Publications by authors named "Limin Hu"

80 Publications

Assessment of mercury levels in modern sediments of the East Siberian Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jul 30;168:112426. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 3 Akademika Koptyuga Av., Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.

Mercury (Hg) is an important environmental indicator of anthropogenic pollution. In this study, the Hg content in the bottom sediments of the East Siberian Sea was observed to range from 13 to 92 ppb, with an average of 36 ppb. Facies dependence was also observed and expressed as an increase in the Hg concentration in fine-sized sediments on the shelf edge and continental slope, compared to that in the sandy silts and sands of the inner shelf. The Hg accumulation in bottom sediments of the eastern part has increased over the past 150 years due to an increase in global emissions of anthropogenic Hg, which is caused by the transboundary transport of Hg to the Arctic. Moreover, changes in the Hg value, which occur due to the plankton arriving at the bottom sediments because of changes in hydrology and primary production, are thought to be associated with global warming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112426DOI Listing
July 2021

Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of a major locus controlling ovule abortion and seed number per silique in Brassica napus L.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Key Message: A major QTL controlling ovule abortion and SN was fine-mapped to a 80.1-kb region on A8 in rapeseed, and BnaA08g07940D and BnaA08g07950D are the most likely candidate genes. The seed number per silique (SN), an important yield determining trait of rapeseed, is the final consequence of a complex developmental process including ovule initiation and the subsequent ovule/seed development. To explore the genetic mechanism regulating the natural variation of SN and its related components, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from the cross between C4-146 and C4-58B, which showed significant differences in SN and aborted ovule number (AON), but no obvious differences in ovule number (ON). QTL analysis identified 19 consensus QTLs for six SN-related traits across three environments. A novel QTL on chromosome A8, un.A8, which associates with multiple traits, except for ON, was stably detected across the three environments. This QTL explained more than 50% of the SN, AON and percentage of aborted ovules (PAO) variations as well as a moderate contribution on silique length (SL) and thousand seed weight (TSW). The C4-146 allele at the locus increases SN and SL but decreases AON, PAO and TSW. Further fine mapping narrowed down this locus into an 80.1-kb interval flanked by markers BM1668 and BM1672, and six predicted genes were annotated in the delimited region. Expression analyses and DNA sequencing showed that two homologs of Arabidopsis photosystem I subunit F (BnaA08g07940D) and zinc transporter 10 precursor (BnaA08g07950D) were the most promising candidate genes underlying this locus. These results provide a solid basis for cloning un.A8 to reduce the ovule abortion and increase SN in the yield improvement of rapeseed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03839-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Salvianolate lyophilized injection regulates the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 6;271:113898. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, #10 Boyanghu Road, Jinghai District, Tianjin, 301617, China; Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medical Formulae, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Activation of autophagy has been implicated in cerebral ischiemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Salvianolate lyophilized injection (SLI) has been widely used in the clinical treatment of cerebrovascular disease in China. Whether SLI has any influence on the activation of autophagy in cerebral I/R injury remains elusive.

Aim Of The Study: The aim of this study were to assess whether SLI attenuates I/R-induced brain injury and evaluate its associated mechanisms.

Materials And Methods: Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). SLI (21 mg/kg) was injected intravenously at the beginning of the reperfusion period and 24 and 48 h after ischaemia. The effects of SLI on brain injury were detected according to infarct volume, neurological score, brain oedema, and HE and TUNEL staining at 72 h post-MCAO. Western blotting was used to detect alterations in the autophagy-relevant proteins LC3, Beclin-1, mTOR, p62, Lamp-1, and CTSD in the ipsilateral cortex at 24 or 72 h post-MCAO.

Results: We first demonstrated that SLI significantly alleviated the infarct volume, neurological deficits, and brain oedema, and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in rats with cerebral I/R injury. Next, we found that SLI has a bidirectional regulatory effect on autophagy: early-stage (24 h) cerebral ischaemia promotes the activation of autophagy and developmental-stage (72 h) cerebral ischaemia has an inhibitory effect. SLI enhanced I/R-induced autophagy as evidenced by the increased expression level of the autophagy marker protein LC3Ⅱ, as well as the decreased expression of mTOR and the autophagy substrate protein p62, but there was no change in lysosomal activity at 24 h after I/R-induced injury. Moreover, SLI also inhibited excessive activation of autophagy at 72 h after I/R-induced injury, which manifested as downregulating LC3Ⅱ expression, upregulating mTOR and p62 expression, and inhibiting lysosomal activity.

Conclusion: SLI has a protective effect on cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury, which may be mediated by the autophagy-lysosome pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113898DOI Listing
May 2021

Semi-centennial sediment records of HCHs and DDTs from the East China marginal seas: Role of lateral transport in catchment.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 27;263:128100. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

We reconstructed the history of the inputs of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) into the marine environment to reveal the time-dependent influence of sources and associated anthropogenic activities in China, based on Pb-dated cores from the East China marginal seas (ECMS). The temporal dynamics of pesticide contamination expresses as deposition fluxes, inventories, and half-life estimations varied among the cores, suggesting heterogeneity in transport pathways of pollutants. The depth profiles of pesticide inputs closely followed their historical production and application timelines in China, and were also affected by human activities in catchments, with general declines in HCH and DDT inputs to the coring sites after their peak deposition. Despite the prevalence of occurrence of weathered HCH/DDT in the cores, there were clear source-dependent differences in isomeric composition and accumulation between before and after these pesticides were banned. α-HCH and p,p'-DDT were relatively more enriched in sediments from the pre-ban period when heavy technical HCHs and DDTs use occurred, as indicated by the higher α-/β-HCH and lower (DDE + DDD)/DDTs ratios, and the larger fractions of α-HCH and p,p'-DDT influxes to the coring sites in the ΣHCH and ΣDDT fluxes, respectively, while this pattern shifted to be historical residue-based in the post-ban period. The difference in the recent influxes of pesticides to core sediments and their higher post-ban inventories highlight the increasing importance of historical sources over time and continuous input of weathered residues into marine environment via lateral transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128100DOI Listing
January 2021

Particulate and Dissolved Black Carbon in Coastal China Seas: Spatiotemporal Variations, Dynamics, and Potential Implications.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 01 4;55(1):788-796. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

College of Marine Ecology and Environment, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China.

Elaborating the spatiotemporal variations and dynamic mechanisms of black carbon (BC) in coastal seas, the geographically pivotal intermediate zones that link the terrestrial and open oceanic ecosystems, will contribute significantly to refine the regional and global BC geochemistry. In this study, we implemented a large spatial-scale and multiseason and -layer seawater sampling campaign in high BC emission influenced coastal China seas (Bohai Sea and Northern Yellow Sea) and quantified the thermal/optical reflectance-based particulate BC (PBC) and benzene polycarboxylic acids-based dissolved BC (DBC). We found that the climate and its associated hydrological effects (including the intensive resuspension and coastal current transport) largely regulate both PBC and DBC spatiotemporal variations and dynamics. In combination with previous work on upstream rivers and downstream open ocean, a significant and continuous decrease in the DBC aromatic condensation was observed along the river-to-ocean continuum, probably due to the increment of the photochemical degradation during the waterborne transport. Based on our DBC methodological development, i.e., the determination and subsequent inclusion of the nitrated BC molecular markers, the magnitudes of the current global DBC fluxes and pools were updated. After the update, the DBC fluxes from atmospheric deposition and riverine delivery were estimated at rates of 4.3 and 66.3 Tg yr, respectively, and the global oceanic DBC pool was approximately 36 Gt. This update will greatly assist in constructing a more robust regional and global DBC and BC cycling and budgets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06386DOI Listing
January 2021

Facile synthesis of AgO/ZnO/rGO heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light: Kinetics and mechanism.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 18;403:124011. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

College of Resource and Environment, Qingdao Engineering Research Center for Rural Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, PR China. Electronic address:

AgO/ZnO/rGO heterojunction photocatalysts were synthesized via a rapid microwave hydrothermal method for photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) under simulated solar light. Ag doping efficiently decreased the bandgap of ZnO, and loading on rGO inhibited the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. The highest BPA removal rate (80%) was achieved with an Ag doping ratio of 5% and a GO loading ratio of 3 wt%. The enhanced photocatalytic performance was attributed to the narrower bandgap and the improved separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the recycling experiments proved that AgO/ZnO/rGO possessed excellent photostability. Hole (h) and •OH played crucial roles in the photocatalytic system. The degradation pathway of BPA including hydroxylation and the cleavage of covalent bonds was proposed. The toxicity assessment of intermediates elucidated that most of intermediates were less toxic than BPA. The as-prepared AgO/ZnO/rGO exhibited outstanding photostability and pH adaptability, having great potential to be applied to the degradation of emerging organic pollutants in wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124011DOI Listing
February 2021

Distribution and gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the East China Sea and Yellow Sea in spring: Role of atmospheric transport transition.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 17;762:143071. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China; Institute of Eco-Chongming (IEC), Shanghai 200062, China. Electronic address:

To elucidate the variations in the East Asian monsoon system during seasonal changes and their impacts on continental outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sixteen integrated air samples were collected during a research cruise covering the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) in mid-spring of 2017. The concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP), aerosol-phase PAH fractions, ratios of organic to elemental carbon (OC/EC) and gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric PAHs exhibited clear regional differences associated with variations in the monsoon regime. The total concentrations of 16 USEPA priority PAHs (ΣPAHs) varied from 3.11 to 13.4 ng/m throughout the cruise, with medium-to-high molecular weight (MW) PAHs more enriched over the YS and north ECS than the south ECS. Together with the relatively low gaseous PAH fraction over the YS and north ECS (78 ± 4%) relative to the south ECS (95 ± 13%), this result indicates the pattern of regional atmospheric transport. The ratio of organic to elemental carbon varied significantly between the south ECS (lower than 4) and the YS and north ECS (greater than 4), indicating contributions from vehicle emissions and coal combustion or biomass burning, respectively, following different atmospheric input pathways of carbonaceous aerosols, as supported by backward trajectory analysis. Considering the gas-particle partitioning of PAHs, soot adsorption was the main partitioning mechanism in the study region; while high-MW PAHs in the YS and north ECS were influenced by both absorption and adsorption. The K absorption model provided better predictions for high-MW PAHs when continental air masses prevailed, despite underestimating the partition coefficients (k) of low-MW PAHs. Meanwhile, predicted k for medium MW PAHs was better estimated over the YS and ECS when K was included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143071DOI Listing
March 2021

Microwave-assisted one pot synthesis of β-cyclodextrin modified biochar for concurrent removal of Pb(II) and bisphenol a in water.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Dec 29;250:117003. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

School of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China. Electronic address:

Herein, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized rice husk-derived biochar (BC) was conveniently and fast synthesized via microwave (MW)-assisted one pot process, and employed for simultaneous elimination of bisphenol A (BPA) and plumbum (Pb). Profiting by microwave irradiation, the surface modification was implemented in 15 min and the prepared BC-β-CD presented an excellent adsorption performance with a heterogeneous adsorption capacity of 209.20 mg/g for BPA and a theoretical monolayer uptake of 240.13 mg/g for Pb(II) in the mono-component system. Furthermore, the BC-β-CD could simultaneously achieve efficient cleanup of BPA and Pb(II) through avoiding the competitive behaviors between them, which were due to the different adsorption mechanisms for Pb(II) (i.e. electrostatic attraction and complexation) and BPA (i.e. host-guest supramolecular and π-π interactions). Moreover, the adsorbed BPA and Pb(II) could be sequentially desorbed with mild decrease in the adsorption performance of BC-β-CD even after five cycles in the Pb(II)-BPA multi-component system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117003DOI Listing
December 2020

Lead isotopes in the Central Yellow Sea Mud: Evidence of atmospheric deposition and its implication for regional energy consumption shift.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 23;268(Pt B):115702. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Metallogeny, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao, 266061, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Geology, Qingdao National Oceanography Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266061, PR China.

Anthropogenic activities have increased lead (Pb) emissions and impacted their spatiotemporal distributions in coastal seas. To quantify the increasing variability of Pb and identify the specific origins and their corresponding magnitudes, Pb and Pb isotopes are investigated in a well-placed sediment core covering the period of 1928-2008 in the Central Yellow Sea Mud (CYSM). The concentration of Pb varied from 27.17 μg/g to 37.30 μg/g upwardly along the core, with pronounced anthropogenic disturbance since the late 1960s. The Pb input history of the CYSM experienced five stages according to industrialization levels and Pb contamination, with relative pristine stages from 1928 to 1969 and human activity-impacted stages from 1969 to 2008. The Pb/Pb ratio demonstrated an overall decreasing profile while the Pb/Pb ratio displayed the reverse trend upwardly along the core, possibly due to the atmospheric delivery of anthropogenic Pb emissions from northern China. Furthermore, Pb/Pb vs. Pb/Pb shows certain linearity between natural sediment sources and anthropogenic emissions of Pb (atmospheric deposition); thus, atmospheric inputs account for 34-43% of the Pb in the sediment since Pb enrichment using the two-endmember mixing model. Moreover, the steep decrease in Pb/Pb and rapid increase in Pb/Pb since the 1970s suggest the introduction of leaded gasoline and the increasing proportionate consumption of gasoline relative to total energy consumption. The continuously decreasing Pb/Pb ratio and increasing Pb/Pb ratio since 2000 are the combined results of coal consumption, nonferrous smelting, and residual Pb contamination from leaded gasoline, which is quite distinctive from cases in North America and Europe. The relatively high Pb/Pb and low Pb/Pb ratios before 1969 represent the natural Pb isotopic signatures. Hence, Pb input is significantly affected by regional energy consumption and restructuring, and the Pb isotopic ratios may be a potential proxy for the shift in energy consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115702DOI Listing
January 2021

Distribution of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from the Sea of Japan to the Arctic, and Hg(0) evasion fluxes in the Eastern Arctic Seas: Results from a joint Russian-Chinese cruise in fall 2018.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 26;753:142003. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China.

The Eastern Arctic Seas and the north-western Pacific are among the most poorly investigated areas as far as Hg cycling in marine systems is concerned. Continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) concentrations in the marine boundary layer and Hg(0) evasion fluxes from the sea surface were performed in these regions in fall 2018. Atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations of 1.02-2.50 ng/m were measured (average: 1.45 ± 0.12 ng/m; N = 2518). Values in the Far Eastern Seas of Russia were lower compared to previous observations, presumably reflecting а global trend of decreasing atmospheric Hg(0). Concentration-weighted trajectory analysis highlighted three source regions influencing Hg(0) concentrations in the ambient air during the cruise: 1) the north-eastern China and the Yellow Sea region; 2) the Kuril-Kamchatka region of the Pacific Ocean and the region around the Commander and Aleutian Islands; and 3) the Arctic region. In the Arctic, sea-air Hg(0) evasion fluxes were at the same low levels as those observed earlier in the northern sea areas (0.28-1.35 ng/m/h, average, 0.70 ± 0.26 ng/m/h, N = 29). In the Eastern Arctic Seas, Hg(0) evasion fluxes were significantly dependent on river runoff. In the Arctic Ocean, they were negatively correlated with water temperature and positively correlated with salinity, suggesting a proximity to areas with contiguous ice and higher dissolved Hg(0) concentrations in the surface seawater. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the Arctic Ocean is a source of atmospheric Hg(0) during late summer and fall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142003DOI Listing
January 2021

Targeted mutagenesis of EOD3 gene in Brassica napus L. regulates seed production.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 25;236(3):1996-2007. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Seed size and number are central to the evolutionary fitness of plants and are also crucial for seed production of crops. However, the molecular mechanisms of seed production control are poorly understood in Brassica crops. Here, we report the gene cloning, expression analysis, and functional characterization of the EOD3/CYP78A6 gene in rapeseed. BnaEOD3 has four copies located in two subgenomes, which exhibited a steady higher expression during seed development with differential expression among copies. The targeted mutations of BnaEOD3 gene were efficiently generated by stable transformation of the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) vector. These mutations were stably transmitted to T and T generations and a large collection of homozygous mutants with combined loss-of-function alleles across four BnaEOD3 copies were created for phenotyping. All mutant T lines had shorter siliques, smaller seeds, and an increased number of seeds per silique, in which the quadrable mutants showed the most significant changes in these traits. Consequently, the seed weight per plant in the quadrable mutants increased by 13.9% on average compared with that of wild type, indicating that these BnaEOD3 copies have redundant functions in seed development in rapeseed. The phenotypes of the different allelic combinations of BnaEOD3 copies also revealed gene functional differentiation among the two subgenomes. Cytological observations indicated that the BnaEOD3 could act maternally to promote cotyledon cell expansion and proliferation to regulate seed growth in rapeseed. Collectively, our findings reveal the quantitative involvement of the different BnaEOD3 copies function in seed development, but also provided valuable resources for rapeseed breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29986DOI Listing
March 2021

BnA10.RCO, a homeobox gene, positively regulates leaf lobe formation in Brassica napus L.

Theor Appl Genet 2020 Dec 20;133(12):3333-3343. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Key Message: BnA10.RCO positively regulates the development of leaf lobes in Brassica napus, and cis-regulatory divergences cause the different allele effects. The functional importance of lobed leaves in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been identified with potential advantages for high-density planting and hybrid production. Our previous studies indicated that the tandemly duplicated LMI1-like genes BnA10. RCO and BnA10.LMI1 are candidate genes of an incompletely dominant locus, which is responsible for the lobed-leaf shape in rapeseed. We provided strong evidence that BnA10.LMI1 positively regulates leaf lobe formation. Here, we show that BnA10.RCO is a nucleus-specific protein, encoding an HD-ZIP I transcription factor, which is responsible for the lobed-leaf shape in rapeseed. Sequence analysis of parental alleles revealed that no vital sequence variation was detected in the coding sequence of BnA10.RCO, whereas abundant variations were identified in the regulatory regions. Consistent with this finding, the expression level of BnRCO was substantially elevated in the lobed-leaved parent HY compared with its near-isogenic line. Moreover, the altered expression of BnA10.RCO in transgenic lines showed a positive connection with leaf complexity without a substantial change in BnLMI1 transcript level. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-induced null mutations of BnA10.RCO in the lobed-leaved parent HY were sufficient to produce an unlobed leaf without alteration in BnLMI1 transcript level. Our results indicate that BnA10.RCO functions together with BnA10.LMI1 to positively determine the lobed-leaf development, providing a fundamental basis for crop improvement by targeting leaf shape in rapeseed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-020-03672-3DOI Listing
December 2020

Shenmai Injection Protects Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity Maintaining Mitochondrial Homeostasis.

Front Pharmacol 2020 5;11:815. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Shenmai injection (SMI), as a patented traditional Chinese medicine, is extracted from Panax ginseng and Ophiopogon japonicus. It commonly used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease and in the control of cardiac toxicity induced by doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. However, its anti-cardiotoxicity mechanism remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mitochondrial protective mechanisms of SMI on DOX-induced myocardial injury. The cardioprotective effect of SMI against DOX-induced myocardial damage was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice and H9c2 cardiomyocytes. , myocardial injury, apoptosis and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) signaling pathway related proteins were measured. , apoptosis, mitochondrial superoxide, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial morphology, levels of mitochondrial fission/fusion associated proteins, mitochondrial respiratory function, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity were assessed. To further elucidate the regulating effects of SMI on AMPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway, compound C and LY294002 were utilized. , SMI decreased mortality rate, levels of creatine kinase, and creatine kinase-MB. SMI significantly prevented DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis, decreased levels of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved-Caspase3, increased levels of PI3K, p-Akt, and p-GSK-3β. , SMI rescued DOX-injured H9c2 cardiomyocytes from apoptosis, excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and descending mitochondrial membrane potential, which were markedly suppressed by LY294002. SMI increased ratio of L-OPA1 to S-OPA1, levels of AMPK phosphorylation, and DRP1 phosphorylation (Ser637) in order to prevent DOX-induced excessive mitochondrial fission and insufficient mitochondrial fusion. In conclusion, SMI prevents DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, inhibits mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial fragmentation through activation of AMPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289952PMC
June 2020

Isotopic tracing of mercury sources in estuarine-inner shelf sediments of the East China Sea.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jul 12;262:114356. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Large river estuarine-inner shelf systems play an important role in the coastal biogeochemical cycling of heavy metals; however, the source-to-sink of mercury (Hg) in these environments remain poorly understood. In this study, the Hg isotopic composition of surface sediments in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) were examined to quantitatively track Hg sources in this region. We detected large spatial variation in δHg (-1.88 to -0.29‰) and ΔHg (-0.22 to 0.13‰) in sediments of the YRE-ECS inner shelf. The impact of sediment resuspension and transport from the YRE to the inner shelf of the ECS could have little effect on Hg isotopic composition, and the two regions shared similar Hg isotopic composition. An isotope-based triple mixing model further revealed major contributors to sediment Hg from industrial Hg discharge into water (51.8 ± 24.5%), soil Hg from surface runoff (29.2 ± 17.0%), and precipitation-derived atmospheric deposition Hg (19.1 ± 17.5%). The Hg isotopic compositions of the YRE sediments and other local river estuaries were similar to those of direct industrial Hg discharge, indicating that contaminated riverine discharge was the dominant Hg source for estuarine and adjacent shelf areas. Soil Hg delivered through surface runoff was the primary source of Hg to the coastal areas not near large river estuaries, whereas precipitation-derived atmospheric deposition had a greater influence on offshore sediment Hg content. Industrial Hg discharged to rivers had the highest mean depositional flux (35.0 ± 27.3 ng cm yr) and mass inventory (25.6 t yr), accounting for 77.4% of the total Hg variance. The findings of this study demonstrate that large rivers such as the Yangtze River can supply substantial amounts of industrial Hg to the estuary and adjacent shelf.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114356DOI Listing
July 2020

Atmospheric legacy organochlorine pesticides and their recent exchange dynamics in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 18;727:138408. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

The occurrence and air-sea gas exchange of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and chlordanes were determined in the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) in spring to elucidate their current pollution status and fate. ΣHCHs, ΣDDTs, and Σchlordanes in air (sum of gaseous and aerosol phase) ranged from 9.37 to 102, from 1.73 to 12.8, and from 0.24 to 14.9 pg/m, respectively, with their dissolved levels being 30.7-518, 7.10-80.5, and 0.25-7.10 pg/L, respectively. HCHs, DDTs, and chlordanes cause substantial contamination of the air and seawater of the East China Sea (ECS), indicating significant OCP inputs from China. Isomer ratios of HCHs and DDTs provided a fingerprint of East Asian emissions of legacy OCPs, with the pollution profiles of HCHs and DDTs dominated by lindane and combined dicofol-type and weathered technical DDTs, respectively. The former result is consistent with the apparent decline in air α-HCH levels over the ECS. Different from still net deposition of gaseous α- and γ-HCH in the NWP, outgassing of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, and DDTs other than dicofol-sourced o,p'-DDT was indicated. This observation attributes to intensive historical usage of technical HCHs and the prevalence of lindane pollution in East Asia, and demonstrates the transitioning role of seawater as a source for residual OCPs in the East Asia-NWP region. Significant subcooled liquid vapor pressure-based relationships for legacy OCPs were identified mainly in marine air masses; these were different from land-sourced polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and suggested a heterogeneous role of ocean- and land-based sources in atmospheric partitioning of these pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138408DOI Listing
July 2020

The application of microwaves in sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes for environmental remediation: A review.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 12;722:137831. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Qingdao Engineering Research Center for Rural Environment, College of Resource and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, PR China. Electronic address:

The generation of sulfate radicals is a key factor to limit the catalytic activities of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs). Microwave irradiation is a specific method to heat solutions via thermal and nonthermal effects, and has attracted an increasing amount of attention in recent years. Herein, we focus on the application of microwaves in SR-AOPs that called SR-MAOPs in environmental remediation, including wastewater, landfill leachate, biological waste sludge and soil, etc. treatment. Various systems including homogeneous and heterogeneous SR-MAOPs were reviewed. In wastewater treatment, not only the dyes and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were considered, the application in actual water matrices was also summarized. In addition, the function of remediation for organic-contaminated soil, landfill leachate and biological waste sludge were assessed using SR-MAOPs. In addition to evaluating the degradation efficiency of various organic pollutants from environment, the dewaterability is another key to treat biological waste sludge. The SR-MAOPs could break up hydrogen bonds and inactivate and denature complex biological molecules via microwave effects to achieve the dewatering of microorganisms in sludge. Furthermore, the COD of the sludge increased to a high level after microwave irradiation of sludge, which means that biopolymers released from microbial cells into the solution. Then, the released COD could be well treated by the SR-MAOPs. Based on the summary, we reveal that SR-MAOPs are potential technologies for environmental remediation, especially for systems with complicated organic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137831DOI Listing
June 2020

Benthic trace metal fluxes in a heavily contaminated bay in China: Does the sediment become a source of metals to the water column?

Environ Pollut 2020 Feb 11;257:113494. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao, 266061, China; Laboratory for Marine Geology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266061, China.

Over three different seasons, seawater, porewater and sediment samples were collected from Jinzhou Bay, a previously heavily contaminated bay, to quantitatively assess the benthic flux of trace metals after a reduction in fluvial/sewage discharge for almost three decades. The spatial distribution patterns of trace metals in seawater, surface sediment, as well as the vertical distribution patterns of metals in porewater and solid phases in short sediment cores were reported. Metal concentrations in seawater and sediment all showed much higher Cd and Zn concentrations inside the Jinzhou Bay compared to the rest of Bohai Sea area. Zn, Ni, Pb and Co all had average benthic fluxes coming out of the sediments to the water column, contributing about 0.5%, 0.3%, 1.4% and 14% to their current standing stock in Jinzhou Bay. Seasonal difference was also identified in seawater and porewater, as well as in the benthic fluxes. In general, benthic fluxes and porewater concentrations all tended to be higher in summer, implying a close relationship between benthic flux and the temperature-dependent organic matter degradation process at the sediment-water interface. Currently, there are clearly still other sources, possibly fluvial/sewage discharge, as the main source of trace metals in Jinzhou Bay waters. For Cd and Cu, concentrations in the water column remain high on an annual basis indicating that sediment still acts as a sink. Conversely, for Pb, Zn, Co, and Ni, the sediment is beginning to act as a source to the water column. Although this may not yet be significant, it will become more and more important with time, and can last for hundreds to thousands of years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113494DOI Listing
February 2020

Catalytic degradation of p-nitrophenol by magnetically recoverable FeO as a persulfate activator under microwave irradiation.

Chemosphere 2020 Feb 27;240:124977. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, China. Electronic address:

In this study, FeO and microwave (MW) were combined to activate persulfate (PS) for the removal of organic matter, resulting in the enhanced degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) in solution. During the preparation of FeO, the effect of sodium acetate was examined, and the results showed that the concentration of sodium acetate had little effect on the catalytic activity of the FeO/PS/MW system but did have an effect on the FeO yield. In addition, with regards to the representative environmental factors, the degradation experiment showed that humic acid and the co-existing anions of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate had little effects on p-nitrophenol removal; however, carbonate had a negative effect. In addition, the FeO/PS/MW system performed well in the initial pH range of 3.0-9.0. According to the quenching experiment and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) detection, sulfate radicals and a minority of hydroxyl radicals play dominant roles in the degradation process. In addition, the role of FeO was confirmed to take part in the degradation process by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Because of the good performance observed in the water matrices of tap water and the Songhua River, these results demonstrate the potential application of the FeO/PS/MW system for wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124977DOI Listing
February 2020

Targeted mutagenesis of BnTT8 homologs controls yellow seed coat development for effective oil production in Brassica napus L.

Plant Biotechnol J 2020 05 11;18(5):1153-1168. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Yellow seed is a desirable trait with great potential for improving seed quality in Brassica crops. Unfortunately, no natural or induced yellow seed germplasms have been found in Brassica napus, an important oil crop, which likely reflects its genome complexity and the difficulty of the simultaneous random mutagenesis of multiple gene copies with functional redundancy. Here, we demonstrate the first application of CRISPR/Cas9 for creating yellow-seeded mutants in rapeseed. The targeted mutations of the BnTT8 gene were stably transmitted to successive generations, and a range of homozygous mutants with loss-of-function alleles of the target genes were obtained for phenotyping. The yellow-seeded phenotype could be recovered only in targeted mutants of both BnTT8 functional copies, indicating that the redundant roles of BnA09.TT8 and BnC09.TT8b are vital for seed colour. The BnTT8 double mutants produced seeds with elevated seed oil and protein content and altered fatty acid (FA) composition without any serious defects in the yield-related traits, making it a valuable resource for rapeseed breeding programmes. Chemical staining and histological analysis showed that the targeted mutations of BnTT8 completely blocked the proanthocyanidin (PA)-specific deposition in the seed coat. Further, transcriptomic profiling revealed that the targeted mutations of BnTT8 resulted in the broad suppression of phenylpropanoid/flavonoid biosynthesis genes, which indicated a much more complex molecular mechanism underlying seed colour formation in rapeseed than in Arabidopsis and other Brassica species. In addition, gene expression analysis revealed the possible mechanism through which BnTT8 altered the oil content and fatty acid composition in seeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152602PMC
May 2020

Sedimentary records of polychlorinated biphenyls in the East China Marginal Seas and Great Lakes: Significance of recent rise of emissions in China and environmental implications.

Environ Pollut 2019 Nov 27;254(Pt A):112972. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dated sediment cores from the East China Marginal Seas (ECMSs) and the chronology of the net fluxes to sediments were analyzed. The accumulation of 27 PCBs (ΣPCBs) in the ECMS sediments is about 5-26 ng cm, with the net depositional fluxes of ΣPCBs 10 times lower than those observed in the Great Lakes during the 1960s-1970s. Exponential increases in PCB deposition to the ECMS sediments since the 1990s were observed, which closely follows the fast growth of PCB emissions from industrial thermal processes and e-waste related sources in China. Recent PCB fluxes to the study sites in the ECMSs and the Great Lakes are comparable; the former surged forward with a rising tendency, while the latter showed continued decline after the late 1970s. Due to the different PCB application histories and sources between the two regions, the ECMS sediments may remain as a net sink for land-derived PCBs, while sediments in the Great Lake may have been acting as a secondary source releasing PCBs to water. A higher proportion of trichlorobiphenyls in the ECMS sediments than the Great Lakes was indicated, which may imply the net transport of atmospheric PCBs from China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.112972DOI Listing
November 2019

Salvianolate lyophilized injection (SLI) strengthens blood-brain barrier function related to ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways.

Brain Res 2019 10 15;1720:146295. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, #10 Boyanghu Road, Jinghai District, Tianjin 301617, China; Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medical Formulae, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China. Electronic address:

The salvianolate lyophilized injection (SLI) has been widely used for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction; however, the molecular mechanism of how it strengthens blood brain barrier (BBB) function is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of SLI on BBB function in bEnd.3 cells as well as in rats. In oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-damaged bEnd.3 cells, SLI increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased sodium fluorescein flux. SLI-treated cells showed increased expression of tight junction proteins, including Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), Claudin-5 and Occludin. Furthermore, SLI led to the decrease of phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of SLI on barrier function were abolished in cells in which ERK1/2 and Ak signaling were inhibited. Moreover, in MCAO model rats, SLI effectively alleviated brain leakage of Evans blue, increased brain tissue ZO-1 expression and inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Overall, these data suggest that SLI strengthens BBB function was interrelated ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways in cerebral vascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.06.014DOI Listing
October 2019

Effect of peroxydisulfate on the degradation of phenol under dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment.

Chemosphere 2019 Oct 26;232:462-470. Epub 2019 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China. Electronic address:

The activation of peroxydisulfate (PDS) by gas/liquid dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in a flat plate configuration was assessed through phenol removal. The results indicated that PDS addition exhibited a significantly promoting effect on phenol removal and mineralization. In the reaction lacking PDS, phenol in aqueous solution was removed from the initial 10 mg L to 4.75 mg L (by 52.5%), whereas the addition of 1770 mg L PDS increased the overall removal to 78.7%, as indicated by a one-fold increase in the pseudo-first-order kinetic constant. In addition, the corresponding total organic carbon (TOC) removal was increased from 27.5% to 48.4%. Furthermore, an increased input voltage was favourable for increases in phenol removal, the kinetic constant and PDS utilization, which were also influenced by the PDS dose, initial solution pH and water matrix. In addition, through the analysis of radical quenching experiments, the enhancement could be mainly attributed to the production of SO and •OH by PDS activation by discharge plasma. The DBD system coupled with PDS exhibited a high removal efficiency for phenol, and thus, the overall findings could provide new insight into wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.214DOI Listing
October 2019

Rapid Discovery of the Potential Toxic Compounds in by UHPLC/Q-Orbitrap-MS-Based Metabolomics and Correlation Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2019 16;10:329. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Centre for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

The dry roots of (PM), involving both the raw and processed materials, are widely used as the traditional Chinese medicine for treating various diseases in China. Hepatotoxicity has been occasionally reported in patients who consume PM. Unfortunately, no definite criteria are currently available regarding the processing technology of PM for reduction the toxicity. In this work, we aimed to investigate the variations of PM metabolite profiles induced by different processing technologies by UHPLC/Q-Orbitrap-MS and multivariate statistical analysis, and to discover the potential toxic compounds by correlating the cytotoxicity of L02 cell with the contents of metabolites in raw and processed PM samples. We could identify two potential toxic compounds, emodin-8--glucoside and torachrysone--hexose, which could be selected as the toxic markers to evaluate different processing methods. The results indicated all processed PM samples could decrease the cytotoxicity on L02 cell. The best processing technology for PM process was to steam PM in black soybean decoction (BD-PM) for 24 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6477936PMC
April 2019

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing reveals differences in the contribution of INDEHISCENT homologues to pod shatter resistance in Brassica napus L.

Theor Appl Genet 2019 Jul 12;132(7):2111-2123. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

The INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) gene homologues have been reported to be essential for dehiscence of fruits in Brassica species. But their functions for pod shatter resistance in Brassica napus, an important oil crops, are not well understood. Here, we assessed the functions of these two genes in rapeseed using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The induced mutations were stably transmitted to successive generations, and a variety of homozygous mutants with loss-of-function alleles of the target genes were obtained for phenotyping. The results showed that the function of BnIND gene is essential for pod shatter and highly conserved in Brassica species, whereas the BnALC gene appears to have limited potential for rapeseed shatter resistance. The homoeologous copies of the BnIND gene have partially redundant roles in rapeseed pod shatter, with BnA03.IND exhibiting higher contributions than BnC03.IND. Analysis of data obtained from the gene expression and sequence variations of gene copies revealed that cis-regulatory divergences alter gene expression and underlie the functional differentiation of BnIND homologues. Collectively, our results generate valuable resources for rapeseed breeding programs, and more importantly provide a strategy to improve polyploid crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-019-03341-0DOI Listing
July 2019

MicroRNA-153 affects nasopharyngeal cancer cell viability by targeting TGF-β.

Oncol Lett 2019 Jan 12;17(1):646-651. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Army General Hospital, Beijing 100700, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to determine the function of microRNA-153 (miR-153) in the viability of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) cells and determine the underlying molecular mechanism. The expression of miR-153 in patients with NPC was markedly decreased compared with that in paracarcinoma tissue. miR-153 upregulation observably decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, increased caspase-3 and -9 activity, and increased the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio in 13-9B cells. miR-153 upregulation also suppressed transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smad2 protein expression in 13-9B cells. TGF-β inhibitor enhanced the effect of miR-153 upregulation on the inhibition of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, increase in caspase-3 and -9 activity, and increase in Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio in 13-9B cells. The results of the present study indicate that miR-153 affects the progression of NPC by targeting the TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.9570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6313159PMC
January 2019

Xueshuantong for Injection Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

Chin J Physiol 2018 Dec;61(6):349-359

School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, People’s Republic of China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and becomes the chief cause of end-stage renal disease. Our study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effect and underlying mechanism of Xueshuantong for Injection (XST) on DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Effect of XST treatment (XST, 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) lasting 60 days after STZ-induced (60 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetes was investigated. Blood sugar levels and body weight were recorded every week of the experiment. At the 28th and 56th days after injection urine glucose and 24 h urine protein excretion were determined. Apoptosis related factors such as cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax and inflammation related factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were detected by PCR or western blot. The expression levels of fibronectin, Collagen Ⅰ, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TGF-β-Smad2/3 signaling pathway, and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) was investigated. Our results showed that XST treatment did not affect levels of body weight, blood glucose and urine glucose levels. Our analysis revealed that XST inhibited cell apoptosis and suppressed the properties of RAGE in the kidney. XST treatment could also significantly suppress the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators in kidney and prevent renal fibrosis by blocking the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, our findings suggested that XST could provide protection against DN through reduction of RAGE accumulation, decreasing inflammation, inhibition of renal fibrosis, and blocking the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4077/CJP.2018.BAH637DOI Listing
December 2018

Polygonum multiflorum Thunb suppress bile acid synthesis by activating Fxr-Fgf15 signaling in the intestine.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 May 6;235:472-480. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Medical Experiment Center, The First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (Heshouwu, HSW) is commonly used in clinical medicine, while the hepatotoxicities of HSW are reported increasingly in recent years. Currently, researchers have demonstrated an essential role of Bile Acids (BAs) in liver diseases. The occurrence of hepatotoxicity cases linked to HSW are characterized by jaundice and cholestasis, suggesting an interaction that between BAs and HSW AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to investigate the HSW-induced liver functional and histological changes in mice and the role of HSW on bile acid synthesis, metabolism, clearance and intestinal absorption.

Materials And Methods: The mice were intragastrically (i.g.) given HSW at doses of 1.275 and 3.825 g/kg (Crude extracts /body weight) once a day for seven days. Liver function was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of enzymes and analyzing the liver histology. The LC/MS analysis was performed to quantify BAs from liver, ileum and serum. Moreover, the expression of bile metabolic-related transporters and metabolic enzymes at both protein and mRNA levels were observed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Results: Oral administration of HSW for 7 days could not cause liver damage. A significant change was observed for the concentrations of liver and serum BAs in treatment groups compared with normal control. The mRNA expression levels of bile acid excretory transporter (Bsep) and basolateral uptake transporter (Ntcp) were increased with the development of HSW. The concentrations of unconjugated BAs increased in mice intestines after the administration of HSW. Western blot and qRT-PCR analyses showed that HSW upregulated the protein and mRNA expression of Shp and Fgf15 in the ileum of the mice.

Conclusion: HSW treatment for 7days did not cause liver damage. HSW accelerated bile acid enterohepatic circulation and changed the composition of intestinal BAs, leding to the activation of Fxr-Fgf15 signal in intestines, and further inhibited the expression of Cyp7a1 in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.12.007DOI Listing
May 2019

Pharmacokinetic studies unveiled the drug-drug interaction between trans-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and emodin that may contribute to the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2019 Feb 16;164:672-680. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 312 Anshanxi Road, Tianjin 300193, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of TCM Chemistry and Analysis, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 312 Anshanxi Road, Tianjin 300193, China. Electronic address:

Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) has been a reputable tonifying traditional Chinese medicine for a long history. However, clinical side effects regarding its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity are occasionally reported. The containing anthraquinones, particularly emodin, could cause liver injury in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. It is well-known that some compounds could influence other compounds' pharmacokinetic parameters significantly. In this work, the influence of trans-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (TSG) on the pharmacokinetic behavior of emodin in rats was evaluated by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) approach. Pharmacokinetic parameters of emodin, PMR extract, and TSG-free PMR extract (prepared by a component "knock-out" strategy with TSG eliminated), in rats after one-day and seven-day administration were determined and compared. We found that, after seven-day administration of the whole PMR extract (rather than TSG-free extract), emodin in rats was accumulated. And accordingly, the exposure of emodin in rats pre-treated with single TSG for seven days could be significantly enhanced. The results indicate that TSG was able to accelerate the exposure and metabolism of emodin. The effect of TSG on the metabolic activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes was further assessed by an LC-MS cocktail method. The accelerated exposure and metabolism of emodin could result from the up-regulation activity of CYP450s, in particular CYP1A2 isozyme. The findings obtained in this work firstly unveiled DDI between TSG and emodin in the administration of PMR, thus may provide a basis for unveiling the underlying mechanism of PMR-induced liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2018.11.034DOI Listing
February 2019

Large-river dominated black carbon flux and budget: A case study of the estuarine-inner shelf of East China Sea, China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 13;651(Pt 2):2489-2496. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Guiyang Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China. Electronic address:

Mobilization of terrestrial-derived and recalcitrant black carbon (BC), including char and soot, from land to ocean exerts a significant influence on the global carbon cycle. This study elaborated the occurrence and spatial distributions of BC, char, and soot concentrations, as well as their burial fluxes, in the estuarine-inner shelf surface sediments of the East China Sea (ECS), an epicontinental sea adjacent to Chinese high-intensity BC emission source regions. Using a combination of BC measurements in the Yangtze River water and coastal ECS aerosol samples, a preliminary BC budget was concurrently constrained. The spatial distribution of char concentrations resembled largely that of BC, but differed significantly from that of soot, indicating that char and soot exhibited different geochemical behaviors. In contrast to concentrations, BC, char, and soot burial fluxes exhibited highly consistent spatial patterns, and all declined as the distance from the coastline increased. For the coastal ECS, riverine discharge dominated (~92%) the total BC input, with the Yangtze River alone accounting for as high as ~72%. The area-integrated sedimentary BC sink flux (630 ± 728 Gg/yr) in the coastal ECS was equivalent to the total BC influx (670 ± 153 Gg/yr), which coincided well with the regional sediment budget. This suggested that the terrestrial-derived and recalcitrant BC could be regarded as an alternative geochemical proxy for tracing the sediment source-to-sink processes in this region. Comparisons between BC and co-generated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) budgets in the coastal ECS revealed similarities in their input pathways, but dramatic differences in their ultimate fates. Despite these, the ECS estuarine-inner shelf could serve as a major sink of these terrestrial-based materials in the global ocean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.156DOI Listing
February 2019

Promoter variations in a homeobox gene, BnA10.LMI1, determine lobed leaves in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2018 Dec 15;131(12):2699-2708. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Key Message: BnA10.LMI1 positively regulates the development of leaf lobes in Brassica napus, and cis-regulatory divergences cause the different allele effects. Leaf shape is an important agronomic trait, and large variations in this trait exist within the Brassica germplasm. The lobed leaf is a unique morphological characteristic for Brassica improvement. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of leaf lobing in Brassica is poorly understood. Here, we show that an incompletely dominant locus, BnLLA10, is responsible for the lobed-leaf shape in rapeseed. A LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1)-like gene (BnA10.LMI1) encoding an HD-Zip I transcription factor is the causal gene underlying the BnLLA10 locus. Sequence analysis of parental alleles revealed no sequence variations in the coding sequences, whereas abundant variations were identified in the regulatory region. Consistent with this finding, the expression levels of BnLMI1 were substantially elevated in the lobed-leaf parent compared with its near-isogenic line. The knockout mutations of BnA10.LMI1 gene were induced using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in both HY (the lobed-leaf parent) and J9707 (serrated leaf) genetic backgrounds. BnA10.LMI1 null mutations in the HY background were sufficient to produce unlobed leaves, whereas null mutations in the J9707 background showed no obvious changes in leaf shape compared with the control. Collectively, our results indicate that BnA10.LMI1 positively regulates the development of leaf lobes in B. napus, with cis-regulatory divergences causing the different allelic effects, providing new insights into the molecular mechanism of leaf lobe formation in Brassica crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-018-3184-5DOI Listing
December 2018