of Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence Based Medicine, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although the efficacy of hepatitis B vaccines among hemodialysis patients has been documented, the long-term persistence of immunogenicity in this population remains largely unknown. We explored the long-term persistence of immunogenicity induced by different hepatitis B vaccine regimens in hemodialysis patients.

Methods: In initial study, we conducted a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-controlled trial among hemodialysis patients in 13 hospitals in Shanxi Province, China. A total of 352 hemodialysis patients were allocated to receive 3-dose 20 μg (IM20 group) and 3-dose 60 μg (IM60 group) recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at months 0, 1, and 6. Vaccine-induced immune responses were measured at month 7. In this study, the responders (anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/mL) were followed up at months 18, 24, 30, 36 and 42, respectively. We used the generalized log-rank test and generalized estimating equations (GEE) to analyze the long-term durability of responses and the kinetics of anti-HBs levels, respectively.

Results: A total of 284 patients were involved in the extended follow-up period. The duration of vaccine-induced response with 75% of patients maintained protective antibody were 12 months and 18 months in the IM20 group and IM60 group, respectively (P = 0.291). The long-term persistent immunogenicity induced by 3-dose 60 μg was more satisfactory than that by 3-dose 20 μg hepatitis B vaccine in patients with hemodialysis duration ≥ five years (P = 0.023). The peak anti-HBs levels in 100-1000 mIU/mL or ≥ 1000 mIU/mL were more likely to maintain long-term protective antibody compared to anti-HBs levels in 10-100 mIU/mL (P < 0.05). The kinetic profile was similar between the two groups (P = 0.334).

Conclusion: High-dose 60 μg hepatitis B vaccine could lead a satisfactory long-term durability of immunogenicity among patients with hemodialysis duration of five years or more. Peak anti-HBs level after vaccination was associated with the long-term persistence of immunogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.03.074DOI Listing
April 2021

Spatial-temporal characteristics of urban air pollution in 337 Chinese cities and their influencing factors.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 9;28(27):36234-36258. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Land Resources Management, School of Public Administration, Zhejiang Gongshang University, 18 Xuezheng St., Xiasha University Town, Hangzhou, 310018, China.

Urban air pollution, especially in the form of haze events, has become a serious threat to socio-economic development and public health in most developing countries. It is of great importance to assess the frequency of urban air pollution occurrence and its influencing factors. The objective of our study is to develop consistent methodologies for constructing an index system and for assessing the influencing factors of the urban air pollution occurrence based on the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework by incorporating spatial analysis, geographical detector, and geographically weighted regression models. The 27 influencing factors were selected for assessing their influences on the urban air pollution occurrence in 337 Chinese cities. The results indicate that the spatial pattern of the urban air pollution in China was mostly consistent with the Chinese population-based Hu Line. Urban air pollution frequently occurred in North China, Central China, Northeast China, and East China, and displayed strong seasonality. The influencing factors of urban air pollution were complex and diverse, varying from season to season. Influencing factor analysis also shows that the explanatory power between any two influencing factors was greater than that of a single influencing factor of the urban air pollution. Furthermore, most influencing factors had both positive and negative effects and local effects on urban air pollution. Finally, we put forward five suggestions on reducing urban air pollution occurrence, which can provide the basis and reference for the government to make policies on urban air pollution control in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12825-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Molecular Characterization of the Nsp2 and ORF5 (ORF5a) Genes of PRRSV Strains in Nine Provinces of China During 2016-2018.

Front Vet Sci 2021 4;8:605832. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural Science and Technology University, Jilin, China.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a highly contagious disease and brings huge economic losses to commercial pork production worldwide. PRRSV causes severe reproductive failure in sows and respiratory distress in piglets. To trace the evolution of PRRSV in pigs with respiratory diseases in some regions of China, 112 samples were collected from nine provinces in China during 2016-2018. All samples were detected by RT-PCR and analyzed by the Nsp2/ORF5 (ORF5a)-genes-phylogeny. Sequence analysis and recombination analysis were conducted on the Nsp2/ORF5 (ORF5a) genes of the identified strain in the study. The RT-PCR result shown that the positive rate of PRRSV was 50.89% (57/112). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the identified PRRSV strains were all NA genotype and belonged to lineage 1, 3, and 8. The Nsp2 gene of identified PRRSV strains exhibited nucleotide homologies of 53.0 ~ 99.8%, and amino acid homologies of 46.8 ~ 99.7%. The ORF5 gene of identified PRRSV strains exhibited nucleotide homologies of 82.4 ~ 100%, and amino acid homologies of 79.6 ~ 100%. Sequence analysis revealed that a discontinuous 30-amino-acid deletion (positions 481 and 533-561) and a 131-amino-acid discontinuity deletion (positions 323-433, 481, and 533-551) in Nsp2 of PPRSV isolates; all identified strains in this study may be wild strains, and most identified strains may be highly virulent strains. Sequence analysis of ORF5 and ORF5a revealed that the mutation sites of GP5 were mainly concentrated in the signal peptide and epitopes region, while the mutation sites of ORF5a were mainly concentrated in the transmembrane and the intramembrane region. The recombination analysis indicated that there may be multiple recombination regions in identified strains, and the recombination pattern was more complex. This study showed that the prevalent PRRSV strain in some regions of China was still HP-PRRSV, while NADC30 strain also occupied a certain proportion; different types of PRRSV strains showed different patterns and variation in China. This study suggested that the monitoring of PRRSV prevalence and genetic variation should be further strengthened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.605832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969665PMC
March 2021

A risk score based on baseline risk factors for predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 06 10;37(6):917-927. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopedics, The First People's Hospital of Jingmen affiliated to Hubei Minzu University, Jingmen, China.

Background: To develop a sensitive and clinically applicable risk assessment tool identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a high risk of mortality at hospital admission. This model would assist frontline clinicians in optimizing medical treatment with limited resources.

Methods: 6415 patients from seven hospitals in Wuhan city were assigned to the training and testing cohorts. A total of 6351 patients from another three hospitals in Wuhan, 2169 patients from outside of Wuhan, and 553 patients from Milan, Italy were assigned to three independent validation cohorts. A total of 64 candidate clinical variables at hospital admission were analyzed by random forest and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses.

Results: Eight factors, namely, xygen saturation, blood rea nitrogen, espiratory rate, admission before the date the national aximum number of daily new cases was reached, ge, rocalcitonin, -reactive protein (CRP), and absolute eutrophil counts, were identified as having significant associations with mortality in COVID-19 patients. A composite score based on these eight risk factors, termed the OURMAPCN-score, predicted the risk of mortality among the COVID-19 patients, with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.93). The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality between patients with OURMAPCN-score >11 compared with those with scores ≤ 11 was 18.18 (95% CI 13.93-23.71;  < .0001). The predictive performance, specificity, and sensitivity of the score were validated in three independent cohorts.

Conclusions: The OURMAPCN score is a risk assessment tool to determine the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients based on a limited number of baseline parameters. This tool can assist physicians in optimizing the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with limited hospital resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2021.1904862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054492PMC
June 2021

Microbial physiological engineering increases the efficiency of microbial cell factories.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 May 4;41(3):339-354. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Microbial cell factories provide vital platforms for the production of chemicals. Advanced biotechnological toolboxes have been developed to enhance their efficiency. However, these tools have limitations in improving physiological functions, and therefore boosting the efficiency (e.g. titer, rate, and yield) of microbial cell factories remains a challenge. In this review, we propose a strategy of microbial physiological engineering (MPE) to improve the efficiency of microbial cell factories. This strategy integrates tools from synthetic and systems biology to characterize and regulate physiological functions during chemical synthesis. MPE strategies mainly focus on the efficiency of substrate utilization, growth performance, stress tolerance, and the product export capacity of cell factories. In short, this review provides a new framework for resolving the bottlenecks that currently exist in low-efficiency cell factories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2020.1856770DOI Listing
May 2021
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