Publications by authors named "Liming Li"

450 Publications

Index-based dietary patterns and stomach cancer in a Chinese population.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, USA Department of Non-communicable Chronic Disease Control, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai Ganyu County Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ganyu Dafeng County Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Dafeng Chuzhou County Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chuzhou Tongshan County Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Tongshan, Jiangsu Province, China Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA School of Nursing, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing, China Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York Center for Human Nutrition, Department of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, USA Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Dietary factors are of importance in the development of stomach cancer. This study aims to examine index-based dietary patterns associated with stomach cancer in a Chinese population.

Methods: Using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we included a total of 8432 participants (1900 stomach cancer cases and 6532 controls). Dietary data collected by food frequency questionnaire was evaluated by modified Chinese Healthy Eating Index-2016 (mCHEI-2016) and the US Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015). Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the association of mCHEI-2016 and HEI-2015 with stomach cancer while adjusting for potential confounders. The possible interactions between mCHEI-2016 or HEI-2015 and established risk factors were explored.

Results: Among nonproxy interviews, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, a higher score of sodium, reflecting lower intake per day, was inversely associated with stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR), 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99 for mCHEI-2016; OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99 for HEI-2015]. No clear associations with stomach cancer were identified for total scores of HEI-2015 (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.87-1.10 with a 10-point increase, P trend = 0.98) and mCHEI-2016 (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.94-1.17 with a 10-point increase, P trend = 0.22). However, the relation between stomach cancer and the mCHEI-2016 was modified by BMI, with a possible inverse association in normal-weight subjects.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight that reduced intake of dietary sodium would prevent the development of stomach cancer. The data indicate a heterogeneity between normal weight and overweight's dietary factors in relation to stomach cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000705DOI Listing
July 2021

Chondromalacia patellae: current options and emerging cell therapies.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jul 18;12(1):412. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Emergency General Hospital, Xibahenanli29, Chaoyang dis, Beijing, 100028, China.

Chondromalacia patellae (CMP), also known as runner's knee, typically occurs in young patients, which is characterized by anterior knee pain (AKP) that is associated with visible changes in patellar cartilage. The initial pathological changes include cartilage softening, swelling, and edema. CMP is caused by several factors, including trauma, increased cartilage vulnerability, patellofemoral instability, bony anatomic variations, abnormal patellar kinematics, and occupation hazards. CMP may be reversible or may progress to develop patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Quadriceps wasting, patellofemoral crepitus, and effusion are obvious clinical indications. Additionally, radiological examinations are also necessary for diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic method, which holds a promise in having the unique ability to potentially identify cartilage lesions. Modalities are conventionally proposed to treat cartilage lesions in the PF joint, but none have emerged as a gold standard, neither to alleviated symptoms and function nor to prevent OA degeneration. Recently, researchers have been focused on cartilage-targeted therapy. Various efforts including cell therapy and tissue emerge for cartilage regeneration exhibit as the promising regime, especially in the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intra-articular injections of variously sourced MSC are found safe and beneficial for treating CMP with improved clinical parameters, less invasiveness, symptomatic relief, and reduced inflammation. The mechanism of MSC injection remains further clinical investigation and is tremendously promising for CMP treatment. In this short review, etiology, MRI diagnosis, and treatment in CMP, especially the treatment of the cell-based therapies, are reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02478-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287755PMC
July 2021

Effects of serum starvation and vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation on the expression of Notch signalling pathway components.

Sci Prog 2021 Jul-Sep;104(3):368504211028387

Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang, China.

Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) is an abnormality in the cerebral vascular system. Although the upregulation of the Notch signalling pathway is a deterministic factor in BAVM, the mechanism by which this pathway is upregulated in patients with BAVM is uncertain. The effects of serum starvation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulation on the Notch signalling pathway in brain microvascular endothelial cells (MECs) and mouse embryonic stem (mES)/embryoid body (EB)-derived endothelial cells were investigated in this study. The duration of serum starvation and VEGF concentration were changed, cell viability was measured, and reasonable time and concentration gradients were selected for subsequent studies. Protein and mRNA expression levels of Notch signalling pathway components in both MECs and mES/EB-derived endothelial cells were detected using western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Expression levels of the Notch1, Notch4, Jagged1, delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) and Hes1 proteins and mRNAs were upregulated by lower VEGF concentrations and shorter-term serum starvation but inhibited by higher VEGF concentrations and longer-term serum starvation. This study revealed effects of changes in the duration of serum starvation and VEGF concentration on the expression of Notch signalling pathway components in both MECs and mES/EB-derived endothelial cells, potentially contributing to BAVM formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211028387DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between frequency of spicy food consumption and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jul 6;18(1):70. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Background: Hypertension is a known risk factor for multiple chronic diseases. Existing literature on the association between frequency of spicy food consumption and hypertension shows mixed findings.

Methods: The analyses are based on the Tongxiang baseline dataset of the China Kadoorie Biobank prospective study, including data from electronic questionnaires, physical measurements and blood sample collection. A total of 53,916 participants aged 30-79 years were included in the final analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association of spicy food consumption with hypertension, and multiple linear regression was performed to explore the association of spicy food consumption with systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Results: Of the 53,916 participants, 23,921 had prevalent hypertension. 12.3% of participants reported consuming spicy food weekly. Among female participants, after adjusting for socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, BMI, waist circumference, sleep duration and snoring, when compared with females who never consumed spicy food, the odds ratios (95% CI) for hypertension were 1.02 (0.96-1.08), 0.90 (0.79-1.01), and 0.88 (0.78-0.99), respectively, for females who consumed spicy food less than once weekly, 1-2 times weekly, and ≥ 3 times weekly (P = 0.04). The corresponding odds ratios for males were 1.02 (0.95-1.09), 1.07 (0.95-1.20), and 0.91 (0.81-1.01), respectively (P = 0.39). Among current alcohol drinkers, compared to participants who never consumed spicy food, the odds ratio (95% CI) for hypertension among participants consuming spicy food daily was 0.98 (0.80-1.20). The corresponding figure for non-current drinkers was 0.72 (0.62-0.84). The association was stronger among non-current alcohol drinkers than among current drinkers (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Frequency of spicy food consumption is inversely associated with hypertension in females, but not in males.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00588-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259443PMC
July 2021

Associations of toothbrushing behaviour with risks of vascular and nonvascular diseases in Chinese adults.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Jun 21:e13634. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Accumulating evidence has shown that poor oral hygiene is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases in Western populations. However, its relevance about the relationships in Chinese adults remains unclear. The China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 715 adults aged 30-79 years in China during 2004-2008. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for each disease associated with measures of oral hygiene. Overall 9.3% of the participants reported rarely or never brushing teeth at baseline. Participants who rarely or never brushed teeth had adjusted HR of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.15) for MVE, with similar HRs for stroke (1.08, 1.05-1.12), intracerebral haemorrhage (1.18, 1.11-1.26) and pulmonary heart disease (1.22, 1.13-1.32) compared with those who brushed teeth regularly. Those who did not brush teeth also had increased risk of cancer (1.09, 1.04-1.14), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (1.12, 1.05-1.20), liver cirrhosis (1.25, 1.09-1.44) and all-cause death (1.25, 1.21-1.28) but not type 2 diabetes (0.94, 0.86-1.03) and chronic kidney disease (0.98, 0.81-1.18). Among Chinese adults, we found that poor oral hygiene is associated with higher risks of major vascular disease, cancer, COPD, liver cirrhosis and all-cause deaths, but not type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13634DOI Listing
June 2021

Research on track fastener positioning method based on local unidirectional template matching.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211026131

School of Urban Railway Transportation, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai, China.

Commonly used fastener positioning methods include pixel statistics (PS) method and template matching (TM) method. For the PS method, it is difficult to judge the image segmentation threshold due to the complex background of the track. For the TM method, the search in both directions of the global is easily affected by complex background, as a result, the locating accuracy of fasteners is low. To solve the above problems, this paper combines the PS method with the TM method and proposes a new fastener positioning method called local unidirectional template matching (LUTM). First, the rail positioning is achieved by the PS method based on the gray-scale vertical projection. Then, based on the prior knowledge, the image of the rail and the surrounding area of the rail is obtained which is referred to as the 1-shaped rail image; then, the 1-shaped rail image and the produced offline symmetrical fastener template is pre-processed. Finally, the symmetrical fastener template image is searched from top to bottom along the rail and the correlation is calculated to realize the fastener positioning. Experiments have proved that the method in this paper can effectively realize the accurate locating of the fastener for ballastless track and ballasted track at the same time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211026131DOI Listing
June 2021

An injectable and self-healing hydrogel with controlled release of curcumin to repair spinal cord injury.

Bioact Mater 2021 Dec 28;6(12):4816-4829. Epub 2021 May 28.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of CNS Regeneration, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

The harsh local micro-environment following spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a great challenge for neural regeneration. Local reconstitution of a favorable micro-environment by biocompatible scaffolds with desirable functions has thus been an area of concern. Herein, a hybrid hydrogel was developed using Fmoc-grafted chitosan (FC) and Fmoc peptide (FI). Dynamic reversible π-π stacking interactions of the fluorenyl rings enabled the FC/FI hybrid hydrogel to exhibit excellent injectable and self-healing properties, as characterized by visual appearances and rheological tests. Furthermore, the FC/FI hybrid hydrogel showed a slow and persistent release of curcumin (Cur), which was named as FC/FI-Cur hydrogel. studies confirmed that with the support of FC/FI-Cur hydrogel, neurite outgrowth was promoted, and Schwann cell (SC) migration away from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) spheres with enhanced myelination was substantiated. The FC/FI-Cur hydrogel well reassembled extracellular matrix at the lesion site of rat spinal cord and exerted outstanding effects in modulating local inflammatory reaction by regulating the phenotypes of infiltrated inflammatory cells. In addition, endogenous SCs were recruited in the FC/FI-Cur graft and participated in the remyelination process of the regenerated nerves. These outcomes favored functional recovery, as evidenced by improved hind limbs movement and enhanced electrophysiological properties. Thus, our study not only advanced the development of multifunctional hydrogels but also provided insights into comprehensive approaches for SCI repair.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175285PMC
December 2021

Prevalence and risk factors of atrioventricular block among 15 million Chinese health examination participants in 2018: a nation-wide cross-sectional study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Jun 11;21(1):289. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: Nationwide data on the prevalence of atrioventricular (AV) block are currently unavailable in China. Thus, we aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of AV block among Chinese health examination adults.

Methods: A total of 15,181,402 participants aged ≥ 18 years (mean age 41.5 ± 13.4 years, 53.2% men) who underwent an electrocardiogram as a part of routine health examination in 2018 were analyzed. AV block was diagnosed by physicians using 12-lead electrocardiogram. Overall and stratified prevalence (by age, sex, and city size) of all, first-, second- and third-degree AV block were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to explore risk factors associated with AV block.

Results: AV block was observed in 88,842 participants, including 86,153 with first-degree, 2249 with second-degree and 440 with third-degree AV block. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence rate [95% confidence interval (CI)] of all, first-, second- and third-degree AV block were 7.06‰ (7.01-7.11), 6.84‰ (6.79-6.89), 0.18‰ (0.17-0.18) and 0.04‰ (0.03-0.04) respectively. After multivariable adjustment, the risk of AV block was positively associated with older age, being male, lower heart rate, higher body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. High total cholesterol was associated with a lower risk of AV block.

Conclusion: First-degree AV block is relatively common while severe AV block is rare in health examination adults. Besides, AV block was highly prevalent among the elderly. The risk of AV block was associated with older age, being male and metabolic factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02105-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194203PMC
June 2021

Consumption of soy products and cardiovascular mortality in people with and without cardiovascular disease: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million individuals.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 5650871, Japan.

Purpose: We sought to examine the association of soy product consumption with risk of cardiovascular death in Chinese individuals with and without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: The current analysis included 487,034 individuals free of CVD and 22,923 individuals with a history of CVD at study baseline. Data on consumption of soy products were collected by a food frequency questionnaire. The Cox regression was used to obtain the hazard ratios (HRs) of cardiovascular mortality associated with soy product consumption among people with and without a history of CVD at baseline.

Results: During the period of follow-up, 12,582 and 2860 cardiovascular deaths were recorded among people without and with a history of CVD. Compared with those who never or rarely ate soy products, the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) were 1.02 (0.96, 1.08) for those who ate soy products monthly, 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) for those who ate soy products 1-3 days per week, 0.95 (0.88, 1.04) for those who ate soy products ≥ 4 days per week. For cause-specific mortality, soy product consumption was inversely associated with mortality from acute myocardial infarction (HR [95% CI] = 0.75 [0.61, 0.92]). Among people with a history of CVD, higher soy product consumption was not associated with cardiovascular mortality.

Conclusions: Soy consumption ≥ 4 days per week was associated with a significantly lower risk of mortality from acute myocardial infarction in comparison with never or rarely consumption among people without a history of CVD. Among people with a history of CVD, higher soy product consumption was not associated with cardiovascular mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02602-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of heart rate and diabetes among 0.5 million adults in the China Kadoorie biobank: Results from observational and Mendelian randomization analyses.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 27;31(8):2328-2337. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China; Peking University Center for Public Health and Epidemic Preparedness & Response, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Observational studies have associated resting heart rate with incident diabetes. Whether the associations are causal remains unclear. We aimed to examine the shape and strength of the associations and assessed the causal relevance of such associations in Chinese adults.

Methods And Results: The China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512,891 adults in China. Cox proportional hazard regression models was conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the associations of resting heart rate with type 2 diabetes and total diabetes. Among 92,724 participants, 36 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to resting heart rate were used to construct genetic risk score. We used Mendelian randomization analyses to make the causal inferences. During a median follow-up of 9 years, 7872 incident type 2 diabetes and 13,349 incident total diabetes were documented. After regression dilution bias adjustment, each 10 bpm higher heart rate was associated with about a 26% higher risk of type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.23, 1.29]) and 23% higher risk of total diabetes (HR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.20, 1.26]). Instrumental variable analyses showed participants at top quintile compared with those at bottom quintile had 30% higher risk for type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.17, 1.43]), and 10% higher risk for total diabetes (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.02, 1.20]).

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that resting heart rate is an important risk factor for diabetes risk. The results suggest that novel treatment approaches targeting reduction of high heart rate for incidence of diabetes may be worth further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.04.015DOI Listing
July 2021

Development and external validation of a breast cancer absolute risk prediction model in Chinese population.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 May 29;23(1):62. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Backgrounds: In contrast to developed countries, breast cancer in China is characterized by a rapidly escalating incidence rate in the past two decades, lower survival rate, and vast geographic variation. However, there is no validated risk prediction model in China to aid early detection yet.

Methods: A large nationwide prospective cohort, China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), was used to evaluate relative and attributable risks of invasive breast cancer. A total of 300,824 women free of any prior cancer were recruited during 2004-2008 and followed up to Dec 31, 2016. Cox models were used to identify breast cancer risk factors and build a relative risk model. Absolute risks were calculated by incorporating national age- and residence-specific breast cancer incidence and non-breast cancer mortality rates. We used an independent large prospective cohort, Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), with 73,203 women to externally validate the calibration and discriminating accuracy.

Results: During a median of 10.2 years of follow-up in the CKB, 2287 cases were observed. The final model included age, residence area, education, BMI, height, family history of overall cancer, parity, and age at menarche. The model was well-calibrated in both the CKB and the SWHS, yielding expected/observed (E/O) ratios of 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.09) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.99), respectively. After eliminating the effect of age and residence, the model maintained moderate but comparable discriminating accuracy compared with those of some previous externally validated models. The adjusted areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC) were 0.634 (95% CI, 0.608-0.661) and 0.585 (95% CI, 0.564-0.605) in the CKB and the SWHS, respectively.

Conclusions: Based only on non-laboratory predictors, our model has a good calibration and moderate discriminating capacity. The model may serve as a useful tool to raise individuals' awareness and aid risk-stratified screening and prevention strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01439-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164768PMC
May 2021

A novel laparoscopic near-infrared fluorescence spectrum system with indocyanine green fluorescence overcomes limitations of near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery.

J Minim Access Surg 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery II, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Background: Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS) introduces a revolutionary new approach to address this basic challenge in minimally invasive surgery. However, current FIGS systems have some limitations - the infrared rays cannot detect and visualise thick tissues with low concentrations of the fluorescent agent. We established a novel laparoscopic fluorescence spectrum (LFS) system using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence to overcome these limitations.

Materials And Methods: Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was conjugated to ICG, and the mixtures were serially diluted at 5 × 10-5 × 10 mg/mL. We used the LFS system and a NIR camera system (NLS; SHINKO OPTICAL CO., LTD Tokyo, Japan) to determine the optical dilution for the fluorescence detection. BSA was conjugated to ICG (5.0 × 10 mg/mL) and used to coat the clips. We attempted to identify the fluorescence-coated clip from the serosal side of the cadaveric porcine stomach tissues using the LFS system and the NIR camera system. We measured the depth of the cadaveric porcine stomach wall at the thickest part that could be confirmed.

Results: We could not visualise fluorescence concentrations <2.5 × 10 mg/mL using the NIR camera system. The spectrum was detected at a concentration <2.5 × 10 mg/mL. We were able to identify the spectrum of ICG (829 nm) to a 13-mm depth of cadaveric porcine stomach wall by using the LFS system but could not identify the same with the NIR camera system regardless of wall thickness.

Conclusions: The novel LFS system with NIR fluorescence imaging in this ex vivo and cadaveric porcine model was confirmed useful at deeper depths and lower concentrations. Based on these findings, we anticipate that the LFS system can be integrated and routinely used in minimally invasive surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jmas.JMAS_165_20DOI Listing
May 2021

Gender differences in use of invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for acute ischaemic heart disease in Chinese adults.

Heart 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Health Economics Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Objective: To investigate gender differences in the use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for acute ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Chinese adults and assess whether socioeconomic or health system factors contribute to such differences.

Methods: In 2004-2008, the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 726 adults from 10 diverse areas in China. Data for 38 928 first hospitalisations with IHD (2911 acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 9817 angina and 26 200 other IHD) were obtained by electronic linkage to health insurance records until 31 December 2016. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to estimate women-to-men rate ratios (RRs) of having cardiac enzyme tests, coronary angiography and coronary revascularisation.

Results: Among the 38 928 individuals (61% women) with IHD admissions, women were less likely to have AMI (5% vs 12%), but more likely to have angina (26% vs 24%) or other IHD (69% vs 64%). For admissions with AMI, there were no differences in the use of cardiac enzymes between women and men (RR=1.00; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.03), but women had lower use of coronary angiography (0.80, 0.68 to 0.93) and coronary revascularisation (0.85, 0.74 to 0.99). For angina, the corresponding RRs were: 0.97 (0.94 to 1.00), 0.66 (0.59 to 0.74) and 0.56 (0.47 to 0.67), respectively; while for other IHD, they were 0.97 (0.94 to 1.00), 0.87 (0.76 to 0.99) and 0.61 (0.51 to 0.73), respectively. Adjusting for socioeconomic and health system factors did not significantly alter the women-to-men RRs.

Conclusions: Among Chinese adults hospitalised with acute IHD, women were less likely than men to have coronary angiography and revascularisation, but socioeconomic and health system factors did not contribute to these differences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2021-318988DOI Listing
May 2021

Combined healthy lifestyle score and risk of epigenetic aging: a discordant monozygotic twin study.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 25;13(10):14039-14052. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China.

We investigated whether lifestyle influences epigenetic aging in 143 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for the combined healthy lifestyle score. Twins were scored for four lifestyle factors as unhealthy or healthy; non-smoker, moderate drinker, adequate fruit and vegetable intake, and sufficient physical activity. The combined healthy lifestyle score was calculated for each participant by summing the binary score for each factor. Individual and co-twin analyses were used to assess the relationship between single or combined lifestyle scores, along with DNA methylation age acceleration (AA) calculated using Horvath's and Li's epigenetic clocks, focusing on AA and intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA) measures. Compared with the twins that scored no or one healthy lifestyle point, those who scored four healthy lifestyle points had lower Li_IEAA with similar results observed in the co-twin analysis. No significant relationships were found in analyses based on Horvath's clock, although the direction of correlations was consistent with that determined using Li's clock. Smoking and drinking did not significantly affect DNA methylation AA; however, physical activity and intake of vegetables and fruits did, although the influence varied depending on the epigenetic clock. Our findings suggest that a healthy lifestyle may be an important way to delay aging and prevent age-related diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202852PMC
May 2021

Age-Specific Associations Between Habitual Snoring and Cardiovascular Diseases in China: A 10-Year Cohort Study.

Chest 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Limited convincing evidence is available of the relationship between habitual snoring and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).

Research Question: Is habitual snoring associated with total CVD and CVD subtypes in different age groups of Chinese adults?

Study Design And Methods: The China Kadoorie Biobank study enrolled more than 0.5 million adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 regions in China. Snoring status and other baseline characteristics were collected from 2004 to 2008, using an interviewer-administered laptop-based questionnaire. The current analysis included 489,583 participants without stroke or coronary heart disease at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) for habitual snoring vs nonhabitual snoring.

Results: During a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 130,935 participants developed CVDs. Associations between habitual snoring and CVDs varied with age. Among participants aged younger than 50 years at baseline, habitual snoring was associated with an increased risk of total CVD (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07-1.14) after adjustment for known CVD risk factors, including systolic BP. The corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke were 1.18 (1.12-1.24), 1.12 (1.05-1.19), and 1.05 (0.92-1.19), respectively. However, such associations in adults aged 50 to 64 years were much weaker, and no statistically significant association was observed among individuals aged ≥65 years. Age-specific risk estimates were generally similar across sex and obesity subgroups.

Interpretation: Habitual snoring was associated with increased risks of total CVD, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, but not hemorrhagic stroke in Chinese, and these associations were mainly limited to those aged <50 years. Clinicians in China are encouraged to identify snoring, particularly in younger adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.04.070DOI Listing
May 2021

Genome-wide associations between alcohol consumption and blood DNA methylation: evidence from twin study.

Epigenomics 2021 Jun 17;13(12):939-951. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, PR China.

Alcohol intake alters DNA methylation profiles and methylation might mediate the association between alcohol and disease, but limited number of positive CpG sites repeatedly replicated. In total, 57 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for alcohol drinking from the Chinese National Twin Registry and 158 MZ and dizygotic twin pairs in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were evaluated. DNA methylation was detected using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Among candidate CpG sites, cg07326074 was significantly correlated with drinking after adjusting for covariates in MZ twins in both datasets but not in the entire sample or dizygotic twins. The hypermethylation of cg07326074, located in the tumor-promoting gene , was associated with alcohol consumption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2021-0039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147754PMC
June 2021

Snoring frequency and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 05 13;11(5):e042469. Epub 2021 May 13.

Suzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Suzhou, China

Objective: To evaluate the association between snoring frequency and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to age and gender in Chinese population.

Design: A cohort study was performed in Suzhou site of the China Kadoorie Biobank. Residents who didn't suffer from T2DM at baseline survey (2004-2008) and in half a year after baseline were enrolled in this study and followed cause-specific morbidity until 31 December 2013. All participants were requested to complete a detailed questionnaire and undergo anthropometric measurements. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for the snoring and T2DM association.

Setting: Wuzhong district, Suzhou, China.

Participants: A total of 49 453 participants (men: 41.8%; mean age: 51.14±10.28 years) were enrolled in this study.

Outcome Measures: T2DM cases were defined as International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision code of E11 and were identified through disease registries and health insurance databases.

Results: During a media of 7.18 years follow-up, 1120 T2DM cases were identified. Higher T2DM incidence was observed in participants with frequent and occasional snoring compared with those without (4.80 and 2.87 vs 2.39 per 1000 person-years). The multivariable-adjusted model found snoring was independently associated with T2DM (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.38), both in men (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.41) and women (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.39). Moreover, a significant multiplicative interaction effect between snoring and age was detected on T2DM risk (p=0.015).

Conclusions: Snoring was independently associated with an increased risk of T2DM in Chinese population, both in men and women. Meanwhile, there was an interaction effect between snoring and age on T2DM risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126309PMC
May 2021

Stroke risk prediction using machine learning: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objective: To compare Cox models, machine learning (ML), and ensemble models combining both approaches, for prediction of stroke risk in a prospective study of Chinese adults.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated models for stroke risk at varying intervals of follow-up (<9 years, 0-3 years, 3-6 years, 6-9 years) in 503 842 adults without prior history of stroke recruited from 10 areas in China in 2004-2008. Inputs included sociodemographic factors, diet, medical history, physical activity, and physical measurements. We compared discrimination and calibration of Cox regression, logistic regression, support vector machines, random survival forests, gradient boosted trees (GBT), and multilayer perceptrons, benchmarking performance against the 2017 Framingham Stroke Risk Profile. We then developed an ensemble approach to identify individuals at high risk of stroke (>10% predicted 9-yr stroke risk) by selectively applying either a GBT or Cox model based on individual-level characteristics.

Results: For 9-yr stroke risk prediction, GBT provided the best discrimination (AUROC: 0.833 in men, 0.836 in women) and calibration, with consistent results in each interval of follow-up. The ensemble approach yielded incrementally higher accuracy (men: 76%, women: 80%), specificity (men: 76%, women: 81%), and positive predictive value (men: 26%, women: 24%) compared to any of the single-model approaches.

Discussion And Conclusion: Among several approaches, an ensemble model combining both GBT and Cox models achieved the best performance for identifying individuals at high risk of stroke in a contemporary study of Chinese adults. The results highlight the potential value of expanding the use of ML in clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocab068DOI Listing
May 2021

Metabolic risk factors, genetic predisposition, and risk of severe liver disease in Chinese: a prospective study of 0.5 million people.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Metabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with severe liver disease (SLD) in Chinese populations. However, there is limited evidence on the combined impact of these factors, or the genetic variants associated with SLD.

Objectives: We examined the associations of combined metabolic risk factors with risks of SLD, both overall and by genetic predisposition to SLD.

Methods: The study population involved 486,828 participants of the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas in China without a history of cancer or liver disease at baseline. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted HRs for SLD associated with combined metabolic risk factors (central adiposity, physical inactivity, and diabetes) by stratum of genetic risk [assessed separately by a PNPLA3 variant (rs738409) and a BMI genetic risk score].

Results: During ∼10 years of follow-up, 3279 incident cases of SLD were recorded. The overall mean BMI was 23.8 kg/m2 (SD, 3.4 kg/m2), and 5.9% participants had diabetes. Compared with those with 3 metabolic factors, participants with 2, 1, and 0 metabolic factors had 31% (HR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.65-0.73), 43% (HR, 0.57; 95% CI: 0.53-0.60), and 52% (HR, 0.48; 95% CI: 0.42-0.56) lower risks of SLD, respectively. For both BMI and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease variants, participants with fewer metabolic factors had a lower risk of SLD, lower levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase, and lower fatty liver index scores, in participants with low and high genetic risks (P value for interaction > 0.05).

Conclusions: In relatively lean Chinese adults, individuals with fewer metabolic risk factors had a lower relative risk of SLD and a more favorable profile of liver biomarkers across all strata of genetic risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab099DOI Listing
May 2021

Establishment of reference intervals of ten commonly used clinical chemistry analytes: a real-world study in China.

Biomark Med 2021 Aug 6;15(11):797-806. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Epidemiology, Meinian Institute of Health, Beijing, 100191, China.

This real-world study was aimed at establishing reference intervals (RIs) of ten commonly used clinical chemistry analytes (total cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A1, Apo B, creatine kinase (CK), CK isoenzyme MB, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase and blood urea nitrogen) in an apparently healthy population in China.  A total of 17,356 healthy participants aged 18-79 years who underwent check-up at MJ Health Check-up Center were included. The establishment of RIs was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute EP28-A3c guideline. Roche Cobas c701 automatic analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) was employed to measure the concentrations of analytes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo B, CK, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, γ-glutamyltransferase and blood urea nitrogen required gender and age-specific partitioning. The RIs established in this study were parallel to current national standards and previous RIs established in Chinese population. Real-world studies may play an important and practical role in the determination of RIs in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2021-0233DOI Listing
August 2021

NaHS Alleviated Cell Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Remote Lung Tissue after Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion via Nrf2 Activation-Mediated NLRP3 Pathway Inhibition.

Biomed Res Int 2021 15;2021:5598869. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Urology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Heping District Anshan Road 154, Tianjin 300052, China.

Objective: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication in critically ill patients, often caused by renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR). Previous studies have confirmed that lung injury, rather than renal injury, is one of the leading causes of AKI-induced death. The pathophysiological mechanisms of acute lung injury (ALI) resulting from AKI are very complex and remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the protective effects and potential mechanism of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on lung injury in RIR mice.

Methods: The RIR model was established in wild-type and Nrf2 mice. Different groups of mice were treated with NaHS and MCC950. Lung tissues were harvested to detect lung injury, mitochondrial function, cell apoptosis, the NLRP3 inflammasome, and Nrf2 pathway-related molecules.

Results: RIR led to a deterioration in lung histology, the wet/dry weight ratio, PaO/FiO, and mitochondrial function, in addition to stimulating the activation of the NLRP3 and Nrf2 pathways. MCC950 alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction, lung apoptosis, and histology injury in the lungs after RIR. NaHS treatment markedly improved the lung histological scores, the wet/dry weight ratio, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts, BALF neutrophil counts, BALF neutrophil elastase activity, BALF protein concentration, PaO/FiO, mitochondrial morphology, the red/green fluorescence intensity that indicates changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory control rate (RCR), ATP, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, and cell apoptosis via Nrf2-mediated NLRP3 pathway inhibition.

Conclusion: NaHS protected against RIR-induced lung injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation, which is associated with Nrf2 activation-mediated NLRP3 pathway inhibition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5598869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064776PMC
June 2021

Defining Key Residues of the Swi1 Prion Domain in Prion Formation and Maintenance.

Mol Cell Biol 2021 06 23;41(7):e0004421. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Prions are self-perpetuating, alternative protein conformations associated with neurological diseases and normal cellular functions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains many endogenous prions, providing a powerful system to study prionization. Previously, we demonstrated that Swi1, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, can form the prion []. A small region, Swi1, with a unique amino acid composition of low complexity, acts as a prion domain and supports [] propagation. Here, we further examine Swi1 through site-directed mutagenesis. We found that mutations of the two phenylalanine residues or the threonine tract inhibit Swi1 aggregation. In addition, mutating both phenylalanines can abolish prion formation by Swi1, whereas mutating only one phenylalanine does not. Replacement of half of or the entire eight-threonine tract with alanines has the same effect, possibly disrupting a core region of Swi1 aggregates. We also show that Swi1 and its prion-fold-maintaining mutants form high-molecular-weight, SDS-resistant aggregates, whereas the double-phenylalanine mutants eliminate these protein species. These results indicate the necessity of the large hydrophobic residues and threonine tract in Swi1 in prionogenesis, possibly acting as important aggregable regions. Our findings thus highlight the importance of specific amino acid residues in the Swi1 prion domain in prion formation and maintenance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00044-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224238PMC
June 2021

Association between Ambient Air Pollution and MRI-Defined Brain Infarcts in Health Examinations in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 19;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China.

The study aimed to evaluate the relationships between air pollutants and risk of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined brain infarcts (BI). We used data from routine health examinations of 1,400,503 participants aged ≥18 years who underwent brain MRI scans in 174 cities in 30 provinces in China in 2018. We assessed exposures to particulate matter (PM), PM, nitrogen dioxide (NO), and carbon monoxide (CO) from 2015 to 2017. MRI-defined BI was defined as lesions ≥3 mm in diameter. Air pollutants were associated with a higher risk of MRI-defined BI. The odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for MRI-defined BI comparing the highest with the lowest tertiles of air pollutant concentrations was 2.00 (1.96-2.03) for PM, 1.68 (1.65-1.71) for PM, 1.58 (1.55-1.61) for NO, and 1.57 (1.54-1.60) for CO. Each SD increase in air pollutants was associated with 16-42% increases in the risk of MRI-defined BI. The associations were stronger in the elderly subgroup. This is the largest survey to evaluate the association between air pollution and MRI-defined BI. Our findings indicate that ambient air pollution was significantly associated with a higher risk of MRI-defined BI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072670PMC
April 2021

Associations of Obesity Measurements with Serum Metabolomic Profile: A Chinese Twin Study.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2021 02;24(1):14-21

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

The objective of this study was to investigate how different obesity measures link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on follow-up survey data at the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), which was conducted in four areas of China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Sichuan) in 2013. The survey collected detailed questionnaire information and conducted physical examinations, fasting blood sampling and untargeted metabolomic measurements among 439 adult twins. Linear regression models and bioinformatics analysis were used to examine the relation of obesity measures, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with serum metabolite levels and related pathways. A co-twin control study was additionally conducted among 15 obesity-discordant monozygotic (MZ) pairs (intrapair BMI difference >3 kg/m2) to examine any differences in metabolites controlling for genetic factors. Eleven metabolites were associated with BMI, WC and WHR after controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors. Pathway analysis identified pathways such as phenylalanine metabolism, purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis that were associated with obesity. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with obesity. Obesity-discordant twin analysis suggests that these associations are independent of genetic liability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/thg.2021.3DOI Listing
February 2021

Proteomics analysis in the kidney of mice following oral feeding Realgar.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 18;275:114118. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 300139, China; NMPA Key Laboratory for Quality Control of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control, Shanghai, 201203, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Realgar, a famous traditional Chinese mineral medicine, has been toxic to the renal system. However, the underlying mechanism of Realgar nephrotoxicity is still unclear.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to investigate the potential mechanism of Realgar-induced nephrotoxicity by using a label-free quantitative proteomic method.

Materials And Methods: 36 mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control group, 0.5-, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg Realgar group. After one week, serum biochemical parameters and renal histopathological examination were performed. Label-free quantitative proteomics was used to identify differentially expressed proteins which were subsequently analyzed with bioinformatics methods. Western blot was utilized to verify the six representative protein expressions.

Results: The results showed that 2.0 g/kg Realgar significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and induced the formation of tube cast of renal tubules, while the lower-dose of 0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg Realgar showed no changes. Label-free proteomic analysis identified 3138 proteins, and 272 of those proteins were screened for significant changes in a dose-dependent manner. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that these proteins could affect the apoptotic process and oxidative stress. Representative proteins in the 2.0 g/kg Realgar group, including Cat, Bad, Cycs, Nqo1, Podxl, and Hmox1, were verified by western blot.

Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that apoptosis and oxidative stress might be related to the Realgar-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Moreover, the strategy of proteomics could contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of nephrotoxicity in mice exposed to Realgar.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114118DOI Listing
July 2021

AFI-Net: Attention-Guided Feature Integration Network for RGBD Saliency Detection.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 30;2021:8861446. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Urban Railway Transportation, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China.

This article proposes an innovative RGBD saliency model, that is, attention-guided feature integration network, which can extract and fuse features and perform saliency inference. Specifically, the model first extracts multimodal and level deep features. Then, a series of attention modules are deployed to the multilevel RGB and depth features, yielding enhanced deep features. Next, the enhanced multimodal deep features are hierarchically fused. Lastly, the RGB and depth boundary features, that is, low-level spatial details, are added to the integrated feature to perform saliency inference. The key points of the AFI-Net are the attention-guided feature enhancement and the boundary-aware saliency inference, where the attention module indicates salient objects coarsely, and the boundary information is used to equip the deep feature with more spatial details. Therefore, salient objects are well characterized, that is, well highlighted. The comprehensive experiments on five challenging public RGBD datasets clearly exhibit the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed AFI-Net.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8861446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026315PMC
March 2021

US-China health exchange and collaboration following COVID-19.

Lancet 2021 06 8;397(10291):2304-2308. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Emory Global Health Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Strong US-China collaboration on health and medicine is a crucial element of the global effort against COVID-19. We review the history of health collaboration and exchanges between the public and private sectors in the USA and China, including the long-lasting collaboration between governmental public health agencies of the two countries. Academic and scientific exchanges should be reinvigorated and the increasing valuable role of non-profit foundations acknowledged. The shared interests of the two countries and the magnitude of the pandemic necessitate both countries to collaborate and cooperate. We provide recommendations to the two governments and the global health community to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and prepare for future threats. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00734-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032253PMC
June 2021

Pneumonia hospitalizations and the subsequent risk of incident ischaemic cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Background: Acute respiratory infections have been associated with a transient increase in cardiovascular risk. However, whether such an association persists beyond 1 month and the potential modifying effect of cardiovascular risk factors on such an association are less well established.

Methods: The China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 726 participants aged 30-79 years from 10 areas across China during 2004-2008. By the end of 2017, a total of 5444 participants with new-onset ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and 4846 with ischaemic stroke (IS) who also had at least a record of hospitalization for pneumonia during follow-up were included. We used a self-controlled case-series method and calculated the age- and season-adjusted relative incidences (RIs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ischaemic cardiovascular disease (CVD) after pneumonia.

Results: The risk of ischaemic CVD increased during days 1-3 after pneumonia hospitalization, with an RI (95% CI) of 4.24 (2.92-6.15) for IHD and 1.85 (1.02-3.35) for IS. The risk gradually reduced with longer duration since pneumonia hospitalization but remained elevated until days 92-365 for IHD (1.23, 1.12-1.35) and days 29-91 for IS (1.25, 1.05-1.48). Pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors amplified the associations between pneumonia and ischaemic CVD risks, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for both IHD and IS, and diabetes and smoking for IHD (all Pinteraction < 0.05). Besides, the risk of ischaemic CVD was also higher among the participants aged ≥70 years (Pinteraction < 0.001 for IHD and 0.033 for IS).

Conclusion: Among middle-aged and older Chinese adults, pneumonia hospitalization was associated with both short- and long-term increases in ischaemic CVD risk for ≤1 year.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab039DOI Listing
April 2021

Consumption of Tea, Alcohol, and Fruits and Risk of Kidney Stones: A Prospective Cohort Study in 0.5 Million Chinese Adults.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 29;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

A few prospective studies have suggested that tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption may reduce the risk of kidney stones. However, little is known whether such associations and their combined effect persist in Chinese adults, for whom the popular tea and alcohol drinks are different from those investigated in the aforementioned studies. The present study included 502,621 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB). Information about tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption was self-reported at baseline. The first documented cases of kidney stones during follow-up were collected through linkage with the national health insurance system. Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). During a median of 11.1 years of follow-up, we collected 12,407 cases of kidney stones. After multivariable adjustment, tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption were found to be negatively associated with kidney stone risk, but the linear trend was only found in tea and fruit consumption. Compared with non-tea consumers, the HR (95% CI) for participants who drank ≥7 cups of tea per day was 0.73 (0.65-0.83). Compared with non-alcohol consumers, the HR (95% CI) was 0.79 (0.72-0.87) for participants who drank pure alcohol of 30.0-59.9 g per day but had no further decrease with a higher intake of alcohol. Compared with less-than-weekly consumers, the HR (95% CI) for daily fruit consumers was 0.81 (0.75-0.87). Even for those who did not drink alcohol excessively, increasing tea and fruit consumption could also independently reduce the stone risk. Among Chinese adults, tea, alcohol, and fruit consumption was associated with a lower risk of kidney stones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065818PMC
March 2021

Educational disparities in ischaemic heart disease among 0.5 million Chinese adults: a cohort study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing, China.

Background: The relationship between educational attainment and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is limited in evidence in middle-income countries like China. Exploring lifestyle-related mediators, which might be not universal between socioeconomic status and health outcomes in diverse regions, can contribute to interventions targeted at the Chinese to narrow the educational gap in IHD.

Methods: Based on the China Kadoorie Biobank of 489 594 participants aged 30-79 years who did not have heart disease or stroke at baseline, this study examined the association of educational attainment with IHD. Total IHD cases were further divided into acute myocardial infarction (AMI) cases and non-AMI cases. The Cox proportional hazard model was performed to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs for mortality and incidence of IHD. Logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs and 95% CIs for case fatality.

Results: During the median follow-up period of 11.1 years, this study documented 45 946 (6668) incident IHD (AMI) cases and 5948 (3689) deaths altogether. Lower educational attainment was associated with increased risk of incident AMI as well as death and fatality of total IHD including its subtypes (p <0.001). Although the risk of incident non-AMI was greater for participants with higher levels of education in the whole population (p <0.001), an inverse association of education with its incidence was found in participants from <50 years age group and rural areas. Smoking and dietary habits were the two most potent mediating factors in the associations of education with mortality and AMI incidence; whereas, physical activity was the major mediating factor for non-AMI incidence in the whole population.

Discussion: Interventions targeting unhealthy lifestyles are ideal ways to narrow the educational gap in IHD while solving 'upstream' causes of health behaviours might be the most fundamental ones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2020-216314DOI Listing
March 2021