Publications by authors named "Liis Loorits"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nitric oxide for anammox recovery in a nitrite-inhibited deammonification system.

Environ Technol 2015 27;36(19):2477-87. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

a Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu , 14a Ravila St., 50411 Tartu , Estonia.

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is widely used for N-rich wastewater treatment. In the current research the deammonification reactor in a reverse order (first anammox, then the nitrifying biofilm cultivation) was started up with a high maximum N removal rate (1.4 g N m(-2) d(-1)) in a moving bed biofilm reactor. Cultivated biofilm total nitrogen removal rates were accelerated the most by anammox intermediate - nitric oxide (optimum 58 mg NO-N L(-1)) addition. Furthermore, NO was added in order to eliminate inhibition caused by nitrite concentrations (>50 mg [Formula: see text]) increasing [Formula: see text] (2/1, respectively) along with a higher ratio of [Formula: see text] (0.6/1, respectively) than stoichiometrical for this optimal NO amount added during batch tests. Planctomycetales clone P4 sequences, which was the closest (98% and 99% similarity, respectively) relative to Candidatus Brocadia fulgida sequences quantities increase to 1 × 10(6) anammox gene copies g(-1) total suspended solids to till day 650 were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2015.1034791DOI Listing
September 2016

Start-up of low-temperature anammox in UASB from mesophilic yeast factory anaerobic tank inoculum.

Environ Technol 2015 Jan-Feb;36(1-4):214-25. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

a Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu , 14a Ravila Rd., Tartu 50411 , Estonia.

Robust start-up of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process from non-anammox-specific seeding material was achieved by using an inoculation with sludge-treating industrial [Formula: see text]-, organics- and N-rich yeast factory wastewater. N-rich reject water was treated at 20°C, which is significantly lower than optimum treatment temperature. Increasing the frequency of biomass fluidization (from 1-2 times per day to 4-5 times per day) through feeding the reactor with higher flow rate resulted in an improved total nitrogen removal rate (from 100 to 500 g m(-3)d(-1)) and increased anammox bacteria activity. As a result of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, uncultured planctomycetes clone 07260064(4)-2-M13-_A01 (GenBank: JX852965) was identified from the biomass taken from the reactor. The presence of anammox bacteria after cultivation in the reactor was confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR); an increase in quantity up to ∼2×10(6) copies g VSS(-1) during operation could be seen in qPCR. Statistical modelling of chemical parameters revealed the roles of several optimized parameters needed for a stable process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2014.941946DOI Listing
September 2015

Comparison of sulfate-reducing and conventional Anammox upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

J Biosci Bioeng 2014 Oct 23;118(4):426-33. Epub 2014 May 23.

Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, 14a Ravila St., 50411 Tartu, Estonia.

Autotrophic NH4(+) removal has been extensively researched, but few studies have investigated alternative electron acceptors (for example, SO4(2-)) in NH4(+) oxidation. In this study, sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (SRAO) and conventional Anammox were started up in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBRs) at 36 (±0.5)°C and 20 (±0.5)°C respectively, using reject water as a source of NH4(+). SO4(2-) or NO2(-), respectively, were applied as electron acceptors. It was assumed that higher temperature could promote the SRAO, partly compensating its thermodynamic disadvantage comparing with the conventional Anammox to achieve comparable total nitrogen (TN) removal rate. Average volumetric NH4(+)-N removal rate in the sulfate-reducing UASBR1 was however 5-6 times less (0.03 kg-N/(m(3) day)) than in the UASBR2 performing conventional nitrite-dependent autotrophic nitrogen removal (0.17 kg-N/(m(3) day)). However, the stoichiometric ratio of NH4(+) removal in UASBR1 was significantly higher than could be expected from the extent of SO4(2-) reduction, possibly due to interactions between the N- and S-compounds and organic matter of the reject water. Injections of N2H4 and NH2OH accelerated the SRAO. Similar effect was observed in batch tests with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). For detection of key microorganisms PCR-DGGE was used. From both UASBRs, uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1929 belonging to the order Verrucomicrobiales, Anammox bacteria (uncultured Planctomycete clone Pla_PO55-9) and aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (uncultured sludge bacterium clone ASB08 "Nitrosomonas") were detected. Nevertheless the SRAO process was shown to be less effective for the treatment of reject water, compared to the conventional Anammox.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.03.012DOI Listing
October 2014

Nitritating-anammox biomass tolerant to high dissolved oxygen concentration and C/N ratio in treatment of yeast factory wastewater.

Environ Technol 2014 May-Jun;35(9-12):1565-76

Maintaining stability of low concentration (< 1 g L(-1)) floccular biomass in the nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for the treatment of high COD (> 15,000 mg O2 L(-1)) to N (1680 mg N L(-1)) ratio real wastewater streams coming from the food industry is challenging. The anammox process was suitable for the treatment of yeast factory wastewater containing relatively high and abruptly increased organic C/N ratio and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. Maximum specific total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) loading and removal rates applied were 600 and 280 mg N g(-1) VSS d(-1), respectively. Average TIN removal efficiency over the operation period of 270 days was 70%. Prior to simultaneous reduction of high organics (total organic carbon > 600mg L(-1)) and N concentrations > 400 mg L(-1), hydraulic retention time of 15 h and DO concentrations of 3.18 (+/- 1.73) mg O2 L(-1) were applied. Surprisingly, higher DO concentrations did not inhibit the anammox process efficiency demonstrating a wider application of cultivated anammox biomass. The SBR was fed rapidly over 5% of the cycle time at 50% volumetric exchange ratio. It maintained high free ammonia concentration, suppressing growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Partial least squares and response surface modelling revealed two periods of SBR operation and the SBR performances change at different periods with different total nitrogen (TN) loadings. Anammox activity tests showed yeast factory-specific organic N compound-betaine and inorganic N simultaneous biodegradation. Among other microorganisms determined by pyrosequencing, anammox microorganism (uncultured Planctomycetales bacterium clone P4) was determined by polymerase chain reaction also after applying high TN loading rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.874492DOI Listing
May 2014

Deammonification process start-up after enrichment of anammox microorganisms from reject water in a moving-bed biofilm reactor.

Environ Technol 2013 Nov-Dec;34(21-24):3095-101

Deammonification via intermittent aeration in biofilm process for the treatment of sewage sludge digester supernatant (reject water) was started up using two opposite strategies. Two moving-bed biofilm reactors were operated for 2.5 years at 26 (+/- 0.5 degree C with spiked influent(and hence free ammonia (FA)) addition. In the first start-up strategy, an enrichment of anammox biomass was first established, followed by the development of nitrifying biomass in the system (R1). In contrast, the second strategy aimed at the enrichment of anammox organisms into a nitrifying biofilm (R2). The first strategy was most successful, reaching higher maximum total nitrogen (TN) removal rates over a shorter start-up period. For both reactors, increasing FA spiking frequency and increasing effluent concentrations of the anammox intermediate hydrazine correlated to decreasing aerobic nitrate production (nitritation). The bacterial consortium of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor was determined via denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. In addition to a shorter start-up with a better TN removal rate, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) were outcompeted by spiked ammonium feeding from R1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.803134DOI Listing
April 2014

Effect of HCO3- concentration on anammox nitrogen removal rate in a moving bed biofilm reactor.

Environ Technol 2012 Oct-Nov;33(19-21):2263-71

Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Anammox biomass enriched in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) fed by actual sewage sludge reject water and synthetically added NO2- was used to study the total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of the anammox process depending on bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration. MBBR performance resulted in the maximum TN removal rate of 1100 g N m(-3) d(-1) when the optimum HCO3- concentration (910 mg L(-1)) was used. The average reaction ratio of NO2- removal, NO3- production and NH4+ removal were 1.18/0.20/1. When the HCO3- concentration was increased to 1760mg L(-1) the TN removal rate diminished to 270 g N m(-3) d(-1). The process recovered from bicarbonate inhibition within 1 week. The batch tests performed with biomass taken from the MBBR showed that for the HCO3- concentration of 615 mg L(-1) the TN removal rate was 3.3 mg N L(-1) h(-1), whereas for both lower (120 mg L(-1)) and higher (5750 mg L(-1)) HCO3- concentrations the TN removal rates were 2.3 (+/- 0.15) and 1.6 (+/- 0.12) mg N L(-1) d(-1), respectively. PCR and DGGE analyses resulted in the detection of uncultured Planctomycetales bacterium clone P4 and, surprisingly, low-oxygen-tolerant aerobic ammonia oxidizers. The ability of anammox bacteria for mixotrophy was established by diminished amounts of nitrate produced when comparing the experiments with an organic carbon source and an inorganic carbon source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2012.665487DOI Listing
March 2013

Anammox enrichment from reject water on blank biofilm carriers and carriers containing nitrifying biomass: operation of two moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR).

Biodegradation 2012 Jul 5;23(4):547-60. Epub 2012 Feb 5.

Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, 14a Ravila St., 50411, Tartu, Estonia.

The anammox bacteria were enriched from reject water of anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge onto moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system carriers-the ones initially containing no biomass (MBBR1) as well as the ones containing nitrifying biomass (MBBR2). Duration of start-up periods of the both reactors was similar (about 100 days), but stable total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency occurred earlier in the system containing nitrifying biomass. Anammox TN removal efficiency of 70% was achieved by 180 days in both 20 l volume reactors at moderate temperature of 26.0°C. During the steady state phase of operation of MBBRs the average TN removal efficiencies and maximum TN removal rates in MBBR1 were 80% (1,000 g-N/m(3)/day, achieved by 308 days) and in MBBR2 85% (1,100 g-N/m(3)/day, achieved by 266 days). In both reactors mixed bacterial cultures were detected. Uncultured Planctomycetales bacterium clone P4, Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii and uncultured Nitrospira sp. clone 53 were identified by PCR-DGGE from the system initially containing blank biofilm carriers as well as from the nitrifying biofilm system; from the latter in addition to these also uncultured ammonium oxidizing bacterium clone W1 and Nitrospira sp. clone S1-62 were detected. FISH analysis revealed that anammox microorganisms were located in clusters in the biofilm. Using previously grown nitrifying biofilm matrix for anammox enrichment has some benefits over starting up the process from zero, such as less time for enrichment and protection against severe inhibitions in case of high substrate loading rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-011-9532-7DOI Listing
July 2012

Sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation as a potential treatment method for high nitrogen-content wastewater.

Biodegradation 2012 Jul 29;23(4):509-24. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, 14a Ravila Street, 50411, Tartu, Estonia.

After sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation (SRAO) was first assumed in 2001, several works have been published describing this process in laboratory-scale bioreactors or occurring in the nature. In this paper, the SRAO process was performed using reject water as a substrate for microorganisms and a source of NH(4) (+), with SO(4) (2-) being added as an electron acceptor. At a moderate temperature of 20°C in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) sulfate reduction along with ammonium oxidation were established. In an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) the SRAO process took place at 36°C. Average volumetric TN removal rates of 0.03 kg-N/m³/day in the MBBR and 0.04 kg-N/m³/day in the UASBR were achieved, with long-term moderate average removal efficiencies, respectively. Uncultured bacteria clone P4 and uncultured planctomycete clone Amx-PAn30 were detected from the biofilm of the MBBR, from sludge of the UASBR uncultured Verrucomicrobiales bacterium clone De2102 and Uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1929 were found also. The stoichiometrical ratio of NH(4) (+) removal was significantly higher than could be expected from the extent of SO(4) (2-) reduction. This phenomenon can primarily be attributed to complex interactions between nitrogen and sulfur compounds and organic matter present in the wastewater. The high NH(4) (+) removal ratio can be attributed to sulfur-utilizing denitrification/denitritation providing the evidence that SRAO is occurring independently and is not a result of sulfate reduction and anammox. HCO(3) (-) concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/l were found to have an inhibiting effect on the SRAO process. Small amounts of hydrazine were naturally present in the reaction medium, indicating occurrence of the anammox process. Injections of anammox intermediates, hydrazine and hydroxylamine, had a positive effect on SRAO process performance, particularly in the case of the UASBR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-011-9529-2DOI Listing
July 2012
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