Publications by authors named "Lill Tove N Nilsen"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High UV-A exposure from sunbeds.

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2012 Sep 6;25(5):639-40. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-148X.2012.01035.xDOI Listing
September 2012

[Solarium is not healthy].

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2012 Jun;132(11):1320

Avdeling for biostatistikk, Institutt for medisinske basalfag, Universitetet i Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.12.0401DOI Listing
June 2012

UVB and UVA irradiances from indoor tanning devices.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2011 Jul 28;10(7):1129-36. Epub 2011 Mar 28.

Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P. O. Box 55, NO-1332, Østerås, Norway.

Indoor tanning is common in spite of its classification as carcinogenic. Too high an ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and a lack of compliance with regulations have been reported. We measured UV irradiance from a large number of Norwegian solariums (sunbeds and stand-up cabinets) currently in use. Compliance (solariums and facilities) with national regulations and the effect of inspections delegated to local authorities (since 2004) were also studied. In 2008, 78 tanning facilities were selected from six regions throughout Norway that contained municipalities with and without local inspections. UV irradiance was measured with a CCD spectroradiometer in 194 out of 410 inspected solariums. Mean erythema weighted short (280-320 nm) and long (320-400 nm) wave UV irradiances were 0.194 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.184-0.205) and 0.156 (95% CI 0.148-0.164) W m(-2), respectively. Only 23% of the solariums were below the UV type 3 limit (<0.15 W m(-2), short and long wave). Irradiances varied between solariums: spectral UVB (280-315 nm) and UVA (315-400 nm) irradiances were 0.5-3.7 and 3-26 times, respectively, higher than from Oslo summer sun. In total, 89.9% of the tanning facilities were unattended. Overall compliance increased since the first study in 1998-1999, but total UV irradiance did not decrease, mainly because of higher UVA irradiance in 2008. Solariums have become even less similar to natural sun due to higher UVA irradiance. Local inspections gave better compliance with regulations, but irradiances were significantly higher in municipalities with inspections (p ≤ 0.001, compared to without). Unpredictable UV irradiance combined with insufficient customer guidance may give a high risk of negative health effects from solarium use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c1pp05029jDOI Listing
July 2011

[Solaria, vitamin D, and skin cancer].

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2010 Sep;130(18):1818-21

Avdeling for biostatistikk, Institutt for medisinske basalfag, Universitetet i Oslo, Postboks 1122 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway.

Background: Some researchers have suggested to use an indoor tanning device (solarium) as a vitamin D source for disease prevention.

Material And Methods: The article is based on non-systematic searches in PubMed and ISI, and the authors' experience from epidemiologic research and studies of solarium irradiance.

Results: Vitamin D deficiency is an established risk factor for rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults; and is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Several studies have found a beneficial role of vitamin D on both incidence and prognosis for other diseases, e.g. cancer, but causal relationships with vitamin D cannot yet be concluded. Sun exposure, our main source of vitamin D, is also an established risk factor of skin cancer. Moderate sun exposure generally provides an adequate amount of vitamin D during summer. Dietary intake of vitamin D is adamant when sun exposure is low. Solarium use seems to increase. Mean irradiance from solariums is higher than that from the summer sun in Oslo; 1.5 times higher for UVB and 3.5 times for UVA . Use of solarium increases the risk of skin cancer and was classified as carcinogenic to humans in 2009; positive health effects are not sufficiently documented.

Interpretation: Recommendations on restricted solarium use should be maintained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.09.0435DOI Listing
September 2010

Trends in UV irradiance of tanning devices in Norway: 1983-2005.

Photochem Photobiol 2008 Sep-Oct;84(5):1100-8. Epub 2008 Apr 9.

Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås, Norway.

Indoor tanning increases skin cancer risk, but the importance of different parts of the UV spectrum is unclear. We assessed irradiance of tanning devices in Norway for the period 1983-2005. Since 1983, all tanning models needed approval before being sold or used. UV Type 3 limits were valid from late 1992 (<0.15 W m(-2) for CIE-weighted, i.e. erythemally weighted, short and long wave irradiances). We analyzed data from 90% of the approved tanning models (n = 446 models) and two large inspection surveys in 1998/1999 and 2003 (n = 1,341 tanning devices). Mean CIE-weighted short wave irradiance of approved models increased from 0.050 W m(-2) (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.045-0.055) in 1983-1992 to 0.101 W m(-2) (95% CI 0.098-0.105) in 1993-2005, and mean long wave from 0.091 W m(-2) (95% CI 0.088-0.095) to 0.112 W m(-2) (95% CI 0.109-0.115), respectively. Inspection surveys revealed short wave irradiances much higher than that approved. In 1998-1999, only 28% (293/1034) of the devices were equipped with correct sunlamps and only 1 out of 130 inspected establishments fulfilled all requirements. In 2003, corresponding numbers were 59% (180/307) of devices and 2 out of 52 establishments. Mean short and long wave irradiances of the inspected tanning devices in 2003 were 1.5 and 3.5 times, respectively, higher than the irradiance of natural summer sun in Oslo. In conclusion, the short wave irradiance has increased in indoor tanning devices in Norway over the last 20 years. Due to the high long wave irradiance throughout this period, the percentage of short wave irradiance was much lower than for natural sun.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2008.00330.xDOI Listing
March 2009
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