Publications by authors named "Lilian Golzarri-Arroyo"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Adiposity, reproductive and metabolic health, and activity levels in zoo Asian elephant ().

J Exp Biol 2021 Jan 26;224(Pt 2). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Center for Species Survival, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA 22630, USA.

Many captive Asian elephant populations are not self-sustaining, possibly due in part to obesity-related health and reproductive issues. This study investigated relationships between estimated body composition and metabolic function, inflammatory markers, ovarian activity (females only) and physical activity levels in 44 Asian elephants (=35 females, =9 males). Deuterium dilution was used to measure total body water from which fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) could be derived to estimate body composition. Serum was analyzed for progestagens and estradiol (females only), deuterium, glucose, insulin and amyloid A. Physical activity was assessed by an accelerometer placed on the elephant's front leg for at least 2 days. Relative fat mass (RFM) - the amount of fat relative to body mass - was calculated to take differences in body size between elephants into consideration. Body fat percentage ranged from 2.01% to 24.59%. Male elephants were heavier (=0.043), with more FFM (=0.049), but not FM (>0.999), than females. For all elephants, estimated RFM (=0.45, =0.004) was positively correlated with insulin. Distance walked was negatively correlated with age (=-0.46, =0.007). When adjusted for FFM and age (<0.001), non-cycling females had less fat compared with cycling females, such that for every 100 kg increase in FM, the odds of cycling were 3 times higher (<0.001). More work is needed to determine what an unhealthy amount of fat is for elephants; however, our results suggest higher adiposity may contribute to metabolic perturbations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.219543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847275PMC
January 2021

Effects of ACT Out! Social Issue Theater on Social-Emotional Competence and Bullying in Youth and Adolescents: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Ment Health 2021 Jan 6;8(1):e25860. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Prevention Insights, Department of Applied Health Science, School of Public Health, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, United States.

Background: Schools increasingly prioritize social-emotional competence and bullying and cyberbullying prevention, so the development of novel, low-cost, and high-yield programs addressing these topics is important. Further, rigorous assessment of interventions prior to widespread dissemination is crucial.

Objective: This study assesses the effectiveness and implementation fidelity of the ACT Out! Social Issue Theater program, a 1-hour psychodramatic intervention by professional actors; it also measures students' receptiveness to the intervention.

Methods: This study is a 2-arm cluster randomized control trial with 1:1 allocation that randomized either to the ACT Out! intervention or control (treatment as usual) at the classroom level (n=76 classrooms in 12 schools across 5 counties in Indiana, comprised of 1571 students at pretest in fourth, seventh, and tenth grades). The primary outcomes were self-reported social-emotional competence, bullying perpetration, and bullying victimization; the secondary outcomes were receptiveness to the intervention, implementation fidelity (independent observer observation), and prespecified subanalyses of social-emotional competence for seventh- and tenth-grade students. All outcomes were collected at baseline and 2-week posttest, with planned 3-months posttest data collection prevented due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: Intervention fidelity was uniformly excellent (>96% adherence), and students were highly receptive to the program. However, trial results did not support the hypothesis that the intervention would increase participants' social-emotional competence. The intervention's impact on bullying was complicated to interpret and included some evidence of small interaction effects (reduced cyberbullying victimization and increased physical bullying perpetration). Additionally, pooled within-group reductions were also observed and discussed but were not appropriate for causal attribution.

Conclusions: This study found no superiority for a 1-hour ACT Out! intervention compared to treatment as usual for social-emotional competence or offline bullying, but some evidence of a small effect for cyberbullying. On the basis of these results and the within-group effects, as a next step, we encourage research into whether the ACT Out! intervention may engender a bystander effect not amenable to randomization by classroom. Therefore, we recommend a larger trial of the ACT Out! intervention that focuses specifically on cyberbullying, measures bystander behavior, is randomized by school, and is controlled for extant bullying prevention efforts at each school.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04097496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04097496.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): RR2-10.2196/17900.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/25860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817353PMC
January 2021

COVID-19 Misinformation Prophylaxis: Protocol for a Randomized Trial of a Brief Informational Intervention.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 Dec 7;9(12):e24383. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Biostatistics Consulting Center, School of Public Health Bloomington, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, United States.

Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect life in the United States, the important role of nonpharmaceutical preventive behaviors (such as wearing a face mask) in reducing the risk of infection has become clear. During the pandemic, researchers have observed the rapid proliferation of misinformed or inconsistent narratives about COVID-19. There is growing evidence that such misinformed narratives are associated with various forms of undesirable behavior (eg, burning down cell towers). Furthermore, individuals' adherence to recommended COVID-19 preventive guidelines has been inconsistent, and such mandates have engendered opposition and controversy. Recent research suggests the possibility that trust in science and scientists may be an important thread to weave throughout these seemingly disparate components of the modern public health landscape. Thus, this paper describes the protocol for a randomized trial of a brief, digital intervention designed to increase trust in science.

Objective: The objective of this study is to examine whether exposure to a curated infographic can increase trust in science, reduce the believability of misinformed narratives, and increase the likelihood to engage in preventive behaviors.

Methods: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, superiority trial comprising 2 parallel groups. A sample of 1000 adults aged ≥18 years who are representative of the population of the United States by gender, race and ethnicity, and age will be randomly assigned (via a 1:1 allocation) to an intervention or a placebo-control arm. The intervention will be a digital infographic with content based on principles of trust in science, developed by a health communications expert. The intervention will then be both pretested and pilot-tested to determine its viability. Study outcomes will include trust in science, a COVID-19 narrative belief latent profile membership, and the likelihood to engage in preventive behaviors, which will be controlled by 8 theoretically selected covariates.

Results: This study was funded in August 2020, approved by the Indiana University Institutional Review Board on September 15, 2020, and prospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov.

Conclusions: COVID-19 misinformation prophylaxis is crucial. This proposed experiment investigates the impact of a brief yet actionable intervention that can be easily disseminated to increase individuals' trust in science, with the intention of affecting misinformation believability and, consequently, preventive behavioral intentions.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04557241; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04557241.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/24383.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722482PMC
December 2020

Women's Perceptions about Breastfeeding: A Preliminary Study.

Children (Basel) 2020 Jun 12;7(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Heath, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, USA.

Background: Breastfeeding rates are low in many communities in the United States and require attention to come up with ideas that will help increase breastfeeding. This study investigated the effects of income, age, race and education on mothers' perceptions about breastfeeding and whose needs and views should be considered in a women's breastfeeding journey.

Methods: A survey was distributed via email and Facebook to 525 participants; 453 participants (86.3%) responded to the survey.

Results: Younger adults were more likely to agree that fathers should have some say about breastfeeding. Those earning USD 0-USD 50,000 were more likely to agree relative to those with higher incomes on children being entitled to mother's milk, and children's needs over-riding those of others. There was a statistically significant difference by education about women's wishes about breastfeeding being considered more important than those of their spouses. However, there was no statistically significant difference for any demographic group for breastfeeding decisions coming from women only. On women's breasts being primarily for infant's nutrition, people who earned USD 0-USD 50,000 were more likely to agree relative to those who earned more than USD 50,000; younger adults were significantly more likely to agree. Those who earned USD 0-USD 50,000 were more likely to agree relative to those in other income brackets that extended family members should have input regarding babies being breastfed; minority participants were significantly more likely to agree relative to white participants; those with less than 4-year college education were more likely to agree relative to those with a minimum of four-year college education. Younger adults were more likely to agree that employers must provide extended maternity leave to make it easier for mothers to breastfeed. On younger adults were significantly more likely to agree compared to older adults.

Conclusion: Women have favorable views about breastfeeding and prefer being in charge about decisions to breastfeed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children7060061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346197PMC
June 2020

Corrections requested for: "Effects of auriculotherapy on weight and body mass index reduction in patients with overweight or obesity: Systematic review and meta-analysis".

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2020 05 11;39:101117. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2020.101117DOI Listing
May 2020

Data anomalies and apparent reporting errors in 'Randomized controlled trial testing weight loss and abdominal obesity outcomes of moxibustion'.

Biomed Eng Online 2020 Feb 18;19(1):11. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Public Health-Bloomington, 1025 E 7th St, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.

Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are the best method to determine causal effects for treatments if they are well done and well reported. Good evidence about proposed treatments for obesity is needed, and Hsieh et al. (Biomed Eng Online 17:149, 2018) are to be commended for putting moxibustion to the test. However, careful evaluation of the paper reveals inconsistencies and apparent reporting errors, which raise doubts about conclusions from the study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12938-020-0753-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029490PMC
February 2020

Viime: Visualization and Integration of Metabolomics Experiments.

J Open Source Softw 2020 18;5(54). Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine.

Metabolomics involves the comprehensive measurement of metabolites from a biological system. The resulting metabolite profiles are influenced by genetics, lifestyle, biological stresses, disease, diet and the environment and therefore provides a more holistic biological readout of the pathological condition of the organism (Beger et al., 2016; Wishart, 2016). The challenge for metabolomics is that no single analytical platform can provide a truly comprehensive coverage of the metabolome. The most commonly used platforms are based on mass-spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Investigators are increasingly using both methods to increase the metabolite coverage. The challenge for this type of multi-platform approach is that the data structure may be very different in these two platforms. For example, NMR data may be reported as a list of spectral features, e.g., bins or peaks with arbitrary intensity units or more directly with named metabolites reported in concentration units ranging from micromolar to millimolar. Some MS approaches can also provide data in the form of identified metabolite concentrations, but given the superior sensitivity of MS, the concentrations can be several orders of magnitude lower than for NMR. Other MS approaches yield data in the form of arbitrary response units where the dynamic range can be more than 6 orders of magnitude. Importantly, the variability and reproducibility of the data may differ across platforms. Given the diversity of data structures (i.e., magnitude and dynamic range) integrating the data from multiple platforms can be challenging. This often leads investigators to analyze the datasets separately, which prevents the observation of potentially interesting relationships and correlations between metabolites detected on different platforms. Viime (VIsualization and Integration of Metabolomics Experiments) is an open-source, web-based application designed to integrate metabolomics data from multiple platforms. The workflow of Viime for data integration and visualization is shown in Figure 1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21105/joss.02410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990241PMC
October 2020

Fat mass compared to four body condition scoring systems in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

Zoo Biol 2019 Oct 30;38(5):424-433. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Captive elephant populations are not self-sustaining due to health concerns possibly related to obesity. Categorizing obesity relies on qualitative analyses like body condition scores (BCS). However, elephant indices have not been validated against measured body composition. The objective was to compare BCS systems to body composition determined by deuterium dilution in 28 zoo-kept Asian elephants. Elephants were weighed and given deuterated water orally (0.05 ml/kg). Blood was collected at ~0, 24, 120, 240, 360, and 480 hr after dosing. Photographs were taken to score the elephant based on four BCS systems (BCS [0 to 11 scoring], BCS [1 to 5 scoring], BCS [0 to 10 scoring], BCS [1 to 10 scoring]). Based on regression analysis, relative fat ranged from -305 kg to 515 kg, where negative values indicate less and positive values indicate more fat than expected for the elephant's mass in this population. BCS was associated with relative fat (p = .020, R  = 0.194). Relative fat, adjusted for sex and age in the statistical model, was associated with BCS (p = .027, R  = 0.389), BCS (p = .002, R  = 0.502), and BCS (p = .011, R  = 0.426). Inclusion of zoo and familial relatedness resulted in all BCS systems associated with relative fat (p ≤ .015). Only BCS predicted relative fat, unadjusted, suggesting it is the most capable system for practical use. Compared to absolute fat, relative fat may be more biologically relevant as greater fat relative to body mass is more likely to lead to health issues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786925PMC
October 2019

What's New in Understanding the Risk Associated With Body Size and Shape?: Pears, Apples, and Olives on Toothpicks.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 07 3;2(7):e197336. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.7336DOI Listing
July 2019

Replacement of dropouts may bias results: Comment on "The effect of green tea ointment on episiotomy pain and wound healing in primiparous women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial".

Phytother Res 2019 08 13;33(8):1955-1956. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Public Health, Bloomington, Indiana.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6394DOI Listing
August 2019

Understanding and Parenting Children's Noncompliant Behavior: The Efficacy of an Online Training Workshop for Resource Parents.

Child Youth Serv Rev 2019 Apr 4;99:246-256. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Biostatistics Consulting Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University Bloomington, PH C101, 1025 East 7 Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States.

The current study examined the effectiveness of an online training program on parenting children's noncompliant behavior. Eighty-two resource parents (foster, adoptive, and kinship) were recruited through Foster Parent College-an online training website-and randomly assigned to a treatment or wait-list control group. Parents in the treatment group participated in an online interactive workshop on noncompliant child behavior. Online assessments occurred before and after a 1-week intervention, and again 3 months later. Group differences at posttest were significant for parents' reports of children's positive behavior and parent knowledge related to children's noncompliant behavior. Only parents in the treatment group showed significant improvement from pre- to posttest on several other outcome measures of parenting noncompliant behavior. Satisfaction with the online workshop at posttest was very high. Results at the 3-month follow-up assessment showed significant group differences only for parents' knowledge about children's noncompliant behavior. Feedback on the workshop remained positive, with treatment group parents indicating that they felt the workshop had beneficially impacted their parenting and their children's behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.01.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6528673PMC
April 2019