Publications by authors named "Limin Gong"

46 Publications

Simultaneous optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction for total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the tender stem of using response surface methodology.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jan 6;30(1):37-45. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

College of Food and Life Science, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, China.

The asparagus of (TL) is a popular vegetable with abundant chemical compounds in China. This study aims to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method for its content of total flavonoid and antioxidant activities by response surface methodology (RSM). Box-Behnken design was adopted to evaluate the influences of ethanol concentration, extraction time and solvent-to-sample ratio on the extraction yield of total flavonoid and the antioxidant activity. Considering the maximum content of extracted total flavonoids and antioxidant activity, the optimal extraction conditions were acquired with 70% (v/v) ethanol by UAE for 60 min at a solvent-to-sample ratio of 40 mL/g. The proportion of the extraction of total flavonoid was 15.88 mg/g and antioxidant activity reached 79.53%. The RSM would be recommended as an appropriate model for simultaneous optimization of the UAE conditions for the content of total flavonoid and the antioxidant activity of asparagus of TL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-020-00851-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847422PMC
January 2021

A Rapid and Accurate 1HNMR Method for the Identification and Quantification of Major Constituents in Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills.

J AOAC Int 2021 May;104(2):506-514

Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Academician Atta-ur-Rahman Belt and Road Traditional Medicine Research Center, TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation & Development International Laboratory, Changsha, Hunan, P. R. China, 4108208.

Background: Qishen Yiqi dripping pills (QSYQ), composed of four herbal medicines-Salvia miltiorrhiza, Astragalus membranaceus, Panax notoginseng, and Dalbergiaodorifera-are widely used to treat ischemic cerebrovascular and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular conditions.

Objective: In this study, a rapid and accurate proton NMR (1HNMR) spectroscopy method was established to control the quality of QSYQ and ensure their clinical efficacy.

Method: Firstly, different types of metabolites were identified based on the proton signal peaks of chemical shifts, coupling constants, and related information provided through two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Secondly, a quantitative 1HNMR method was established for the simultaneous determination of major constituents in QSYQ samples. In addition, an HPLC method was performed to verify the results obtained by the quantitative proton NMR (qHNMR)  method.

Results: In the present study, 26 metabolites were identified in the 1HNMR spectra of QSYQ. In addition, a rapid and accruate qHNMR method was established for the simultaneous determination of protocatechualdehyde, rosmarinic acid, danshensu, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, and ononin in ten batches of QSYQ samples for the first time. Moreover, the proposed qHNMR method and HPLC method were compared using Bland-Altman and plots Passing-Bablok regression, indicating no significant differences and a strong correlation between the two analytical methods.

Conclusions: This method is an important tool for the identification and quantification of major constituents in QSYQ.

Highlights: Compared with traditional HPLC, the established qHNMR method has the advantages of simple sample preparation, short analysis time, and non-destructive analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jaoacint/qsaa130DOI Listing
May 2021

A review of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Kadsura heteroclita, an important plant in Tujia ethnomedicine.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 7;268:113567. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation & Development International Laboratory, Innovative Material Medical Research Institute, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, 410208, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb.) Craib (traditionally known as "Xue Tong") is an important member of the economically and medicinally important plant family Schisandraceae. "Xue Tong" is an imperative ingredient of the Tujia ethnomedicine, traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), hepatitis, and muscles and joint spasm. The plant is known to be a rich source of lignans and triterpenoids. These classes of natural products have been known to possess various pharmacological activities.

Aim Of Review: This review was motivated by the importance of K. heteroclita in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It aims to compile the available information on its botanical distribution and description, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicity, and quality control to provide a solid base for further research and development.

Materials And Methods: Relevant literature was collected by several scientific databases including PubMed, CNKI, Scifinder, The Plant List, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Books (Tujia pharmaceutical records, Guangxi Chinese herbal medicine, Hunan pharmaceutical records and Field identification manual of Chinese herbal medicine) and other literature sources (Flora of China, Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China) which helped in collecting maximum data about the studied species.

Results: Traditional uses of K. heteroclita have proven its medicinal importance, providing a rationale for scientific research. Phytochemical studies on the stem of K. heteroclita resulted in the identification of 187 chemical constituents, among which lignans and triterpenoids are the predominant groups. The isolates and crude extracts have been found to exhibit a wide spectrum of in vivo and in vitro pharmacological activities such as anti-RA, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hepatoprotection, anti-HIV, anti-cancer and anti-HBV. Schisanlactone E (xuetongsu), a triterpenoid, is one of the major components of K. heteroclita exhibiting anti-cancer, neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammation activities. Interestingly and luckily, this plant has been found to be safe and non-toxic within the therapeutic dose range.

Conclusion: Pharmacological investigations have validated the use of K. heteroclita in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Literature review has demonstrated that lignans and triterpenoids are possibly responsible for most of the biological activities exhibited by this plant. To conclude, this plant shows immense potential for the discovery of more potent bioactive secondary metabolites and therefore further phytochemical and biological studies on other parts of K. heteroclita need to be conducted and more compounds need to be tested regarding their biological activities to completely explore its value as a tremendously important medicinal plant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113567DOI Listing
March 2021

Identification of Antifungal Bisphosphocholines from Medicinal Species.

J Nat Prod 2020 10 14;83(10):3207-3211. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

National Center for Natural Product Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, United States.

species including , , and are used in traditional Chinese medicine as "Qinjiao" for the treatment of rheumatism, hepatitis, and pain. Four antifungal bisphosphocholines [irlbacholine () and three new analogues, gentianalines A-C (, , and )] were identified from by a bioassay-guided fractionation and structure elucidation approach. Subsequent chemical analysis of 56 "Qinjiao" samples (45 from , five from , three from , and three from ) showed that bisphosphocholines were present in all four species, with irlbacholine as the major compound ranging from 2.0 to 6.2 mg per gram of dried material. Irlbacholine exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against , , , and with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.63, 1.25, 10.0, and 5.0 μg/mL, respectively. Identification of the bisphosphocholines, a rare class of antifungal natural products, in these medicinal plants provides scientific evidence to complement their medicinal use. The bisphosphocholines carrying a long aliphatic chain possess amphiphilic molecule-like properties with a tendency of retention in both normal and reversed-phase silica gel column chromatography and thereby may be neglected in natural products discovery. This report may stimulate interest in this class of compounds, which warrant the further study of other biological activities as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c00584DOI Listing
October 2020

Flavonoid glycosides from the rhizomes of Pronephrium penangianum.

Phytochemistry 2020 Nov 28;179:112500. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation & Development International Laboratory, Innovative Materia Medica Research Institute, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan, 410208, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Six flavonoid glycosides jixueqisus A-F, together with nine known flavonoids, were isolated from the rhizomes of the fern Pronephrium penangianum. Among them, two red pigments jixueqisus A and B possess the same rare 6,8-dimethyl-2-phenyl-7H-1-benzopyran-7-one skeleton (a long conjugated system). Jixueqisu Cwas a dihydrochalcone glycoside, jixueqisu D was a chalcone glycoside, jixueqisu E was an aurone glycoside, and jixueqisu F was a flavonone glycoside. Interestingly, jixueqisus D-F, (2S)-5,2',5'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone and 5,2',5'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone possessed a 2,5-dihydroxy substituted benzene ring (B-ring). Their structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic and chemical methods. Furthermore, the plausible biosynthetic pathways of jixueqisus A-F were discussed, respectively. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their activities against the proliferation of MCF-7, HepG-2, HCT-116 and BGC-823 tumor cell lines, four known flavane-4-ol glycosides, abacopterins A and C, eruberin B and triphyllin A, exhibited moderate activities to various cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112500DOI Listing
November 2020

Transcriptomic analyses reveal the expression and regulation of genes associated with resistance to early leaf spot in peanut.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Aug 11;13(1):381. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, 36088, USA.

Objective: Early leaf spot (ELS) caused by Cercospora arachidicola (Hori) is a serious foliar disease in peanut worldwide, which causes considerable reduction of yield. Identification of resistance genes is important for both conventional and molecular breeding. Few resistance genes have been identified and the mechanism of defense responses to this pathogen remains unknown.

Results: We detected several genes involved in disease resistance to ELS through transcriptome analysis. Using RNA-seq technology, one hundred thirty-three differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between resistant and susceptible lines. Among these DEGs, coiled coil-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) type resistance genes were identified as duplicated R genes on the chromosome B2. Peanut phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) regulator of effector-triggered immunity mediated by NLR resistance proteins and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes play important roles in early leaf spot resistance. Our study provides the useful information on plant response to C. arachidicola infection in peanut. The results suggest that a few major genes and several factors mediate the resistance to ELS disease, showing the characteristics of quantitative trait in defense responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05225-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418390PMC
August 2020

Exogenous Adenosine Antagonizes Excitatory Amino Acid Toxicity in Primary Astrocytes.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 6;41(4):687-704. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine & Hunan Engineering Technology Center of Standardization and Function of Chinese Herbal Decoction Pieces, Changsha, 410208, China.

Excitatory toxicity is still a hot topic in the study of ischemic stroke, and related research has focused mainly on neurons. Adenosine is an important neuromodulator that is known as a "biosignature" in the central nervous system (CNS). The protective effect of exogenous adenosine on neurons has been confirmed, but its mechanism remains elusive. In this study, astrocytes were pretreated with adenosine, and the effects of an A2a receptor (A2aR) inhibitor (SCH58261) and A2b receptor (A2bR) inhibitor (PSB1115) on excitatory glutamate were investigated. An oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) and glutamate model was generated in vitro. Post-model assessment included expression levels of glutamate transporters (glt-1), gap junction protein (Cx43) and glutamate receptor (AMPAR), Na-K-ATPase activity, and diffusion distance of dyes. Glutamate and glutamine contents were determined at different time points. The results showed that (1) adenosine could improve the function of Na-K-ATPase, upregulate the expression of glt-1, and enhance the synthesis of glutamine in astrocytes. This effect was associated with A2aR activation but not with A2bR activation. (2) Adenosine could inhibit the expression of gap junction protein (Cx43) and reduce glutamate diffusion. Inhibition of A2aR attenuated adenosine inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in the OGD/R model, while it enhanced adenosine inhibition of GJIC in the glutamate model, depending on the glutamate concentration. (3) Adenosine could cause AMPAR gradually entered the nucleus from the cytoplasm, thereby reducing the expression of AMPAR on the cell membrane. Taken together, the results indicate that adenosine plays a role of anti-excitatory toxicity effect in protection against neuronal death and the functional recovery of ischemic stroke mainly by targeting astrocytes, which are closely related to A2aR. The present study provided a scientific basis for adenosine prevention and ischemic stroke treatment, thereby providing a new approach for alleviating ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-00876-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of Activated Charcoal-Herb Extractum Complex on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Metabolites and Safety of Excess Supplementation in Weaned Piglets.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Dec 15;9(12). Epub 2019 Dec 15.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of activated charcoal-herb extractum complex (CHC) on antioxidant status, serum lipid metabolites and its safety supplement in weaning piglets. In experiment 1, a total of 216 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) weaned at 28 days of age with initial body weight of 8.55 ± 1.18 kg were assigned randomly to six treatment groups. each treatment group had six pens, with six pigs per pen. Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 500, 1000, 1500 or 2000 mg kg of CHC over two 14-d periods. Diets supplemented with 0 and 1000 mg kg of montmorillonite (MMT) were set as the negative and positive controls, respectively. In experiment 2, pigs ( = 108) weaned at 28 days of age with initial body weight of 8.58 ± 0.04 kg were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Each treatment group had six pens, with six pigs per pen. Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 1000 or 10,000 mg kg of CHC over two 14-d periods. In experiment 1, on day 14, supplementation with CHC significantly decreased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentration while they decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration on d 28, CHC at 500, 1000 or 1500 mg kg significantly increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration. Supplementation with 500 or 1000 mg kg CHC reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration during the entire experimental period and increased the concentration of serum total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) on d 14. CHC at 500 or 1000 mg kg significantly reduced the liver MDA concentration and increased liver T-SOD concentration. In experiment 2, increased ADG was obvious during the first 14 days and the whole period in 1000 mg kg supplemented pigs, similarly F: G was lowest in the first 14 days. There was no difference in growth performance, visceral index, haematological and serum biochemical parameters and visceral organs morphology between pigs fed 10,000 mg kg of CHC and control. Together, 500 to 1000 mg kg CHC was confirmed to improve antioxidant status, and serum lipid metabolites in this study and excess supplementation of CHC is safe in weaning piglets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9121151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940724PMC
December 2019

Effects of supplemented culture media from solid-state fermented Isaria cicadae on performance, serum biochemical parameters, serum immune indexes, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of broiler chickens.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Apr 3;33(4):568-578. Epub 2019 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate effects of supplementation of culture media from solid-state fermented Isaria cicadae (I. cicadae) on performance, serum biochemical parameters, serum immune indexes, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of broiler chickens.

Methods: A total of 648 Arbor Acres male broiler chickens(1 d; average body weight, 42.93± 0.47 g) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each with six replicates and 18 broiler chickens per replicate. Broiler chickens were fed phase I (d 1 to 21) and phase II (d 22 to 42) diets. The phase I diets were corn and soybean-meal based diets supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, or 10% culture media from solid-state fermented I. cicadae respectively. The phase II diets were corn and soybean-meal based diets supplemented with 0%, 1.33%, 2.67%, 4.00%, 5.32%, or 6.67% culture media from solid-state fermented I. cicadae respectively.

Results: In phase I, the broiler chickens with the supplementation of culture media had increased body weight gain and feed intake (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing inclusion of culture media. The levels of serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly (p<0.05). In phase II, levels of serum T-AOC and interleukin-1β increased linearly (p<0.05), and GSH increased (p<0.05). In the kidney, GSH and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) concentrations increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) and SOD concentration increased linearly (p<0.05). Compared to the control, shear force and drip loss of breast muscle decreased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05). Drip loss of leg muscle decreased linearly and quadratically (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of culture media from solid-state fermented I.cicadae which was enriched in both wheat and residual bioactive components of I. cicadae enhanced the growth performance of broiler chickens. It also improved body anti-oxidative status and contributed to improve broiler meat quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054610PMC
April 2020

Effects of sweetener sucralose on diet preference, growth performance and hematological and biochemical parameters of weaned piglets.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019 May 28:802-811. Epub 2019 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Centre, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Objective: Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sucralose on diet preference and growth performance of weaned piglets, and a third experiment was a 28-d safety study to examine if high-dose sucralose could affect the health state of weaned piglets.

Methods: In experiment one, 48 piglets had free access to a corn-soybean based diet and the same diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg sucralose for 15 d. In experiment two, 180 piglets were blocked into 5 treatments with 6 replications. They were fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg sucralose for 28 days. In experiment three, 108 piglets were randomly assigned to 3 treatments and fed diets supplemented with 0, 150 (suitable level), and 1,500 (ten-fold suitable level) mg/kg sucralose for 28 d.

Results: The experiment 1 showed that piglets preferred (p < 0.05) diets containing sucralose during experimental period. In experiment 2, piglets fed a diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg sucralose had a higher average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) than pigs in the control group and other treatment groups during the experiment period. The concentrations of sucralose over 150 mg/kg may decrease feed intake. However, no difference in feed conversion ratio was observed. In experiment 3, piglets fed diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg sucralose had a higher average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) than that of pigs in the control group and 1500 mg/kg treatment groups during the experiment period. Clinical blood metabolites, organ index and histological morphology were not significantly different between sucralose treatments.

Conclusion: Sucralose can promote feed intake and thereby improve growth performance of weaned piglets. Moreover, inclusion of 1,500 mg/kg sucralose was demonstrated to have no observed adverse effects. Supplementing 150 mg/kg sucralose for weaned piglets is recommended in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206394PMC
May 2019

Mutagenesis of FAD2 genes in peanut with CRISPR/Cas9 based gene editing.

BMC Biotechnol 2019 04 29;19(1):24. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, 36088, USA.

Background: Increasing the content of oleic acid in peanut seeds is one of the major goals in peanut breeding due to consumer and industry benefits, such as anti-oxidation and long shelf-life. Homeologous ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes encode fatty acid desaturases, which are the key enzymes for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid that oxidizes readily. To date, all high oleic acid peanut varieties result from natural mutations occurred in both genes. A method to induce mutations in the genes of other elite cultivars could speed introgression of this valuable trait. The gene-editing approach utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 technology was employed to induce de novo mutations in the ahFAD2 genes using peanut protoplasts and hairy root cultures as models.

Results: The hot spot of natural mutation in these genes was selected as the target region. Appropriate sgRNAs were designed and cloned into a CRISPR/Cas9 expression plasmid. As a result of CRISPR/Cas9 activity, three mutations were identified - G448A in ahFAD2A, and 441_442insA and G451T in ahFAD2B. The G448A and 441_442insA mutations are the same as those seen in existing high oleate varieties and the G451T is new mutation. Because natural mutations appear more often in the ahFAD2A gene than in the ahFAD2B gene in subspecies A. hypogaea var. hypogaea, the mutations induced in ahFAD2B by gene editing may be useful in developing high oleate lines with many genetic backgrounds after validation of oleic acid content in the transformed lines. The appearance of the G448A mutation in ahFAD2A is a further benefit for high oleic acid oil content.

Conclusions: Overall, these results showed that mutations were, for the first time, induced by CRISPR-based gene editing approach in peanut. This research demonstrated the potential application of gene editing for mutagenesis in peanut and suggested that CRISPR/Cas9 technology may be useful in the peanut breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12896-019-0516-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489235PMC
April 2019

Fundus examination of 199 851 newborns by digital imaging in China: a multicentre cross-sectional study.

Br J Ophthalmol 2018 12 17;102(12):1742-1746. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

National Research Institute for Family Planning, Beijing, China

Background: The prevalence of ocular abnormalities of newborn in China has seldom been reported. To report the implementation of digital imaging in ocular screening of all newborns in multiple centres in China and to describe the abnormal findings of fundus examination, we did the cross-sectional study.

Methods: Fundus examinations were performed on newborns within the 42 days after birth using a RetCam wide-field digital imaging system. Digital images of the posterior pole, superior, nasal and temporal retinal fields of each participant were taken. All newborns were from eights centres across China from January 2009 to July 2017.

Results: A total of 199 851 newborns were included in the study. We detected 18 198 (9.11%) abnormal cases. The most frequent abnormality was severe retinal haemorrhage (RH) found in 12 810 cases (6.41%). The other anomalies included familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, abnormal fundus pigmentation, subconjunctival haemorrhage, choroidal coloboma, idiopathic retinal venous tortuosity, exudative changes and other anomalies with uncertain identities.

Conclusion: This large-scale study of newborn fundus examination showed a relatively high prevalence of ocular abnormalities. Hundreds of neonates with rare disorders that severely impair ocular health were also detected at an early age. The long-term impact of other anomalies including RHs on the ocular system should be investigated by a perspective study. Our study suggested that fundus examination of newborns can play a beneficial role in ocular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-312366DOI Listing
December 2018

Development of a Method for Simultaneous Determination of Two Stilbenes and Four Anthraquinones from by RP-HPLC.

J AOAC Int 2018 Jul 13. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, School of Pharmacy, 300 Xueshi Rd, Changsha, China, 410208.

: Sieb. et Zucc. (named Huzhang in China) is a traditional and popular Chinese medicinal herb used in removing jaundice, clearing heat-toxin, improving blood circulation, expelling stasis, dispelling wind and dampness, repelling phlegm, and suppressing cough. It is widely used in drug and functional food fields and distributed throughout the world, including in China, Japan, and North America. : To control the quality of , an effective, reliable, and simple method for simultaneous determination of two stilbenes (polydatin, resveratrol) and four anthraquinones (emodin, physcion, rhein, and anthraglycoside B) was developed and validated for the first time in this study by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). : Separation was carried out on Agilent C column (250 × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm) with acetonitrile and 0.10% aqueous phosphoric acid as mobile phase and gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Detection was conducted with mobile wavelength at 30°C. : Good validation of the method including linearity, precision, repeatability, and recovery was performed. The contents of the studied analytes are significantly different, and resveratrol and rhein in particular existed in greater fluctuation among the samples. : A simple, reliable, and sensitive method has been successfully established and applied to the analysis for simultaneous determination of the target compounds in 11 batches of samples. : Separation and quantitative analysis of two stilbenes and four anthraquinones from were developed by RP-HPLC. This method is convenient, sensitive, and accurate and can provide a reliable basis for further applications of in drug or food fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.18-0097DOI Listing
July 2018

Variants of Unknown Significance in Genes Associated with Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease Can Be Low Penetrant "Risk Variants".

Am J Hum Genet 2018 07 28;103(1):138-143. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Division of Medical Genetics and Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), 6431 Fannin Street, MSB 6.100, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections are a preventable cause of premature deaths if individuals at risk can be identified. Individuals with early-onset aortic dissections without a family history or syndromic features have an increased burden of rare genetic variants of unknown significance (VUSs) in genes with pathogenic variants for heritable thoracic aortic disease (HTAD). We assessed the role of VUSs in the development of disease using both in vitro enzymatic assays and mouse models. VUSs in LOX and MYLK identified in individuals with acute aortic dissections were assayed to determine whether they disrupted enzymatic activity. A subset of VUSs reduced enzymatic activity compared to the wild-type proteins but less than pathogenic variants. Additionally, a Myh11 variant, p.Arg247Cys, which does not cause aortic disease in either humans or mice, was crossed with the Acta2 mouse, which has aortic enlargement with age while Acta2 mice do not. Acta2Myh11 mice have aortic dilation by 3 months of age without medial degeneration, indicating that two variants not known to cause disease do lead to aortic enlargement in combination. Furthermore, the addition of Myh11 to the Acta2 mouse model accelerates aortic enlargement and increases medial degeneration. Therefore, our results emphasize the need for a classification system for variants in Mendelian genes that goes beyond the 5-tier system of pathogenic, likely pathogenic, VUS, likely benign, and benign, and includes a designation for low-penetrant "risk variants" that trigger disease either in combination with other risk factors or in a stochastic manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.05.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035370PMC
July 2018

MYLK pathogenic variants aortic disease presentation, pregnancy risk, and characterization of pathogenic missense variants.

Genet Med 2019 01 20;21(1):144-151. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose: Heritable thoracic aortic disease can result from null variants in MYLK, which encodes myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). Data on which MYLK missense variants are pathogenic and information to guide aortic disease management are limited.

Methods: Clinical data from 60 cases with MYLK pathogenic variants were analyzed (five null and two missense variants), and the effect of missense variants on kinase activity was assessed.

Results: Twenty-three individuals (39%) experienced an aortic event (defined as aneurysm repair or dissection); the majority of these events (87%) were aortic dissections. Aortic diameters were minimally enlarged at the time of dissection in many cases. Time-to-aortic-event curves showed that missense pathogenic variant (PV) carriers have earlier-onset aortic events than null PV carriers. An MYLK missense variant segregated with aortic disease over five generations but decreases MYLK kinase acitivity marginally. Functional Assays fail to identify all pathogenic variants in MYLK.

Conclusion: These data further define the aortic phenotype associated with MYLK pathogenic variants. Given minimal aortic enlargement before dissection, an alternative approach to guide the timing of aortic repair is proposed based on the probability of a dissection at a given age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0038-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6400320PMC
January 2019

Fatal thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection in a large family with a novel MYLK gene mutation: delineation of the clinical phenotype.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2018 03 15;13(1):41. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, EMMS Nazareth Hospital, Nazareth, Israel.

Background: Thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms and dissection often develop in hypertensive elderly patients. At higher risk are smokers and those who have a family history of aortic aneurysms. In most affected families, the aortic aneurysms and dissection is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with decreased penetrance and variable expressivity. Mutations at two chromosomal loci, TAA1 at 11q23 and the TAA2 at 5q13-14, and eight genes, MYLK, MYH11, TGFBR2, TGFBR1, ACTA2, SMAD3, TGFB2, and MAT2A, have been identified as being responsible for the disease in 23% of affected families.

Results: Herein, we inform on the clinical, genetic and pathological characteristics of nine living and deceased members of a large consanguineous Arab family with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection who carry a missense mutation c.4471G > T (Ala1491Ser), in exon 27 of MYLK gene. We show a reduced kinase activity of the Ala1491Ser protein compared to wildtype protein. This mutation is expressed as aortic aneurysm and dissection in one of two distinct phenotypes. A severe fatal and early onset symptom in homozygous or mild late onset in heterozygous genotypes.

Conclusions: We found that MYLK gene Ala1491Ser mutation affect the kinase activity and clinically, it presents with vascular aneurysms and dissection. We describe a distinct genotype phenotype correlation where; heterozygous patients have mild late onset and incomplete penetrance disease compared with the early onset severe and generally fatal outcome in homozygous patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-018-0769-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856213PMC
March 2018

Effects of zinc sources and levels of zinc amino acid complex on growth performance, hematological and biochemical parameters in weanling pigs.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018 Aug 19;31(8):1267-1274. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) on growth performance, hematological and biochemical parameters in weanling pigs.

Methods: In Exp. 1, a total of 216 Duroc×Landrace×Large White weanling pigs were assigned randomly to 6 dietary treatments. Each treatment had 6 replicates (pens) with 6 pigs each. The diets were corn-soybean meal based with supplementation of 0, 20, 40, 80, 120 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA or 40 mg Zn/kg from feed-grade zinc sulfate. The experiment lasted 42 days. In Exp. 2, a total of 180 weanling pigs were assigned randomly to 3 dietary treatments supplemented with 0, 80, or 800 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA.

Results: In Exp. 1, pigs fed 40 to 80 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA had higher (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than the unsupplemented group during d 0 to 14. During d 0 to 42, the pigs fed 20 to 120 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA had increased (p<0.05) ADG. Pigs fed 20 to 120 mg/kg Zn from ZnAA had lower feed:gain (p<0.05), increased the activity of serum Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase on d 14, and increased serum Zn levels on d 42 (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, pigs fed diets with 800 mg Zn/kg had increased average daily feed intake during d 15 to 28 (p<0.05) compared to the unsupplemented group. During d 0 to 28, the pigs fed supplemental Zn had increased ADG (p<0.05). On d 14 and d 28, pigs fed supplemental Zn had higher the serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed in the hematological parameters and organ indices.

Conclusion: Supplementation with 20 to 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnAA improved the growth performance in weaned pigs. The piglets can tolerate up to 800 mg/kg Zn from ZnAA with limited potential health effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6043427PMC
August 2018

Loss of Smooth Muscle α-Actin Leads to NF-κB-Dependent Increased Sensitivity to Angiotensin II in Smooth Muscle Cells and Aortic Enlargement.

Circ Res 2017 Jun 1;120(12):1903-1915. Epub 2017 May 1.

From the Departments of Internal Medicine (J.C., A.P., C.L.P., C.V., J.C., S.W., S.M., L.G., K.L.B., R.M., P.K., Y.-J.G., S.P., C.S.K., D.M.M.) and Integrative Biology and Pharmacology (J.X., M.X.Z.), The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston; Anatomy and Cell Biology, Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry Building, 3640 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; and Internal Medicine, Institute for Translational Sciences, and Sealy Center for Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston (A.R.B.).

Rationale: Mutations in , encoding the smooth muscle isoform of α-actin, cause thoracic aortic aneurysms, acute aortic dissections, and occlusive vascular diseases.

Objective: We sought to identify the mechanism by which loss of smooth muscle α-actin causes aortic disease.

Methods And Results: mice have an increased number of elastic lamellae in the ascending aorta and progressive aortic root dilation as assessed by echocardiography that can be attenuated by treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor blocker. AngII levels are not increased in aortas or kidneys. Aortic tissue and explanted smooth muscle cells from aortas show increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased basal nuclear factor κB signaling, leading to an increase in the expression of the AngII receptor type I a and activation of signaling at 100-fold lower levels of AngII in the mutant compared with wild-type cells. Furthermore, disruption of smooth muscle α-actin filaments in wild-type smooth muscle cells by various mechanisms activates nuclear factor κB signaling and increases expression of AngII receptor type I a.

Conclusions: These findings reveal that disruption of smooth muscle α-actin filaments in smooth muscle cells increases reactive oxygen species levels, activates nuclear factor κB signaling, and increases AngII receptor type I a expression, thus potentiating AngII signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells without an increase in the exogenous levels of AngII.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.310563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5518614PMC
June 2017

[Status of Yingyangbao's compliance and its affected factors among infants in three poor rural provinces].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2017 Mar;46(2):262-271

Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100081, China.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the consumption status of Yingyangbao and its affected factors in 3 poor rural Provinces.

Methods: Appling stratified cluster sampling method, 447 caregivers from Guizhou, Yunnan and Shanxi Provinces were investigated to analyze the compliance and caregivers' awareness of Yingyangbao, as well as the method to acquire the knowledge of Yingyangbao in 2014. Affected factors were detected by Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. 43 caregivers with poor compliance were interviewed under the guidance of interview outline. The matic framework was applied to do interview data analysis, including infants, caregivers and village doctors.

Results: 81. 0% infants and children ate more than 3sachets of Yingyangbao last week. More than half of the caregivers( 83. 0% and 66. 0%)knew that the Yingyangbao can prevent malnutrition and anemia. 80. 8% caregivers achieved the knowledge of Yingyangbao through village doctors. Compared withbreastfeeding, mixed feeding( OR = 26. 698, 95% CI 4. 411 ~ 161. 614) and formulas feeding( OR = 4. 709, 95% CI 1. 089 ~ 20. 369) were the protecting factors, children who like eating Yingyangbao( OR = 4. 369, 95% CI 1. 859 ~ 10. 395) and caregivers who know that Yingyangbao( OR = 4. 421, 95% CI 1. 335 ~ 14. 638) can prevent malnutrition were the protecting factors.

Conclusion: Infants and caregivers were the key factors affecting children eating Yingyangbao effectively.
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March 2017

Composition of The Essential Oil From Danggui-zhiqiao Herb-Pair and Its Analgesic Activity and Effect on Hemorheology in Rats With Blood Stasis Syndrome.

Pharmacogn Mag 2016 Oct-Dec;12(48):271-275

Department of diagnosis, Diagnostic Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changsha, China.

Background: and used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis, and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

Objective: To analyze the composition and pharmacological effects of essential oil from DZHP.

Materials And Methods: The composition of the essential oil from DZHP was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Its analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test. The hemorheology test was carried out to evaluate the effect on hemorheology in rats with blood stasis syndrome.

Results: Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were -pinene (3.07%), -pinene (2.0%), -myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%), -terpinen (9.53%), -terpinolene (1.80%), -terpineol (2.02%), -bisabolene (1.13%), butylidenephthalide (1.43%), and Z-ligustilide (16.08%). The pharmacology test showed that the essential oil significantly inhibited the number of writhes induced by acetic acid with inhibition rate of 44.64% and significantly increased hot-plate latency compared with control group from 30 to 90 min after oral administration of drugs in mice. It could significantly decrease plasma viscosity, whole blood relative index at high and low shear rate, whole blood reduced viscosity at high and low shear rate, and erythrocyte rigidity index in hemorheology test.

Conclusion: The composition of the essential oil of DZHP was determined successfully and it had analgesic and promoting blood circulation activities.

Summary: and used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in Essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were -pinene (3.07%), -pinene (2.0%), -myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%), -terpinen (9.53%), -terpinolene (1.80%), -terpineol (2.02%), -bisabolene (1.13%), butylidenephthalide (1.43%), and Z-ligustilide (16.08%).The essential oil significantly inhibited the number of writhes induced by acetic acid and increased hot-plate latency compared with control group from 30 min to 90 min after oral administration of drugs in mice.The essential oil could significantly decrease plasma viscosity (PV), whole blood relative index (WBRI) at high and low shear rate, whole blood reduced viscosity (WBRV) at high and low shear rate, and erythrocyte rigidity index (ERI) in hemorheology test. DZHP: Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair; TCM: traditional Chinese medicine; GC/MS: gas chromatography /mass spectrometry; PV: plasma viscosity; WBRI: whole blood relative index; WBRV: whole blood reduced viscosity; ERI: erythrocyte rigidity index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.192195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5096272PMC
November 2016

FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

J Clin Invest 2016 Mar 8;126(3):948-61. Epub 2016 Feb 8.

The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3-/- mice with p53-/- mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI83778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767350PMC
March 2016

LOX Mutations Predispose to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections.

Circ Res 2016 Mar 12;118(6):928-34. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

From the Departments of Internal Medicine (D.G., E.S.R., L.G., X.D., Z.R., B.C., E.M.H., D.M.M.) and Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery (A.E., H.J.S.), University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston; Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Center for Statistical Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (R.L.P.S.-C., S.M.L.); Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science, INSERM U1148, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France (P.A., G.J., C.B.); Centre National de Référence pour le syndrome de Marfan et apparentés, Département de Génétique Moléculaire, AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France (P.A., C.B.); Department of Pediatrics, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (R.M.); Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, CA (D.L.); and Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle (M.J.B., J.S., D.A.N.).

Rationale: Mutations in several genes have been identified that are responsible for 25% of families with familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. However, the causative gene remains unknown in 75% of families.

Objectives: To identify the causative mutation in families with autosomal dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

Methods And Results: Exome sequencing was used to identify the mutation responsible for a large family with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. A heterozygous rare variant, c.839G>T (p.Ser280Arg), was identified in LOX, encoding a lysyl oxidase, that segregated with disease in the family. Sanger and exome sequencing was used to investigate mutations in LOX in an additional 410 probands from unrelated families. Additional LOX rare variants that segregated with disease in families were identified, including c.125G>A (p.Trp42*), c.604G>T (p.Gly202*), c.743C>T (p.Thr248Ile), c.800A>C (p.Gln267Pro), and c.1044T>A (p.Ser348Arg). The altered amino acids cause haploinsufficiency for LOX or are located at a highly conserved LOX catalytic domain, which is relatively invariant in the population. Expression of the LOX variants p.Ser280Arg and p.Ser348Arg resulted in significantly lower lysyl oxidase activity when compared with the wild-type protein. Individuals with LOX variants had fusiform enlargement of the root and ascending thoracic aorta, leading to ascending aortic dissections.

Conclusions: These data, along with previous studies showing that the deficiency of LOX in mice or inhibition of lysyl oxidases in turkeys and rats causes aortic dissections, support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in LOX predispose to thoracic aortic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.307130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4839295PMC
March 2016

Precision medical and surgical management for thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections based on the causative mutant gene.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2016 Apr 2;57(2):172-7. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA -

Almost one-quarter of patients presenting with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) or acute aortic dissections (TAADs) have an underlying mutation in a specific gene. A subset of these patients will have systemic syndromic features, for example, skeletal features in patients with Marfan Syndrome. It is important to note that the majority of patients with thoracic aortic disease will not have these syndromic features but many will have a family history of the disease. The genes predisposing to these thoracic aortic diseases are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, and thirteen genes have been identified to date. As the clinical phenotype associated with each specific gene is defined, the data indicate that the underlying gene dictates associated syndromic features. More importantly, the underlying gene also dictates the aortic disease presentation, the risk for dissection at a given range of aortic diameters, the risk for additional vascular diseases and what specific vascular diseases occur associated with the gene. These results lead to the recommendation that the medical and surgical management of these patients be dictated by the underlying gene, and for patients with mutations in ACTA2, the specific mutation in the gene.
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April 2016

MAT2A mutations predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms.

Am J Hum Genet 2015 Jan 31;96(1):170-7. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.11.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4289682PMC
January 2015

Authentication of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and other two Chinese Materia Medica of the Liliaceae family by pharmacognosy technique with GC-MS analysis.

Microsc Res Tech 2015 Feb 19;78(2):119-27. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, 410208, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Yuzhu (Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma), Kangdingyuzhu (Polygonati Prattii Rhizoma), and zhugenqiyuzhu (Disporopsis Fuscopictae Rhizoma) are of the same family, but of different genera. They have all often used in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) as Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma in China market. Three species of CMM are confused. For better application, we need to identify these plants accurately. This study use pharmacognosy technique and GC-MS analysis, three species of CMM were authenticated. In macroscopic characteristics, the fruit of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is blue-black, while the other two are maroon and dark purple orderly. Nodes of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma are upward and light uplift, about 1 cm spacing, while the other are not. As for microscopic characteristics, the cortex of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma only occupies about 1/5 of the radius of the transverse section with inconspicuous endodermis, which is much smaller than others. The type of vascular bundles of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is closed collateral, but the other is amphivasal. Raphides of calcium oxalate are scattered, but Raphides of the other two are like brooms and neat rows. GC-MS analysis of essential oil could provide different characteristics to distinguish three species. Twenty-three compounds were identified from essential oil of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and the main components were n-hexadecanoic acid (49.45%), while n-hexadecanoic acid of the other two are 23.92% and 9.45%. The content of n-hexadecanoic is strongly different. This research was aimed to establish a method by pharmacognosy and GC-MS analysis to identify three CMM and for providing scientifical data to ensure accuracy of origin of three species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22453DOI Listing
February 2015

Effects of dietary Selenomethionine supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, plasma selenium concentration, and immune function in weaning pigs.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2014 2;5(1):46. Epub 2014 Oct 2.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193 China.

Background: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of DL-selenomethionine (DL-SeMet) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, plasma selenium (Se) concentration, and immune function of weaning pigs. 216 weaning pigs were randomly allocated to 6 treatments with 6 replicates each according to a complete randomized block design. Each replicate had six pigs. Diet of group one was corn-soybean basal diet without any additional Se supplement. Group 2 was supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite. Groups 3-6 were supplemented with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mg/kg of Se from DL-SeMet, respectively. The trial lasted for 42 days.

Results: Pigs supplemented with 0.3 and 0.7 mg/kg DL-SeMet obtained better feed gain ratio (P < 0.05). The best antioxidant ability (serum, liver, and muscle) was shown in 0.1-0.3 mg/kg DL-SeMet groups (P < 0.05). The plasma Se concentration increased as the dietary DL-SeMet level elevated. The immunity among groups was not affected.

Conclusions: DL-SeMet supplementation in the diet significantly improved the growth performance, antioxidant ability and plasma Se content of weaning pigs. DL-SeMet can replace sodium selenite in the diet of weaning pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2049-1891-5-46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4198736PMC
October 2014

The impact of an intervention package promoting effective neonatal resuscitation training in rural China.

Resuscitation 2014 Feb 29;85(2):253-9. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

National Center for Women's and Children's Health China CDC, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate an intervention package promoting effective neonatal resuscitation training at county level hospitals across China.

Methods: The intervention package was implemented across 4 counties and included expert seminars, training workshops, establishment of hospital-based resuscitation teams, and supervision of training by national and provincial instructors. Upon completing the activities, a survey was conducted in all county hospitals in the 4 intervention counties and 4 randomly selected control counties. Data on healthcare providers' knowledge and self-confidence, and incidence of deaths from birth asphyxia from 2009 to 2011 in all hospitals were collected and compared between the two groups.

Results: Eleven intervention and eleven control hospitals participated in the evaluation, with 97 and 87 health providers, respectively, completing the questionnaire survey. Over 90% of intervention hospitals had implemented neonatal resuscitation related practice protocols, while in control hospitals the proportion was less than 55%. The average knowledge scores of health providers in the intervention and control counties taking a written exam were 9.2±1.2 and 8.4±1.5, respectively (P<0.001) out of maximum possible score of 10, and the average self-confidence scores were 57.3±2.5 and 54.1±8.2, respectively (P<0.001). Incidence of birth asphyxia (defined as 1-min Apgar score≤7) decreased from 8.8% to 6.0% (P<0.001) in the intervention counties, and asphyxia-related deaths in the delivery room decreased from 27.6 to 5.0 per 100,000 (P=0.076). There was no difference over time in asphyxia rates for the control counties.

Conclusions: The intervention has not only improved skills of health providers, decreased the mortality and morbidity of birth asphyxia, but also resulted in effective implementation of guidelines and protocols within hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.10.020DOI Listing
February 2014

Recurrent gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 causes thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections.

Am J Hum Genet 2013 Aug 1;93(2):398-404. Epub 2013 Aug 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Gene mutations that lead to decreased contraction of vascular smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can cause inherited thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Exome sequencing of distant relatives affected by thoracic aortic disease and subsequent Sanger sequencing of additional probands with familial thoracic aortic disease identified the same rare variant, PRKG1 c.530G>A (p.Arg177Gln), in four families. This mutation segregated with aortic disease in these families with a combined two-point LOD score of 7.88. The majority of affected individuals presented with acute aortic dissections (63%) at relatively young ages (mean 31 years, range 17-51 years). PRKG1 encodes type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-1), which is activated upon binding of cGMP and controls SMC relaxation. Although the p.Arg177Gln alteration disrupts binding to the high-affinity cGMP binding site within the regulatory domain, the altered PKG-1 is constitutively active even in the absence of cGMP. The increased PKG-1 activity leads to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain in fibroblasts and is predicted to cause decreased contraction of vascular SMCs. Thus, identification of a gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 as a cause of thoracic aortic disease provides further evidence that proper SMC contractile function is critical for maintaining the integrity of the thoracic aorta throughout a lifetime.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.06.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3738837PMC
August 2013

Epidemiology of unintentional injuries among children under six years old in floating and residential population in four communities in Beijing: a comparative study.

Matern Child Health J 2014 May;18(4):911-9

National Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Room 3004, No. 400 Xiaonanzhuang, Wanquanhe Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100089, China,

To explore and compare the epidemiological characteristics of non-fatal unintentional injury among children in floating and residential population. Using a structured survey, quantitative data were collected on a total of 352 floating and 201 residential families. Some potential influencing factors were questioned, such as socio-demographic characteristics, injury-related family environment, knowledge, attitude and behavior, and child's character. The self-reported incidence of non-fatal unintentional injuries was 11.9 % in the floating group and 12.9 % in the residential group. Unintentional injuries were more serious and caused more disease burden in floating children than residential children, with the average medical cost being over ten times in the floating group than in the residential group. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that children living in floating families have more risk of unintentional injuries than those children in residential families. Older children and children with extroverted character were more vulnerable to unintentional injuries. Risky family environment was also an important risk factor of unintentional injuries. Better household economic status and having more siblings appeared to reduce the probability of unintentional injuries among children. Floating children are more vulnerable to unintentional injuries comparing with residential children. These findings can be used as preliminary data supporting intervention strategies and activities to promote safe living environment and decrease injury incidence among floating children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-013-1318-6DOI Listing
May 2014

Dispersed oil disrupts microbial pathways in pelagic food webs.

PLoS One 2012 31;7(7):e42548. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Department of Marine Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, United States of America.

Most of the studies of microbial processes in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill focused on the deep water plume, and not on the surface communities. The effects of the crude oil and the application of dispersants on the coastal microbial food web in the northern Gulf of Mexico have not been well characterized even though these regions support much of the fisheries production in the Gulf. A mesocosm experiment was carried out to determine how the microbial community off the coast of Alabama may have responded to the influx of surface oil and dispersants. While the addition of glucose or oil alone resulted in an increase in the biomass of ciliates, suggesting transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels was likely; a different effect was seen in the presence of dispersant. The addition of dispersant or dispersed oil resulted in an increase in the biomass of heterotrophic prokaryotes, but a significant inhibition of ciliates, suggesting a reduction in grazing and decrease in transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels. Similar patterns were observed in two separate experiments with different starting nutrient regimes and microbial communities suggesting that the addition of dispersant and dispersed oil to the northern Gulf of Mexico waters in 2010 may have reduced the flow of carbon to higher trophic levels, leading to a decrease in the production of zooplankton and fish on the Alabama shelf.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0042548PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3409195PMC
January 2013
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