Publications by authors named "Liliana Camison"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Large Composite Grafts: An Alternative in Pediatric Facial Reconstruction.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2020 Dec 21;73(12):2178-2184. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Section of Pediatric Plastic Surgery. Albany Medical Center and Bernard and Millie Duker Children's Hospital at Albany Medical Center. Albany, New York.

Background: Management of pediatric facial defects can be challenging, as reattachment of large composite grafts is usually unsuccessful. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) has been researched to augment composite graft survival, but clinical use for this application remains anecdotal. The authors present their successful experience managing select cases with large composite grafts and HBO as an adjunct.

Methods: A retrospective chart review identified children presenting with facial defects and managed operatively with large composite grafts (≥1.5 × 1.5 cm) and HBO therapy. Records were reviewed for defect characteristics, management details, and outcomes at last follow-up.

Results: Nine children (avg. 8.4 years, range 1.6-15.1) presented with ear or nose defects secondary to dog bites (n=7), falls (n=1), or congenital causes (n=1). Three experienced ear amputations, and six suffered nasal avulsions of varying degrees. All avulsed ears were reattached. Three cases of nose avulsions were reattached; the other three underwent secondary reconstruction with composite ear grafts. HBO was initiated immediately and continued for 8-10 days. All grafts survived at least 80% with no postoperative complications. At last follow-up (avg. 30.1 months; 0.8-63.9), all patients demonstrated good cosmetic results with minimal residual deformity.

Conclusion: When reconstruction of pediatric facial defects warrants a large chondrocutaneous graft, immediate postoperative HBO therapy can increase survival. Particularly when reattaching amputated segments, if successful, this approach offers an anatomically ideal result without donor site morbidity. If unsuccessful, it does not "burn bridges" and decreases the extent of secondary reconstruction. The authors present their HBO protocol along with a review of available literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2020.05.028DOI Listing
December 2020

Small Finger Osteocutaneous Fillet Flap for Reconstruction in Ring Finger Trauma.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2019 Oct 29;7(10):e2477. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Finger amputations are common injuries which result in significant long-term morbidity and loss of function. In this report, we describe a creative operative solution for a 21-year-old man who was in a motorcycle crash and sustained severely comminuted open fractures of the left small and ring fingers with severe crush injury and soft tissue avulsion. Of the tissues and bones in the small finger, only the distal half of the proximal phalanx remained intact and was vascularized via the remaining ulnar neurovascular bundle. In the ring finger, the extensor mechanism and ulnar neurovascular bundle were avulsed and the distal half of the proximal phalanx was absent, but the flexor tendons were intact. A small finger ray amputation was performed. Then, using an osteocutaneous fillet flap based on the ulnar neurovascular bundle from the small finger, the bony gap and soft tissue deficits in the ring finger were reconstructed. The ring finger extensor tendon was then reconstructed. Subsequently, the patient had evidence of bony union on follow-up X-rays and he had a sensate filet flap over the ulnar aspect of the ring finger. This case demonstrates the creative use of a "spare-parts" osteocutaneous fillet flap in the reconstruction of a traumatic finger injury. This example highlights the importance of assessing all available reconstructive options to avoid the morbidity of a finger amputation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000002477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6846318PMC
October 2019

Interleukin-10 Does Not Augment Osseous Regeneration in the Scarred Calvarial Defect Achieved with Low-Dose Biopatterned BMP2.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2019 06;143(6):1215e-1223e

From the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh; Biomedical Engineering and Biological Sciences and The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University; and The Ohio State University College of Medicine.

Background: Large calvarial defects represent a major reconstructive challenge, as they do not heal spontaneously. Infection causes inflammation and scarring, further reducing the healing capacity of the calvaria. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) has been shown to stimulate osteogenesis but has significant side effects in high doses. BMP2 has not been tested in combination with antiinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-10.

Methods: Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits underwent 15 × 15-mm flap calvarectomies. The flap was incubated in Staphylococcus aureus and replaced, and infection and scarring were allowed to develop. The flap was subsequently removed and the wound débrided. A 15 × 15-mm square of acellular dermal matrix biopatterned with low-dose BMP2, interleukin-10, or a combination was implanted. Computed tomographic scans were taken over 42 days. Rabbits were then killed and histology was performed.

Results: Defects treated with BMP2 showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater osseous regeneration than untreated controls. Interleukin-10 did not significantly augment the healing achieved with BMP2, and interleukin-10 alone did not significantly increase healing compared with controls. Histology showed evidence of bone formation in defects treated with BMP2. Untreated controls and defects treated with interleukin-10 alone showed only fibrous tissue in the defect site.

Conclusions: Low-dose BMP2 delivered directly to the scarred calvarial defect augments bony healing. Interleukin-10 at the dose applied did not significantly augment healing alone or in combination with BMP2. Healing had not finished at 42 days and analysis at later time points or the use of higher doses of BMP2 may yield greater healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000005640DOI Listing
June 2019

Reconstruction of a Calvarial Wound Complicated by Infection: Comparing the Effects of Biopatterned Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor.

J Craniofac Surg 2019 Jan;30(1):260-264

Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh.

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) bioprinted on biological matrix induces osseous regeneration in large calvarial defects in rabbits, both uncomplicated and scarred. Healing in unfavorable defects scarred from previous infection is decreased due in part to the lack of vascularity. This impedes the access of mesenchymal stem cells, key to osseous regeneration and the efficacy of BMP2, to the wound bed. The authors hypothesized that bioprinted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) would augment the osseous regeneration achieved with low dose biopatterned BMP2 alone. Thirteen New Zealand white rabbits underwent subtotal calvariectomy using a dental cutting burr. Care was taken to preserve the underlying dura. A 15 mm × 15 mm flap of bone was cut away and incubated in a 1 × 108 cfu/mL planktonic solution of S aureus before reimplantation. After 2 weeks of subsequent infection the flap was removed and the surgical wound debrided followed by 10 days of antibiotic treatment. On postoperative day 42 the calvarial defects were treated with acellular dermal matrix bioprinted with nothing (control), VEGF, BMP2, BMP2/VEGF combined. Bone growth was analyzed with serial CT and postmortem histology. Defects treated with BMP2 (BMP2 alone and BMP2/VEGF combination) showed significantly greater healing than control and VEGF treated defect (P < 0.5). Vascular endothelial growth factor treated defect demonstrated less healing than control and VEGF/BMP2 combination treatments achieved less healing than BMP2 alone though these differences were nonsignificant. Low dose BMP2-patterned acellular dermal matrix improves healing of scarred calvarial defects. Vascular endothelial growth factor at the doses applied in this study failed to increase healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000004779DOI Listing
January 2019

Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis of the Mandible: A Diagnostic Challenge.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 07;142(1):186-192

From the Department of Plastic Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, and the Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, University of Pittsburgh, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC.

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare autoinflammatory bone disorder of children and adolescents characterized by monofocal or multifocal inflammatory bone lesions that are culture-negative on biopsy, associated with periods of exacerbation and resolution that can last over several months to years. Although it is predominantly a disease of long bones and the spine, craniofacial involvement is not uncommon, affecting the mandible in up to one-fifth of cases. Similarities with other causes of osteitis in clinical presentation and imaging, and the lack of specific symptoms or laboratory tests, make chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis mainly a diagnosis of exclusion. An accurate diagnosis is required for appropriate treatment to induce remission. This article highlights the challenges faced by plastic and oral surgeons in diagnosing mandibular chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, and describes two pediatric patients affected with the disease. Both cases were initially confused with other entities, leading to unnecessary initial treatments and a delayed diagnosis. A review aimed at surgeons summarizes the major aspects of this condition so that it is considered as a differential diagnosis in young patients presenting with a facial bony mass.

Clinical Question/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000004494DOI Listing
July 2018

Variability in Minimally Invasive Surgery for Sagittal Craniosynostosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2018 Jan;29(1):14-20

Division of Pediatric Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh.

Minimally invasive approaches to the surgical correction of sagittal craniosynostosis are gaining favor as an alternative to open cranial vault remodeling. In this systematic review, the reviewers evaluate the variability in described surgical techniques for minimally invasive correction of sagittal craniosynostosis. Articles were selected based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria from an online literature search through PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library. Extracted data included the incisions, method of dissection, osteotomies performed, and type of force therapy utilized.A total of 28 articles from 15 author groups were included in the final analysis. Of the 28 articles, 17 distinct techniques were identified. Significant variation existed in both the technique and the terminology used to describe it. Access to the cranium varied between a standard bicoronal incision (n = 2), a "lazy S" incision (n = 2), and multiple short incisions along the fused sagittal suture (n = 13). Additional variations were found in the size and design of the osteotomy, the usage (and duration, if applicable) of force therapy, and the age of the patient at the time of surgical intervention.This systematic review demonstrates that minimally invasive approaches to sagittal craniosynostosis vary widely in technique with respect to the incisions, osteotomies, and force therapy used. Additionally, the terminology employed in describing minimally invasive approaches is inconsistent across centers. This discrepancy between technique and terminology presents challenges for reporting and interpreting the increasing body of literature on this subject. We recommend standard terminology be used for future publications on minimally invasive techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000003997DOI Listing
January 2018

A Treatment Algorithm for Patients Presenting with Sagittal Craniosynostosis after the Age of 1 Year.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Sep;140(3):582-590

Pittsburgh, Pa.; and Madison, Wis.

Background: Sagittal craniosynostosis typically presents shortly after birth, with a scaphocephalic head shape, and is addressed surgically for functional and aesthetic concerns. This study highlights the authors' experience with a challenging patient population: those with phenotypically mild, missed, and late-developing sagittal craniosynostosis.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted for all cases of sagittal craniosynostosis presenting to the authors' institution between July of 2013 and December of 2015. Patients older than 1 year with isolated sagittal craniosynostosis were included. All children were evaluated by craniofacial surgery, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology departments. All patients had dilated fundus examinations and visual evoked potentials.

Results: Fifty-two patients met inclusion criteria. Only nine patients have been treated surgically (17.3 percent). Two patients underwent operative correction for obvious scaphocephaly. Four patients who presented with concerning ophthalmologic evaluations and another patient with classic intracranial hypertension-related headaches underwent cranial vault expansion. Eight patients presented with inconclusive ophthalmologic evaluations. These patients were admitted for intracranial pressure monitoring, of which two were found to have elevated levels (25 percent) and underwent operative intervention. Thirty-seven other patients presented with isolated sagittal craniosynostosis in the setting of overall normocephaly without any signs concerning for intracranial hypertension. These patients continue to undergo serial evaluation.

Conclusions: The authors describe their treatment protocol for a large series of patients presenting with the delayed diagnosis of sagittal craniosynostosis. Based on the early experience of the authors' center with this protocol, the risk of intracranial hypertension appears to be low in this population. The majority of patients to date have been managed nonsurgically without invasive monitoring.

Clinical Question/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000003602DOI Listing
September 2017

Nonsyndromic Craniosynostosis and Associated Abnormal Speech and Language Development.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Jul;140(1):62e-69e

Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, Pa.

Background: Although many metrics for neurodevelopment in children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis have been analyzed, few have directly examined early language acquisition and speech development. The authors characterized language acquisition and speech development in children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis.

Methods: The authors' institutional database was queried for nonsyndromic craniosynostosis from 2000 to 2014. Patients with an identified syndrome were excluded. Specific data elements included age, gender, velopharyngeal adequacy by means of the Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Scale, evaluation for anatomical motor delay, language acquisition delay/disorder, articulation or speech sound production delays/disorders, and whether speech therapy was recommended. Diagnosis of a submucous cleft palate was noted.

Results: One hundred one patients met inclusion criteria, of which 57.4 percent were male. Average age at the time of the most recent speech evaluation was 6.1 years (range, 2.31 to 17.95 years); 43.6 percent had normal speech/language metrics and 56.4 percent had one or more abnormalities, including anatomical motor delay/disorder (29.7 percent), language acquisition delay/disorder (21.8 percent), articulation or speech production delay/disorder (4.0 percent), hypernasality (15.8 percent), and velopharyngeal insufficiency or borderline competency (23.8 percent). Average Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Scale score was 1.3 (range, 0 to 5), and 29.7 percent (n = 30) of patients were recommended to have speech therapy. In addition, 25.8 percent of patients were diagnosed with a submucous cleft palate.

Conclusions: One in four patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis carried a diagnosis of submucous cleft palate. The authors found that abnormal speech and language development occurs in one in 1.7 patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, and that speech therapy for such abnormal development is warranted in one in 3.4 of them-a prevalence two to five times higher compared with the general pediatric population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000003423DOI Listing
July 2017

Biomechanical Integrity in Craniofacial Surgery: Calvarial Reconstruction in Favorable and Infected Defects with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 May;139(5):1141-1150

Pittsburgh, Pa.; and Augusta, Ga.

Background: The limitations of autologous and alloplastic reconstruction for craniofacial bone defects have created a clinical need for viable tissue-engineering strategies. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has shown promise in this setting. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term biomechanical properties of rhBMP-2-mediated calvarial reconstruction.

Methods: Twelve-week-old New Zealand White rabbits underwent subtotal calvarectomy. Defects were repaired in one of several groups: immediate reconstruction with autologous graft, immediate reconstruction with cryopreserved bone graft, immediate reconstruction with rhBMP-2 (favorable), and delayed reconstruction with rhBMP-2 following infection and subsequent débridement (unfavorable). Cryopreserved reconstructions were measured at 6 weeks; autologous reconstructions were measured at 6 weeks and 6 months; and both favorable and unfavorable rhBMP-2 reconstructions were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after reconstruction. Healing was assessed with computed tomography. An unconfined compression test was performed for biomechanical analysis. Stress at 20 percent strain, percentage relaxation, tangent modulus, and final strain at 1800 N were compared between groups.

Results: Nearly complete radiographic coverage was achieved by 6 months for autologous reconstruction and by 6 weeks for rhBMP-2 reconstruction. Favorable rhBMP-2 reconstruction demonstrated a larger final strain at 1800 N through 1 year compared with native bone. Bone in unfavorable rhBMP-2 reconstruction was more compressible than native bone, with a larger final strain at 1800 N at 1 year. There were no significant differences between favorable and unfavorable groups.

Conclusions: Despite providing radiographic coverage, the biomechanical properties of rhBMP-2 bone differ from those of native bone. Further studies are warranted to determine how these properties affect overall strength and structural integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000003261DOI Listing
May 2017

Congenital Palatal Fistula Associated with Submucous Cleft Palate.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2016 Feb 5;4(2):e613. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Burn/Cleft Lip and Palate Unit, Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Oral Pathology, Radiology and Medicine, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C.

Unlabelled: Although cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common congenital malformations, the presence of an isolated congenital palatal fistula along with a submucous cleft is very rare. This appears as an oval-shaped, full-thickness fenestration in the palatal midline that does not fully extend anteriorly or posteriorly, accompanied by the findings of a submucous cleft. Because of the uncommon nature of this entity, there is controversy about its etiology, diagnosis, and management.

Methods: Two cases of children with congenital palatal fistulae and a submucous cleft palate are presented who were treated in different settings by different surgeons. Cases are discussed along with a thorough review of the available literature.

Results: Patient 1 presented at 4 years of age with "a hole in the palate" since birth and abnormal speech. His palatal fistula and submucous cleft were repaired with a modified von Langenbeck technique in Ethiopia. At a 2-year follow-up, the palate remained closed, but hypernasal speech persisted. Patient 2 was a 1-year-old presenting with failure to thrive and nasal regurgitation, who underwent a Furlow palatoplasty in the United States with good immediate results. She was unfortunately lost to follow-up.

Conclusions: A congenital fenestration of the palate is rare. Reports reveal suboptimal speech at follow-up, despite various types of repair, especially when combined with a submucous cleft. Available literature suggests that repair should not focus on fistula closure only but instead on providing adequate palate length to provide good velopharyngeal function, as in any cleft palate repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000000600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4778884PMC
February 2016

Antibiotic Use in Primary Palatoplasty: A Survey of Practice Patterns, Assessment of Efficacy, and Proposed Guidelines for Use.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Feb;137(2):574-582

St. Petersburg, Fla.; Baltimore, Md.; and Pittsburgh, Pa. From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical School; the Divisions of Pediatric Plastic Surgery and Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; and the Department of Surgery, Allegheny General Hospital.

Background: The literature provides no guidelines for antibiotic use in palatoplasty. The authors sought to ascertain practice patterns; review a large, single-surgeon experience, and propose guidelines for antibiotic use in primary palatoplasty.

Methods: A six-question survey was e-mailed to all surgeons of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. A retrospective study was also conducted of the senior author's 10-year primary palatoplasty series, and two groups were studied. Group 1 received no antibiotics. Group 2 received preoperative and/or postoperative antibiotics.

Results: Three hundred twelve of 1115 surgeons (28 percent) responded to the survey. Eighty-five percent administered prophylactic antibiotics, including 26 percent who used a single preoperative dose. A further 23 percent gave 24 hours of postoperative therapy; 12 percent used 25 to 72 hours, 16 percent used 4 to 5 days, and 12 percent used 6 to 10 days. Five percent of surgeons administered penicillin, 64 percent administered a first-generation cephalosporin, 13 percent administered ampicillin/sulbactam, and 8 percent gave clindamycin. The authors reviewed 311 patients; 173 receive antibiotics and 138 did not. Delayed healing and fistula rates did not differ between groups: 16.8 percent versus 15.2 percent (p = 0.71) and 2.9 percent versus 1.4 percent (p = 0.47), respectively. A single patient treated without antibiotics developed a postoperative bacteremia. This case did not meet the Centers for Disease Control definition of a surgical site infection, but the patient developed a palatal fistula.

Conclusions: Antibiotic use in primary palatoplasty varies widely. The authors' data support a clinician's choice to forego antibiotic use; however, given the significance of palatal fistulae and the single case of postoperative streptococcal bacteremia, the study group recommends a single preoperative dose of ampicillin/sulbactam. Current evidence cannot justify the use of protracted antibiotic regimens.

Clinical Question/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000475784.29575.d6DOI Listing
February 2016

Repair of a Complicated Calvarial Defect: Reconstruction of an Infected Wound With rhBMP-2.

Ann Plast Surg 2016 Feb;76(2):205-10

From the *Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; †Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA; ‡Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; §Department of General Surgery, St Louis University, St Louis, MO; ∥Department of Oral Biology, and ¶Departments of Anthropology and Orthodontics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Management of the previously infected craniofacial defect remains a significant clinical challenge, posing obstacles such as wound healing complications, lack of donor site availability, and predisposition to failure of the repair. Optimal therapy would reconstruct like with like, without donor site morbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-mediated bone regeneration with the current standard of autologous bone graft for repair of previously infected calvarial defects.

Methods: Nineteen adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent subtotal calvariectomy. Bone flaps were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and replanted. After 1 week of infection, bone flaps were removed, and wounds were debrided, followed by 10 days of antibiotic treatment. After 6 weeks, animals underwent scar debridement followed by definitive reconstruction in 1 of 4 groups: empty control (n = 3), vehicle control (buffer solution on absorbable collagen sponge [ACS], n = 3), autologous bone graft (n = 3), or rhBMP-2 repair (rhBMP-2/ACS, n = 10). Animals underwent computed tomography imaging at 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks postoperatively, followed by euthanization and histological analysis. Percent healing was determined by 3-dimensional analysis. A (time × group) 2-way analysis of variance was performed on healing versus treatment group and postoperative time.

Results: At 6 weeks postoperatively, rhBMP-2/ACS and autologous bone graft resulted in 93% and 68% healing, respectively, whereas the empty and vehicle control treatment resulted in 27% and 26% healing (P < 0.001). Histologically, compared to autologous bone graft, bone in the rhBMP-2/ACS group was more cellular and more consistently continuous with wound margins.

Conclusions: The rhBMP-2 therapy is effective in achieving radiographic coverage of previously infected calvarial defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000000515DOI Listing
February 2016

Speech Outcomes After Clinically Indicated Posterior Pharyngeal Flap Takedown.

Ann Plast Surg 2016 Oct;77(4):420-4

From the Division of Pediatric Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Velopharyngeal insufficiency affects as many as one in three patients after cleft palate repair. Correction using a posterior pharyngeal flap (PPF) has been shown to improve clinical speech symptomatology; however, PPFs can be complicated by hyponasality and obstructive sleep apnea. The goal of this study was to assess if speech outcomes revert after clinically indicated PPF takedown.

Methods: The cleft-craniofacial database of the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center was retrospectively queried to identify patients with a diagnosis of velopharyngeal insufficiency treated with PPF who ultimately required takedown. Using the Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Score (PWSS), preoperative scores were compared to those after PPF takedown. Outcomes after 2 different methods of PPF takedown (PPF takedown alone or PPF takedown with conversion to Furlow palatoplasty) were stratified and cross-compared.

Results: A total of 64 patients underwent takedown of their PPF. Of these, 18 patients underwent PPF takedown alone, and 46 patients underwent PPF takedown with conversion to Furlow Palatoplasty. Patients averaged 12.43 (range, 3.0-22.0)(SD: 3.93) years of age at the time of PPF takedown, and 58% were men. Demographics between groups were not statistically different. The mean duration of follow-up after surgery was 38.09 (range, 1-104) (SD, 27.81) months. For patients undergoing PPF takedown alone, the mean preoperative and postoperative PWSS was 3.83 (range, 0.0-23.0) (SD, 6.13) and 4.11 (range, 0.0-23.0) (SD, 5.31), respectively (P = 0.89). The mean change in PWSS was 0.28 (range, -9.0 to 7.0) (SD, 4.3). For patients undergoing takedown of PPF with conversion to Furlow palatoplasty, the mean preoperative and postoperative PWSS was 6.37 (range, 0-26) (SD, 6.70) and 3.11 (range, 0.0-27.0) (SD, 4.14), respectively (P < 0.01). The mean change in PWSS was -3.26 (range, -23.0 to 4.0) (SD, 4.3). For all patients, the mean preoperative PWSS was 5.66 (range, 0.0-26) (SD, 6.60) and 3.39 (range, 0.0-27) (SD, 4.48), respectively (P < 0.05). The mean change in PWSS was -2.26 (range, -23.0 to 7) (SD, 5.7). There was no statistically significant regression in PWSS for either surgical intervention. Two patients in the PPF takedown alone cohort demonstrated deterioration in PWSS that warranted delayed conversion to Furlow palatoplasty. Approximately 90% of patients, who undergo clinically indicated PPF takedown alone, without conversion to Furlow Palatoplasty, will show no clinically significant reduction in speech.

Conclusions: Although there is concern that PPF takedown may degrade speech, this study finds that surgical takedown of PPF, when clinically indicated, does not result in a clinically significant regression of speech.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000000632DOI Listing
October 2016

Reply: Evidence-Based Medicine: Unilateral Cleft Lip and Nose Repair.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2015 Jul;136(1):119e-120e

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000001339DOI Listing
July 2015

Evidence-based medicine: Unilateral cleft lip and nose repair.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 Dec;134(6):1372-1380

Pittsburgh, Pa. From the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

Learning Objectives: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the anatomical malformations found in unilateral cleft lip deformity. 2. Discuss current methods of measuring the deformity and subsequent outcomes. 3. Discuss preoperative assessments, workup, and the use of early interventions before definitive cheiloplasty (e.g., preoperative orthopedics, lip adhesion). 4. Discuss the different techniques used for cheiloplasty and nasal repair. 5. Discuss the use of postoperative splints, taping, or molding. 6. Discuss the outcomes and evidence of cleft lip repairs and identify areas for future research.

Summary: The Maintenance of Certification module series is designed to help clinicians structure their individualized course of study to specific areas appropriate to their clinical practice. This article was prepared to accompany practice-based assessment of preoperative evaluation, anesthesia, surgical treatment plan, perioperative management, and outcomes. In this format, the clinician is invited to compare his or her methods of patient assessment and treatment, outcomes, and complications, with authoritative, information-based references. This information base is then used for self-assessment and benchmarking in parts II and IV of the Maintenance of Certification process of the American Board of Plastic Surgery. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive treatise on the subject. Rather, it is designed to serve as a reference point for further in-depth study by review of the reference articles presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000000721DOI Listing
December 2014

Intraosseous venous malformations of the zygoma: clarification of misconceptions regarding diagnosis and management.

Ann Plast Surg 2014 Mar;72(3):323-7

From the *Division of Plastic, Aesthetic, and Reconstructive Surgery, The DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL; †Universidad CES, Facultad de Medicina, Medellin, Colombia; ‡Department of Pathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL; and §Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Primary intraosseous venous malformations affecting the zygoma are rare vascular lesions, with only 35 cases reported in the surgical literature. Despite the establishment of the binary classification system, which serves to distinguish vascular tumors from malformations, inappropriate use of the term "hemangioma" to describe a variety of distinct vascular anomalies remains widespread. The authors present 3 cases of zygomatic intraosseous venous malformations and summarize the clinical, radiographic, and immunohistochemical features of these lesions. In each case, an insidious clinical course, combined with the pathognomonic finding of radiating trabeculae on computed tomography, suggests the diagnosis of intraosseous venous malformation. Negative glucose transporter isoform 1 immunoreactivity and histopathological analysis were used to reinforce this diagnosis in 1 patient. Management was individualized in each case, based on symptom complex and aesthetic concern. Given that the therapeutic approach to vascular anomalies is dependent on accurate diagnosis, resolution of semantic matters will optimize the management of these lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0b013e3182605690DOI Listing
March 2014

Inferior pedicle breast reduction: a retrospective review of technical modifications influencing patient safety, operative efficiency, and postoperative outcomes.

Am J Surg 2012 Nov;204(5):e7-14

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic, Aesthetic, Reconstructive Surgery, University of Miami Health System, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Background: The inferior pedicle technique remains the most popular approach to breast reduction in the United States. Modifications to this procedure have enhanced versatility, patient safety, and outcome satisfaction in patients with all degrees of macromastia.

Methods: A 6-year retrospective review of 241 patients who underwent bilateral inferior pedicle breast reduction was conducted at our institution. Modifications analyzed included methylene blue tattooing to provide preoperative landmarks, preoperative hydrodissection to reduce intraoperative blood loss, incorporation of inframammary darting to reduce tension at the "T-junction," preservation of superomedial volume for enhanced medial fullness, and dermatome blade-guided tissue resection.

Results: Inframammary darting reduced the incidence of wound dehiscence. Preoperative hydrodissection reduced intraoperative blood loss by a factor of 2. Dermatome blade use reduced operative times at no increased incidence of postoperative seromas or hematomas.

Conclusions: Outcomes resulting from these modifications appear to be at least comparable to, and perhaps better than, those previously reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.07.015DOI Listing
November 2012

Foot salvage after loss of the first and second metatarsal rays with a free fibular osteocutaneous flap.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2011 Nov-Dec;101(6):531-6

Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Miami/Miller School of Medicine, FL, USA.

Severely comminuted fractures of the metatarsal bones with significant bone and soft-tissue loss have commonly subjected patients to proximal amputation procedures. We describe two patients who experienced high-energy traumatic injuries to their limbs that resulted in significant destruction of their first and second metatarsal bones with overlying soft-tissue trauma not amenable to local coverage. In both cases, a vascularized free fibular osteocutaneous flap was used to reconstruct the metatarsal bone defect and traumatized soft tissues so that a proximal amputation was avoided. At an average of 14 months of follow-up, both patients had recovered well and regained independent ambulation, with one patient being able to play soccer. We show that the free fibular osteoseptocutaneous flap is useful in reconstructing significant metatarsal bone defects and in avoiding amputations in this patient population. The skin component of the flap may be used to fill soft-tissue losses, and the fibula bone may be osteotomized so that more than one ray may be reconstructed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7547/1010531DOI Listing
April 2012