Publications by authors named "Liisa Lilja-Maula"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Matrix metalloproteinase-2, -7, and -9 activities in dogs with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared to healthy dogs and dogs with other respiratory diseases.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jan 4;35(1):462-471. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a chronic, interstitial lung disease that mainly affects West Highland white terriers (WHWTs) and is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the lung. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in remodeling of ECM.

Objectives: To compare metalloproteinase-2, -7 and -9 activities in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples or both of CIPF WHWTs with healthy WHWTs, healthy dogs of other breeds, and dogs with other lung diseases and determine if these MMPs could be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers for CIPF.

Animals: Forty-four CIPF WHWTs, 24 dogs with chronic bronchitis (CB), 17 with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP), 10 with bacterial pneumonia, 39 healthy WHWTs, and 35 healthy dogs of other breeds.

Methods: Cross-sectional observational study. Pro-MMP and active MMP activities were analyzed by zymography.

Results: In serum, significantly higher (P < .01) pro-MMP-7 activities were observed in CIPF WHWTs compared to healthy dogs of other breeds, dogs with CB and dogs with EBP. In BALF of CIPF WHWTs, both pro-MMP-9 and pro-MMP-2 activities were significantly higher (P < .01) compared to healthy WHWTs, but these differences were not detected in plasma. The CIPF WHWTs had significantly higher (P < .05) activities of pro-MMP-9 compared to dogs with CB and of pro-MMP-2 compared to dogs with CB and EBP. No statistically significant prognostic factors were observed in CIPF WHWTs.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Serum MMP-7 and BALF MMP-2 and -9 potentially may be useful diagnostic markers but not prognostic markers for CIPF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848316PMC
January 2021

Thoracic high resolution CT using the modified VetMousetrap™ device is a feasible method for diagnosing canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in awake West Highland White Terriers.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2019 Sep 7;60(5):525-532. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease particularly prevalent in West Highland White Terriers. In the present prospective pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility of modified VetMousetrap™ device in high resolution CT to detect idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland White Terriers. Twelve awake West Highland White Terriers with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 24 clinically healthy West Highland White Terriers were scanned using a helical dual slice scanner utilizing VetMousetrap™ device without or with minimal chemical restraint with butorphanol. Three evaluators blindly assessed the images for image quality and the presence of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis related imaging findings such as ground glass opacity and reticular opacities. Additionally, the attenuation of the lung was quantified with ImageJ software using histogram analysis of density over the lung fields. Computed tomography was successfully completed and motion artifact ranked in statistical analysis barely noticeable to mild in all dogs. The agreement between imaging findings and clinical status was very good with overall κ value 0.91 and percentage of agreement of 94%. There was also very good intraobserver (κ = 0.79-0.91) and interobserver agreement (κ = 0.94). Moderate to severe ground glass opacity was present in all affected dogs. In the ImageJ analysis, a significant difference in lung attenuation between the study groups was observed. We conclude that modified VetMousetrap™ device is applicable in diagnosing canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in awake West Highland White Terriers avoiding anesthetic risk in these often severely hypoxic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12779DOI Listing
September 2019

Skin and ear health in a group of English bulldogs in Finland - a descriptive study with special reference to owner perceptions.

Vet Dermatol 2019 Aug 29;30(4):307-e85. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Viikintie 49, 00790, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Dermatological conditions are common in English bulldogs (EBs).

Hypothesis/objectives: This cross-sectional study describes the dermatological health status of a group of EBs and compares the results with owner perceptions and its possible impact on quality of life (QoL). Computed tomographic (CT) findings of the ear canals were compared between EBs and mesaticephalic dogs.

Animals: Twenty-seven EBs participating in a health study in Finland.

Methods And Materials: A QoL questionnaire was completed for EBs with owner-reported clinical signs referable to the skin or ear. Clinical evaluation included recording the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index, the Otitis Index Score, false paw pad grading and the presence of interdigital furunculosis. These were summed to form a total clinical score (TCS). The cross-sectional surface areas of the horizontal ear canals were measured from CT images and compared with respective images of 14 mesaticephalic dogs collected from a patient database.

Results: All 27 EBs had abnormal findings on dermatological examination, but 37% of the owners had not recognized skin or ear signs. The median QoL score was 5.0 (range 0-12) and correlated with TCS (correlation coefficient = 0.507, P < 0.05). English bulldogs had narrower horizontal ear canals than mesaticephalic dogs (P < 0.001).

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: All EBs had abnormal dermatological findings that were unnoticed or considered to be of minor significance to the QoL by most owners. Narrow ear canals were common, possibly related to the brachycephalic conformation of the breed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850660PMC
August 2019

Reflux aspiration in lungs of dogs with respiratory disease and in healthy West Highland White Terriers.

J Vet Intern Med 2018 Nov 12;32(6):2074-2081. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Gastroesophageal reflux and microaspiration (MA) of gastric juice are associated with various human respiratory diseases but not in dogs.

Objective: To detect the presence of bile acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of dogs with various respiratory diseases.

Animals: Twenty-seven West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs) with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF), 11 dogs with bacterial pneumonia (BP), 13 with chronic bronchitis (CB), 9 with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP), 19 with laryngeal dysfunction (LD), 8 Irish Wolfhounds (IWHs) with previous BPs, 13 healthy WHWTs, all privately owned dogs, and 6 healthy research colony Beagles METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional observational study with convenience sampling of dogs. Bile acids were measured by mass spectrometry in BALF samples. Total bile acid (TBA) concentration was calculated as a sum of 17 different bile acids.

Results: Concentrations of TBA were above the limit of quantification in 78% of CIPF, 45% of BP, 62% of CB, 44% of EBP, 68% of LD, and 13% of IWH dogs. In healthy dogs, bile acids were detected less commonly in Beagles (0/6) than in healthy WHWTs (10/13). Concentrations of TBA were significantly higher in CIPF (median 0.013 μM, range not quantifiable [n.q.]-0.14 μM, P < .001), healthy WHWTs (0.0052 μM, n.q.-1.2 μM, P = .003), LD (0.010 μM, n.q.-2.3 μM, P = .015), and CB (0.0078 μM, n.q.-0.073 μM, P = .018) groups compared to Beagles (0 μM, n.q.).

Conclusion And Clinical Importance: These results suggest that MA occurs in various respiratory diseases of dogs and also in healthy WHWTs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6271311PMC
November 2018

Comparison of submaximal exercise test results and severity of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in English bulldogs.

Vet J 2017 Jan 6;219:22-26. Epub 2016 Dec 6.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Canine brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is a complex respiratory disease related to congenitally flattened facial and skull anatomy. BOAS causes respiratory distress, heat and exercise intolerance, and gastrointestinal signs. English bulldogs (EB) have a high prevalence of BOAS. Currently, the severity of BOAS signs in veterinary practice is assessed subjectively. To reduce BOAS in brachycephalic breeds, an objective and easy-to-use tool could help breeders select healthier animals. Exercise tests, such as the 6 min walk test (distance walked measured) or the 1000 m walk test (duration measured), could be used to assess the severity of BOAS, as exercise intolerance and impaired recovery are key features of BOAS. This study evaluated the severity of signs and anatomic components of BOAS in a group of prospectively recruited young adult EBs (n = 28) and investigated the correlations of the 6 min walk test or the 1000 m walk test with a veterinary assessment of BOAS severity, using an ordinal 4 level scale of respiratory signs. EBs with more severe BOAS walked a shorter distance, more slowly and their recovery from exercise took longer than those with only mild signs of BOAS. Control dogs of different breeds (n = 10) performed the exercise tests significantly better (i.e. longer distance, faster time and recovery) than EBs. Increases in body temperature during exercise were significantly higher in EBs than in controls. The results of this study support the use of exercise tests for objective evaluation of the severity of BOAS in EBs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2016.11.019DOI Listing
January 2017

Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from West Highland White Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, dogs with chronic bronchitis, and healthy dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2013 Jan;74(1):148-54

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: To evaluate protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from West Highland White Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), dogs with chronic bronchitis, and healthy control dogs to identify potential biomarkers for IPF.

Samples: BALF samples obtained from 6 West Highland White Terriers with histologically confirmed IPF, 5 dogs with chronic bronchitis, and 4 healthy Beagles.

Procedures: Equal amounts of proteins in concentrated BALF samples were separated via 2-D differential gel electrophoresis. Proteins that were differentially expressed relative to results for healthy control dogs were identified with mass spectrometry and further verified via western blotting.

Results: Expression of 6 proteins was upregulated and that of 1 protein was downregulated in dogs with IPF or chronic bronchitis, compared with results for healthy dogs. Expression of proteins β-actin, complement C3, α-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A-1, haptoglobin, and transketolase was upregulated, whereas expression of lysozyme C was downregulated.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Proteomics can be used to search for biomarkers and to reveal disease-specific mechanisms. The quantitative comparison of proteomes for BALF obtained from dogs with IPF and chronic bronchitis and healthy dogs revealed similar changes for the dogs with IPF and chronic bronchitis, which suggested a common response to disease processes in otherwise different lung diseases. Specific biomarkers for IPF were not identified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.74.1.148DOI Listing
January 2013
-->