Publications by authors named "Lijuan Zhang"

1,069 Publications

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Formation of Bulk Nanobubbles Induced by Accelerated Electrons Irradiation: Dependences on Dose Rates and Doses of Irradiation.

Langmuir 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800, China.

Radiation on aqueous solutions can induce water radiolysis with products of radicals, H, HO, and so on, and their consequent biological effects have long been interested in radiation chemistry. Unlike the decomposition of water by electric current that produces a significant number of bubbles, the gas products from the radiolysis of water are normally invisible by bare eyes, little is known on whether nanosized bubbles can be produced and what their dynamics are upon irradiation. Here, we first presented the formation of nanoscale bulk bubbles by irradiating pure water with accelerated electrons and their concentration and size distribution changes with the dose and rate of irradiation. The nanoparticle tracking analysis showed that irradiation can actually produce a certain amount of bulk nanobubbles in pure water. They exhibited a dependence on the irradiation dose rates and irradiation doses. The results indicated that the concentration of formed bulk nanobubbles increased as the irradiation dose rates increased, but it will increase and then decrease with the increased irradiation doses. The formed bulk nanobubbles could maintain stability for several hours. Our findings will provide a new angle of view for the radiation chemistry of water, and the formed nanobubbles may help elucidate the biological effects of irradiated solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c00515DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of Baogong Zhixue Granules Combined with Tranexamic Acid Injection on the Hemodynamics and Reproductive System in Patients with Postpartum Hemorrhage after Cesarean Section.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 9;2022:1249779. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266003, Shandong, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Baogong Zhixue granules combined with tranexamic acid injection on the hemodynamics and reproductive system in patients with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) after cesarean section.

Methods: The data of 90 puerperae undergoing cesarean section in our hospital from January 2019 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the order of admission, they were equally divided into the control group (CG) and experimental group (EG). CG was treated with tranexamic acid injection combined with oxytocin, while EG was treated with Baogong Zhixue granules combined with tranexamic acid injection to compare the clinical observation indexes between the two groups.

Results: Compared with CG, EG achieved remarkably less amount of bleeding at 2 h and 24 h after delivery ( < 0.001), lower postpartum APTT, PT, HR, and MAP ( < 0.001), shorter maintenance time of uterine contraction and lochia ( < 0.001), and lower postpartum FSH and LH ( < 0.001). After delivery, EG had higher postpartum Fib and descending speed of uterine fundus and compared with CG ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: Baogong Zhixue granules combined with tranexamic acid injection have little effect on the reproductive system of PPH patients after cesarean section, stabilize the hemodynamics, and improve the coagulation function. Therefore, further research on the combined treatment can provide better hemostatic schemes for such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1249779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9203211PMC
June 2022

Direct Crystallization Resolution of Racemates Enhanced by Chiral Nanorods: Experimental, Statistical, and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies.

ACS Omega 2022 Jun 3;7(23):19828-19841. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Chemical Engineering Department, Frontier Medical Technologies Institute, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China.

Three chiral nanorods of C-l-Thea, C-l-Phe, and C-d-Phe were first synthesized and utilized as heterogeneous nucleants to enhance the resolution of racemic Asp via direct crystallization. Through the statistical analysis from 320 batches of nucleation experiments, we found that the apparent appearance diversity of two enantiomeric crystals of Asp existed in 80 homogeneous experiments without chiral nanorods. However, in 240 heterogeneous experiments with 4.0 wt % chiral nanorods of solute mass added, the appearance of those nuclei with the same chirality as the nanorods was apparently promoted, and that with the opposite chirality was totally inhibited. Under a supersaturation level of 1.08, the maximum ee of the initial nuclei was as high as 23.51%. When the cooling rate was 0.025 K/min, the ee of the product was up to 76.85% with a yield of 14.41%. Furthermore, the simulation results from quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular dynamics (MD) revealed that the higher chiral recognition ability of C-l-Thea compared to C-l-Phe that originated from the interaction difference between C-l-Thea and Asp enantiomers was larger than that between C-l-Phe and Asp enantiomers. Moreover, the constructed nanorods exhibited good stability and recyclability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c01596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9202296PMC
June 2022

Sharing of Teaching Resources for English Majors Based on Ubiquitous Learning Resource Sharing Platform and Neural Network.

Authors:
Lijuan Zhang

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 8;2022:2683008. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Shanghai Jian Qiao University, Shanghai 201306, China.

Teachers in traditional English education devote a great deal of time and effort to developing excellent English teaching courseware and other teaching materials. However, because the network's powerful sharing capability was not fully utilized, poor resource sharing hampered the school's overall teaching efficiency. The goal of this paper is to investigate how to use a ubiquitous learning resource sharing platform and a neural network to analyze the method of English major education resource sharing. Because the BP neural network algorithm has better classification and prediction functions, it was proposed because it can classify and predict information in the sharing of teaching resources for English majors. This allows for seamless sharing of teaching materials. According to the findings of this study, there were 562.13 million people learning English in China in 2015, accounting for 37% of the population. By 2018, 945.61 million people were learning English, accounting for 85 percent of the population. Almost every student is learning English, demonstrating the language's importance. As a result, the importance of English instruction is clear, and the sharing of teaching resources should be prioritized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2683008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9200530PMC
June 2022

PM and water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations decreased faster in urban than rural areas in China.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Dec 1;122:83-91. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

We investigated variations of PM and water-soluble inorganic ions chemical characteristics at nine urban and rural sites in China using ground-based observations. From 2015 to 2019, mean PM concentration across all sites decreased by 41.9 µg/m with a decline of 46% at urban sites and 28% at rural sites, where secondary inorganic aerosol (SIAs) contributed to 21% (urban sites) and 17% (rural sites) of the decreased PM. SIAs concentrations underwent a decline at urban locations, while sulfate (SO), nitrate (NO), and ammonium (NH) decreased by 49.5%, 31.3% and 31.6%, respectively. However, only SO decreased at rural sites, NO increased by 21% and NH decreased slightly. Those changes contributed to an overall SIAs increase in 2019. Higher molar ratios of NO to SO and NH to SO were observed at urban sites than rural sites, being highest in the heavily polluted days. Mean molar ratios of NH/NH were higher in 2019 than 2015 at both urban and rural sites, implying increasing NH remained as free NH. Our observations indicated a slower transition from sulfate-driven to nitrate-driven aerosol pollution and less efficient control of NO than SO related aerosol formation in rural regions than urban regions. Moreover, the common factor at urban and rural sites appears to be a combination of lower SO levels and an increasing fraction of NO to PM under NH-rich conditions. Our findings imply that synchronous reduction in NO and NH emissions especially rural areas would be effective to mitigate NO-driven aerosol pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2021.09.031DOI Listing
December 2022

Interfacial Micropancakes: Gas or Contaminations?

Langmuir 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China.

Micropancake, a flat domain with micrometer-scale lateral size and a few nanometer thickness, is usually accompanied by the generation of interfacial nanobubbles at the liquid/solid surfaces. Unlike the nanobubbles, micropancakes are difficult to be produced efficiently, impeding further investigations of their mysterious properties. Very recently, An et al. even argued that the previously observed micropancakes were most likely the contaminate, not the gas layers. Herein, to reveal the nature of micropancakes with solid evidence, we presented the characterization of micropancakes at a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface produced by the ethanol-water exchange or gas-supersaturated water. By washing with deeply degassed water (DW), the dissolution of those micropancakes was clearly observed, indicating that they may very well be composed of gas. In addition, the analysis of the force measurements showed the intrinsic differences between those gaseous micropancakes and the insoluble organic films. The data and results supported the interpretation that the real existence of gas micropancakes at liquid/solid surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c00390DOI Listing
June 2022

Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Activity (GGT) Is a Long-Sought Biomarker of Redox Status in Blood Circulation: A Retrospective Clinical Study of 44 Types of Human Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 6;2022:8494076. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Systems Biology & Medicine Center for Complex Diseases, Center for Clinical Research, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China.

Methods: The clinical GGT data from 168,858 patients with 44 diseases and 132,357 healthy control in the clinical laboratory of our hospital over the past five years were retrieved. All data were analyzed with SPSS, RStudio V.1.3.1073, and python libraries 3.8.

Results: Thirty-eight out of 44 diseases had significantly increased ( < 0.001) circulating GGT activities, whereas gastric cancer, anemia, renal cyst, cervical cancer, preeclampsia, and knee-joint degenerative diseases had significantly decreased ( < 0.001) GGT activities compared to the healthy control. ROC analyses showed that GGT was an excellent biomarker for liver cancer (AUC = 0.86), pancreatitis (AUC = 0.84), or hepatic encephalopathy (AUC = 0.80). All pancreas-related diseases had more than 8-fold increases in GGT activity span than the healthy control, while pancreatic cancer had a 12-fold increase (1021 U/L vs. 82 U/L). The knee-joint degenerative disease had the lowest median and narrowest GGT activity range (63 U/L). Furthermore, most diseases' lowest to highest GGT activities were beyond the healthy control in both directions.

Conclusions: Thirty-eight out of 44 diseases were in overall oxidative states defined by the increased GGT median values. In contrast, knee-joint degenerative disease, gastric cancer, anemia, renal cyst, cervical cancer, and preeclampsia were in overall antioxidative states. Moreover, most diseases swing between oxidative and antioxidative states, evidenced by the increased lowest to highest GGT activity ranges than the healthy control. Liver- and pancreas-related abnormalities were responsible for significantly increased GGT activities. Our overall results suggested that circulating GGT was a redox status biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8494076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9192220PMC
June 2022

Predictive value of NT-proBNP, procalcitonin and CVP in patients with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(5):3481-3487. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Huai'an First People's Hospital, The Affiliated Huai'an No. 1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the predictive value of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), procalcitonin and central venous pressure (CVP) for new atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.

Methods: Patients underwent cardiac surgery in Huai'an First People's Hospital from June 2019 to December 2020 were enrolled in this study. Patients without POAF after surgery were included in the control group, and patients with POAF after surgery were included in the POAF group. Clinical data of patients were collected and retrospectively analyzed.

Results: The incidence of in-hospital complications, length of stay and cost of hospitalization in the POAF group were significantly higher than those in the control group; Moreover, there were significant differences in central venous pressure, peak cTnI, NT-proBNP, procalcitonin, and white blood cell counts between the two groups. NT-proBNP, procalcitonin and elevated central venous pressure are independent risk factors for POAF in patients after cardiac surgery.

Conclusion: NT-proBNP, procalcitonin and CVP were closely related with atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. The combination of NT-proBNP, procalcitonin and CVP had a better discriminative ability for new atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery compared to either of them alone.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9185093PMC
May 2022

Cost-effectiveness analysis of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily insulin for treatment of children with Type 1 diabetes.

Postgrad Med 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Pediatric Endocrinology, Metabolism and Gastroenterology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Objective: To evaluate the health economics of using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy versus multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy in children and adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Qingdao, China.

Methods: A long-term cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using the IQVIA Core Diabetes Model (CDM). The baseline characteristics of the simulated cohorts were obtained from 213 pediatric T1D patients who received care with CSII(104 cases) or MDI(109 cases) in Qingdao from January 1, 2015 to March 31, 2019. In the essential case, the expenditure of the complications and treatment of the disease with both therapies were evaluated in Chinese currency from the perspective of healthcare system. In a secondary analysis, the model used a 70-year time horizon, and a discount rate of 5% was applied to all future health outcomes and costs. A one-way sensitivity analysis was conducted on delta HbA1c, different price of insulin pump, price of each upgrade cycle rates and different discount rates. Uncertainty was also evaluated by the probability sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis.

Results: In the base-case analysis, the lifetime total costs were lower for CSII group at ¥630,871 per patient compared with ¥672,672 for MDI group. The quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained were 11.612 and 11.197 for patients treated with CSII group and MDI group, respectively. The CSII group was cost-saving compared to MDI group. The feasibility of CSII group being cost-effective was 100% under the threshold of 3 times per capita GDP of China in 2019 (¥212,676) which was indicated from the probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Regarding scenario analysis, the ICER of the CSII group compared to MDI was between -151,583 and 153,366 RMB/QALYs, which is cost-effect.

Conclusions: This economic evaluation compared CSII therapy versus MDI therapy for T1D children and adolescent patients in China and findings indicate that CSII should be considered a preferred treatment modality to MDI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2022.2088938DOI Listing
June 2022

Synergistic anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of the combination of resveratrol and curcumin in human vascular endothelial cells and rodent aorta.

J Nutr Biochem 2022 Jun 9:109083. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Human Sciences, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic increased pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play critical roles in the development of endothelial dysfunction and therefore induce cardiovascular disease. Although phytochemicals have the potential ability to reduce the risk of CVD, the big gap between required high concentration in cells and the low bioavailability in the blood of phytochemicals compromise their therapeutic potentials. This study aims to investigate if combined phytochemicals at low levels exert a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect and to define relevant molecular mechanisms. Our results found that combined curcumin (5 μM) and resveratrol (5 μM) synergistically (combination index is 0.78) inhibited TNF-α-induced monocytes adhesion to human endothelial EA.hy 926 cells while the individual chemicals did not have such effect at the selected concentrations. The concentrations of curcumin (5 μM) and resveratrol (5 μM) are very close to the maximum level of curcumin (3.56 μM) and resveratrol (2 μM) in human blood. Dietary supplementation of combined curcumin (500mg/kg) and resveratrol (200mg/kg) synergistically reduced TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation in C57BL/6 mice with a similar pattern in cells. Moreover, the combination ameliorated the TNF-α-induced protein expressions and circulating levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in EA.hy 926 cells, mice aorta and serum. Furthermore, combined curcumin and resveratrol significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 nuclear protein expression than that by the individual chemical alone in EA.hy 926 cells, indicating that the synergistic effect of the combination may result from that curcumin reduces the required minimum concentration for resveratrol to inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In conclusion, the combination of curcumin and resveratrol protects against TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation by suppressing NF-κB signaling in vitro and in vivo models. This study suggests that dietary intake of a combination of curcumin and resveratrol or its foods may be a practical, safe approach to prevent vascular inflammation and therefore prevent/treat vascular diseases in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2022.109083DOI Listing
June 2022

Tuning the Mn Dopant To Boost the Hydrogen Evolution Performance of CoP Nanowire Arrays.

Inorg Chem 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Because of its advantages such as abundant resources, low cost, simple synthesis, and high electrochemical stability, cobalt phosphide (CoP) is considered as a promising candidate for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. Through element doping, the morphology and electronic structure of the catalyst can be tuned, resulting in both the increase of the active site number and the improvement of the intrinsic activity of each site. Herein, we designed and fabricated Mn-doped CoP nanowires with a length of 3 μm, a diameter of 50 nm, and the pores between the grains of 10 nm. As a highly efficient electrocatalyst for alkaline hydrogen evolution, the Mn-doped CoP/NF (doping amount is about 10 atom %) electrode presented overpotentials of 60 mV @ 10 mA cm and 112 mV @ 100 mA cm, improved by 35 and 23%, respectively, compared with CoP/NF. Characterizations indicate that Mn doping increases the electrochemical active area, reduces the impedance, and tunes the electronic structure of the material. Density functional theory calculations also revealed that an appropriate amount of Mn dopant at a suitable location can both react as an active site itself and boost the activity of the surrounding Co sites, delivering favorable H* adsorption and rapid reaction kinetics. This result may not only promote the development of hydrogen evolution reaction catalysts but also encourage explorations of the relationship between the property and fine doping structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c01436DOI Listing
June 2022

Responses of soil respiration and microbial community structure to fertilizer and irrigation regimes over 2 years in temperate vineyards in North China.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 6;840:156469. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071000, China; The Key Laboratory of agro ecological environment of Hebei Province, Baoding 071000, China; Hebei Urban Forest Health Technology Innovation Center, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071000, China. Electronic address:

Fertilizer and irrigation regimes can profoundly affect soil carbon (C) emissions, which influence soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. However, information regarding the effects of fertilizer and irrigation management on the components of soil respiration (Rs) and the underlying microbial community characteristics in vineyard ecosystems remains limited. Therefore, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in a wine-grape vineyard (WGV) and a table-grape vineyard (TGV). Each vineyard included two fertilizer and irrigation regimes: farmers' practice (FP) and recommended practice (RP). The trenching method was employed to separate Rs into heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and autotrophic respiration (Ra). Additionally, the SOC storage and soil microbial community structure at 0-20 cm soil depth were determined after the 2-year experiment. The results showed that the fertilizer and irrigation regimes caused no effect on Ra. Compared with the FP treatment in WGV and TGV, the RP treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the average daily Rh by 15.13 % and 17.11 %, which contributed to the annual Rs values at the whole-vineyard scale decreased by 8.93 % and 11.78 %, respectively. Besides, compared with the initial value, the SOC storage under RP treatment were effectively increased by 6.39 % and 6.33 % in WGV and TGV, respectively. Low annual total Rh was partially ascribed to the significant (P < 0.05) decline in Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes relative abundance, thus reducing the decomposition rate of SOC. Compared with WGV, the fertilizer and water input was higher in the TGV, which resulted in the annual total Rs and Rh values at the whole-vineyard scale was increased by 11.53 % and 15.74 %, respectively, while the annual total Ra was decreased by 18.83 % due to the lower grapevine density and more frequent summer pruning. Overall, RP treatment was found to be a suitable strategy for reducing soil C emissions and benefiting SOC storage in vineyards around North China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156469DOI Listing
September 2022

Monoglycocalix[4]arene-based nanoparticles for tumor selective drug delivery GLUT1 recognition of hyperglycolytic cancers.

Org Biomol Chem 2022 Jun 22;20(24):4884-4887. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Institute of Molecular Plus, Frontiers Science Center for Synthetic Biology (Ministry of Education), Tianjin Key Laboratory for Modern Drug Delivery & High-Efficiency, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072, P. R. China.

We have developed a new strategy of tumor-specific glucose transporter (GLUT)-mediated selective drug delivery using amphiphilic fluorescent monoglycocalix[4]arene in docetaxel (DTX) encapsulated nanoparticles (NPs) that leads to significant improvement in cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cells. The fluorescent tracer conjugation in the calixarene enables the self-probed tumor targeting analysis and makes the system potentially suitable for tumor diagnostic imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ob00656aDOI Listing
June 2022

Evaluation of Nursing Effects of Pelvic Floor Muscle Rehabilitation Exercise on Gastrointestinal Tract Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Anus-preserving Operation by Intelligent Algorithm-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 19;2022:1613632. Epub 2022 May 19.

Clinical Laboratory, Shanxi Children's Hospital, Taiyuan 030013, Shanxi, China.

Based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology under artificial intelligence algorithm, the postoperative nursing effects of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation exercise on gastrointestinal tract rectal cancer (RC) patients were investigated. A total of 88 patients receiving RC anus-preserving surgery in hospital were selected. The included patients were divided randomly into the experimental group (44 cases) and the control group (44 cases). Patients in the control group engaged in Kegel motion, while patients in the experimental group underwent self-designed comprehensive pelvic floor training. Anorectum function rating scale and quality of life questionnaire for colorectal cancer (EORTC QLQ-CR29) were utilized to compare and analyze anus functions and living quality of patients in the two groups. Besides, all patients in two groups received MRI examinations, and images were processed by a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm. The results showed that in MRI images, there were significant signal differences between lesion tissues and normal tissues. After being processed by an artificial intelligence algorithm, the definition of MRI images was remarkably enhanced with clearer lesion edges. The quality of images was also significantly improved. Besides, the comparison of anus functions of patients in two groups showed that the differences demonstrated statistical meaning after the intervention ( < 0.05). In conclusion, artificial intelligence algorithm-based MRI and comprehensive pelvic floor muscle exercise showed significant application prospects and values in the recovery of patients' intestinal functions after RC anus-preserving surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1613632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9135567PMC
June 2022

Abnormal intestinal milieu in post-traumatic stress disorder is not impacted by treatment that improves symptoms.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Rush Center for Microbiome and Chronobiology Research, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States.

Introduction: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder, resulting from exposure to traumatic events. Current recommended first-line interventions for the treatment of PTSD include evidence-based psychotherapies, such as Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). Psychotherapies are effective for reducing PTSD symptoms, but approximately two-thirds of veterans continue to meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD after treatment suggesting there is an incomplete understanding of what factors sustain PTSD. The intestine can influence the brain and this study evaluated intestinal readouts in subjects with PTSD.

Methods: Serum samples from controls without PTSD (n=40) from the Duke In-Trust Program were compared to veterans with PTSD (n=40) recruited from the Road Home Program at Rush University Medical Center. Assessments included microbial metabolites, intestinal barrier, and intestinal epithelial cell function. Additionally, intestinal readouts were assessed in PTSD subjects before and after a 3-week CPT-based intensive treatment program (ITP) to understand if treatment impacts the intestine.

Results: Compared to controls, veterans with PTSD had a pro-inflammatory intestinal environment including lower levels of microbiota-derived metabolites acetic, lactic, and succinic acid, intestinal barrier dysfunction (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein), an increase in HMGB1, and a concurrent increase in the number of intestinal epithelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles. The ITP improved PTSD symptoms but no changes in intestinal outcomes were noted.

Conclusion: This study confirms the intestine is abnormal in subjects with PTSD and suggests that effective treatment of PTSD does not alter intestinal readouts. Targeting beneficial changes in the intestine may be an approach to enhance existing PTSD treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00066.2022DOI Listing
May 2022

Lactoferrin network with MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, auxiliary mineralization, antibacterial functions: A multifunctional coating for biofunctionalization of implant surfaces.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2022 Aug 24;216:112598. Epub 2022 May 24.

National Engineering Research Centre of Seafood, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Provincial and Ministerial Co-construction for Seafood Deep Processing, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China. Electronic address:

Developing biocompatible, low-immunoreactive, and antibacterial implants are challenging yet fundamental to osteosynthesis. In this study, mineralization-stimulative and antibacterial networking nanostructures are assembled via amyloid-like aggregation of lactoferrin (LF) triggered by reducing the intramolecular disulfide bonds. Due to the adhesive property of their rich β-sheet architecture, the LF networks are amenable to the deposition upon the surface of various implant materials, functionalizing the implants with cell-proliferative, mineralization-stimulative, and antibacterial properties. Specifically, the abundant functional groups and amino acids exposed on the surface of LF networks provide abundant functional microdomains for subsequent mineralization of different forms of calcium ions and promote the formation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals in simulated body fluids. We further demonstrate that the LF network inherits the innate antibacterial properties of LF and exerts a synergistic antibacterial ability with surface-enriched positively charged and hydrophobic amino acid residues, disrupting bacterial biofilm formation, enhancing microbial cell wall perturbation, and ultimately leading to microbial death. The results underscore the feasibility of the LF network as a multifunctional coating on bioscaffold surfaces, which may provide insight into its future applications in next-generation artificial bone implants with bacterial/biofilm clearance and bone tissue remodeling capabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2022.112598DOI Listing
August 2022

Y42 in Biofilm and Planktonic States Improves Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Modulates Gut Microbiota of Balb/c Mice.

Foods 2022 May 17;11(10). Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China.

In our previous study, Y42 showed some potential probiotic functions and the ability to form biofilm. The aim of this study was to compare the similarities and differences in the probiotic and physiological traits of Y42 in the biofilm and planktonic states. Y42 in the biofilm state was proven to have higher survival after passing through mimic gastrointestinal fluid, as well as excellent adhesion properties on the HT-29 cell monolayers, than those in the planktonic state. The expression of tight junction proteins (TJ proteins) of HT-29 cell monolayers treated by Y42 in the planktonic state increased, while similar changes were not observed in the HT-29 cells treated by the strain in the biofilm state. Furthermore, Balb/c mice were orally administered Y42 in the biofilm and planktonic states, respectively. Compared to the planktonic state, the oral administration of Y42 in the biofilm state significantly boosted IgA levels and improved the immunity of the mice. High-throughput sequencing showed that the diversity and structure of the intestinal flora of the mice were changed after the oral administration of Y42, including the up-regulated relative abundance of in the intestinal tract of the mice, with no difference between the biofilm and planktonic states. Moreover, oral administration of Y42 in biofilm and planktonic states reduced the release of proinflammatory factors, to a certain extent, in the serum of the mice. The similarities and differences in the probiotic and physiological properties of Y42 in the biofilm and planktonic states can be contributed to the reasonable application of the strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11101451DOI Listing
May 2022

I4 Showed Alleviating Effects on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis of Balb/c Mice.

Foods 2022 May 16;11(10). Epub 2022 May 16.

School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ameliorating effects of three yeast strains, I4, 30 and 11, isolated from traditional fermented dairy food in Xinjiang, China, on the ulcerative colitis symptoms of Balb/c mice treated by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Among which, I4 had good tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal juice and strong adhesion to HT-29 cells monolayers. Furthermore, the three yeast strains were oral administered to Balb/c mice with DSS induced colitis. The weight loss, colon shortening and histological injury of colitis mice were ameliorated. Then, oral administration of I4 improved the immune state by reducing the contents of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β and increasing immunoglobulin. The relative expression of intestinal barrier proteins Claudin-1, Occludin and Zonula Occludins-1 (ZO-1) of the mice enhanced, and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) content such as Propionic acid, Butyric acid, Isobutyric acid and Isovaleric acid in the feces of the mice increased to varying degrees, after I4 treatment compared with the model group of drinking 3% DSS water without yeast treatment. Moreover, I4 treatment lifted the proportion of beneficial bacteria such as Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillaceae and Rikenellaceae in the intestinal tract of the mice, the abundance of harmful bacteria such as and was decreased. These results suggested that I4 could alleviate DSS induced colitis in mice by enhancing intestinal barrier function and regulating intestinal flora balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11101436DOI Listing
May 2022

Effects of ammonia on electrochemical active biofilm in microbial electrolysis cells for synthetic swine wastewater treatment.

Water Res 2022 Jul 8;219:118570. Epub 2022 May 8.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Academy of Ecology and Environment, Tianjin University, No. 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072, PR China. Electronic address:

When facing wastewater with high organic and ammonia, e. g. swine wastewater, microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is emerging for energy extraction as hydrogen and methane. However, the effects of highly concentrated ammonia on MEC haven't been fully evaluated. In this study, single-chamber MECs were operated with acetate and sucrose as substrates under various ammonia concentrations. The current generally increased with ammonia loading from 80 to 3000 mg L. Yet, the substrate consumption in MECs was inhibited with ammonia concentrations above 1000 mg L. As a combined result, the energy recovery efficiency of MECs was stable. The electrochemical activity of anode biofilm reached the peak under 1000 mg L ammonia and was restricted under higher ammonia loadings. Under neutral pH, the NH increases the cell membrane permeability, which benefited the electrochemical activity of exoelectrogens to a proper extent. Nevertheless, the toxic ammonia also accelerated the anode biomass loss and stimulated the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) secretion. Due to the current increase, the abundance of exoelectrogens generally raised with ammonia loading from 80 to 3000 mg L. However, except for anode biomass loss, the carbon and methane metabolism pathways were inhibited in acetate-fed MEC, while the glycolysis acted as the rate-limiting step for substrate degradation in sucrose-fed conditions. This study systematically examined the influences of high ammonia loading on MEC performances, bio-community and anode electrochemical activities, and evaluated practical feasibility and application inch of MECs for the energy recovery and pollutant removal of high concentration organic and ammonia wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2022.118570DOI Listing
July 2022

Effects of alkali and alkaline earth metal species on the combustion characteristics and synergistic effects: Sewage sludge and its blend with coal.

Waste Manag 2022 Jun 16;146:119-129. Epub 2022 May 16.

MIIT Key Laboratory of Thermal Control of Electronic Equipment, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu, China; Advanced Combustion Laboratory, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu, China.

A large amount of alkali and alkaline earth metal species (AAEMs) are contained in sewage sludge (SS) ash, which will affect the combustion characteristics and synergistic effects of the co-combustion of SS and coal. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of K, Ca, Na and Mg on combustion characteristics and synergistic effects of the blend of SS and coal by TGA and single particle combustion methods. The ash-free sludge (AS), impregnated AS and the blends of AS and bituminous coal (BC) were prepared. A high speed camera was used to record the combustion process, which were processed to calculate the ignition delay time, burnout time and combustion temperature. The synergistic effect of co-combustion process was studied by comparing the experimental results with the theoretical calculation results. The synergistic effects main occur at 350-530 °C and the blends of AS and BC with 2 wt% Na has the strongest strength of synergistic effects. The K, Ca and Na are conducive to the shorter ignition delay time, burnout time, higher combustion temperature and stronger synergistic effects of the blends. However, Mg will increase the delay time and reduce the combustion temperature of char of the blends. There are optimal concentrations of AAEMs on the promotion of combustion and synergistic effects, and too high concentrations of AAEMs will have negative impacts. K and Na (alkali metals) have stronger promotion effects than Ca and Mg (alkaline earth metals) on combustion of volatiles and synergistic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2022.05.005DOI Listing
June 2022

Explainable artificial intelligence-based edge fuzzy images for COVID-19 detection and identification.

Appl Soft Comput 2022 Jul 13;123:108966. Epub 2022 May 13.

Graduate Program on Teleinformatics Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza/CE, Brazil.

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc on the world's population's health and well-being. Successful screening of infected patients is a critical step in the fight against it, with radiology examination using chest radiography being one of the most important screening methods. For the definitive diagnosis of COVID-19 disease, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction remains the gold standard. Currently available lab tests may not be able to detect all infected individuals; new screening methods are required. We propose a Multi-Input Transfer Learning COVID-Net fuzzy convolutional neural network to detect COVID-19 instances from torso X-ray, motivated by the latter and the open-source efforts in this research area. Furthermore, we use an explainability method to investigate several Convolutional Networks COVID-Net forecasts in an effort to not only gain deeper insights into critical factors associated with COVID-19 instances, but also to aid clinicians in improving screening. We show that using transfer learning and pre-trained models, we can detect it with a high degree of accuracy. Using X-ray images, we chose four neural networks to predict its probability. Finally, in order to achieve better results, we considered various methods to verify the techniques proposed here. As a result, we were able to create a model with an AUC of 1.0 and accuracy, precision, and recall of 0.97. The model was quantized for use in Internet of Things devices and maintained a 0.95 percent accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2022.108966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9102011PMC
July 2022

Circulating Glycan Monosaccharide Composite-Based Biomarker Diagnoses Colorectal Cancer at Early Stages and Predicts Prognosis.

Front Oncol 2022 29;12:852044. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Systems Biology & Medicine Center for Complex Diseases, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Introduction: Early diagnosis could lead to a cure of colorectal cancer (CRC). Since CRC is related to aging and lifestyles, we tested if the environmental information-enriched monosaccharide composite (MC) of circulating glycans could serve as an early diagnostic biomarker for CRC. Meanwhile, we evaluated its role in predicting prognosis.

Methods: HPAEC-PAD was used to quantify glycan monosaccharide compositions from a total of 467 serum samples including CRC patients, colorectal adenoma (CRA) patients and healthy individuals. Two diagnostic model was constructed by logistic regression analysis. The diagnostic performance of the two models was verified in the retrospective validation group and the prospective validation group. The prognostic performance of the model was assessed by survival analysis.

Results: The concentrations of monosaccharides in serum were significantly higher in CRA and CRC patients than in healthy individuals. Two diagnostic models were constructed: MC1 was used to distinguish between healthy individuals and CRC; MC2 was used to distinguish between healthy individuals and CRA. Area under receptor operating characteristic curve (AUC) of MC2 and MC1 was 0.8025 and 0.9403 respectively. However, the AUC of CEA between healthy individuals and CRC was 0.7384. Moreover, in early stage of CRC (without lymph node metastasis), the positive rates of CEA and MC1 were 28% and 80%, respectively. The follow-up data showed that the increased MC1 value was associated with poor survival in patients with CRC (=0.0010, HR=5.30).

Discussion: The MC1 model is superior to CEA in the diagnosis of CRC, especially in the early diagnosis. MC1 can be used for predicting prognosis of CRC patients, and elevated MC1 values indicate poor survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.852044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9099097PMC
April 2022

Comparative Study of Algal Responses and Adaptation Capability to Ultraviolet Radiation with Different Nutrient Regimes.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 04 30;19(9). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

School of Environmental Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167, China.

Frequent outbreaks of harmful algal blooms (HABs) represent one of the most serious outcomes of eutrophication, and light radiation plays a critical role in the succession of species. Therefore, a better understanding of the impact of light radiation is essential for mitigating HABs. In this study, and non-toxic and toxic were mono-cultured and co-cultured to explore algal responses under different nutrient regimes. Comparisons were made according to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), UV-B radiation exerted oxidative stresses, and negative effects on the photosynthesis and growth of three species under normal growth conditions, and algal adaptive responses included extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, the regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, photosynthetic pigments synthesis, etc. Three species had strain-specific responses to UV-B radiation and toxic was more tolerant and showed a higher adaptation capability to UV-B in the mono-cultures, including the lower sensitivity and better self-repair efficiency. In addition to stable μ in PAR ad UV-B treatments, higher EPS production and enhanced production of photosynthetic pigments under UV-B radiation, toxic showed a better recovery of its photosynthetic efficiency. Nutrient enrichment alleviated the negative effects of UV-B radiation on three species, and the growth of toxic was comparable between PAR and UV-B treatment. In the co-cultures with nutrient enrichment, gradually outcompeted in the PAR treatment and UV-B treatment enhanced the growth advantages of , when toxic showed a greater competitiveness. Overall, our study indicated the adaptation of typical algal species to ambient UV-B radiation and the stronger competitive ability of toxic in the UV-radiated waters with severer eutrophication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9104955PMC
April 2022

Magnetic Nanobubble Mechanical Stress Induces the Piezo1-Ca -BMP2/Smad Pathway to Modulate Neural Stem Cell Fate and MRI/Ultrasound Dual Imaging Surveillance for Ischemic Stroke.

Small 2022 Jun 12;18(23):e2201123. Epub 2022 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, P. R. China.

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are used to treat various nervous system diseases because of their self-renewal ability and multidirectional differentiation potential. However, an insufficient ability to track their migration in vivo and poor control over their survival and differentiation efficiency are two major critical challenges for clinical application. Here, it is shown that when magnetic nanobubbles (MNBs), which are assembled from magnetic nanoparticles, are internalized by NSCs, intramembrane volumetric oscillation of the MNBs induces an increase in intracellular hydrostatic pressure and cytoskeleton force, resulting in the activation of the Piezo1-Ca mechanosensory channel. This subsequently triggers the BMP2/Smad biochemical signaling pathway, leading to differentiation of NSCs into the neuronal phenotype. Signaling through the Piezo1-Ca -BMP2/Smad pathway can be further accelerated by application of an external shear stress force using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. More importantly, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound imaging surveillance of NSCs based on MNB labeling can be leveraged to provide NSC therapeutic outcomes. Both the in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that a bubble nanostructure-induced physical force can modulate and control the mechanical signaling pathway regulating stem cell development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202201123DOI Listing
June 2022

Third-order optical nonlinearities of zinc porphyrins accommodated in the cavity of a doughnut-like molybdenum crown cluster.

Dalton Trans 2022 May 24;51(20):7966-7974. Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Chemistry, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

In this paper, three zinc porphyrins bearing carboxyl, amino or hydroxyl groups on the porphyrin ring, namely, 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) zinc porphyrin (ZnTCPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl) zinc porphyrin (ZnTHPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-aminophenyl) zinc porphyrin (ZnTAPP), reacted with the doughnut-like molybdenum crown cluster [(MoO)(HO)(CHOH)H] (denoted as {Mo}), resulting in the formation of three porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrids (denoted as hybrids 1-3), respectively, with the ratio of {Mo} to the porphyrin molecules in each compound being 1 : 3. Compared with the corresponding parent porphyrins, the fluorescence quenching efficiency of hybrid 1, hybrid 2 and hybrid 3 was found to be 51%, 58% and 66%, respectively, indicating electron/energy transfer occurring from the porphyrin moiety to the POM moiety. -Scan experimental results showed that the three porphyrins and hybrids 1-3 exhibited nonlinear reverse saturated absorption and self-defocusing properties. The molecular second hyperpolarizability () values of hybrids 1-3 (7.38 × 10, 7.26 × 10 and 4.26 × 10 (esu)) are higher than those of the corresponding porphyrins (1.18 × 10, 1.34 × 10 and 1.36 × 10 (esu)), indicating that the doughnut-like molybdenum crown cluster in the hybrids 1-3 improved the third-order optical nonlinearities of the accommodated H-aggregate of the zinc porphyrin molecules, wherein the optical nonlinearities of the porphyrin with the electron-withdrawing functional group of -COOH ( = 7.38 × 10 for hybrid 1. = 1.18 × 10 for ZnTCPP) were enhanced the most. In addition, studies on the optical limiting properties of hybrid 1 and hybrid 2 showed that the nonlinear attenuation factor (NAF) of both hybrid 1 and hybrid 2 was larger than that of their corresponding porphyrins (NAF = 5.65 for hybrid 1 1.82 for ZnTCPP) and the limiting threshold of hybrid 1 and hybrid 2 can reach 0.3 J cm and 0.32 J cm, which proved that hybrids 1 and 2 are potential optical limiting materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2dt00367hDOI Listing
May 2022

Clinical and pathological predictors of relapse in IgG4-related disease.

Arthritis Res Ther 2022 05 11;24(1):106. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Rheumatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: In IgG4-related disease, the relationship between pathological findings and relapse has not been well established. This study aimed to identify the clinical and pathological predictors of disease relapse in IgG4-RD.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed IgG4-RD (n = 71) were enrolled between January 2011 and April 2020; all cases were pathologically confirmed. The clinical and pathological features were recorded in a database at baseline and each follow-up visit. Patients were followed up at least once a month via outpatient clinic examinations and telephone calls. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis were used to identify the predictors of disease relapse and to assess their predictive value.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 26 (range, 6-123) months, 3/71 (4.2%) patients died. Of the remaining 68 patients, 47 (69.1%) patients had achieved clinical remission and 21 (30.9%) had suffered relapse at the last follow-up. The independent predictors of relapse were IgG4 ≥ 6.5 g/L (HR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.11-7.23), IgG ≥ 20.8 g/L (HR = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.53-11.06), IgG4-RD responder index (RI) ≥ 9 (HR = 3.82, 95% CI: 1.28-11.37), and severe IgG4 plasma cell infiltration (HR = 6.32, 95% CI: 1.79-22.41). A prognostic score developed using three of the identified predictors (IgG ≥ 20.8 g/L, IgG4-RD RI ≥ 9, and severe IgG4 plasma cell infiltration) showed good value for predicting impending relapse (AUC, 0.806).

Conclusions: In patients with IgG4-RD, IgG4 ≥ 6.5 g/L, IgG ≥ 20.8 g/L, IgG4-RD responder index (RI) ≥ 9, and severe IgG4 plasma cell infiltration are predictors of relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-022-02792-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9092827PMC
May 2022

Molecular clusters played an important role in the adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on carbonaceous materials.

Chemosphere 2022 Sep 5;302:134772. Epub 2022 May 5.

Yunnan Provincial Key Lab of Soil Carbon Sequestration and Pollution Control, Faculty of Environmental Science & Engineering, Kunming University of Science & Technology, Kunming, 650500, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most frequently detected hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in the environment. They may form clusters because of the strong hydrophobic and π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions among PAHs molecules. However, previous experimental studies and theoretical simulations generally ignored the impact of molecular clusters on the adsorption, which may result in the misunderstanding of the environmental fate and risk. In this work, naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) were selected to investigate intermolecular interaction as well as the consequent impact on their adsorption on graphene. The density field of C atoms in equilibrium configurations of self-interacted PAHs suggested that the formation of PAHs molecular clusters was a spontaneous process, and was favored in solvents with stronger polarity and for PAHs with more benzene rings. It should be noted that the molecular dynamics simulations with the initial state of molecular clusters matched better with the published experimental results compared with those of individual PAHs. The formed compact PAHs clusters in polar solvents increased the apparent PAHs adsorption, because of their higher hydrophobic and π-π EDA interactions. This study emphasized that the self-interaction of PAHs should be carefully considered in both experimental and theoretical simulation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134772DOI Listing
September 2022

Warming/cooling effect of cropland expansion during the 1900s ~ 2010s in the Heilongjiang Province, Northeast of China.

Int J Biometeorol 2022 Jul 28;66(7):1379-1390. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Heilongjiang Province Key Laboratory of Cold Region Wetland Ecology and Environment Research, Harbin University, Harbin, 150086, China.

Land cover change (LCC) significantly changed the local/regional temperature. This paper attempts to reveal the effects of cropland expansion in different ways on temperature change from the 1900s to 2010s in Heilongjiang Province. To reach this goal, we conducted four simulation research schemes with the coupled Weather Research and Forecast (WRF)-Noah model to investigate the warming/cooling effect of cropland expansion. The results show that cropland expansion exerted different effects with different land-use type conversions. In the last century, the areas with grassland-to-cropland and wetland-to-cropland transition show the warming effect, and the average surface temperature in Heilongjiang Province increased by 0.023 ℃ and 0.024 ℃, respectively. The areas with forest-to-cropland transition show the cooling effect, in which the average temperature decreased by 0.103 ℃. The variation of air temperature is mainly caused by the variation of surface reflectance and surface net radiation flux. The results provide evidence that cropland expansion changes to biophysical landscape characteristics, warming/cooling the land surface and thus enhancing/reducing the temperature, and lead to regional climate change eventually.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-022-02283-5DOI Listing
July 2022

Morphological transitions of micelles induced by the block arrangements of copolymer blocks: dissipative particle dynamics simulation.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 11;24(18):10757-10764. Epub 2022 May 11.

Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Green Chemical Product Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Polymer micelles with distinct morphologies and unique microphase separation microstructures can exhibit different properties and functions, holding great promise for a range of biomedical applications. In the current work, the topological effects of grafted triblock copolymers on the morphologies and microphase separation microstructures of micelles, including block arrangements and grafting arrangements of hydrophobic side chains, are systematically studied. Using common copolymer components of typical drug carriers, micelles with interesting geometries are achieved, such as raspberry, multicompartment, ellipsoidal and dumbbell shapes, in which the relationship between micelle morphology and copolymer topology is verified. With further exploration of the grafting position and amount of hydrophobic side chains, the microstructure influencing mechanism of copolymer micelles in self-assembly is discussed. The block arrangements of hydrophobic side chains determine the configurations of copolymers (zigzag/bridge) inside micelles, which in turn affect the morphological transitions (from spherical to ringed short-rods and then to cylinders) and the size of the hydrophobic ring, which further gradually change into hydrophobic cage. This study provides insight into the microstructure of hydrophobic side chain grafted copolymer micelles and further helps to understand the mechanism of controlling the morphology of micelles, which might be useful to guide the molecular design and experimental preparation of micelles with controllable morphology for drug encapsulation and delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp00617kDOI Listing
May 2022

Binary Binder for Cf/C-SiC Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Property.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Apr 8;15(8). Epub 2022 Apr 8.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China.

Cf/C-SiC composites have become the preferred material for high-temperature load-bearing applications because of their low density, high strength, and excellent thermal-physical properties. Due to the composite's poor sintering performance, the sintering temperature and pressure required for the preparation of Cf/C-SiC by traditional methods are also relatively high, which limits its engineering application. Herein, based on the precursor-derived ceramic route and C/C composites material preparation process, a binary binder (coal pitch and polysilylacetylene) is developed, which combines a carbon source, SiC precursor, and semi-ceramic SiC filler organically. Then, the SiC phase was successfully introduced into C/C composites by the slurry impregnation-hot pressing sintering method. The prepared Cf/C-SiC composites showed good mechanical properties, with a density of 1.53 g/cm and a bending strength of 339 ± 21 MPa. Moreover, the effects of the binary binder on the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of Cf/C-SiC composites were investigated. This work provides a novel and effective approach to fabricating Cf/C-SiC composites with low density and high strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15082757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9030504PMC
April 2022
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