Publications by authors named "Lijun Chen"

343 Publications

Study on the negative effect of internal-control willingness on enterprise risk-taking.

Front Psychol 2022 22;13:894087. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Management, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

In the traditional cognition, the factors that affect the level of internal control are usually based on the objective factors such as corporate characteristics, financial status, and governance structure. However, the internal control defects of many famous companies expose the phenomenon of subjective manipulation, and this leads us to focus on the subjective factor of internal control, which we call internal-control willingness. We define "internal-control willingness" as the degrees of subjective initiative of the internal-control construction and execution activities. Additionally, we propose a method for measuring internal-control willingness, using text analysis and machine learning. Then, we examine the impact of internal-control willingness on enterprise risk-taking, through the internal-control, financial, and market data of China A-share main board enterprises in 2011-2018. The study found that (1) internal-control willingness has a significant positive impact on internal-control level, which can fairly achieve the measurement of internal-control subjective initiative. (2) It confirms that internal-control willingness lowers corporate risk-taking. (3) Further research finds that state-owned enterprises strengthen internal-control willingness and their risk-taking level is significantly lower than that of non-state-owned enterprises. This paper suggests that the regulatory authorities actively urge the board of directors to strengthen internal-control willingness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.894087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355034PMC
July 2022

Changes and Trend Disparities in Life Expectancy and Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy Attributed to Disability and Mortality From 1990 to 2019 in China.

Front Public Health 2022 18;10:925114. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Chronic Disease Control, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, China.

Objective: This study aims to investigate sex, age, and cause-specific contributions to changes and trend disparities in life expectancy (LE) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) attributed to disability and mortality from 1990 to 2019 in China, which provides insight into policy-making, health systems planning, and resource allocation.

Methods: Contributions of disability and mortality to changes and trend disparities in LE and HALE were estimated with standard abridged life table, Sullivan's method, and decomposition method, using retrospective demographic analysis based on mortality and years lived with disability (YLD) rates extracted from Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019).

Results: From 1990 to 2019, LE and HALE increased by 10.49 and 8.71 years for both sexes, mainly due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) (5.83 years, 55.58% for LE and 6.28 years, 72.10% for HALE). However, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections had negative effects on changes in LE (-0.03 years, -0.29%) and HALE (-0.05 years, -0.57%). Lung cancer and ischemic heart disease caused the biggest reduction in LE (-0.14 years, -1.33%) and HALE (-0.42 years, -4.82%). Also, cardiovascular diseases (-0.08 years, -0.92%), neurological disorders (-0.08 years, -0.92%), diabetes and kidney diseases (-0.06 years, -0.69%), and transport injuries (-0.06 years, -0.69%) had main negative disability effects in HALE. Moreover, life expectancy lived with disability (LED) increased by 1.78 years, mainly attributed to respiratory infections and tuberculosis (1.04 years, 58.43%) and maternal and neonatal disorders (0.78 years, 43.82%).

Conclusion: The LE and HALE in China have grown rapidly over the past few decades, mainly attributed to NCDs. It is necessary to further reduce the negative mortality effect of HIV/AIDS, lung cancer, colon and rectum cancer, pancreatic cancer, and ischemic heart disease and the negative disability effect of stroke, diabetes mellitus, and road injuries. In addition, the signs of disparities in mortality and disability of different sexes and ages call for targeted and precise interventions for key groups such as males and the elderly. According to the decomposition results, we may better determine the key objects of health policies that take into account substantial cause-specific variations to facilitate the realization of "healthy China 2030" plan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.925114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339800PMC
August 2022

Potential effects of soil chemical and biological properties on wood volume in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations and their responses to different intensity applications of inorganic fertilizer.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation and Desertification Combating of Hunan Province, College of Forestry, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, 410004, Hunan, China.

Long-term and high-intensity application of inorganic fertilizer leads to a strong variation of soil characteristics. The changes in soil chemical and biological properties can significantly affect the yield of Eucalyptus plantation. However, the mechanism of soil chemical properties affecting wood volume mediated by biological factors is not clear. The purpose of this study was to identify which soil properties were affected by different fertilization intensities and to disentangle the dominant factors affecting Eucalyptus volume. After clear felling evergreen broad-leaved forest, a Eucalyptus plantation was established that was coppiced every 5 years and fertilized every year. Within this plantation, areas with different treatments were established. These treatments were a 5-year growth period (low); two times 5-year growth period (medium); and three times 5-year growth period (high). In each treatment area and in a nearby evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF Control), five sample plots per treatment were set up. Various biological and chemistry analyses (18 in total) were related to determining the most important path and index for optimizing Eucalyptus plantation. The analysis of variance of enzyme activity and microbial biomass showed that the soil biological characteristics decreased over 10 years of plantation, and the enzyme activity was close to the state of EBLF control in medium, while the microbial biomass failed to return to its original state during continuous planting. Redundancy analysis results show that there was a strong correlation in chemical indicators and biological characteristics. Partial least square structural equation model showed that total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen, urease, catalase, and microbial biomass nitrogen and phosphorus were the most influential soil biochemical factors, and the indirect effect of chemical properties on volume was achieved by microorganisms through enzyme activity. Continuous planting and large-scale application of inorganic fertilizer would lead to a decrease in plantation yield and fertilizer utilization efficiency and would affect the microbial biomass and enzyme activity by destroying the stability of soil chemical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22238-yDOI Listing
July 2022

Knockdown of replication protein A 3 induces protective autophagy and enhances cisplatin sensitivity in lung adenocarcinoma by inhibiting AKT/mTOR signaling via binding to cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2.

Drug Dev Res 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Replication protein A 3 (RPA3) is a significant component of replication protein A and has been documented to function as an oncogene in several types of cancers. However, the role and underlying mechanism of RPA3 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains unknown. In this study, messenger expression of RPA3 and survival probability in LUAD were predicted by the UALCAN database. The combination of RPA3 with cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2) were characterized by the humanbase and STRING databases and verified by co-immunoprecipitation. Cell viability was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation assay. Flow cytometric analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay were used to determine cell cycle and cell apoptosis, respectively. The expressions of protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway and autophagy-related proteins were examined by western blot assay. Significantly, we revealed that RPA3 expression was upregulated in LUAD and is associated with poor prognosis in LUAD patients. RPA3 and CKS2 expression was highly expressed in LUAD cell lines and the interaction between RPA3 and CKS2 was confirmed. RPA3 silencing inhibited A549 cell viability, blocked cell cycle and promoted cell apoptosis, as well as induction of autophagy and inhibition of AKT/mTOR signaling. CKS2 overexpression reversed the effects of RPA3 silencing on A549 cells. In addition, RPA3 knockdown enhanced cisplatin sensitivity of A549 cells through blocking the AKT/mTOR signaling. These results suggested that RPA3 might control LUAD cell autophagy and enhance cisplatin sensitivity by regulation of AKT/mTOR signaling via targeting CKS2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21978DOI Listing
July 2022

Dynamic Changes of the Gut Microbiota in Preterm Infants With Different Gestational Age.

Front Microbiol 2022 30;13:923273. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

The gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diseases affecting preterm infants and gestational age is one of the important factors which affect the gut microbiota of infants. To determine the characteristics of the gut microbiota in preterm infants of different gestational ages from birth to 1 year after birth, we collected 622 fecal samples from neonates of different gestational ages at different time points after birth. According to the gestational ages, the samples were divided into four groups, extremely preterm, very preterm, moderate to late preterm, and term group. Meconium and fecal samples at day 14, 28, 120, and 365 after birth were collected. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed and the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in preterm infants of different gestational age was compared with that of term infants. In our study, alpha diversity of meconium in extremely preterm group was higher than very preterm group, moderate to late preterm group and term group and alpha diversity of meconium in preterm group was decreased with increasing of gestational age. At day 14 to day 120 after birth, alpha diversity of term and moderate to late preterm group were significantly higher than other two preterm groups. However, moderate to late preterm group owned the highest alpha diversity which was higher than term group at day 365 after birth. Besides, the results shown the duration of opportunistic pathogen such as and which dominant colonization was different in different gestational age groups. As well as the probiotics, such as , which abundance enriched at different time point in different gestational age groups. We profiled the features of dynamic changes of gut microbiome from different gestational ages infants. The results of our research provide new insights for individualized interventions of specific microbes of preterm infants with different gestational ages at different time points after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.923273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9279133PMC
June 2022

Use of Aspect Markers by Mandarin-speaking Children with High-Functioning Autism Plus Language Impairment and Children with Developmental Language Disorder.

J Commun Disord 2022 Jul 6;99:106245. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Faculty of English Language and Culture, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510420, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study investigates the comprehension and production of four typical Mandarin aspect markers zai-, -le, -zhe, and -guo by preschool children with high functioning autism plus language impairment (HFA-LI) and those with developmental language disorder (DLD), by comparing them with typically developing age-matched (TDA) children.

Methods: Twenty children with HFA-LI (M/F: 18/2; mean age: 5.20), 20 with DLD (M/F: 11/9; mean age: 5.25), and 20 TDA children (M/F:14/6; mean age:5.27) completed a picture-choice task and priming picture-description task. The results were analyzed using non-parametric methods.

Results: In the comprehension task, the HFA-LI and DLD groups achieved lower accuracy than the TDA group on zai-, -le, and -guo. The comprehension of aspect markers in the HFA-LI and DLD groups was affected by lexical aspect. In the production task, the HFA-LI and DLD groups produced fewer sentences with the target aspect marker for all four aspect markers than the TDA group. However, they produced more sentences with bare verb forms for zai- and -guo than the TDA group. Furthermore, all three groups tended to combine aspect markers with their semantically inherent types of verbs (e.g, zai-+Activity verbs). The HFA-LI group produced more sentences irrelevant to the task than the other two groups for -zhe and -guo, and some children in the HFA-LI group produced ungrammatical sentences in which both the progressive zai- and perfective -le were used.

Conclusions: Children with HFA-LI and DLD demonstrate similarities in the comprehension and production of Mandarin aspect markers, given their poor comprehension of the aspect markers zai-, -le and -guo, and poor production of all four aspect markers compared to their TDA peers. Their performance was also impacted by lexical aspect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2022.106245DOI Listing
July 2022

Optimized data-independent acquisition approach for proteomic analysis at single-cell level.

Clin Proteomics 2022 Jul 9;19(1):24. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Background: Single-cell proteomic analysis provides valuable insights into cellular heterogeneity allowing the characterization of the cellular microenvironment which is difficult to accomplish in bulk proteomic analysis. Currently, single-cell proteomic studies utilize data-dependent acquisition (DDA) mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with a TMT labelled carrier channel. Due to the extremely imbalanced MS signals among the carrier channel and other TMT reporter ions, the quantification is compromised. Thus, data-independent acquisition (DIA)-MS should be considered as an alternative approach towards single-cell proteomic study since it generates reproducible quantitative data. However, there are limited reports on the optimal workflow for DIA-MS-based single-cell analysis.

Methods: We report an optimized DIA workflow for single-cell proteomics using Orbitrap Lumos Tribrid instrument. We utilized a breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and induced drug resistant polyaneuploid cancer cells (PACCs) to evaluate our established workflow.

Results: We found that a short LC gradient was preferable for peptides extracted from single cell level with less than 2 ng sample amount. The total number of co-searching peptide precursors was also critical for protein and peptide identifications at nano- and sub-nano-gram levels. Post-translationally modified peptides could be identified from a nano-gram level of peptides. Using the optimized workflow, up to 1500 protein groups were identified from a single PACC corresponding to 0.2 ng of peptides. Furthermore, about 200 peptides with phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination were identified from global DIA analysis of 100 cisplatin resistant PACCs (20 ng). Finally, we used this optimized DIA approach to compare the whole proteome of MDA-MB-231 parental cells and induced PACCs at a single-cell level. We found the single-cell level comparison could reflect real protein expression changes and identify the protein copy number.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the optimized DIA pipeline can serve as a reliable quantitative tool for single-cell as well as sub-nano-gram proteomic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12014-022-09359-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9270744PMC
July 2022

Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates Acute Colitis and Secondary Liver Injury by Improving the Mucus Barrier and Regulating the Gut Microbiota.

Front Immunol 2022 21;13:865273. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often occurs along with extraintestinal manifestations, including hepatic injury. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is an active substance with a potential anti-inflammation activity. However, its alleviated effect and mechanisms in IBD as well as the IBD-induced secondary liver injury are still unclear.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were administered with a 21-day oral gavage of MFGM, followed by 7 days of drinking water with 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Disease activity index (DAI), histological features, and cytokines of the colon and liver were evaluated. Then, RNA-seq of the colon and liver was conducted. The gut microbiota was assessed by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences, and finally the integrity and the function of the mucus barrier were evaluated by Alcian blue staining, real-time quantitative PCR, and ELISA.

Results: Prophylactic MFGM treatment was effective against colitis to include effects in body weight loss, DAI score, colonic length, intestinal pathology, and histological score. Additionally, prophylactic MFGM decreased the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and myeloperoxidase in colonic tissue, while it increased the IL-10 level. Moreover, the gene expressions of , , , and associated with the production of the molecular mediator of immune response, membrane invagination, and response to protozoan were strikingly upregulated when administered with MFGM. On the other hand, the beneficial effects of MFGM were related to the enriched abundance of genera such as and in feces samples. Consistently, the administration of MFGM was also found to alleviate DSS-induced hepatic injury. Furthermore, the glutathione transferase activity pathway was enriched in the liver of MFGM-treated mice after DSS administration. Mechanistically, prophylactic MFGM enhanced the mucosal barrier by increasing the gene levels of and . Meanwhile, the alleviation of MFGM on liver injury was dependent on the reduced hepatic oxidative stress.

Conclusions: MFGM attenuated colitis and hepatic injury by maintaining the mucosal barrier and bacterial community while inhibiting oxidative stress, which might be an effective therapy of hepatic injury secondary to IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.865273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9253277PMC
June 2022

Characterization of core fucosylation via sequential enzymatic treatments of intact glycopeptides and mass spectrometry analysis.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 7;13(1):3910. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA.

Core fucosylation of N-linked glycoproteins has been linked to the functions of glycoproteins in physiological and pathological processes. However, quantitative characterization of core fucosylation remains challenging due to the complexity and heterogeneity of N-linked glycosylation. Here we report a mass spectrometry-based method that employs sequential treatment of intact glycopeptides with enzymes (STAGE) to analyze site-specific core fucosylation of glycoproteins. The STAGE method utilizes Endo F3 followed by PNGase F treatment to generate mass signatures for glycosites that are formerly modified by core fucosylated N-linked glycans. We benchmark the STAGE method and use it to characterize site specific core fucosylation of glycoproteins from human hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, resulting in the identification of 1130 and 782 core fucosylated glycosites, respectively. These results indicate that our STAGE method enables quantitative characterization of core fucosylation events from complex protein mixtures, which may benefit our understanding of core fucosylation functions in various diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31472-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9262967PMC
July 2022

Appropriate Exogenous Expression Stoichiometry of GATA4 as an Important Factor for Cardiac Reprogramming of Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

Cell Reprogram 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Reprogramming of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) represents a promising strategy for human cardiac regeneration. Different cocktails of cardiac transcription factors can convert HDFs into iCMs, although with low efficiency and immature phenotype. Here, GATA4, MEF2C, TBX5, MESP1, and MYOCD (GMTMeMy for short) were used to reprogram HDFs by retrovirus infection. We found that the exogenous expression stoichiometry of GATA4 (GATA4 stoichiometry) significantly affected reprogramming efficiency. When 1/8 dosage of GATA4 virus (GATA4 dosage) plus MTMeMy was used, the reprogramming efficiency was obviously improved compared with average pooled virus encoding each factor, which measured, by the expression level of cardiac genes, the percentage of cardiac troponin T and alpha-cardiac myosin heavy-chain immunopositive cells and the numbers of iCMs showing calcium oscillation or beating synchronously in co-culture with mouse CMs. In addition, we prepared conditioned maintenance medium (CMM) by CM differentiation of H9 human embryonic stem cell line. We found that compared with traditional maintenance medium (TMM), CMM made iCMs show well-organized sarcomere formation and characteristic calcium oscillation wave earlier. These findings demonstrated that appropriate GATA4 stoichiometry was essential for cardiac reprogramming and some components in CMM were important for maturation of iCMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cell.2022.0014DOI Listing
June 2022

Study on the characteristics of glycerides and phospholipids in human milk from Tibet.

Food Res Int 2022 Jul 18;157:111025. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

National Engineering Center of Dairy for Maternal and Child Health, Beijing Sanyuan Foods Co. Ltd., Beijing 100163, China; Beijing Engineering Research Center of Dairy, Beijing Technical Innovation Center of Human Milk Research, Beijing Sanyuan Foods Co. Ltd., Beijing 100163, China. Electronic address:

The unique geographical characteristics and food culture of Tibet can affect the nutrition of human milk lipids. But little has been done in the comparison of the lipids between Tibet and other areas. This study gives in-depth analysis of the species, concentration and composition of lipid subclasses at the molecular level of the Tibetan human milk. There were averagely 132 ± 30 species of lipids, among which triglycerides (TAGs), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SM) accounted for 79.78% of the total species number in the Tibetan human milk samples. The contents of TAG, SM, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and PE in the Tibetan human milk were 85.84%, 17.79%, 25.94% and 55.81% of those in the comparative human milk of China, respectively. The contents of TAGs and diglycerides (DAGs) with PUFAs in Tibetan human milk were significantly lower than those in the comparative group. However, the content and percentage of TAGs and DAGs with odd-chain saturated fatty acids were both higher in the Tibetan human milk than those in the comparative human milk. In total, 18 molecular species of lipids were downregulated and 5 ones were upregulated in the Tibetan human milk compared with those in the comparative human milk of China. The profile of lipids in the Tibetan human milk at the molecular level provided the scientific basis for maternal diet and supplemented the Chinese human milk lipids database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111025DOI Listing
July 2022

Facial emotion perception abilities are related to grey matter volume in the culmen of cerebellum anterior lobe in drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

Brain Imaging Behav 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Impaired capability for understanding and interpreting the expressions on other people's faces manifests itself as a core feature of schizophrenia, contributing to social dysfunction. With the purpose of better understanding of the neurobiological basis of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we investigated facial emotion perception abilities and regional structural brain abnormalities in drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and then examined the correlation between them. Fifty-two drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 29 group-matched healthy controls were examined for facial emotion perception abilities assessed with the Facial Emotion Categorization and performed magnetic resonance imaging. The Facial Emotion Categorization data were inserted into a logistic function model so as to calculate shift point and slope as outcome measurements. Voxel-based morphometry was applied to investigate regional grey matter volume (GMV) alterations. The relationship between facial emotion perception and GMV was explored in patients using voxel-wise correlation analysis within brain regions that showed a significant GMV alterations in patients compared with controls. The schizophrenic patients performed differently on Facial Emotion Categorization tasks from the controls and presented a higher shift point and a steeper slope. Relative to the controls, patients showed GMV reductions in the superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, parahippocampa gyrus, posterior cingulate, the culmen of cerebellum anterior lobe, cerebellar tonsil, and the declive of cerebellum posterior lobe. Importantly, abnormal performance on Facial Emotion Categorization was found correlated with GMV alterations in the culmen of cerebellum anterior lobe in schizophrenia. This study suggests that reduced GMV in the culmen of cerebellum anterior lobe occurs in first-episode schizophrenia, constituting a potential neuropathological basis for the impaired facial emotion perception in schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-022-00677-yDOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical characteristics and survival of children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in China: A multicentre retrospective cohort study.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Jul 27;49:101466. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children's Medical Centre, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China.

Background: Few data on paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are available in developing countries. A multicentre, retrospective, cohort study was conducted to profile the clinical characteristics and survival of children with HCM in China.

Methods: We collected longitudinal data on children with HCM aged 0-18 years at three participating institutions between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2019. Patients were identified by searching for the diagnosis using ICD-10 codes from the electronic medical records database. HCM was diagnosed morphologically with echocardiography or cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The exclusion criteria were secondary aetiologies of myocardial hypertrophy. The primary outcomes were all-cause death or heart transplantation. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate of different groups.

Findings: A total of 564 children were recruited, with a median age at diagnosis of 1.0 year (interquartile range, IQR: 0.4-8.0 years), followed for a median of 2.6 years (1977 patient-years, IQR:0.5, 5.9 years). The underlying aetiology was sarcomeric (382, 67.7%), inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) (108, 19.2%), and RASopathies (74, 13.1%). A total of 149 patients (26.4%) died and no patients underwent heart transplantation during follow-up. The survival probability was 71.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.3%-75.3%) at 5 years. Patients with IEMs or those diagnosed during infancy had the poorest outcomes, with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 16.9% (95% CI, 7.7%-29.1%) and 56.0% (95% CI, 48.8%-62.5%), respectively. Heart failure was the leading cause of death in the cohort (90/149, 60.4%), while sudden cardiac death was the leading cause in patients with sarcomeric HCM (32/66, 48.5%).

Interpretation: There is a high proportion of patients with IEM and a low proportion of patients with neuromuscular disease in children with HCM in China. Overall, mortality remains high in China, especially in patients with IEMs and those diagnosed during infancy.

Funding: National Natural Science Fund of China (81770380, 81974029), China Project of Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission (20MC1920400, 21Y31900301).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9157015PMC
July 2022

Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Palib. (Fagaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 2;7(6):944-945. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

College of Life Sciences, China West Normal University, Nanchong, China.

Complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Palib. is yet to be reported, and the phylogenetic position of this species is still under debate. In this study, the complete cpDNA sequence of was determined from Illumina NovaSeq pair-end sequencing data. Results revealed that it has a sequence length of 158,360 bp and contains 131 annotated genes, which consist of 83 protein-coding genes, 40 tRNA genes, and eight rRNA genes. The phylogenetic analysis of the complete cpDNA sequence indicates that represents a monophyletic clade within Fagaceae. The species relatedness between and is relatively close.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2080015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9176376PMC
June 2022

Empathy and teachers' fairness behavior: The mediating role of moral obligation and moderating role of social value orientation.

PLoS One 2022 9;17(6):e0268681. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China.

This study examined the mediating effect of moral obligation and moderating effect of social value orientation on the relationship between empathy and fairness behavior in Chinese teachers. Seven hundred and twenty-six Chinese teachers completed self-reported questionnaires regarding empathy, moral obligation, social value orientation, and fairness behavior. The results revealed that moral obligation mediated the link between empathy and teachers' fairness behavior. Teachers' social value orientation moderated the associations between empathy and moral obligation and moral obligation and fairness behavior. The associations between empathy and moral obligation and moral obligation and fairness behavior were more robust for those with high SVO scores (i.e., prosocial). This study identified the critical factors associated with teachers' fairness behavior, supplying empirical support for existing theories and providing practical implications for interventions designed to improve Chinese teachers' classroom environment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0268681PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9182229PMC
June 2022

Construction of a prognostic immune-related lncRNA model and identification of the immune microenvironment in middle- or advanced-stage lung squamous carcinoma patients.

Heliyon 2022 May 23;8(5):e09521. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: Globally, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a high incidence, and NSCLC patients have poor prognoses. Lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) is a major pathological type of NSCLC. LncRNAs play important roles in tumor progression and immune system functions. The aim of this study was to construct a predictive model with immune-related lncRNAs and to assess the immune microenvironment in middle- or advanced-stage LUSC patients.

Methods: RNA sequencing data and corresponding clinical LUSC data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Immune genes were obtained from the Molecular Signatures Database. Immune-related lncRNAs were identified by Pearson correlation analysis in R. The model was constructed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Finally, we validated the prognostic immune-related lncRNA model in a cohort from the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center.

Results: Our risk model included four immune-related lncRNAs (LINC00944, AL034550.2, AC020907.1 and AC027682.6). Survival analysis revealed that overall and disease-free survival were shorter in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group. Independent prognostic analysis showed that our model could be used as an independent prognostic predictor. The high-risk group was positively associated with CD8+ T cells, B cells, myeloid dendritic cells, macrophages, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts and high expression of PD1 and CTLA4. Additionally, a low-risk score was correlated with lower half maximal inhibitory concentrations (ICs) of cisplatin, docetaxel, vinorelbine and paclitaxel and a higher IC of gemcitabine. Gene set enrichment analysis suggested that these lncRNAs may participate in tumor progression and immune processes. Validation with the clinical cancer cohort demonstrated that higher risk scores were associated with a higher, but not statistically significant, likelihood of recurrence.

Conclusion: We established a risk score model including four immune-related lncRNAs. The model accurately predicts the prognosis of middle- or advanced-stage LUSC patients and provides an important reference for individualized treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9157204PMC
May 2022

Advances in analysis, metabolism and mimicking of human milk lipids.

Food Chem 2022 Nov 30;393:133332. Epub 2022 May 30.

National Engineering Research Center of Dairy Health for Maternal and Child, Beijing Sanyuan Foods Co. Ltd., Beijing 100163, China; Beijing Engineering Research Center of Dairy, Beijing Technical Innovation Center of Human Milk Research, Beijing Sanyuan Foods Co. Ltd., Beijing 100163, China. Electronic address:

Human milk lipids differ from the milk lipids of other mammals in composition and positional distribution of fatty acids. Analysis and detection technology of lipids is key to understanding milk lipids, and thus the concentrations, compositions and distribution characteristics of milk lipids are discussed. Differences between human milk lipids and their substitutes in form, composition and structure affect their digestion, absorption and function in infants. Characteristics and mimicking of human milk lipids have been intensively studied with the objective of narrowing the gap between human milk and infant formulae. Based on the existing achievements, further progress may be made by improving detection techniques, deepening knowledge of metabolic pathways and perfecting fat substitutes. This review detailed the characteristics of human milk lipids and related detection technologies with a view towards providing a clear direction for research on mimicking human milk lipids in formulae to further improve infant nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133332DOI Listing
November 2022

A new AI-assisted scoring system for PD-L1 expression in NSCLC.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2022 Jun 23;221:106829. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China; Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) analysis may serve as a scoring tool for programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression. In this study, a new AI-assisted scoring system for pathologists was tested for PD-L1 expression assessment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: PD-L1 expression was evaluated using the tumor proportion score (TPS) categorized into three levels: negative (TPS < 1%), low expression (TPS 1-49%), and high expression (TPS ≥ 50%). In order to train, validate, and test the Aitrox AI segmentation model at the whole slide image (WSI) level, 54, 53, and 115 cases were used as training, validation, and test datasets, respectively. TPS reading results from five experienced pathologists, six inexperienced and the Aitrox AI model were analyzed on 115 PD-L1 stained WSIs. The Gold Standard for TPS was derived from the review of three expert pathologists. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated and compared between the results.

Results: Aitrox AI Model correlated strongly with the TPS Gold Standard and was comparable with the results of three of the five experienced pathologists. In contrast, the results of four of the six inexperienced pathologists correlated only moderately with the TPS Gold Standard. Aitrox AI Model performed better than the inexperienced pathologists and was comparable to experienced pathologists in both negative and low TPS groups. Despite the fact that the low TPS group showed 5.09% of cases with large fluctuations, the Aitrox AI Model still showed a higher correlation than the inexperienced pathologists. However, the AI model showed unsatisfactory performance in the high TPS groups, especially lower values than the Gold Standard in images with large regions of false-positive cells.

Conclusion: The Aitrox AI Model demonstrates potential in assisting routine diagnosis of NSCLC by pathologists through scoring of PD-L1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.106829DOI Listing
June 2022

The Effect of Bangerter Filters on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity With External Noise.

Front Neurosci 2022 13;16:804576. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Medical Psychology, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.

It is critical to address the relationship between density label of Bangerter filters and expected visual acuity, and how filters modulate contrast sensitivity (CS) at different spatial frequency and external noise levels. In the current study, the monocular visual acuity and CS at ten spatial frequencies and three noise levels were measured in normal subjects wearing no filters, 0.8, 0.4, or 0.2 Bangerter filters. Compared with the baseline condition (no filter worn), Bangerter filters degraded both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function (CSF) in zero-noise conditions, but the reduction of both visual functions did not correlate with each other at any filter level. In addition, the stronger the filter was, the worse both visual functions became. In contrast, when external noise was present, filters improved the contrast sensitivity at low frequencies but deteriorated it at intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The perceptual template model was used to reveal the corresponding mechanism accounted for filter-induced visual function changes. Although the internal process in visual system should not be affected by the filters, the measurement of parameters was biased. To be specific, (1) the internal additive noise was elevated at all frequencies; (2) the perceptual template was improved at low spatial frequencies but impaired at intermediate spatial frequencies; and (3) the changes in both factors were highly dependent on filter intensity. We conclude that Bangerter filters influence visual acuity and contrast sensitivity differently and that their effect on contrast sensitivity depends on spatial frequency and noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.804576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9136063PMC
May 2022

The Effect of Bangerter Filters on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity With External Noise.

Front Neurosci 2022 13;16:804576. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Medical Psychology, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.

It is critical to address the relationship between density label of Bangerter filters and expected visual acuity, and how filters modulate contrast sensitivity (CS) at different spatial frequency and external noise levels. In the current study, the monocular visual acuity and CS at ten spatial frequencies and three noise levels were measured in normal subjects wearing no filters, 0.8, 0.4, or 0.2 Bangerter filters. Compared with the baseline condition (no filter worn), Bangerter filters degraded both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function (CSF) in zero-noise conditions, but the reduction of both visual functions did not correlate with each other at any filter level. In addition, the stronger the filter was, the worse both visual functions became. In contrast, when external noise was present, filters improved the contrast sensitivity at low frequencies but deteriorated it at intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The perceptual template model was used to reveal the corresponding mechanism accounted for filter-induced visual function changes. Although the internal process in visual system should not be affected by the filters, the measurement of parameters was biased. To be specific, (1) the internal additive noise was elevated at all frequencies; (2) the perceptual template was improved at low spatial frequencies but impaired at intermediate spatial frequencies; and (3) the changes in both factors were highly dependent on filter intensity. We conclude that Bangerter filters influence visual acuity and contrast sensitivity differently and that their effect on contrast sensitivity depends on spatial frequency and noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.804576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9136063PMC
May 2022

Quantitative Determination of Whey Protein to Casein Ratio in Infant Formula Milk Powder.

Front Chem 2022 10;10:872251. Epub 2022 May 10.

National Engineering Research Center of Dairy Health for Maternal and Child, Beijing Sanyuan Foods Co. Ltd, Beijing, China.

This study was aimed to establish a method for quantitatively determining the ratio of whey protein in the total protein of infant formula by respectively selecting two characteristic peptides from whey protein and casein and calculating the ratio between the characteristic peptides. A nanoliter high-performance liquid chromatography tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (Q Exactive) was used to simultaneously detect the characteristic peptides of two main whey proteins and two main caseins. The characteristic peptides were calculated, predicted, and screened using the ExPASy website, and peptide information was confirmed by database retrieval after the analysis by using a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The matrix effect was compensated by comparing the characteristic peptides in whey protein with those in casein protein, in which isotope internal standards were not required. The influence of the changes of the protein content in whey protein and casein on the detection method was eliminated by the calculation formula designed by ourselves. In this detection method, the sample was stable in the total protein concentration range of between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/ml. In the simulated industrial processing environment, with desalted whey powder, the recovery rate was 98.63-113.33% under different spiked levels with good reproducibility (RSD<8%). The RSDs of intraday and interday precisions were 2.03-9.35% and 0.61-11.02%, respectively. The different processing procedures of samples had no significant impact on the detection of whey protein (RSD% for milk samples treated by different processing techniques was 2.97%). The quantitation method of whey protein was applied to evaluate the whey protein content in different brands of commercially available milk powder. In summary, the proposed method was applicable for quantitative analysis of whey proteins in the infant formula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.872251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9127462PMC
May 2022

Porcine pluripotent stem cells established from LCDM medium with characteristics differ from human and mouse extended pluripotent stem cells.

Stem Cells 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Animal Cellular and Genetics Engineering of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have unlimited self-renewal and multifunctional development potential in vitro. Porcine PSCs are highly desirable due to the conserved characteristics between pigs and humans. Extended PSCs (EPSCs) are additionally capable of differentiating into embryonic (Em) and extraembryonic (E×Em) parts. Here, we employed the LCDM culture system (consisting of human LIF, CHIR99021, (S) - (+) -dimethindene maleate, and minocycline hydrochloride), which can establish EPSCs from humans and mice, to derive and maintain stable porcine PSCs (pLCDM) from in vivo blastocysts. Transcriptome analysis revealed the unique molecular characteristics of pLCDMs compared with early-stage embryos. Meanwhile, the parallels and differences in the transcriptome features among pLCDMs, human EPSCs, and mouse EPSCs were carefully analyzed and evaluated. Most noteworthy, the trophoblast lineage differentiation tendency of pLCDMs was clarified by inducing trophoblast-like cells and trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) in vitro. Further research found that two of the small molecules in LCDM culture system, (S) - (+) -dimethindene maleate (DiM) and minocycline hydrochloride (MiH), probably play a crucial role in promoting trophoblast lineage differentiation potential of pLCDMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/stmcls/sxac034DOI Listing
May 2022

Comprehension of Mandarin Aspect Markers by Preschool Children With and Without Developmental Language Disorder.

Front Psychol 2022 28;13:839951. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

ABCCD - Autism, Bilingualism, Cognitive and Communicative Development Lab, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) reportedly struggle with the comprehension of aspect. However, since aspect and tense are closely entangled in the languages spoken by the children with DLD in previous studies, it is unclear whether the difficulty stems from aspect, tense, or both. Mandarin Chinese, a language without morphological manifestations of tense, is ideal to investigate whether the comprehension of aspect is specifically affected in children with DLD, yet to date work on this is scarce and presents methodological limitations. In this study, we examined whether preschool Mandarin-speaking children with DLD have difficulty in comprehending perfective aspect (represented with the aspect marker -) compared to imperfective aspect (represented with the aspect markers and -), whether performance can be explained in terms of the pre- vs. post-verbal realization of the aspect markers, and the potential role played by lexical aspect in the comprehension of grammatical aspect. Fourteen preschool children with DLD (mean age: 61.11 months old) and 14 TD children (mean age: 63.4 months old) matched for age and nonverbal intelligence participated in a sentence-picture matching task. Global results showed that, similar to their TD peers, children with DLD performed better on imperfective aspect than perfective aspect. Concerning specific aspect markers, while children with DLD indeed performed similarly to TD children on imperfective , they obtained significantly lower accuracy than TD children on perfective and imperfective . However, considering verb types combined with these aspect markers, results revealed that children with DLD scored significantly higher on the prototypical combination(s) (e.g.,  + Activity verbs) than on the non-prototypical combination(s) (e.g.,  + Accomplishment verbs). The performance pattern suggests that the comprehension of aspect markers by children with DLD is particularly affected by lexical aspect. As this also affects younger TD children, children with DLD are arguably at an earlier stage of aspectual development than their age and nonverbal intelligence matched TD peers. Therefore, the aspectual development of children with DLD appears to be delayed rather than deviant. Given this, language programs addressing difficulties in DLD may need to incorporate training on the use of aspect markers, especially targeting their combination with non-prototypical verbs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.839951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097452PMC
April 2022

Effects of a Formula with scGOS/lcFOS (9:1) and Glycomacropeptide (GMP) Supplementation on the Gut Microbiota of Very Preterm Infants.

Nutrients 2022 May 1;14(9). Epub 2022 May 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

Microbial colonization of very preterm (VPT) infants is detrimentally affected by the complex interplay of physiological, dietary, medical, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an infant formula containing the specific prebiotic mixture of scGOS/lcFOS (9:1) and glycomacropeptide (GMP) on the composition and function of VPT infants' gut microbiota. Metagenomic analysis was performed on the gut microbiota of VPT infants sampled at four time points: 24 h before the trial and 7, 14, and 28 days after the trial. Functional profiling was aggregated into gut and brain modules (GBMs) and gut metabolic modules (GMMs) based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. , , and were dominant species in both the test group and the control group. After the 4-week intervention, the abundance of in the test group was significantly increased. We found two GBMs (quinolinic acid synthesis and kynurenine degradation) and four GMMs (glutamine degradation, glyoxylate bypass, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and preparatory phase of glycolysis) were significantly enriched in the test group, respectively. The results of this study suggested that formula enriched with scGOS/lcFOS (9:1) and GPM is beneficial to the intestinal microecology of VPT infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14091901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9102166PMC
May 2022

Effect of Loaded Glycyrrhizic Acid on PLGA Nano-particle on Treatment of Allergic Asthma.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2022 Feb 6;21(1):65-72. Epub 2022 Feb 6.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Asthma is considered a complex disease of the respiratory system that is characterized by bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. Allergic reactions are the main reason behind asthma which is known as an important health problem with a high rate of morbidity and mortality in patients with respiratory diseases. Liquorice, the root of Glycyrrhiza, is primarily effective for asthma which is widely used in herbal medicine. In the present study, we designed nano-particles that carry Glycyrrhizic acid as the effective component of Liquorice. After Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticle preparation and Glycyrrhizic acid loading, the morphology of the nanoparticle, the electric charge distribution, and drug-releasing ability were studied. Then the effect of Glycyrrhizic acid-PLGA on the animal model of allergic asthma was investigated. Glycyrrhizic acid-nanoparticle had a mean±SD size of 350±50 nm. about 67% of the effective component was released after 10 h. The interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-25 levels and the Muc5ac mRNA expression were decreased in the Glycyrrhizic acid-PLGA treated group. In addition, a significant decline was observed in goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hyper-secretion, and eosinophilic inflammation around bronchi and vessels of the nano-drug treated group, compared with the asthmatic group. We found that Glycyrrhizic acid-PLGA nanoparticle had an anti-asthma effect which may be used as a new drug to cure asthma. It can prevent bronchial obstruction, breathlessness, and asthma attacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v21i1.8617DOI Listing
February 2022

An initial study of core muscles using ultrasound in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

Ann Palliat Med 2022 Apr;11(4):1482-1490

Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, China.

Background: Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease, resulting in bone pain and fragility fractures. This study sought to explore the ultrasonic characteristics of core muscles in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

Methods: A total of 91 participants underwent ultrasound examinations of the lumbar and abdominal core muscles. The participants were divided into the following two groups: group 1 (the normal control group, comprising 20 participants, aged 25-35 years); and the osteoporosis group (comprising 71 participants). The participants in the osteoporosis group were further divided into the following three groups: group II (comprising 20 participants, aged 50-59 years); group III (comprising 30 participants, aged 60-69 years); and group IV (comprising 21 participants, aged 70-87 years). The 2-dimensional (2D) sonographic manifestations, thickness and gray values of the core muscles of the lumbar and abdomen were observed, and a further analysis was conducted that included the bone density of the lumbar vertebrae results.

Results: Compared to the control group, the total thickness of the core muscles in the osteoporosis group was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the gray values were significantly increased (P<0.05). The comparison of the osteoporosis groups showed that in relation to the total thickness of the core muscle, group II > group III > group IV (P<0.05). The 2D ultrasonography showed that the muscles of the participants in group I were full and had an equally low echo. Conversely, in the osteoporosis group, the muscles of the participants were less full, the echo was enhanced, the boundary between the muscle and the fascia was unclear, and the long axis of the rectus abdominis and transverse abdominis tracts were wavy and linear, with reduced tension.

Conclusions: In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, the core muscles of the waist and abdomen are degenerative, which can be evaluated with ultrasonography via the echo, thickness, and gray value of the muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-22-314DOI Listing
April 2022

Corrigendum: Phylogeny and Taxonomy on Cryptic Species of Forked Ferns of Asia.

Front Plant Sci 2022 12;13:888725. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Key Laboratory of National Forestry and Grassland Administration for Orchid Conservation and Utilization, The National Orchid Conservation Center of China and The Orchid Conservation and Research Center of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2021.748562.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.888725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9040669PMC
April 2022

Molecular Changes in Prepubertal Left Ventricular Development Under Experimental Volume Overload.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 12;9:850248. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Left ventricular (LV) volume overload (VO), commonly found in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR), leads to a series of left ventricular (LV) pathological responses and eventually irreversible LV dysfunction. Recently, questions about the applicability of the guideline for the optimal timing of valvular surgery to correct chronic AR have been raised in regard to both adult and pediatric patients. Understanding how VO regulates postnatal LV development may shed light on the best timing of surgical or drug intervention.

Methods And Results: Prepubertal LV VO was induced by aortocaval fistula (ACF) on postnatal day 7 (P7) in mice. LV free walls were analyzed on P14 and P21. RNA-sequencing analysis demonstrated that normal (P21_Sham vs.P14_Sham) and VO-influenced (P21_VO vs. P14_VO) LV development shared common terms of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) in the downregulation of cell cycle activities and the upregulation of metabolic and sarcomere maturation. The enriched GO terms associated with cardiac condition were only observed in normal LV development, while the enriched GO terms associated with immune responses were only observed in VO-influenced LV development. These results were further validated by the examination of the markers of cell cycle, maturation, and immune responses. When normal and VO-influenced LVs of P21 were compared, they were different in terms of immune responses, angiogenesis, percentage of Ki67-positive cardiomyocytes, mitochondria number, T-tubule regularity, and sarcomere regularity and length.

Conclusions: A prepubertal LV VO mouse model was first established. VO has an important influence on LV maturation and development, especially in cardiac conduction, suggesting the requirement of an early correction of AR in pediatric patients. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the activation of immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.850248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9039316PMC
April 2022

Identifying Long- and Short-Term Processes in Perceptual Learning.

Psychol Sci 2022 05 28;33(5):830-843. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Practice makes perfect in almost all perceptual tasks, but how perceptual improvements accumulate remains unknown. Here, we developed a multicomponent theoretical framework to model contributions of both long- and short-term processes in perceptual learning. Applications of the framework to the block-by-block learning curves of 49 adult participants in seven perceptual tasks identified ubiquitous long-term general learning and within-session relearning in most tasks. More importantly, we also found between-session forgetting in the vernier-offset discrimination, face-view discrimination, and auditory-frequency discrimination tasks; between-session off-line gain in the visual shape search task; and within-session adaptation and both between-session forgetting and off-line gain in the contrast detection task. The main results of the vernier-offset discrimination and visual shape search tasks were replicated in a new experiment. The multicomponent model provides a theoretical framework to identify component processes in perceptual learning and a potential tool to optimize learning in normal and clinical populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09567976211056620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9248287PMC
May 2022

Automatic Detection of Secundum Atrial Septal Defect in Children Based on Color Doppler Echocardiographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 6;9:834285. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common congenital heart diseases (CHDs). This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of automatic detection of ASD in children based on color Doppler echocardiographic images using convolutional neural networks. In this study, we propose a fully automatic detection system for ASD, which includes three stages. The first stage is used to identify four target echocardiographic views (that is, the subcostal view focusing on the atrium septum, the apical four-chamber view, the low parasternal four-chamber view, and the parasternal short-axis view). These four echocardiographic views are most useful for the diagnosis of ASD clinically. The second stage aims to segment the target cardiac structure and detect candidates for ASD. The third stage is to infer the final detection by utilizing the segmentation and detection results of the second stage. The proposed ASD detection system was developed and validated using a training set of 4,031 cases containing 370,057 echocardiographic images and an independent test set of 229 cases containing 203,619 images, of which 105 cases with ASD and 124 cases with intact atrial septum. Experimental results showed that the proposed ASD detection system achieved accuracy, recall, precision, specificity, and F1 score of 0.8833, 0.8545, 0.8577, 0.9136, and 0.8546, respectively on the image-level averages of the four most clinically useful echocardiographic views. The proposed system can automatically and accurately identify ASD, laying a good foundation for the subsequent artificial intelligence diagnosis of CHDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.834285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9019069PMC
April 2022
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