Publications by authors named "Lili Ding"

244 Publications

Pediatric pain screening tool: A simple 9-item questionnaire predicts functional and chronic postsurgical pain outcomes after major musculoskeletal surgeries.

J Pain 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Anesthesiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Reliable, clinic-friendly screening for Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) risk is unavailable. Within a prospective, observational study, we evaluated Pediatric Pain Screening Tool (PPST), a concise 9-item questionnaire, as a preoperative screening tool to identify those at higher risk for CPSP (NRS>3/10 beyond three months post-surgery) and poor function (disability/FDI/quality of life/PedsQL)) after spine fusion and Nuss procedures. Incidence of CPSP was 34.86% (38/109). We confirmed PPST scale stability, test re-test reliability (ICC=0.68;p<0.001); PPST measures were positively correlated with known CPSP risk factors (p<0.001) (preoperative pain (SCC:0.672), CASI (SCC:0.357), PROMIS pain interference (SCC:0.569), PROMIS depression (SCC:0.501), PedsQL (SCC:-0.460) and insomnia severity index (SCC0.567). Preoperative PPST and PPST physical sub-scores (median(IQR) were higher in CPSP (2(0.5,4), 1(0,2)) compared to non-CPSP ((1(0,3), 0(0,1.5)) groups (p=0.026, p=0.029) respectively. PPST scores/sub-scores positively correlated with higher FDI at 6 months but only PPST total and PPST psychosocial subscore correlated with higher FDI at 12 months. Based on ROC, optimal PPST cutoff for CPSP was 2 (63.9% sensitivity, 64.7% specificity). CPSP risk was high (48.94% risk) if PPST ≥ 2 (n=47) and medium (22.81%) if PPST<2 (n=57) after spine/pectus surgery. General and risk-strata specific, targeted psychosocial non-pharmacological interventions, need to be studied. Findings need validation in diverse, larger cohorts. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02998138 PERSPECTIVE: The article supports Pediatric Pain Screening Tool, a simple 9-item questionnaire, as a preoperative screening tool for chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) and function 6-12 months after spine/pectus surgeries. PPST measures correlate with known risk factors for CPSP. Risk stratification and targeted preventive interventions in high-risk subjects are proposed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2021.06.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Notoginsenoside Ft1 acts as a TGR5 agonist but FXR antagonist to alleviate high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 Jun 30;11(6):1541-1554. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Complex Prescriptions and MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.

Obesity and its associated complications are highly related to a current public health crisis around the world. A growing body of evidence has indicated that G-protein coupled bile acid (BA) receptor TGR5 (also known as Gpbar-1) is a potential drug target to treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders. We have identified notoginsenoside Ft1 (Ft1) from as an agonist of TGR5 . However, the pharmacological effects of Ft1 on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here we show that Ft1 (100 mg/100 diet) increased adipose lipolysis, promoted fat browning in inguinal adipose tissue and induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in the ileum of wild type but not obese mice. In addition, Ft1 elevated serum free and taurine-conjugated bile acids (BAs) by antagonizing transcriptional activities in the ileum to activate in the adipose tissues. The metabolic benefits of Ft1 were abolished in mice which have much lower BA levels. These results identify Ft1 as a single compound with opposite activities on two key BA receptors to alleviate high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2021.03.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245856PMC
June 2021

Genetic ancestry differences in pediatric asthma readmission mediated by socio-environmental factors.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH.

Background: Social and financial hardships explain approximately 50% of the observed disparity in asthma-related readmissions between Black and White children.

Objectives: To determine whether asthma-related readmissions differed by degree of African ancestry and the extent to which such an association would also be explained by socio-environmental risk factors.

Methods: This study used data from a prospective cohort study of 695 Black and White children aged 1-16 years with an asthma-related admission. The primary outcome was a similar readmission within 12 months. Each subject's African ancestry was determined by single nucleotide polymorphisms, on a continuous scale ranging from 0-1 (0=no African ancestry; 1=100% African ancestry). We also assessed 37 social, environmental, and clinical variables that we clustered into six domains (e.g., hardship, disease management). Survival and mediation analyses were conducted.

Results: A total of 134 (19.3%) children were readmitted within 12 months. Higher African ancestry was associated with asthma readmission (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 1.05-1.18 for every 10% increase in African ancestry) with adjustment for age and sex. The association between African ancestry and readmission was mediated by hardship (sβ=3.42, p<0.001) and disease management (sβ=0.046, p=0.001), accounting for >50% of African ancestry's effect on readmission. African ancestry was no longer significantly associated with readmission (sβ=0.035, p=0.388) after accounting for these mediators.

Conclusions: African ancestry was strongly associated with readmission and the association was mediated by family hardships and disease management. These results are consistent with the notion that asthma-related racial disparities are driven by factors like structural racism and social adversity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.05.046DOI Listing
July 2021

Transient Reductions in Postoperative Pain and Anxiety using Virtual Reality in Children.

Pain Med 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

Objective: Virtual reality (VR) is a promising method to manage pain. Distraction-based VR (VR-D) is thought to reduce pain by redirecting attention. While VR-D can reduce pain associated with acutely painful procedures, it is unclear if VR-D can reduce pain after surgery. We assessed the ability of a single VR-D session to decrease postoperative pain and anxiety and explored if pain catastrophizing and anxiety sensitivity influenced these outcomes in children following surgery.

Design: Single-center, prospective, pilot study.

Setting: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC).

Subjects: 50 children (7-21 years) with postoperative pain followed by the Acute Pain Service.

Methods: Patients received one VR-D session following surgery. Prior to the session, patients completed pain catastrophizing (PCS-C) and anxiety sensitivity (CASI) questionnaires. Primary outcome consisted of changes in pain intensity following VR-D (immediately, 15, and 30 minutes). Secondary outcomes included changes in pain unpleasantness and anxiety.

Results: VR-D use was associated with a decrease in pain intensity immediately and 15-minutes after VR-D. Reductions in pain unpleasantness were observed up to 30 minutes following VR-D. VR-D was also associated with a reduction in anxiety immediately and at 15-minutes. While patients with higher pain catastrophizing had higher baseline pain intensity and unpleasantness, they did not show larger pain reductions following VR-D compared to those with lower pain catastrophizing.

Conclusions: VR-D may be beneficial in transiently reducing pain intensity, unpleasantness, and anxiety in children with postoperative pain. This study informs design of larger, randomized, controlled study assessing VR-D for acute postoperative pain and anxiety management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnab209DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of PDCA-based nursing intervention on activities of daily living, neurological function and self-management in acute cerebral stroke.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):5315-5321. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hainan General Hospital, Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University Haikou 570311, Hainan, China.

Objective: This study explored and analyzed the effects of PDCA-based nursing intervention on the activities of daily living, neurological function and self-management of patients with acute cerebral stroke.

Methods: A total of 137 patients with acute cerebral stroke who were hospitalized from March 2018 to March 2020 were enrolled and divided into the observation-group (n = 70) and the control-group (n = 67). The control-group was given routine care, while those subjects in the observation group were provided with nursing intervention under the optimization of PDCA cycling. The activities of daily living (ADL), NIHSS score, self-management ability and life quality were compared between these two groups.

Results: ADL scores of the two groups after intervention were much higher than those without intervention (), and the observation-group had apparently higher scores than the control-group (). After intervention, the NIHSS scores of the two groups were much lower than before intervention (), and the score of the observation-group was remarkably lower than the control-group (). After intervention, the scores of each dimension of self-management behavior in both groups increased substantially compared to prior-intervention, and the score was higher in observation-group than in control-group (). In addition, the two groups had increased scores in each dimension of life quality in post-intervention (), and the observation-group had evidently higher scores than the control-group ().

Conclusion: PDCA-based nursing intervention can substantially enhance the daily living ability, neurological function, and self-management ability of patients, thus contributing to improve the clinical prognosis of patients and as such is worth popularizing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205731PMC
May 2021

Effect of internet-based self-management on pulmonary function rehabilitation and living quality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):5224-5231. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hainan General Hospital, Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University Haikou 570311, Hainan, China.

Objective: This study explored and analyzed the effect of Internet-based self-management on pulmonary function rehabilitation and living quality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Methods: Altogether, 106 stable-staged COPD patients admitted to our hospital from June 2018 to September 2019 were enrolled as the research subjects, and divided into the control group (n=51) and the observation group (n=55) according to the order of visit. The control group received conventional health education, and the observation group was treated with an educational model by Internet-based self-management. Afterwards, the changes of self-management ability, pulmonary function and living quality before and after intervention were compared between the two groups.

Results: The scores of each dimension of self-management behavior in both groups of patients after intervention were critically higher than those prior to intervention (), and the scores in observation-group patients were remarkably higher than thoes in control-group patients (). Besides, the two groups of subjects were observed with elevated pulmonary function indexes FVC, FEV1 and 6MWD after intervention compared with that in prior-intervention (), and the indexes in the observation-group after intervention were obviously higher than those in the control-group (). In addition, the scores of each dimension of living quality in both groups after the intervention had a conspicuously rise compared with the prior-intervention period (), and the scores in the observation group were remarkably lower than those in the control group (). The satisfaction in observation group was obviously higher than that in control group ().

Conclusion: Internet-based self-management can effectually improve the self-management ability of COPD patients. It is conducive to improve the patients' pulmonary function, and their living quality, thus it is worthy of clinical popularization and application.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205775PMC
May 2021

Danning tablets alleviate high fat diet-induced obesity and fatty liver in mice via modulating SREBP pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 9;279:114320. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, The State Administration of TCM (SATCM) Key Laboratory for New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Complex Prescriptions, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China; Shanghai R&D Center for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The traditional Chinese formula Danning tablets exhibit wide clinical applications in liver and gallbladder diseases, and currently it is reported to be effective on fatty liver disease in clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.

Aim Of The Study: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects and potential pharmacological mechanisms of Danning tablet against high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, fatty liver, and related metabolic disorders in mice.

Materials And Methods: C57BL/6 J male mice were treated with HFD for 12 weeks to trigger obesity and fatty liver condition. Then those mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely HFD, Danning tablet (0.75, 1.5 or 3 g/kg bodyweight) or lovastatin (30 mg/kg bodyweight) for extra 6 weeks' treatment of HFD. Food intake and bodyweight were recorded each week. In the last week, before the mice were sacrificed, fasting blood glucose levels and insulin levels were measured. Furthermore, insulin and glucose tolerance tests were performed. Blood and hepatic lipid levels were examined, the lipid metabolism-associated gene expressions and protein levels in the liver or adipose tissues were assayed after sacrificing all mice.

Results: Our results demonstrated that a high dose of Danning tablet (3 g/kg) treatment mitigated body weight gain, reduced blood and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The morphology analysis showed that Danning tablets could reduce lipid accumulation in both liver and brown adipose tissue. Moreover, Danning tablets could improve fasting blood glucose levels and ameliorate glucose and insulin tolerance in HFD-induced obese mice. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA expressions of SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 as well as their target genes were remarkedly down-regulated in the liver and adipose tissue of diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice after treating those mice with Danning tablets.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that Danning tablets could improve the obesity-induced metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and related metabolic disorders. The potential mechanism may probably involve the regulation of the SREBP pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114320DOI Listing
June 2021

Guided Relaxation-Based Virtual Reality for Acute Postoperative Pain and Anxiety in a Pediatric Population: Pilot Observational Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 12;23(7):e26328. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Center for Understanding Pediatric Pain, Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Background: Distraction-based therapies, such as virtual reality (VR), have been used to reduce pain during acutely painful procedures. However, distraction alone cannot produce prolonged pain reduction to manage sustained postoperative pain. Therefore, the integration of VR with other pain-reducing therapies, like guided relaxation, may enhance its clinical impact.

Objective: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a single guided relaxation-based VR (VR-GR) session on postoperative pain and anxiety reduction in children. We also explored the influence of pain catastrophizing and anxiety sensitivity on this association.

Methods: A total of 51 children and adolescents (7-21 years) with postoperative pain and followed by the Acute Pain Service at Cincinnati Children's Hospital were recruited over an 8-month period to undergo a single VR-GR session. Prior to VR, the patients completed 2 questionnaires: Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children (PCS-C) and the Child Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI). The primary outcome was a change in pain intensity following the VR-GR session (immediately, 15 minutes, and 30 minutes). The secondary outcomes included changes in pain unpleasantness and anxiety.

Results: The VR-GR decreased pain intensity immediately (P<.001) and at 30 minutes (P=.04) after the VR session, but not at 15 minutes (P=.16) postsession. Reductions in pain unpleasantness were observed at all time intervals (P<.001 at all intervals). Anxiety was reduced immediately (P=.02) but not at 15 minutes (P=.08) or 30 minutes (P=.30) following VR-GR. Patients with higher CASI scores reported greater reductions in pain intensity (P=.04) and unpleasantness (P=.01) following VR-GR. Pain catastrophizing was not associated with changes in pain and anxiety.

Conclusions: A single, short VR-GR session showed transient reductions in pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and anxiety in children and adolescents with acute postoperative pain. The results call for a future randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of VR-GR.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04556747; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04556747.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/26328DOI Listing
July 2021

Porphyrin-lipid stabilized paclitaxel nanoemulsion for combined photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 May 25;19(1):154. Epub 2021 May 25.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, PMCRT 5-353, 101 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5G 1L7, Canada.

Background: Porphyrin-lipids are versatile building blocks that enable cancer theranostics and have been applied to create several multimodal nanoparticle platforms, including liposome-like porphysome (aqueous-core), porphyrin nanodroplet (liquefied gas-core), and ultrasmall porphyrin lipoproteins. Here, we used porphyrin-lipid to stabilize the water/oil interface to create porphyrin-lipid nanoemulsions with paclitaxel loaded in the oil core (PLNE-PTX), facilitating combination photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy in one platform.

Results: PTX (3.1 wt%) and porphyrin (18.3 wt%) were loaded efficiently into PLNE-PTX, forming spherical core-shell nanoemulsions with a diameter of 120 nm. PLNE-PTX demonstrated stability in systemic delivery, resulting in high tumor accumulation (~ 5.4 ID %/g) in KB-tumor bearing mice. PLNE-PTX combination therapy inhibited tumor growth (78%) in an additive manner, compared with monotherapy PDT (44%) or chemotherapy (46%) 16 days post-treatment. Furthermore, a fourfold reduced PTX dose (1.8 mg PTX/kg) in PLNE-PTX combination therapy platform demonstrated superior therapeutic efficacy to Taxol at a dose of 7.2 mg PTX/kg, which can reduce side effects. Moreover, the intrinsic fluorescence of PLNE-PTX enabled real-time tracking of nanoparticles to the tumor, which can help inform treatment planning.

Conclusion: PLNE-PTX combining PDT and chemotherapy in a single platform enables superior anti-tumor effects and holds potential to reduce side effects associated with monotherapy chemotherapy. The inherent imaging modality of PLNE-PTX enables real-time tracking and permits spatial and temporal regulation to improve cancer treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00898-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147067PMC
May 2021

Quantitative Pupillometry as a Predictor of Pediatric Postoperative Opioid-Induced Respiratory Depression.

Anesth Analg 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

From the Department of Anesthesia, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Background: Safe postoperative pain relief with opioids is an unmet critical medical need in children. There is a lack of objective, noninvasive bedside tool to assess central nervous system (CNS) effects of intraoperative opioids. Proactive identification of children at risk for postoperative respiratory depression (RD) will help tailor analgesic therapy and significantly improve the safety of opioids in children. Quantitative pupillometry (QP) is a noninvasive, objective, and real-time tool for monitoring CNS effect-time relationship of opioids. This exploratory study aimed to determine the association of QP measures with postoperative RD, as well as to identify the best intraoperative QP measures predictive of postoperative RD in children.

Methods: After approval from the institutional review board and informed parental consent, in this prospective, observational study of 220 children undergoing tonsillectomy, QP measures were collected at 5 time points: awake preoperative baseline before anesthesia induction (at the time of enrollment [T1]), immediately after anesthesia induction before morphine administration (T2), 3 minutes after intraoperative morphine administration (T3), at the end of surgery (T4), and postoperatively when awake in postanesthesia recovery unit (PACU) (T5). Intraoperative use of opioid and incidence of postoperative RD were collected. Analyses were aimed at exploring correlations of QP measures with the incidence of RD and, if found significant, to develop a predictive model for postoperative RD.

Results: Perioperative QP measures of percentage pupil constriction (CONQ, P = .027), minimum pupillary diameter (MIN, P = .027), and maximum pupillary diameter (MAX, P = .034) differed significantly among children with and without postoperative RD. A predictive model including the minimum pupillary diameter 3 minutes after morphine administration (MIN3), minimum pupillary diameter normalized to baseline (MIN31), and percentage pupillary constriction after surgery (T4) standardized to baseline (T1) (CONQ41), along with the weight-based morphine dose performed the best to predict postoperative RD in children (area under the curve [AUC], 0.76).

Conclusions: A model based on pre- and intraoperative pupillometry measures including CONQ, MIN, along with weight-based morphine dose-predicted postoperative RD in our cohort of children undergoing tonsillectomy. More studies with a larger sample size are required to validate this finding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005579DOI Listing
May 2021

Neutrophils Modulate Fibrogenesis in Chronic Pulmonary Diseases.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 27;8:616200. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Chronic inflammatory pulmonary diseases are characterized by recurrent and persistent inflammation of the airways, commonly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Although their etiologies vary tremendously, airway neutrophilia is a common feature of these diseases. Neutrophils, as vital regulators linking innate and adaptive immune systems, are a double-edged sword in the immune response of the lung involving mechanisms such as phagocytosis, degranulation, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, exosome secretion, release of cytokines and chemokines, and autophagy. Although neutrophils serve as strong defenders against extracellular pathogens, neutrophils and their components can trigger various cascades leading to inflammation and fibrogenesis. Here, we review current studies to elucidate the versatile roles of neutrophils in chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases and describe the common pathogenesis of these diseases. This may provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for chronic lung diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.616200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110706PMC
April 2021

Dose-Related Urinary Metabolic Alterations of a Combination of Quercetin and Resveratrol-Treated High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:655563. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Medicine Sciences, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Most herbal polyphenols and flavonoids reveals multiple ameliorative benefits for obesity caused by chronic metabolic disorders. Accumulated studies have revealed that preferable therapeutic effects can be obtained through clinical combination of these two kinds of natural compounds for obesity improvement. The typical representative research was the combination of quercetin and resveratrol (CQR), in which the ratio of quercetin and resveratrol is 2:1, demonstrating a synergistic effect in anti-obesity process. Although there exists reports clarifying the mechanism of the combination of two to improve obesity from the perspective of improving adipose tissue inflammation or modulating the composition of intestinal flora, there are few further studies on the mechanism of drug action from the perspective of metabolites transformation. In this research, we mainly focused on the alterations of endogenous metabolites in rats, and analyzed the urine metabolites of obese and intervention model. Therefore, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach was applied to assess the potential effects and mechanisms of CQR at different dosages (45, 90, and 180 mg/kg) in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity rats. Body weight gain and visceral fat weight were reduced by CQR, as well as blood lipid and inflammatory factor levels were increased by CQR in a dose-related manner. Urinary metabolomics revealed 22 differential metabolites related to the HFD-induced obesity, which were reversed in a dose-dependent manner by CQR, of which 8 were reversed in the 45 mg/kg CQR group, 15 were reversed in the 90 mg/kg CQR group, and 18 were reversed in the 180 mg/kg CQR group. Combined with bioinformatics and pattern recognition, the results demonstrated that the key differential metabolites were basically involved in amino acid metabolism, galactose metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, pyruvate metabolism and lysine degradation. In summary, our results showed significant therapeutic action by CQR administration and remarkable metabolomic changes after HFD feeding and CQR intervention. Urinary metabolomic analysis was highlighted on account of providing holistic and comprehensive insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of the HFD-induced obesity, which also supplied clues for the future mechanism studies of CQR's anti-obesity effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.655563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085560PMC
April 2021

Novel Immune Subsets and Related Cytokines: Emerging Players in the Progression of Liver Fibrosis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 1;8:604894. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Liver fibrosis is a pathological process caused by persistent chronic injury of the liver. Kupffer cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells, and dendritic cells (DCs), which are in close contact with T and B cells, serve to bridge innate and adaptive immunity in the liver. Meanwhile, an imbalanced inflammatory response constitutes a challenge in liver disease. The dichotomous roles of novel immune cells, including T helper 17 (Th17), regulatory T cells (Tregs), mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT), and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in liver fibrosis have gradually been revealed. These cells not only induce damage during liver fibrosis but also promote tissue repair. Hence, immune cells have unique, and often opposing, roles during the various stages of fibrosis. Due to this heterogeneity, the treatment, or reversal of fibrosis through the target of immune cells have attracted much attention. Moreover, activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) constitutes the core of fibrosis. This activation is regulated by various immune mediators, including Th17, Th22, and Th9, MAIT, ILCs, and γδ T cells, as well as their related cytokines. Thus, liver fibrosis results from the complex interaction of these immune mediators, thereby complicating the ability to elucidate the mechanisms of action elicited by each cell type. Future developments in biotechnology will certainly aid in this feat to inform the design of novel therapeutic targets. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize the role of specific immune cells in liver fibrosis, as well as biomarkers and treatment methods related to these cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.604894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047058PMC
April 2021

Exotic Quad-Domain Textures and Transport Characteristics of Self-Assembled BiFeO Nanoislands on Nb-Doped SrTiO.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 4;13(10):12331-12340. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Materials, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Topological quad-domain textures with interesting cross-shaped buffer domains (walls) have been recently observed in BiFeO (BFO) nanoislands, indicating a new platform for exploring topological defects and multilevel memories. Such domain textures have nevertheless only been limited in BFO nanoislands grown on LaAlO substrates with a large lattice mismatch of ∼-4.4%. Here, we report that such exotic domain textures could also form in BFO nanoislands directly grown on a conductive substrate with a much smaller lattice mismatch and the local transport characteristics of the BFO nanoislands are distinct from the previously reported ones. The angle-resolved piezoresponse force images verify that the domain textures consist of center-divergent quad-domains with upward polarizations and cross-shaped buffer domains with downward polarizations. Interestingly, textures with multiple crosses are also observed in nanoislands of larger sizes, besides the previously reported ones with a single cross. The nanoislands exhibit strong diodelike rectifying characteristics and the quad-domains show a higher average conductance than the cross-shaped buffer domains, indicating that there is a certain correlation between the local conductance of the nanoislands and the domain textures. This transport behavior is attributed to the effect of the depolarization field on the Schottky barriers at both the substrate/BFO interface and the tip/BFO junction. Our findings extend the current understanding of the exotic quad-domain textures of ferroelectric nanoislands and shed light on their potential applications for configurable electronic devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19652DOI Listing
March 2021

Examination of the '5-2-1-0' Recommendations in Racially Diverse Young Children Exposed to Tobacco Smoke.

Am J Health Promot 2021 Mar 1:890117121995772. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Purpose: The '5-2-1-0' guidelines recommend that children: eat ≥5 servings of fruits/vegetables ('5'), have ≤2 hours of screen-time ('2'), have ≥1 hour of activity ('1'), and drink 0 sugar-sweetened beverages ('0') daily. The pediatric emergency department (PED) treats children at risk for obesity and tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). We examined body mass index (BMI), overweight, obesity, TSE, and '5-2-1-0' rates in children with TSE in the PED.

Design: Cross-sectional study of PED children.

Setting: The PED of a children's hospital.

Sample: Children with TSE >6 months-5 years old (N = 401).

Measures: Sociodemographics, '5-2-1-0' behaviors, BMI, and cotinine-confirmed TSE.

Analysis: Associations between '5-2-1-0' and sociodemographics were examined with logistic regression.

Results: Mean (SD) age = 2.4 (1.6) years; 53.1% were Black; 65.8% had low-income; and 93.4% had TSE. Of 2-5-year-olds, mean (SD) BMI percentile was 66.2 (30.1), 16.1% were overweight and 20.6% were obese. In total, 10.5% attained '5', 72.6% attained '2', 57.8% of 2-5-year-olds attained '1', and 9.8% attained '0'. Compared to White children, "other" race children were more likely to meet '5' (aOR(95% CI):4.67(1.41, 5.45)); 2-5-years-olds (aOR(95%CI):0.60(0.38, 0.95)) and Black children (aOR(95%CI):0.36(0.21, 0.60)) were at decreased odds to meet '2' compared to younger or White children, respectively. Compared to younger children, 2-5-year-olds were at decreased odds to meet '0' (aOR(95%CI):0.08(0.02, 0.26)).

Conclusion: Racially diverse, low-income children with TSE had low '5-2-1-0' attainment. Interventions are needed to improve lifestyle habits in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890117121995772DOI Listing
March 2021

Helichrysetin and TNF‑α synergistically promote apoptosis by inhibiting overactivation of the NF‑κB and EGFR signaling pathways in HeLa and T98G cells.

Int J Mol Med 2021 04 12;47(4). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Compound Chinese Medicines, The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, P.R. China.

Tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) has different effects on apoptosis depending on activation or inactivation of the nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways. Helichrysetin, a natural chalcone, inhibits NF‑κB nuclear translocation in mouse pancreatic β cells. The present study aimed to identify the effect of helichrysetin on activation of the NF‑κB and EGFR signaling pathways induced by TNF‑α, and the synergistic effect of helichrysetin and TNF‑α on apoptosis of HeLa and T98G cells. Cell proliferation was measured by Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, while apoptosis was measured by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining. NF‑κB activity was detected by luciferase assay, protein expression was measured by western blotting and mRNA expression was detected by quantitative PCR assay. The results revealed that in HeLa and T98G cells helichrysetin blocked the increased phosphorylation of NF‑κB p65 induced by TNF‑α. Although helichrysetin alone decreased cell viability, helichrysetin and TNF‑α synergistically decreased cell viability. Helichrysetin, not TNF‑α, promoted apoptosis, while the combination of helichrysetin and TNF‑α synergistically increased apoptosis. In addition, helichrysetin and TNF‑α synergistically enhanced the activation of caspase‑3 and poly‑(ADP‑ribose)‑polymerase compared with helichrysetin alone. Helichrysetin inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor‑β activated kinase (TAK1), IκB kinase‑α/β (IKK‑α/β), NF‑κB p65 and EGFR induced by TNF‑α. Consistent with the inhibition of NF‑κB activation, the increased TNF‑α‑induced mRNA expression levels of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, CCL2, CCL5 and CXCL10 were significantly downregulated by helichrysetin. Therefore, helichrysetin and TNF‑α synergistically promoted apoptosis by inhibiting TAK1/IKK/NF‑κB and TAK1/EGFR signaling pathways in HeLa and T98G cells, indicating a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.4882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891838PMC
April 2021

Vertical sleeve gastrectomy confers metabolic improvements by reducing intestinal bile acids and lipid absorption in mice.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 02;118(6)

Department of Diabetes Complications and Metabolism, Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010;

Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is one of the most effective and durable therapies for morbid obesity and its related complications. Although bile acids (BAs) have been implicated as downstream mediators of VSG, the specific mechanisms through which BA changes contribute to the metabolic effects of VSG remain poorly understood. Here, we confirm that high fat diet-fed global farnesoid X receptor () knockout mice are resistant to the beneficial metabolic effects of VSG. However, the beneficial effects of VSG were retained in high fat diet-fed intestine- or liver-specific knockouts, and VSG did not result in Fxr activation in the liver or intestine of control mice. Instead, VSG decreased expression of positive hepatic Fxr target genes, including the bile salt export pump () that delivers BAs to the biliary pathway. This reduced small intestine BA levels in mice, leading to lower intestinal fat absorption. These findings were verified in sterol 27-hydroxylase () knockout mice, which exhibited low intestinal BAs and fat absorption and did not show metabolic improvements following VSG. In addition, restoring small intestinal BA levels by dietary supplementation with taurocholic acid (TCA) partially blocked the beneficial effects of VSG. Altogether, these findings suggest that reductions in intestinal BAs and lipid absorption contribute to the metabolic benefits of VSG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2019388118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017941PMC
February 2021

Kanglexin protects against cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in mice by TGF-β1/ERK1/2 noncanonical pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2020 14;11:572637. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine Research, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Cardiac fibrosis is a common pathological manifestation accompanied by various heart diseases, and antifibrotic therapy is an effective strategy to prevent diverse pathological processes of the cardiovascular system. We currently report the pharmacological evaluation of a novel anthraquinone compound (1,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone-3-oxy ethyl succinate) named Kanglexin (KLX), as a potent cardioprotective agent with antifibrosis activity. Our results demonstrated that the administration of KLX by intragastric gavage alleviated cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and fibrosis induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgical operation. Meanwhile, KLX administration relieved endothelial to mesenchymal transition of TAC mice. In TGF β1-treated primary cultured adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), KLX inhibited cell proliferation and collagen secretion. Also, KLX suppressed the transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts in CFs. Further studies revealed that KLX-mediated cardiac protection was due to the inhibitory role of TGF-β1/ERK1/2 noncanonical pathway. In summary, our study indicates that KLX attenuated cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction of TAC mice, providing a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for heart pathological remodeling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.572637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840489PMC
January 2021

Improving glucose and lipids metabolism: drug development based on bile acid related targets.

Cell Stress 2021 Jan 5;5(1):1-18. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Diabetes Complications and Metabolism, Institute of Diabetes and Metabolism Research Center, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E. Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatment options for severe obesity and its comorbidities. However, it is a major surgery that poses several side effects and risks which impede its clinical use. Therefore, it is urgent to develop alternative safer pharmacological approaches to mimic bariatric surgery. Recent studies suggest that bile acids are key players in mediating the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery. Bile acids can function as signaling molecules by targeting bile acid nuclear receptors and membrane receptors, like FXR and TGR5 respectively. In addition, the composition of bile acids is regulated by either the hepatic sterol enzymes such as CYP8B1 or the gut microbiome. These bile acid related targets all play important roles in regulating metabolism. Drug development based on these targets could provide new hope for patients without the risks of surgery and at a lower cost. In this review, we summarize the most updated progress on bile acid related targets and development of small molecules as drug candidates based on these targets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15698/cst2021.01.239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784708PMC
January 2021

Guided relaxation-based virtual reality versus distraction-based virtual reality or passive control for postoperative pain management in children and adolescents undergoing Nuss repair of pectus excavatum: protocol for a prospective, randomised, controlled trial (FOREVR Peds trial).

BMJ Open 2020 12 30;10(12):e040295. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) offers an innovative method to deliver non-pharmacological pain management. Distraction-based VR (VR-D) using immersive games to redirect attention has shown short-term pain reductions in various settings. To create lasting pain reduction, VR-based strategies must go beyond distraction. Guided relaxation-based VR (VR-GR) integrates pain-relieving mind-body based guided relaxation with VR, a novel therapy delivery mechanism. The primary aim of this study is to assess the impact of daily VR-GR, VR-D and 360 video (passive control) on pain intensity. We will also assess the impact of these interventions on pain unpleasantness, anxiety and opioid and benzodiazepine consumption. The secondary aim of this study will assess the impact of psychological factors (anxiety sensitivity and pain catastrophising) on pain following VR.

Methods And Analysis: This is a single centre, prospective, randomised, clinical trial. Ninety children/adolescents, aged 8-18 years, presenting for Nuss repair of pectus excavatum will be randomised to 1 of 3 study arms (VR-GR, VR-D and 360 video). Patients will use the Starlight Xperience (Google Daydream) VR suite for 10 min. Patients randomised to VR-GR (n=30) will engage in guided relaxation/mindfulness with the Aurora application. Patients randomised to VR-D (n=30) will play 1 of 3 distraction-based games, and those randomised to the 360 video (n=30) will watch the Aurora application without audio instructions or sound. Primary outcome is pain intensity. Secondary outcomes include pain unpleasantness, anxiety and opioid and benzodiazepine consumption.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study follows Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials guidelines. The protocol was approved by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center's institutional review board. Patient recruitment began in July 2020. Written informed consent will be obtained for all participants. All information acquired will be disseminated via scientific meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04351776.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780540PMC
December 2020

Associations Between Maternal Community Deprivation and Infant DNA Methylation of the SLC6A4 Gene.

Front Public Health 2020 27;8:557195. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Poverty is negatively associated with health and developmental outcomes. DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a mechanism that underlies the association between adversity experienced by mothers in poverty and health and developmental outcomes in their offspring. Previous studies have identified associations between individual-level measures of stress and adversity experienced by a mother during pregnancy and infant DNAm. We hypothesized that independent of individual stresses, a mother's community-level deprivation while she is pregnant may also be associated with DNAm among the genes of her offspring that are related to stress response and/or development. Pregnant mothers ( = 53) completed assessments that measured stress, adversity, and mental health. To evaluate community-level deprivation, mothers' addresses were linked to census-level socioeconomic measures including a composite index of deprivation that combines multiple community-level indicators such as income and highest level of education received. Infant buccal cells were collected at about age 4 weeks to measure DNAm of candidate genes including , and , which are associated with the stress response and or social and emotional development. Multivariable models were employed to evaluate the association between maternal community deprivation and infant DNAm of candidate genes. No significant associations were identified between maternal community-level deprivation and the methylation of or , however, maternal community-level deprivation was significantly associated with higher mean methylation across 8 CpG sites in . This study identified an association between community-level measures of deprivation experienced by a mother during pregnancy and DNAm in their offspring. These findings may have implications for understanding how the community context can impact early biology and potential function in the next generation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.557195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728724PMC
May 2021

Effects on the Upper Airway Morphology with Intravenous Addition of Ketamine after Dexmedetomidine Administration in Normal Children.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 20;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

General anesthesia decreases the tone of upper airway muscles in a dose-dependent fashion, potentially narrowing the pharyngeal airway. We examined the effects of adding ketamine on the airway configuration after dexmedetomidine administration in spontaneously breathing children with normal airways. 25 children presenting for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain/spine under general anesthesia were prospectively recruited in the study. Patients were anesthetized with dexmedetomidine bolus (2 mcg over 10 min) followed by dexmedetomidine infusion (2 mcg·kg-1·h) and ketamine and permitted to breathe spontaneously via the native airway. MR-CINE images of the upper airway were obtained with dexmedetomidine infusion alone (baseline) and 5, 10, and 15 min after administering ketamine bolus (2 mg·kg-1) in two anatomical axial planes at the nasopharynx and the retroglossal upper airway. Airway lumen is segmented with a semi-automatic image processing approach using a region-growing algorithm. Outcome measures of cross-sectional area, transverse and anterior-posterior diameters of the airway in axial planes at the level of the epiglottis in the retroglossal airway, and in the superior nasopharynx were evaluated for changes in airway size with sedation. Airway dimensions corresponding to the maximum, mean, and minimum sizes during a respiratory cycle were obtained to compare the temporal changes in the airway size. The dose-response of adding ketamine to dexmedetomidine alone condition on airway dimensions were examined using mixed-effects of covariance models. 22/25 patients based on inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the final analysis. The changes in airway measures with the addition of ketamine, when compared to the baseline of dexmedetomidine alone, were statistically insignificant. The modest changes in airway dimensions are clinically less impactful and within the accuracy of the semi-automatic airway segmentation approach. The effect sizes were small for most airway measures. The duration of ketamine seems to not affect the airway size. In conclusion, adding ketamine to dexmedetomidine did not significantly reduce upper airway configuration when compared to dexmedetomidine alone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699572PMC
November 2020

Kanglexin, a new anthraquinone compound, attenuates lipid accumulation by activating the AMPK/SREBP-2/PCSK9/LDLR signalling pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 14;133:110802. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Department of Pharmacology (State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine - Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine Research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China; Northern Translational Medicine Research and Cooperation Center, Heilongjiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, China. Electronic address:

Hyperlipidaemia is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes. In the present study, we synthesized a new anthraquinone compound, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-succinic acid monoethyl ester-6-methylanthraquinone, and named it Kanglexin (KLX). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether KLX has a lipid-lowering effect and to explore the potential molecular mechanism. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks to establish a hyperlipidaemia model; then, the rats were orally administered KLX (20, 40, and 80 mg kg·d) or atorvastatin calcium (AT, 10 mg kg·d) once a day for 2 weeks. KLX had prominent effects on reducing blood lipids, hepatic lipid accumulation, body weight and the ratio of liver weight/body weight. Furthermore, KLXdramatically reduced the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels and lipid accumulation in a HepG2 cell model of dyslipidaemia induced by 1 mmol/L oleic acid (OA). KLX may decrease lipid levels by phosphorylating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the downstream sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2)/proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)/low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) signalling pathway in the HFD rats and OA-treated HepG2 cells. The effects of KLX on the AMPK/SREBP-2/PCSK9/LDLR signalling pathway were abolished when AMPK was inhibited by compound C (a specific AMPK inhibitor) in HepG2 cells. In summary, KLX has an efficient lipid-lowering effect mediated by activation of the AMPK/SREBP-2/PCSK9/LDLR signalling pathway. Our findings may provide new insight into and evidence for the discovery of a new lipid-lowering drug for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidaemia, fatty liver, and cardiovascular disease in the clinic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110802DOI Listing
January 2021

Gender, age and comorbidities as the main prognostic factors in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(10):6537-6548. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

The Fifth Hospital of Xiamen, Xiang'an Branch, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University Xiamen 361101, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to almost all countries. The currently reported epidemiological statistics show that age, gender, and type of comorbidities may be high-risk factors for critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, there is no comprehensive analysis of these risk factors. In the present study, we systematically explored the prognostic value of the clinical factors (gender, age and comorbidities) in 189 COVID-19 patients from Wuhan, China. We discovered that the gender, age and comorbidities were tightly associated with the survival of COVID-19 patients via performing Kaplan-Meier curve analysis. Compared with the female patients, male patients have a lower survival rate. Similarly, the older patients and those with more comorbidities also tended to have an unfavorable survival outcome. In addition, further stratified analysis of COVID-19 patients according to the three risk factors indicated that some laboratory indicators including CRP, IL-6 and lymphocytes showed significant trends in gender, age and comorbidities groups. Together, these result which may provide a certain reference value for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653634PMC
October 2020

A Parental Smoking Cessation Intervention in the Pediatric Emergency Setting: A Randomized Trial.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 4;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

We examined the efficacy of a pediatric emergency visit-based screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) condition compared to a control condition (Healthy Habits Control, HHC) to help parental smokers quit smoking. We enrolled 750 parental smokers who presented to the pediatric emergency setting with their child into a two-group randomized controlled clinical trial. SBIRT participants received brief cessation coaching, quitting resources, and up to 12-weeks of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). HHC participants received healthy lifestyle coaching and resources. The primary outcome was point-prevalence tobacco abstinence at six weeks (T1) and six months (T2). The mean (SD) age of parents was 31.8 (7.7) years, and 86.8% were female, 52.7% were Black, and 64.6% had an income of ≤$15,000. Overall abstinence rates were not statistically significant with 4.2% in both groups at T1 and 12.9% and 8.3% in the SBIRT and HHC groups, respectively, at T2. There were statistically significant differences in SBIRT versus HHC participants on the median (IQR) reduction of daily cigarettes smoked at T1 from baseline (-2 [-5, 0] versus 0 [-4, 0], = 0.0008),at T2 from baseline (-4 [-9, -1] vs. -2 [-5, 0], = 0.0006), and on the mean (SD) number of quit attempts at T2 from baseline (1.25 (6.5) vs. 0.02 (4.71), = 0.02). Self-reported quitting rates were higher in SBIRT parents who received NRT (83.3% vs. 50.9%, = 0.04). The novel use of the pediatric emergency visit to conduct cessation interventions helped parents quit smoking. The near equivalent abstinence rates in both the SBIRT and HHC groups may be due to underlying parental concern about their child's health. Cessation interventions in this setting may result in adult and pediatric public health benefits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663571PMC
November 2020

Controlling the development of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti using HR3 RNAi transgenic Chlamydomonas.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(10):e0240223. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Science, Haikou, China.

The Aedes aegypti mosquito plays an important role in the spread of diseases, including epidemic ones, such as dengue fever, Zika virus disease, yellow fever, and chikungunya disease. To control the population of Ae.aegypti, we transferred an HR3 RNAi fragment into the microalgae Chlamydomonas, which serves as food for Ae.aegypti larvae. Results showed that the HR3 RNAi transgenic algal strains were lethal to Ae.aegypti. The integumentary system of larvae fed with HR3 RNAi transgenic algal strains was severely damaged. Muscles of the larvae were unevenly distributed and disordered, and their midgut showed disintegration of the intestinal cavity. RNA-Seq results demonstrated that on the 4th day of inoculation with the transgenic algae, the abundance of early expressed genes in the 20E signal transduction pathway of larvae fed with the HR3 RNAi transgenic algal strain significantly reduced. These genes include E74, E75, E93, and 20E receptor complex EcR/USP and FTZ-F1 gene regulated by HR3. In later experiments, a scale test of 300 Ae.aegypti eggs per group was carried out for 30 days, and the survival rate of Ae.aegypti fed with the HR3 RNAi transgenic strain was only 1.3%. These results indicate that the HR3 RNAi transgenic strain exerts obvious insecticidal effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240223PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556462PMC
December 2020

The Utility of Resolving Asthma Molecular Signatures Using Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Data.

G3 (Bethesda) 2020 11 5;10(11):4049-4062. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Division of Asthma Research, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, OH

An integrative analysis focused on multi-tissue transcriptomics has not been done for asthma. Tissue-specific DEGs remain undetected in many multi-tissue analyses, which influences identification of disease-relevant pathways and potential drug candidates. Transcriptome data from 609 cases and 196 controls, generated using airway epithelium, bronchial, nasal, airway macrophages, distal lung fibroblasts, proximal lung fibroblasts, CD4+ lymphocytes, CD8+ lymphocytes from whole blood and induced sputum samples, were retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Differentially regulated asthma-relevant genes identified from each sample type were used to identify (a) tissue-specific and tissue-shared asthma pathways, (b) their connection to GWAS-identified disease genes to identify candidate tissue for functional studies, (c) to select surrogate sample for invasive tissues, and finally (d) to identify potential drug candidates connectivity map analysis. We found that inter-tissue similarity in gene expression was more pronounced at pathway/functional level than at gene level with highest similarity between bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts, and lowest between airway epithelium and whole blood samples. Although public-domain gene expression data are limited by inadequately annotated per-sample demographic and clinical information which limited the analysis, our tissue-resolved analysis clearly demonstrated relative importance of unique and shared asthma pathways, At the pathway level, IL-1b signaling and ERK signaling were significant in many tissue types, while Insulin-like growth factor and TGF-beta signaling were relevant in only airway epithelial tissue. IL-12 (in macrophages) and Immunoglobulin signaling (in lymphocytes) and chemokines (in nasal epithelium) were the highest expressed pathways. Overall, the IL-1 signaling genes (inflammatory) were relevant in the airway compartment, while pro-Th2 genes including IL-13 and STAT6 were more relevant in fibroblasts, lymphocytes, macrophages and bronchial biopsies. These genes were also associated with asthma in the GWAS catalog. Support Vector Machine showed that DEGs based on macrophages and epithelial cells have the highest and lowest discriminatory accuracy, respectively. Drug (entinostat, BMS-345541) and genetic perturbagens (KLF6, BCL10, INFB1 and BAMBI) negatively connected to disease at multi-tissue level could potentially repurposed for treating asthma. Collectively, our study indicates that the DEGs, perturbagens and disease are connected differentially depending on tissue/cell types. While most of the existing literature describes asthma transcriptome data from individual sample types, the present work demonstrates the utility of multi-tissue transcriptome data. Future studies should focus on collecting transcriptomic data from multiple tissues, age and race groups, genetic background, disease subtypes and on the availability of better-annotated data in the public domain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.120.401718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642926PMC
November 2020

Sexual Network Patterns and Their Association With Genital and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adolescent and Young Men.

J Adolesc Health 2021 04 29;68(4):696-704. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Division of Adolescent and Transition Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Purpose: This study aimed to determine individual- and partner-level factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated men.

Methods: A total of 747 men, aged 13-26 years, completed a survey of sexual behaviors and were tested for genital and perianal/anal HPV (36 types). Sexual network variables included recent and lifetime concurrency (being in more than one sexual relationship at the same time) and recent sex partner discordance (by race, ethnicity, age, and number of sexual partners). We determined individual-level and sexual network variables associated with ≥1 HPV type and HPV16/18, stratified by vaccination status, using separate multivariable logistic regression models.

Results: Participants' mean age was 21.2 years; 64% were positive for ≥1 HPV type and 21% for HPV16/18. Factors associated with ≥1 HPV type in unvaccinated men included recruitment site and lifetime concurrency. Factors associated with ≥1 HPV type among vaccinated men included recruitment site, Chlamydia history, main male partner, number of lifetime female partners, and no condom use with female partner. Factors associated with HPV16/18 in unvaccinated men included race and partner concurrency. Factors associated with HPV16/18 in vaccinated men included ethnicity, main male partner, and recent concurrency.

Conclusions: Sexual network variables associated with HPV infection were different based on vaccination status and HPV type, suggesting risk factors for HPV infection may change as the proportion of vaccinated men increases. In addition, participant report of concurrency and not knowing whether one had practiced concurrency were consistent risk factors; clinicians should consider including concurrency in the sexual history to determine the risk of HPV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.07.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914292PMC
April 2021

Factors Associated With Postadenotonsillectomy Unexpected Admissions in Children.

Anesth Analg 2021 06;132(6):1700-1709

From the Department of Anesthesia and Pediatrics.

Background: Postadenotonsillectomy unexpected admission remains an important challenge. Unexpected admissions can be quite frightening, increase health care burden, and cause unnecessary suffering in children and families. Identifying factors associated with postadenotonsillectomy unexpected admissions using a pragmatic approach could lead to a shift in the assessment and management of children presenting for adenotonsillectomy.

Methods: Institutional review board (IRB) approval, consent, and assent were obtained for this single-center, prospective, observational study done in children aged 0-17 years undergoing tonsillectomy. Data were collected from direct observation, electronic medical record, and phone calls using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) database. Incidence, causes, and factors associated with 3-week and 3-day postadenotonsillectomy unexpected admissions were analyzed.

Results: The study included 2375 children. Clinical intraoperative adverse events were reported in 6.2%. Three-week and 3-day unexpected admissions occurred in 7.9% and 5.9%, respectively, with bleeding being the commonest reason for both. On multivariable analysis, for 3-week unexpected admissions, the odds ratio was 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.69) with using preoperative medications, 1.4 (1.02-1.97) with home medications for comorbidities, 0.56 (0.34-0.90) with using intraoperative acetaminophen, and 0.60 (0.36-0.94) with otolaryngologic preoperative comorbidity versus otherwise. For 3-day unexpected admissions, the odds ratio was 1.10 (1.05-1.16) with 1 U increase in total comorbidities, 1.70 (1.03-2.81) with the presence of recent upper respiratory infection, and 1.83 (1.16-2.90) with intravenous versus inhalational anesthesia induction.

Conclusions: Overall, our study shows the factors that contribute to unexpected admissions postadenotonsillectomy. Identification of both modifiable and nonmodifiable factors associated with unexpected admissions after adenotonsillectomy will enable appropriate risk mitigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005123DOI Listing
June 2021

Hepatoprotection and hepatotoxicity of Chinese herb Rhubarb (Dahuang): How to properly control the "General (Jiang Jun)" in Chinese medical herb.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Jul 21;127:110224. Epub 2020 May 21.

Center for Chinese Medicine Therapy and Systems Biology, Institute for Interdisciplinary Medicine Sciences, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Chinese herb Rhubarb (Dahuang), one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicine in clinical application for over a thousand years and known as the "General (Jiang Jun)" in Chinese medical herb, currently used clinically for long-term treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and chronic liver diseases. Through previous researches, it has been identified that Rhubarb possessed a good hepatoprotective effect, which primarily protected liver from oxidation, fibrosis and cirrhosis, liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and various types of hepatitis. Meanwhile, it has been recently reported that long-term administration of Rhubarb preparation may undertake the risk of liver damage, which has aroused worldwide doubts about the safety of Rhubarb. Therefore, how to correctly understand the "two-way" effect of Rhubarb on liver protection and liver toxicity provides a basis for scientific evaluation of Rhubarb's efficacy on liver and side effects, as well as guiding clinical rational drug use. In this review, the mechanisms of Rhubarb how to play a role in hepatoprotection and why it causes hepatotoxic potential will be elaborated in detail and critically. In addition, some positive clinical guidances are also advised on how to reduce its hepatotoxicity in medical treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110224DOI Listing
July 2020
-->