Publications by authors named "Lijun Lu"

110 Publications

Self-adaptive cardiac optogenetics device based on negative stretching-resistive strain sensor.

Sci Adv 2021 Nov 24;7(48):eabj4273. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abj4273DOI Listing
November 2021

Identification of Stage IIIC/IV EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Populations Sensitive to Targeted Therapy Based on a PET/CT Radiomics Risk Model.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:721318. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: This project aimed to construct an individualized PET/CT prognostic biomarker to accurately quantify the progression risk of patients with stage IIIC-IV epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after first-line first and second generation EGFR- tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drug therapy and identify the first and second generation EGFR-TKI treatment-sensitive population.

Methods: A total of 250 patients with stage IIIC-IV EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent first-line first and second generation EGFR-TKI drug therapy were included from two institutions (140 patients in training cohort; 60 patients in internal validation cohort, and 50 patients in external validation cohort). 1037 3D radiomics features were extracted to quantify the phenotypic characteristics of the tumor region in PET and CT images, respectively. A four-step feature selection method was performed to enable derivation of stable and effective signature in the training cohort. According to the median value of radiomics signature score (Rad-score), patients were divided into low- and high-risk groups. The progression-free survival (PFS) behaviors of the two subgroups were compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

Results: Our results shown that higher Rad-scores were significantly associated with worse PFS in the training ( < 0.0001), internal validation ( = 0.0153), and external validation ( = 0.0006) cohorts. Rad-score can effectively identify patients with a high risk of rapid progression. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the three cohorts present significant differences in PFS between the stratified slow and rapid progression subgroups.

Conclusion: The PET/CT-derived Rad-score can realize the precise quantitative stratification of progression risk after first-line first and second generation EGFR-TKI drug therapy for NSCLC and identify EGFR-mutated NSCLC populations sensitive to targeted therapy, which might help to provide precise treatment options for NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.721318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8593197PMC
November 2021

Dynamic PET image reconstruction incorporating a median nonlocal means kernel method.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jul 31;139:104713. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing and School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, China; Guangdong Province Engineering Laboratory for Medical Imaging and Diagnostic Technology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, China. Electronic address:

In dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, the reconstructed image of a single frame often exhibits high noise due to limited counting statistics of projection data. This study proposed a median nonlocal means (MNLM)-based kernel method for dynamic PET image reconstruction. The kernel matrix is derived from median nonlocal means of pre-reconstructed composite images. Then the PET image intensities in all voxels were modeled as a kernel matrix multiplied by coefficients and incorporated into the forward model of PET projection data. Then, the coefficients of each feature were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Using simulated low-count dynamic data of Zubal head phantom, the quantitative performance of the proposed MNLM kernel method was investigated and compared with the maximum-likelihood method, conventional kernel method with and without median filter, and nonlocal means (NLM) kernel method. Simulation results showed that the MNLM kernel method achieved visual and quantitative accuracy improvements (in terms of the ensemble mean squared error, bias versus variance, and contrast versus noise performances). Especially for frame 2 with the lowest count level of a single frame, the MNLM kernel method achieves lower ensemble mean squared error (10.43%) than the NLM kernel method (13.68%), conventional kernel method with and without median filter (11.88% and 23.50%), and MLEM algorithm (24.77%). The study on real low-dose F-FDG rat data also showed that the MNLM kernel method outperformed other methods in visual and quantitative accuracy improvements (in terms of regional noise versus intensity mean performance).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104713DOI Listing
July 2021

Highly Dispersed Pd Clusters Anchored on Nanoporous Cellulose Microspheres as a Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Suzuki Coupling Reaction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 8;13(37):44418-44426. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

With the depletion of nonrenewable resources such as oil/coal/gas, more and more research studies began to focus on the high-value utilization of residual biomass resources. Herein, for the first time, honeycomb nanoporous microspheres fabricated from renewable biomass resources of cellulose were used as a carrier to fabricate a highly dispersed palladium (Pd) nanocatalyst. Various physicochemical characterizations presented convincing pieces of evidence for the good dispersion of Pd clusters with a mean diameter of 1.6 nm. As the carrier, cellulose microspheres with an interconnected nanoporous structure contributed to the adhesion and dispersion of Pd particles, and their rich hydroxyl groups could fix the Pd particles. Importantly, the cellulose matrix could induce the formation of metallic Pd(0) during calcination without a reductant. The cellulose/Pd catalyst was applied to the Suzuki coupling reaction, which exhibited promising catalytic activity compared to commercial Pd/C and unsupported homogeneous Pd(OAc) catalysts, as well as good stability. The utilization of the residual biomass resource to build catalyst materials would be important for the sustainable chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12850DOI Listing
September 2021

The effects of Roy's adaptation model and the forgetting curve in the clinical instruction of operating room nursing interns.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(7):8214-8220. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Nursing, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of Roy's adaptation model combined with the forgetting curve in the clinical instruction of operating room nursing interns.

Methods: 115 nursing students in our hospital were randomized and allocated into two groups: the observation group (n=60) and the control group (n=55). The control group underwent the traditional nursing instruction method, and the observation group underwent a new instruction mode guided by Roy's adaptation model combined with the forgetting curve method. The learning effects of the two groups of nursing students and their satisfaction with the nursing instruction were compared.

Results: The observation group's theoretical examination score was (96.18±3.94) points, and the group's skill examination score was (83.78±5.19) points, which were higher than the corresponding scores in the control group (83.78±5.19) and (81.32±3.66), with statistical significance (all P<0.05). The operating doctors' scores on the operating room nursing students' psychological adaptability in the operating room, their proficiency in common operation cooperation, their aseptic concepts, their ability to prepare and dispose of instruments and articles, and their work and learning initiatives were significantly higher than they were in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The nursing students' professional level, interpersonal communication ability, and teaching ability scores and their total score in the observation group were significantly higher than they were in the control group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The new instruction method which combines Roy's adaptation model with the forgetting curve can not only effectively improve the nursing students' learning abilities and adaptability, but it also has an important significance in improving the relationship between doctors and nurses, the instruction relationship, and in improving the quality of the nursing instruction and the comprehensive ability of the nursing staff in the operating room.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340201PMC
July 2021

Voxel-based partial volume correction of PET images via subtle MRI guided non-local means regularization.

Phys Med 2021 Sep 5;89:129-139. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA; Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA; Departments of Radiology and Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) images tend to be significantly degraded by the partial volume effect (PVE) resulting from the limited spatial resolution of the reconstructed images. Our purpose is to propose a partial volume correction (PVC) method to tackle this issue.

Methods: In the present work, we explore a voxel-based PVC method under the least squares framework (LS) employing anatomical non-local means (NLMA) regularization. The well-known non-local means (NLM) filter utilizes the high degree of information redundancy that typically exists in images, and is typically used to directly reduce image noise by replacing each voxel intensity with a weighted average of its non-local neighbors. Here we explore NLM as a regularization term within iterative-deconvolution model to perform PVC. Further, an anatomical-guided version of NLM was proposed that incorporates MRI information into NLM to improve resolution and suppress image noise. The proposed approach makes subtle usage of the accompanying MRI information to define a more appropriate search space within the prior model. To optimize the regularized LS objective function, we used the Gauss-Seidel (GS) algorithm with the one-step-late (OSL) technique.

Results: After the import of NLMA, the visual and quality results are all improved. With a visual check, we notice that NLMA reduce the noise compared to other PVC methods. This is also validated in bias-noise curve compared to non-MRI-guided PVC framework. We can see NLMA gives better bias-noise trade-off compared to other PVC methods.

Conclusions: Our efforts were evaluated in the base of amyloid brain PET imaging using the BrainWeb phantom and in vivo human data. We also compared our method with other PVC methods. Overall, we demonstrated the value of introducing subtle MRI-guidance in the regularization process, the proposed NLMA method resulting in promising visual as well as quantitative performance improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2021.07.028DOI Listing
September 2021

Reply to Letter to Editor RE: "Integration of PET/CT Radiomics and Semantic Features for Differentiation Between Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Lung Cancer".

Mol Imaging Biol 2021 Dec 26;23(6):975-977. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, Guangdong, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-021-01634-9DOI Listing
December 2021

GapFill-Recon Net: A Cascade Network for simultaneously PET Gap Filling and Image Reconstruction.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Sep 7;208:106271. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medial Image Processing, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China; Guangdong Province Engineering Laboratory for Medical Imaging and Diagnostic Technology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

PET image reconstruction from incomplete data, such as the gap between adjacent detector blocks generally introduces partial projection data loss, is an important and challenging problem in medical imaging. This work proposes an efficient convolutional neural network (CNN) framework, called GapFill-Recon Net, that jointly reconstructs PET images and their associated sinogram data. GapFill-Recon Net including two blocks: the Gap-Filling block first address the sinogram gap and the Image-Recon block maps the filled sinogram onto the final image directly. A total of 43,660 pairs of synthetic 2D PET sinograms with gaps and images generated from the MOBY phantom are utilized for network training, testing and validation. Whole-body mouse Monte Carlo (MC) simulated data are also used for evaluation. The experimental results show that the reconstructed image quality of GapFill-Recon Net outperforms filtered back-projection (FBP) and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) in terms of the structural similarity index metric (SSIM), relative root mean squared error (rRMSE), and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Moreover, the reconstruction speed is equivalent to that of FBP and was nearly 83 times faster than that of MLEM. In conclusion, compared with the traditional reconstruction algorithm, GapFill-Recon Net achieves relatively optimal performance in image quality and reconstruction speed, which effectively achieves a balance between efficiency and performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106271DOI Listing
September 2021

Coupling magnetic particles with flocculants to enhance demulsification and separation of waste cutting emulsion for engineering applications.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jul 18;105:173-183. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Magnetic particles were coupled with a flocculant to enhance the demulsification and separation of waste cutting emulsions. The optimal magnetic particle size and critical magnetic field conditions were investigated to achieve large-scale engineering application of magnetic demulsification separation for waste cutting emulsion treatment. The micro-scale magnetic particles were found to show comparable effects to nano-scale magnetic particles on enhancing the demulsification and separation of cutting emulsions, which are beneficial for broadening the selectivity of low-cost magnetic particles. The critical magnetic separation region was determined to be an area 40 mm from the magnetic field source. Compared to the flocculant demulsification, the magnetic demulsification separation exhibited a significant advantage in accelerating flocs-water separation by decreasing the separation time of flocs from 180-240 min to less than 15 min, compressing the flocs by reducing the floc volume ratio from 60%-90% to lower than 20%, and showing excellent adaptability to the variable properties of waste cutting emulsions. Coupled with the design of the magnetic disk separator, continuous demulsification separation of the waste cutting emulsion was achieved at 1.0 t/hr for at least 10 hr to obtain clear effluent with 81% chemical oxygen demand removal and 89% turbidity reduction. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying magnetic demulsification separation to large-scale continuous treatment of waste emulsion. Moreover, it addresses the flocs-water separation problems that occur in practical flocculant demulsification engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.12.036DOI Listing
July 2021

Resveratrol reduces drug resistance of SCLC cells by suppressing the inflammatory microenvironment and the STAT3/VEGF pathway.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Laizhou People's Hospital, Laizhou City, China.

DNA-damaging agents, such as doxorubicin (Adriamycin), are widely used for the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, drug resistance is one of the major challenges for treatment of SCLC. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying drug resistance in SCLC cells and the effects of resveratrol (Res) on drug resistance. We report that Adriamycin treatment of H69AR (multidrug resistance phenotype) cells resulted in a lower rate of growth inhibition, up-regulation of MRP1 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and higher P-gp activity as compared with susceptible H69 cells treated with Adriamycin. Moreover, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/vascular endothelial growth factor (STAT3/VEGF) pathway was overactivated in H69AR cells, especially after interleukin-23 treatment. The inflammatory microenvironment promoted the drug resistance of H69AR cells by activating the STAT3/VEGF pathway. The addition of Res suppressed the expression levels of inflammatory mediators, inhibited the STAT3/VEGF pathway, impeded P-gp activity, and decreased the drug resistance of H69AR cells. H69AR cells exhibited Adriamycin resistance through activation of the STAT3/VEGF pathway, and Res ameliorated the inflammatory microenvironment to suppress the STAT3/VEGF pathway to reduce drug resistance. Our results suggest that Res may have therapeutic potential for SCLC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329954PMC
June 2021

Electrochemical oxidative decarboxylation and 1,2-aryl migration towards the synthesis of 1,2-diaryl ethers.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 2;11(36):10000-10004. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, The Institute for Advanced Studies (IAS), Wuhan University Wuhan 430072 Hubei P. R. China

Carboxylic acid compounds are important chemicals and are widely present in various natural products. They are not only nucleophiles, but also radical precursors. Classic transition-metal-catalyzed and photochemical decarboxylation have shown their excellent site selectivity in radical chemistry. However, electrochemical decarboxylation with a long history hasn't got enough attention in recent years. In this work, the electrochemical oxidative decarboxylation and 1,2-aryl migration of 3,3-diarylpropionic acids have been introduced to construct C-O bonds with alcohols. Remarkably, this transformation can proceed smoothly without metal catalysts and external oxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc03708gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162141PMC
September 2020

Evaluation and optimization of radiomics features stability to respiratory motion in F-FDG 3D PET imaging.

Med Phys 2021 Sep 21;48(9):5165-5178. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of respiratory motion on radiomics features in F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose three dimensional positron emission tomography ( F-FDG 3D PET) imaging and optimize feature stability by combining preprocessing configurations and aggregation strategies.

Methods: An in-house developed respiratory motion phantom was imaged in 3D PET scanner under nine respiratory patterns including one reference pattern. In total, 487 radiomics features were extracted for each respiratory pattern. Feature stability to respiratory motion was first evaluated by metrics of coefficient of variation (COV) and relative difference (RD) in a fixed preprocessing configuration. Further, one-way ANOVA and trend analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of preprocessing configuration (voxel size, discretization scheme) and aggregation strategy on feature stability. Finally, an optimization framework was proposed by selected feature-specific configurations with minimum COV value, and the diagnostic performance was validated in stable versus unstable features and fixed versus optimal features by a set of 46 patients with lung disease.

Results: PET radiomics features were sensitive to respiratory motion, only 79/487 (16%) features were identified to be very stable in the fixed configuration. Preprocessing configuration and aggregation strategy had an impact on feature stability. For different voxel size, bin number, bin size and aggregation strategy, 188/487 (39%), 70/487 (15%), 148/487 (30%), and 38/95 (29%) features appeared significant changes in feature stability. The optimized configuration had the potential to improve feature stability compared to fixed configuration, with the COV decreased from 22% ±24% to 16% ±20%. Regarding the diagnostic performance, the stable and optimal configuration features outperformed the unstable and fixed configuration features, respectively (AUC 0.88, 0.87 vs. 0.83, 0.85).

Conclusions: Respiratory motion shows considerable impact on feature stability in 3D PET imaging, while optimizing preprocessing configuration may improve feature stability and diagnostic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15022DOI Listing
September 2021

Role of Hakai in mA modification pathway in Drosophila.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2159. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

N6-methyladenosine (mA), the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA, is installed by a multi-component writer complex; however, the exact roles of each component remain poorly understood. Here we show that a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase Hakai colocalizes and interacts with other mA writer components, and Hakai mutants exhibit typical mA pathway defects in Drosophila, such as lowered mA levels in mRNA, aberrant Sxl alternative splicing, wing and behavior defects. Hakai, Vir, Fl(2)d and Flacc form a stable complex, and disruption of either Hakai, Vir or Fl(2)d led to the degradation of the other three components. Furthermore, MeRIP-seq indicates that the effective mA modification is mostly distributed in 5' UTRs in Drosophila, in contrast to the mammalian system. Interestingly, we demonstrate that mA modification is deposited onto the Sxl mRNA in a sex-specific fashion, which depends on the mA writer. Together, our work not only advances the understanding of mechanism and regulation of the mA writer complex, but also provides insights into how Sxl cooperate with the mA pathway to control its own splicing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22424-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041851PMC
April 2021

Research progress in solid carbon source-based denitrification technologies for different target water bodies.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 23;782:146669. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Key Laboratory of Organic Compound Pollution Control Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental and chemical engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200092, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Nitrogen pollution in water bodies is a serious environmental issue which is commonly treated by various methods such as heterotrophic denitrification. In particular, solid carbon source (SCS)-based denitrification has attracted widespread research interest due to its gradual carbon release, ease of management, and long-term operation. This paper reviews the types and properties of SCSs for different target water bodies. While both natural (wheat straw, wood chips, and fruit shells) and synthetic (polybutylene succinate, polycaprolactone, polylactic acid, and polyhydroxyalkanoates) SCSs are commonly used, it is observed that the denitrification performance of the synthetic sources is generally superior. SCSs have been used in the treatment of wastewater (including aquaculture wastewater), agricultural subsurface drainage, surface water, and groundwater; however, the key research aspects related to SCSs differ markedly based on the target waterbody. These key research aspects include nitrogen pollutant removal rate and byproduct accumulation (ordinary wastewater); water quality parameters and aquatic product yield (recirculating aquaculture systems); temperature and hydraulic retention time (agricultural subsurface drainage); the influence of dissolved oxygen (surface waters); and nitrate-nitrogen load, HRT, and carbon source dosage on denitrification rate (groundwater). It is concluded that SCS-based denitrification is a promising technique for the effective elimination of nitrate-nitrogen pollution in water bodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146669DOI Listing
August 2021

Detecting and identifying Schistosoma infections in snails and aquatic habitats: A systematic review.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 03 24;15(3):e0009175. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States of America.

Background: We were tasked by the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the following question: What techniques should be used to diagnose Schistosoma infections in snails and in the water in potential transmission sites? Our goal was to review and evaluate the available literature and provide recommendations and insights for the development of WHO's Guidelines Development Group for schistosomiasis control and elimination.

Methodology: We searched several databases using strings of search terms, searched bibliographies of pertinent papers, and contacted investigators who have made contributions to this field. Our search covered from 1970 to Sept 2020. All papers were considered in a PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) framework, and retained papers were grouped by technique and subjected to our GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations) evidence assessment profile determined in consultation with WHO. We also considered issues of sensitivity, specificity, coverage, cost, robustness, support needs, schistosome species discrimination, and relevant detection limits.

Principal Findings: Our PRISMA process began with the perusal of 949 articles, of which 158 were retained for data extraction and evaluation. We identified 25 different techniques and for each applied a GRADE assessment considering limitations, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness, and publication bias. We also provide advantages and disadvantages for each category of techniques.

Conclusions: Our GRADE analysis returned an assessment of moderate quality of evidence for environmental DNA (eDNA), qPCR and LAMP (Loop-mediated isothermal amplification). No single ideal diagnostic approach has yet been developed, but considerable recent progress has been made. We note a growing trend to use eDNA techniques to permit more efficient and replicable sampling. qPCR-based protocols for follow-up detection offer a versatile, mature, sensitive, and specific platform for diagnosis though centralized facilities will be required to favor standardization. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) can play a complementary role if inhibitors are a concern, or more sensitivity or quantification is needed. Snail collection, followed by shedding, is encouraged to provide specimens for sequence verifications of snails or schistosomes. LAMP or other isothermal detection techniques offer the prospect of less expensive and more distributed network of analysis but may face standardization and verification challenges related to actual sequences amplified. Ability to detect schistosome infections in snails or in the water is needed if control and elimination programs hope to succeed. Any diagnostic techniques used need to be regularly verified by the acquisition of DNA sequences to confirm that the detected targets are of the expected species. Further improvements may be necessary to identify the ideal schistosome or snail sequences to target for amplification. More field testing and standardization will be essential for long-term success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021170PMC
March 2021

Flexible Noncontact Sensing for Human-Machine Interaction.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 8;33(16):e2100218. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Department of Micro/Nano Electronics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

From typical electrical appliances to thriving intelligent robots, the exchange of information between humans and machines has mainly relied on the contact sensor medium. However, this kind of contact interaction can cause severe problems, such as inevitable mechanical wear and cross-infection of bacteria or viruses between the users, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, revolutionary noncontact human-machine interaction (HMI) is highly desired in remote online detection and noncontact control systems. In this study, a flexible high-sensitivity humidity sensor and array are presented, fabricated by anchoring multilayer graphene (MG) into electrospun polyamide (PA) 66. The sensor works in noncontact mode for asthma detection, via monitoring the respiration rate in real time, and remote alarm systems and provides touchless interfaces in medicine delivery for bedridden patients. The physical structure of the large specific surface area and the chemical structure of the abundant water-absorbing functional groups of the PA66 nanofiber networks contribute to the high performance synergistically. This work can lead to a new era of noncontact HMI without the risk of contagiousness and provide a general and effective strategy for the development of smart electronics that require noncontact interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100218DOI Listing
April 2021

An automatic calibration framework based on the InfoWorks ICM model: the effect of multiple objectives during multiple water pollutant modeling.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 21;28(24):31814-31830. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

An automatic calibration framework of water quality parameters for surface runoff during modeling with InfoWorks ICM was constructed. The framework is based on a genetic algorithm (GA) and fully considers the calibration sequence for multiple water pollutants, namely, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP). Meanwhile, four different objective functions including the Nash-Sutcliff efficiency coefficient (NSE), coefficient of determination (R), percentage error in the peak (PEP), and percentage bias (PBIAS) were selected as fitness evaluators for the GA. The framework was applied successfully to a specific area of Fuzhou in China, and the multi-objective results were compared with the single-objective results. The comprehensive indexes of TSS, COD, TN, and TP by multi-objective calibration were lower than that of the single-objective calibration in both scenarios. Compared with single-objective calibration, the iterations to reach the optimal value were shortened 9, 5, 13, and 15 iterations by multi-objective calibration. Therefore, the findings showed that the multi-objective function GA was more balanced and more efficient than the single-objective function GA. Then, the uncertainty of the model was evaluated by using the samples generated by automatic calibration, which provided a reliable basis for the subsequent application of the model. This framework can be applied to other programs through adjustments of the number and weight of objective functions according to the specific situation, which will make the modeling more efficient and accurate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12596-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Prediction of local recurrence and distant metastasis using radiomics analysis of pretreatment nasopharyngeal [18F]FDG PET/CT images.

Ann Nucl Med 2021 Apr 4;35(4):458-468. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, Guangdong, China.

Objectives: To develop a radiomics signature to predict locoregional recurrence (LR) and distant metastasis (DM), as extracted from pretreatment 2-deoxy-2-[F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) images in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Materials And Methods: Eighty-five patients with Stage III-IVB NPC underwent pretreatment [F]FDG PET/CT scans and received radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. 53 of them achieved disease control, and 32 of them failed after treatment (15: LR, 17: DM). A total of 114 radiomic features were extracted from PET/CT images. For univariate analysis, Wilcoxon test and Chi-square test were used to compare median values of features between different treatment outcomes and predict the risk of treatment failure, respectively. For multivariate analysis, all features were grouped into clusters based on Pearson correlation using hierarchical clustering, and the representative feature of each cluster was chosen by the Relief algorithm. Then sequential floating forward selection (SFFS) coupled with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier were used to derive the optimized feature set in terms of the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). The performance of the model was evaluated by leave-one-out-cross-validation, fivefold cross-validation, tenfold cross-validation.

Results: Twenty features had significant differences between disease control and treatment failure. NPC patients with values of Compactness1, Compactness2, Coarseness_NGTDM or SGE_GLGLM above the median as well as patients with values of Irregularity, RLN_GLRLM or GLV_GLSZM below the median, showed a significant (p < 0.05) higher risk of treatment failure (about 50% vs. 25%). The derived radiomics signature consisted of 5 features with the highest AUC value of 0.8290 (sensitivity: 0.8438, specificity: 0.7736) using leave-one-out-cross-validation.

Conclusion: Locoregional recurrence (LR) and DM of locally advanced NPC can be predicted using radiomics analysis of pretreatment [F]FDG PET/CT. The SFFS feature selection coupled with SVM classifier can derive the optimized feature set with correspondingly highest AUC value for pretreatment prediction of LR and/or DM of NPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12149-021-01585-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Electrochemical Oxidative Cross-Coupling of Enaminones and Thiophenols to Construct C-S Bonds.

Chem Asian J 2020 Dec 26;15(23):4005-4008. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal, University, Nanchang, 330022, Jiangxi, P. R.China.

An electrochemical oxidative C(sp)-H sulfuration has been developed. Various enaminones and thiophenols were compatible, generating the desired alkenyl sulfur compounds in up to 87 % yield. This transformation proceeded smoothly under mild reaction conditions without external oxidant and transition-metal catalyst. Remarkably, thiophenols selectively coupled with enamines when substrates had other alkenyl groups. In addition, the desired products could be further transformed into a series of α-sulfur isoxazoles, which are a kind of useful heterocycles in materials and bioactive molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202001116DOI Listing
December 2020

Chitin microsphere supported Pd nanoparticles as an efficient and recoverable catalyst for CO oxidation and Heck coupling reaction.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jan 2;251:117020. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Chitin derived from seafood wastes is a sustainable biopolymer, which can be used to constructe new materials to reduce the environmental pollution caused by non-biodegradable plastics. Herein, nanofibrous microspheres fabricated from chitin solution were used as carriers to construct three different chitin-supported Pd catalysts through diverse activation methods, subsequently revealed their differences in structure and performance. The palladium nanoparticles were firmly and highly dispersed on the microspheres due to the interconnected nanofibrous networks and functional groups of chitin, confirmed by various physicochemical characterizations. As the best candidate catalyst of Pd/chitin-Ar, in the CO oxidation reaction, which achieved 100% CO conversion with a lower Pd content, and exhibited excellent stability in 24-hours cycle reaction. Importantly, the catalyst was further applied in Heck coupling reaction, which also displayed competitive catalytic activity and stability (∼6runs, 94%). This utilizing of biomass resource to build catalyst materials would be important for the sustainable chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117020DOI Listing
January 2021

Genomic and transcriptional analysis of genes containing fibrinogen and IgSF domains in the schistosome vector Biomphalaria glabrata, with emphasis on the differential responses of snails susceptible or resistant to Schistosoma mansoni.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 10 14;14(10):e0008780. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology (CETI), Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America.

Achieving a deeper understanding of the factors controlling the defense responses of invertebrate vectors to the human-infecting pathogens they transmit will provide needed new leads to pursue for control. Consequently, we provide new genomic and transcriptomic insights regarding FReDs (containing a fibrinogen domain) and FREPs (fibrinogen domain and one or two IgSF domains) from the planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata, a Neotropical vector of Schistosoma mansoni, causative agent of human intestinal schistosomiasis. Using new bioinformatics approaches to improve annotation applied to both genome and RNA-Seq data, we identify 73 FReD genes, 39 of which are FREPs. We provide details of domain structure and consider relationships and homologies of B. glabrata FBG and IgSF domains. We note that schistosome-resistant (BS-90) snails mount complex FREP responses following exposure to S. mansoni infection whereas schistosome-susceptible (M line) snails do not. We also identify several coding differences between BS-90 and M line snails in three FREPs (2, 3.1 and 3.2) repeatedly implicated in other studies of anti-schistosome responses. In combination with other results, our study provides a strong impetus to pursue particular FREPs (2, 3.1, 3.2 and 4) as candidate resistance factors to be considered more broadly with respect to schistosome control efforts, including involving other Biomphalaria species vectoring S. mansoni in endemic areas in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588048PMC
October 2020

Integration of PET/CT Radiomics and Semantic Features for Differentiation between Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Lung Cancer.

Mol Imaging Biol 2021 04 8;23(2):287-298. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, Guangdong, China.

Purpose: We aim to accurately differentiate between active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and lung cancer (LC) based on radiomics and semantic features as extracted from pre-treatment positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) images.

Procedures: A total of 174 patients (77/97 pulmonary TB/LC as confirmed by pathology) were retrospectively selected, with 122 in the training cohort and 52 in the validation cohort. Four hundred eighty-seven radiomics features were initially extracted to quantify phenotypic characteristics of the lesion region in both PET and CT images. Eleven semantic features were additionally defined by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Feature selection was performed in 5 steps to enable derivation of robust and effective signatures. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was subsequently used to develop a radiomics nomogram. The calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness of the nomogram were evaluated in both the training and independent validation cohorts.

Results: The individualized radiomics nomogram, which combined PET/CT radiomics signature with semantic features, demonstrated good calibration and significantly improved the diagnostic performance with respect to the semantic model alone or PET/CT signature alone in training cohort (AUC 0.97 vs. 0.94 or 0.91, p = 0.0392 or 0.0056), whereas did not significantly improve the performance in validation cohort (AUC 0.93 vs. 0.89 or 0.91, p = 0.3098 or 0.3323).

Conclusion: The radiomics nomogram showed potential for individualized differential diagnosis between solid active pulmonary TB and solid LC, although the improvement of performance was not significant relative to semantic model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-020-01550-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Cross-sectional photoacoustic tomography image reconstruction with a multi-curve integration model.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2020 Dec 3;197:105731. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing and School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, 1023 Shatai Rd., Baiyun District, Guangzhou 510900, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: In acoustic inversion of photoacoustic tomography (PAT), an imaging model that precisely describes both the ultrasonic wave propagation and the detector properties is of crucial importance. Inspired by the multi-stripe integration model in clinical X-ray computed tomography systems, in this work, we introduce the Multi-Curve-Integration-based acoustic inversion for cross-sectional Photoacoustic Tomography (MCI-PAT).

Methods: We assumed that in cross-sectional PAT system, the three-dimensional (3-D) wave propagation problem could be reduced to a two-dimensional (2-D) problem in a limited, yet sufficient field of view. Under such condition, the MCI-PAT imaging model is generated by integrating several circular acoustic curves, the centers of which are points evenly distributed on the finite-size ultrasonic transducer surface. In this way, the spatial detector response is taken into account, while its computational burden does not largely increase because the integration process is performed only on a 2-D plane.

Results: As proven by simulation, phantom and in vivo small animal experiments, the MCI-PAT method leads to promising improvement in PAT image quality. Comparing to traditional imaging models that considered only a single acoustic curve, our proposed method successfully improved the visibility of small structures and achieved evident enhancement on signal-to-noise ratio.

Conclusions: The performance of the MCI-PAT method demonstrates that for cross-sectional PAT, a 2-D simplification of the propagation of multiple photoacoustic waves is feasible. Due to its simplicity, our method can be used as an add-on to current system models considering only a single acoustic curve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105731DOI Listing
December 2020

Multi-view secondary input collaborative deep learning for lung nodule 3D segmentation.

Cancer Imaging 2020 Aug 1;20(1):53. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Guangdong Provincal Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been extensively applied to two-dimensional (2D) medical image segmentation, yielding excellent performance. However, their application to three-dimensional (3D) nodule segmentation remains a challenge.

Methods: In this study, we propose a multi-view secondary input residual (MV-SIR) convolutional neural network model for 3D lung nodule segmentation using the Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI) dataset of chest computed tomography (CT) images. Lung nodule cubes are prepared from the sample CT images. Further, from the axial, coronal, and sagittal perspectives, multi-view patches are generated with randomly selected voxels in the lung nodule cubes as centers. Our model consists of six submodels, which enable learning of 3D lung nodules sliced into three views of features; each submodel extracts voxel heterogeneity and shape heterogeneity features. We convert the segmentation of 3D lung nodules into voxel classification by inputting the multi-view patches into the model and determine whether the voxel points belong to the nodule. The structure of the secondary input residual submodel comprises a residual block followed by a secondary input module. We integrate the six submodels to classify whether voxel points belong to nodules, and then reconstruct the segmentation image.

Results: The results of tests conducted using our model and comparison with other existing CNN models indicate that the MV-SIR model achieves excellent results in the 3D segmentation of pulmonary nodules, with a Dice coefficient of 0.926 and an average surface distance of 0.072.

Conclusion: our MV-SIR model can accurately perform 3D segmentation of lung nodules with the same segmentation accuracy as the U-net model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40644-020-00331-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7395980PMC
August 2020

Effect and mechanism of graphene structured palladized zero-valent iron nanocomposite (nZVI-Pd/NG) for water denitration.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 18;10(1):9931. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Nitrate reduction by zero-valent iron-based materials has been extensively studied. However, the aggregation of nanoparticles and the preference for unfavored ammonia products limit the application of this technology. To overcome this issue, this study introduced a novel synthesized nanoscale palladized zero-valent iron graphene composite (nZVI-Pd/NG) and explored its nitrate reduction efficiency. A nitrate removal rate of 97.0% was achieved after 120 min of reaction for an initial nitrate concentration of 100 mg N/L. The nitrogen gas selectivity was enhanced from 0.4% to 15.6% at the end point compared to nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles under the same conditions. Further analyses revealed that zero-valent metal nanoparticles spread uniformly on the graphene surface, with a thin layer of iron (hydr)oxides dominated by magnetite. The nZVI-Pd/NG exhibited good catalytic activity with the associated activation energy of 17.6 kJ/mol being significantly lower than that with nZVI (42.8 kJ/mol). The acidic condition promoted a higher nZVI utilization rate, with the excess dosage of nZVI-Pd/NG ensuring a high nitrate removal rate for a wide pH range. This study demonstrates an improvement in nitrate reduction efficiency in a nZVI system by combining the exceptional properties of graphene and palladium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66725-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303133PMC
June 2020

MiR-4262 inhibits the development of esophageal cancer by negatively regulating KLF6 level.

Exp Mol Pathol 2020 08 28;115:104476. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Caoxian People's Hospital, Heze, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To uncover the expression pattern and the prognosis of miR-4262 in these patients with esophageal cancer, and its potential mechanism.

Methods: MiR-4262 levels in 57 esophageal cancer and paracancerous specimens were detected. The relationship between miR-4262 level and clinical features of esophageal cancer was analyzed. After overexpression of miR-4262 in OE19 and EC-109 cells, changes in proliferative potential and apoptosis were examined. The interaction between miR-4262 and KLF6 was explored by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Their involvement in the development of esophageal cancer was finally determined.

Results: MiR-4262 was downregulated in esophageal cancer specimens and cell lines. Low level of miR-4262 predicted advanced pathological staging and poor prognosis in esophageal cancer patients. Overexpression of miR-4262 reduced proliferative potential and enhanced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. KLF6 was the downstream gene binding to miR-4262. The interaction between miR-4262 and KLF6 was responsible for alleviating the malignant development of esophageal cancer.

Conclusions: MiR-4262 is downregulated in esophageal cancer and linked to its pathological staging and prognosis. MiR-4262 inhibits the malignant development of esophageal cancer by down-regulating KLF6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2020.104476DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of the diagnostic value of joint PET myocardial perfusion and metabolic imaging for vascular stenosis in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease.

J Nucl Cardiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing, Southern Medical University, 1023 Shatai Road, Guangzhou, 510515, Guangdong, China.

Background: To investigate the diagnostic value of joint PET myocardial perfusion and metabolic imaging for vascular stenosis in patients with suspected obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: Eighty-eight patients (53 and 35 applied for training and validation, respectively) with suspected obstructive CAD were referred to N-NH PET/CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and F-FDG PET/CT myocardial metabolic imaging (MMI) with available coronary angiography for analysis. One semi-quantitative indicator summed rest score (SRS) and five quantitative indicators, namely, perfusion defect extent (EXT), total perfusion deficit (TPD), myocardial blood flow (MBF), scar degree (SCR), and metabolism-perfusion mismatch (MIS), were extracted from the PET rest MPI and MMI scans. Different combinations of indicators and seven machine learning methods were used to construct diagnostic models. Diagnostic performance was evaluated using the sum of four metrics (noted as sumScore), namely, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.

Results: In univariate analysis, MIS outperformed other individual indicators in terms of sumScore (2.816-3.042 vs 2.138-2.908). In multivariate analysis, support vector machine (SVM) consisting of three indicators (MBF, SCR, and MIS) achieved the best performance (AUC 0.856, accuracy 0.810, sensitivity 0.838, specificity 0.757, and sumScore 3.261). This model consistently achieved significantly higher AUC compared with the SRS method for four specific subgroups (0.897, 0.839, 0.875, and 0.949 vs 0.775, 0.606, 0.713, and 0.744; P = 0.041, 0.005, 0.034 0.003, respectively).

Conclusions: The joint evaluation of PET rest MPI and MMI could improve the diagnostic performance for obstructive CAD. The multivariate model (MBF, SCR, and MIS) combined with SVM outperformed other methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12350-020-02160-xDOI Listing
May 2020

A robust electrical conductivity imaging method with total variation and wavelet regularization.

Magn Reson Imaging 2020 06 5;69:28-39. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

School of Automation Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China; School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aims to develop and evaluate a robust conductivity imaging method that combines total variation and wavelet regularization to enhance the accuracy of conductivity maps.

Theory And Methods: The proposed approach is based on a gradient-based method. The central equation is derived from Maxwell's equation and describes the relationship between conductivity and the transceive phase. A linear system equation is obtained via a finite-difference method and solved using a least-squares method. Total variation and wavelet transform regularization terms are added to the minimization problem and solved using the Split Bregman method to improve reconstruction stability. The proposed approach is compared with conventional and gradient-based methods. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the accuracy of the developed method, and the effects of noise are determined. Phantom and in vivo experiments are conducted at 3 T to verify the clinical applicability of the proposed method.

Results: Numerical simulations show that the proposed method is more robust than other methods and can suppress the effects of noise. The quantitative conductivity value of the phantom experiment agrees with the measured value. The in vivo experiment results present a clear structure, and the conductivity value of the tumor region is significantly higher than that around healthy tissues.

Conclusion: The proposed electrical conductivity imaging method can improve the quality of conductivity reconstruction, and thus, has future clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2020.02.015DOI Listing
June 2020

Genome-wide discovery, and computational and transcriptional characterization of an AIG gene family in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector for Schistosoma mansoni.

BMC Genomics 2020 Mar 2;21(1):190. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA.

Background: The AIG (avrRpt2-induced gene) family of GTPases, characterized by the presence of a distinctive AIG1 domain, is mysterious in having a peculiar phylogenetic distribution, a predilection for undergoing expansion and loss, and an uncertain functional role, especially in invertebrates. AIGs are frequently represented as GIMAPs (GTPase of the immunity associated protein family), characterized by presence of the AIG1 domain along with coiled-coil domains. Here we provide an overview of the remarkably expanded AIG repertoire of the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, compare it with AIGs in other organisms, and detail patterns of expression in B. glabrata susceptible or resistant to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, responsible for the neglected tropical disease of intestinal schistosomiasis.

Results: We define the 7 conserved motifs that comprise the AIG1 domain in B. glabrata and detail its association with at least 7 other domains, indicative of functional versatility of B. glabrata AIGs. AIG genes were usually found in tandem arrays in the B. glabrata genome, suggestive of an origin by segmental gene duplication. We found 91 genes with complete AIG1 domains, including 64 GIMAPs and 27 AIG genes without coiled-coils, more than known for any other organism except Danio (with > 100). We defined expression patterns of AIG genes in 12 different B. glabrata organs and characterized whole-body AIG responses to microbial PAMPs, and of schistosome-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata to S. mansoni exposure. Biomphalaria glabrata AIG genes clustered with expansions of AIG genes from other heterobranch gastropods yet showed unique lineage-specific subclusters. Other gastropods and bivalves had separate but also diverse expansions of AIG genes, whereas cephalopods seem to lack AIG genes.

Conclusions: The AIG genes of B. glabrata exhibit expansion in both numbers and potential functions, differ markedly in expression between strains varying in susceptibility to schistosomes, and are responsive to immune challenge. These features provide strong impetus to further explore the functional role of AIG genes in the defense responses of B. glabrata, including to suppress or support the development of medically relevant S. mansoni parasites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6534-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053062PMC
March 2020

Acceleration of floc-water separation and floc reduction with magnetic nanoparticles during demulsification of complex waste cutting emulsions.

J Environ Sci (China) 2020 Mar 9;89:80-89. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:

Waste cutting emulsions are difficult to treat efficiently owing to their complex composition and stable emulsified structure. As an important treatment method for emulsions, chemical demulsification is faced with challenges such as low flocs-water separation rates and high sludge production. Hence, in this study, FeO magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used to enhance chemical demulsification performance for treating waste cutting emulsions under a magnetic field. The addition of MNPs significantly decreased the time required to attain sludge-water separation and sludge compression equilibrium, from 210 to 20 min. In addition, the volume percentage of sludge produced at the equilibrium state was reduced from 45% to 10%. This excellent flocculation-separation performance was stable over a pH range of 3-11. The magnetization of the flocculants and oil droplets to form a flocculant-MNP-oil droplet composite, and the magnetic transfer of the composite were two key processes that enhanced the separation of cutting emulsions. Specifically, the interactions among MNPs, flocculants, and oil droplets were important in the magnetization process, which was controlled by the structures and properties of the three components. Under the magnetic field, the magnetized flocculant-MNP-oil droplet composites were considerably accelerated and separated from water, and the sludge was simultaneously compressed. Thus, this study expands the applicability of magnetic separation techniques in the treatment of complex waste cutting emulsions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2019.10.011DOI Listing
March 2020
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