Publications by authors named "Lifeng Wang"

357 Publications

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transfusion in immune non-responders with AIDS: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Jun 9;6(1):217. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Treatment and Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

We examined the safety and efficacy of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUC-MSC) infusion for immune non-responder (INR) patients with chronic HIV-1 infection, who represent an unmet medical need even in the era of efficient antiretroviral therapy (ART). Seventy-two INR patients with HIV were enrolled in this phase II randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, placebo-controlled, dose-determination trial (NCT01213186) from May 2013 to March 2016. They were assigned to receive high-dose (1.5 × 10/kg body weight) or low-dose (0.5 × 10/kg body weight) hUC-MSC, or placebo. Their clinical and immunological parameters were monitored during the 96-week follow-up study. We found that hUC-MSC treatment was safe and well-tolerated. Compared with baseline, there was a statistical increase in CD4+ T counts in the high-dose (P < 0.001) and low-dose (P < 0.001) groups after 48-week treatment, but no change was observed in the control group. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher cumulative probability of achieving an immunological response in the low-dose group compared with the control group (95.8% vs. 70.8%, P = 0.004). However, no significant changes in CD4/CD8+ T counts and CD4/CD8 ratios were observed among the three groups. In summary, hUC-MSC treatment is safe. However, the therapeutic efficacy of hUC-MSC treatment to improve the immune reconstitution in INR patients still needs to be further investigated in a large cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00607-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187429PMC
June 2021

Chiral Fe(ii) complex catalyzed enantioselective [1,3] O-to-C rearrangement of alkyl vinyl ethers and synthesis of chromanols and beyond.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 7;11(37):10101-10106. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University Chengdu 610064 China

A highly efficient enantioselective [1,3] O-to-C rearrangement of racemic vinyl ethers that operates under mild conditions was developed. This method with chiral ferrous complex catalyst provided an efficient access to a wide range of chromanols with high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. In addition, an important urological drug ()-tolterodine and others were easily obtained after simple transformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc04340kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162448PMC
September 2020

Remimazolam alleviates neuropathic pain via regulating bradykinin receptor B1 and autophagy.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical College, Zhanggong District, Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province, China.

Objectives: Neuropathic pain (NP) represents a broad scope of various pathological ramifications of the nervous system. Remimazolam is a proved sedative in treating neuropathic pain. Considering the Bradykinin receptor's vital role and the potentials of Bradykinin receptor B1 (BDKRB1) in the neuropathic pain-signalling pathway, we nominated them as a primary target for remimazolam.

Methods: In this study, rats were injected with complete freund's adjuvant (CFA) to construct NP models in vivo. BV2 microglia cells were treated with LPS to establish NP model in vitro. qRT-PCR, ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence were applied to determine gene expression.

Key Findings: Our findings revealed that BDKRB1 was overexpressed in NP models in vivo, while R715 (an antagonist of BDKRB1) suppressed the levels of BDKRB1 and inhibited the hyperpathia induced by spinal nerve litigation surgery. Moreover, remimazolam inactivated BDKRB1 signalling via suppressing NF-κB translocation and decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, remimazolam suppressed the translocation of NF-κB, and inhibited autophagic lysosome formation in vivo and in vitro. However, R838 (an agonist of BDKRB1) reversed the effects of remimazolam.

Conclusions: Remimazolam downregulated BDKRB1, inhibited BDKRB1/RAS/MEK signalling pathway and regulated the autophagic lysosome induction, exhibiting a better outcome in the NP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab080DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of novel bioorganic fertilizer application on soil enzymes and bacterial community in multi-site rice paddies in China.

AMB Express 2021 May 31;11(1):79. Epub 2021 May 31.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology and Control of Weeds, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha, 410125, China.

Application of a novel bioorganic fertilizer (BIO) has been effectively used to inhibit weeds in rice paddies. To identify changes in soil bacterial community and enzymes in response to BIO treatments, field experiments were carried out in five major rice-growing areas in China. The dominant phylogenetic groups recorded included Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Acidobacteria. Anaeromyxobacter, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia- Shigella, Geobacter and Haliangium were significantly different between BIO-treatment and untreated control and aided in general function (R), amino acid transport, metabolism (E) and transcription (K) clusters. The soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were less affected by BIO at these study sites. RDA analysis showed that soil bacterial community had a significant positive correlations among northern latitude, eastern longitude, exchangeable K, total K, total P, soil pH, and total N, except for organic matter, hydrolytic N and extractable P. Overall, our work showed that application of BIO does not alter the main community structure and functional diversity of soil bacteria in rice paddies and should be encouraged for use as a sustainable weed management strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-021-01241-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167081PMC
May 2021

A novel smartphone-based electrochemical cell sensor for evaluating the toxicity of heavy metal ions Cd, Hg, and Pb in rice.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

College of Food Science and Engineering/Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Grain Circulation and Safety/Key Laboratory of Grains and Oils Quality Control and Processing, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing, 210023, Jiangsu, China.

A novel smartphone-based electrochemical cell sensor was developed to evaluate the toxicity of heavy metal ions, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) ions on Hep G2 cells. The cell sensor was fabricated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/molybdenum sulfide (MoS) composites to greatly improve the biological adaptability and amplify the electrochemical signals. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed to measure the electrical signals induced by the toxicity of heavy metal ions. The results showed that Cd, Hg, and Pb significantly reduced the viability of Hep G2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The IC values obtained by this method were 49.83, 36.94, and 733.90 μM, respectively. A synergistic effect was observed between Cd and Pb and between Hg and Pb, and an antagonistic effect was observed between Cd and Hg, and an antagonistic effect at low doses and an additive effect at high doses were found in the ternary mixtures of Cd, Hg, and Pb. These electrochemical results were confirmed via MTT assay, SEM and TEM observation, and flow cytometry. Therefore, this new electrochemical cell sensor provided a more convenient, sensitive, and flexible toxicity assessment strategy than traditional cytotoxicity assessment methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03379-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Humidity-sensitive irreversible phase transformation of open-framework zinc phosphate and its water-assisted high proton conduction properties.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jun;50(23):8070-8075

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009, P. R. China. and State Key Lab & Coordination Chemistry Institute, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China.

Open-framework zinc phosphate (NMe4)(ZnP2O8H3) undergoes irreversible phase transformation. Structural transformation with α (NMe4·Zn[HPO4][H2PO4] the low-temperature phase) and β (NMe4·ZnH3[PO4]2 the high-temperature phase) (Tc = 149 °C) and conduction properties were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and alternating current (ac) impedance. The open-framework material was sensitive to humidity and β proton conductivity was higher than 10-2 S cm-1 at room temperature and 98% relative humidity (RH). Given that the high proton conductivity of the open-framework material can compete with that of many advanced proton conductors based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), it has broad application prospects in various electrochemical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00296aDOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of antioxidants, proteins, and their combination on emulsion oxidation.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 17:1-24. Epub 2021 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, People's Republic of China.

Lipid oxidation largely determines the quality of emulsion systems as well as their final products. Therefore, an increasing number of studies have focused on the control of lipid oxidation, particularly on its mechanism. In this review, we discuss the factors affecting the efficiency of antioxidants in emulsion systems, such as the free radical scavenging ability, specifically emphasizing on the interfacial behavior and the influence of surfactants on the interfacial distribution of antioxidants. To enhance the antioxidant efficiency of antioxidants in emulsion systems, we discussed whether the combination of antioxidants and proteins can improve antioxidant effects. The types, mixing applications, structures, interface behaviors, effects of surfactants on interfacial proteins, and the location of proteins are associated with the antioxidant effects of proteins in emulsion systems. Antioxidants and proteins can be combined in both covalent and non-covalent ways. The fabrication conditions, conjugation methods, interface behaviors, and characterization methods of these two combinations are also discussed. Our review provides useful information to guide better strategies for providing stability and controlling lipid oxidation in emulsions. The main challenges and future trends in controlling lipid oxidation in complex emulsion systems are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1925869DOI Listing
May 2021

Bifunctional iRGD-anti-CD3 enhances antitumor potency of T cells by facilitating tumor infiltration and T-cell activation.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University and Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

Background: Poor infiltration and limited activation of transferred T cells are fundamental factors impeding the development of adoptive cell immunotherapy in solid tumors. A tumor-penetrating peptide iRGD has been widely used to deliver drugs deep into tumor tissues. CD3-targeting bispecific antibodies represent a promising immunotherapy which recruits and activates T cells.

Methods: T-cell penetration was demonstrated in tumor spheroids using confocal microscope, and in xenografted tumors by histology and in vivo real-time fluorescence imaging. Activation and cytotoxicity of T cells were assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscope. Bioluminescence imaging was used to evaluate in vivo antitumor effects, and transmission electron microscopy was used for mechanistic studies.

Results: We generated a novel bifunctional agent iRGD-anti-CD3 which could immobilize iRGD on the surface of T cells through CD3 engaging. We found that iRGD-anti-CD3 modification not only facilitated T-cell infiltration in 3D tumor spheroids and xenografted tumor nodules but also induced T-cell activation and cytotoxicity against target cancer cells. T cells modified with iRGD-anti-CD3 significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in several xenograft mouse models, which was further enhanced by the combination of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade. Mechanistic studies revealed that iRGD-anti-CD3 initiated a transport pathway called vesiculovacuolar organelles in the endothelial cytoplasm to promote T-cell extravasation.

Conclusion: Altogether, we show that iRGD-anti-CD3 modification is an innovative and bifunctional strategy to overcome major bottlenecks in adoptive cell therapy. Moreover, we demonstrate that combination with PD-1 blockade can further improve antitumor efficacy of iRGD-anti-CD3-modified T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126316PMC
May 2021

Expression of RAB7L1 in Patients with Pituitary Adenomas.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2021 Mar;51(2):190-197

Department of Neurosurgery, TheFirst Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Pituitary adenomas (PA) are neoplasms that arise predominantly in the adenohypophysis. They are generally divided into three categories depending on their biological behavior: benign adenomas, invasive adenomas, and carcinomas. They represent 10%-25% of all intracranial neoplasms, and their estimated prevalence in the general population is 17%. RAB7L1, located at the PARK16 locus, is a Rab GTPase key regulator in vesicle trafficking. Recent genome-wide association studies have linked variants in RAB7L1 to the risk of Parkinson's disease. However, the association between RAB7L1 and PAs is still unexplored. Thirty patients with pituitary adenomas who had undergone surgical resection at Jiangyin People's Hospital (Jiangsu, China) from 2014 to 2019 were selected. The RAB7L1 expression level was assessed by qPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining. The level of the RAB7L1 differential expression was closely related to the patients' age and size of the PAs. In contrast, the RAB7L1 expression level was found to be unrelated to gender, Knosp classification, or type of PA. Our study found that the RAB7L1 expression level was higher in adenoma tissues from older PA patients, and the RAB7L1 expression level was higher in adenoma tissues from patients with smaller adenomas (size≤2cm) than those with larger adenomas (size>2cm).
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March 2021

Association of blood culture with carbapenem use in pyogenic liver abscess: a two-center retrospective study.

BMC Emerg Med 2021 May 3;21(1):58. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Emergency, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine affiliated Renji Hospital, 2000 Jiangyue Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Background: Highly empiric use of carbapenem in pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is widespread problem. However, few studies have examined the association between blood culture and carbapenem use in patients with PLA in China. Thus, we conducted this observational study.

Methods: The data of patients diagnosed with PLA at two comprehensive tertiary care centers from 2014 to 2020 were retrospectively collected. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the association between blood culture and carbapenem use. Subgroup analysis was conducted to explore whether the effect is different in sepsis.

Results: Blood culture was performed in 110 (46.0%) patients, of whom 44 (40.0%) patients had positive results for bacterial culture. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive blood culture isolates were detected in 8 (7.3%) patients. The positivity rate of blood culture in sepsis was higher than in non-sepsis (58.1% vs. 32.9%, P = 0.015). Fewer patients who had a blood culture received carbapenem treatment in comparison to patients without blood culture (19.1% vs. 31.8%, P = 0.026). Multivariate analysis showed that blood culture was independently associated with less carbapenem exposure (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-0.68, P = 0.003), and this effect remained significant in the sepsis subgroup (adjusted OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.05-0.53, P = 0.002).

Conclusion: Blood culture had a high positivity rate and was associated with less carbapenem use in PLA, especially those who developed sepsis. More attention should be paid to performing early blood culture and less carbapenem use in PLA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12873-021-00442-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091740PMC
May 2021

First Report of Maize Stalk Rot Caused by Fusarium kyushuense in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12661, Institute of Crop Sciences, Haidian District, Beijing, China;

During 2017 to 2019, a field survey for maize stalk rot was conducted in 21 counties (districts) across the Guangxi province of China. This disease caused yield losses ranging from 20% to 30%. Maize plants with stalk rot were collected during the late milk stage and pieces of diseased pith tissue were cultured as previously described (Shan et al. 2017). Fungal colonies and mycelia with morphological characteristics of Fusarium species were subcultured onto fresh potato dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA) plates. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular detection by amplification of Fusarium genus-specific primers (Duan et al. 2016), 39 Fusarium isolates were identified. Among them, five isolates from Du'an, Pingguo, Debao, and Daxin had abundant, pale orange to yellow aerial mycelium with deep red pigments when grown on PDA (Fig. 1A; 1B). The average growth rate was 8.0 to 12.0 mm per day at 25°C in the dark. The fungi produced two types of spores on CLA. Microconidia were ovoid to clavate, generally 0- to 3-septate, and 4.6 to 9.4 μm in length (n = 30) (Fig. 1D); Macroconidia were slightly curved with an acute apical cell, mostly 3- to 4- septate, and 19.4 to 38.2 μm in length (n = 30) (Fig. 1C). No chlamydospores were observed. These five isolates were initially identified as Fusarium kyushuense based on morphological features. PCR was performed to amplify three phylogenetic genes (TEF1-α, RPB1, and RPB2) (O'Donnell et al. 1998) and species specific primers kyuR1F/kyuR1R (5-TTTTCCTCACCAAGGAGCAGATCATG-3/5-TCCAATGGACTGGGCAGCCAAAACACC-3), kyuR2F/kyuR2R (5-CAGATATACATTTGCCTCGACAC-3/5-TACTTGAGCACGGAGCTTG-3) were used to confirm species identity. The obtained sequences were deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers MT997084, MT997080, MT997081 (TEF1-α); MT550012, MT997085, MT997086 (RPB1); MT550009, MT997089, and MT997090 (RPB2), respectively. Using BLAST, sequences of TEF1-α, RPB1, and RPB2 of the isolates were 99.33% (MH582297.1) to 100% (MG282364.1) similar to those of F. kyushuense strains (Supplementary Table 1). Based on phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood methods using tools of the website of CIPRES (http://www.phylo.org), isolates GX27, GX167, and GX204 clustered with F. kyushuense with 100% bootstrap support (Fig. 2). The pathogenicity of the three isolates was tested using young seedlings and adult plants as previously described with modification (Ye et al. 2013; Zhang et al. 2016). The primary roots of three-leaf-old seedlings were inoculated by immersing the roots into a 1 × 106 macroconidia solution, incubating for 6 h at 25°C, and transferring to normal growth conditions (26°C, 16 h light/22°C, 8 h dark). The second or third internode above the soil surface of flowering stage plants grown in a greenhouse was bored with a Bosch electric drill to make a hole (ca. 8 mm in diameter) and inoculated with 0.5 mL of mycelia plug then sealed with petrolatum. The inoculum was created by homogenizing five plates of flourish hyphal mats (approximately 125 mL) with kitchen blender and adjusting to a final volume of 200 mL with sterilized ddH2O. No symptoms were observed in the seedlings or adult plants that were mock-inoculated with PDA plugs. Three days post-inoculation (dpi), roots of the infected seedling turned dark-brown and shrunk and the leaves wilted (Fig. 1E). Typical stalk rot symptoms observed in the inoculated plants were premature wilting of entire plant and hollow and weak stalks, leading to lodging; the longitudinal section of the internodes exhibited obvious dark brown necrosis and reddish discoloration at 14 dpi and 30 dpi, respectively (Fig. 1F). Fusarium kyushuense was re-isolated from the inoculated stalk lesions but not from the control. This is the first record of stalk rot caused by F. kyushuense on maize plants in China. However, F. kyushuense is known to cause maize ear rot in China (Wang et al. 2014) and can produce type A and type B trichothecene mycotoxins in kernels (Aoki and O'Donnell 1998). The occurrence of maize stalk rot and ear rot caused by F. kyushuense should be monitored in China due to the potential risk for crop loss and mycotoxin contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2342-PDNDOI Listing
April 2021

Overexpression of ERCC3 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer.

J Cancer 2021 5;12(9):2550-2559. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Yunnan, China.

Pancreatic cancer is associated with poor prognosis due to limited therapeutic options. Excision repair cross-complementing 3 (ERCC3) is an important member of nucleotide excision repair (NER) that is overexpressed in some cancers and may be regarded as a poor prognostic factor. Yet, its role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression and functions of ERCC3 in pancreatic cancer patients and its relation with clinicopathological features. Our data suggested that the protein expression level of ERCC3 was higher in tumor tissues than in adjacent tissues. In addition, the expression of ERCC3 has shown to be associated with the tumor extent (=0.035). Besides, analysis of the dataset in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that high expression of ERCC3 was associated with poor overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients (=0.0136). In Cox regression analysis, ERCC3 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in pancreatic cancer (<0.001). Furthermore, our data further suggested that the overexpression of ERCC3 significantly promoted pancreatic cancer (BxPC-3, CFPAC-1, and PANC-1 cells) proliferation, invasion, and migration. Taken together, this study suggested that high expression of ERCC3 might be a poor prognostic factor in human pancreatic cancer and might be used as a promising therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.54576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040713PMC
March 2021

The comparison of ketamine with tramadol for postoperative pain relief on children following adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e22541

Department of Pediatrics, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China.

Introduction: The comparison of ketamine with tramadol for pain control remains controversial in pediatric adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of ketamine vs tramadol for pain relief in children following adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy.

Methods: We have searched PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases through October 2019 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of ketamine vs tramadol for pediatric adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy. This meta-analysis is performed using the random-effects model.

Results: Six RCTs are included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared to ketamine group for pediatric adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy, tramadol is associated with substantially lower CHEOPS at 1 h (SMD = 1.56; 95% CI = 0.20-2.92; P = .02; low quality) and longer first time of additional pain medication (SMD = -0.47; 95% CI = -0.74 to -0.19; P = .0008; low quality), but demonstrates no obvious effect on CHEOPS at 6 h (SMD = 0.51; 95% CI = -1.17 to 2.19; P = .55; low quality), sedation scale at 1 h (SMD = -0.80; 95% CI = -3.07 to 1.48; P = .49; low quality) or additional pain medication (RR = 1.31; 95% CI = 0.85-2.02; P = .23; moderate quality).

Conclusions: Tramadol may be better to alleviate the postoperative pain after pediatric adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036051PMC
April 2021

Association Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal the Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Size.

Front Plant Sci 2021 18;12:632788. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute of Cereal Crops, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, China.

Kernel length, kernel width, and kernel thickness are important traits affecting grain yield and product quality. Here, the genetic architecture of the three kernel size traits was dissected in an association panel of 309 maize inbred lines using four statistical methods. Forty-two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; < 1.72E-05) and 70 genes for the three traits were identified under five environments. One and eight SNPs were co-detected in two environments and by at least two methods, respectively, and they explained 5.87-9.59% of the phenotypic variation. Comparing the transcriptomes of two inbred lines with contrasting seed size, three and eight genes identified in the association panel showed significantly differential expression between the two genotypes at 15 and 39 days after pollination, respectively. Ten and 17 genes identified by a genome-wide association study were significantly differentially expressed between the two development stages in the two genotypes. Combining environment-/method-stable SNPs and differential expression analysis, ribosomal protein L7, jasmonate-regulated gene 21, serine/threonine-protein kinase RUNKEL, AP2-EREBP-transcription factor 16, and Zm00001d035222 (cell wall protein IFF6-like) were important candidate genes for maize kernel size and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.632788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8013726PMC
March 2021

Combined delivery of salinomycin and docetaxel by dual-targeting gelatinase nanoparticles effectively inhibits cervical cancer cells and cancer stem cells.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):510-519

The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University & Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Intra-tumor heterogeneity is widely accepted as one of the key factors, which hinders cancer patients from achieving full recovery. Especially, cancer stem cells (CSCs) may exhibit self-renewal capacity, which makes it harder for complete elimination of tumor. Therefore, simultaneously inhibiting CSCs and non-CSCs in tumors becomes a promising strategy to obtain sustainable anticancer efficacy. Salinomycin (Sal) was reported to be critical to inhibit CSCs. However, the poor bioavailability and catastrophic side effects brought about limitations to clinical practice. To solve this problem, we previously constructed gelatinase-stimuli nanoparticles composed of nontoxic, biocompatible polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) copolymer with a gelatinase-cleavable peptide Pro-Val-Gly-Leu-Iso-Gly (PVGLIG) inserted between the two blocks of the copolymer. By applying our "smart" gelatinase-responsive nanoparticles for Sal delivery, we have demonstrated specific accumulation in tumor, anti-CSCs ability and reduced toxicity of Sal-NPs in our previous study. In the present study, we synthesized Sal-Docetaxel-loaded gelatinase-stimuli nanoparticles (Sal-Doc NP) and confirmed single emulsion as the optimal method of producing Sal-Doc NPs (Sal-Doc SE-NP) in comparison with nanoprecipitation. Sal-Doc SE-NPs inhibited both CSCs and non-CSCs in mice transplanted with cervical cancer, and might be associated with enhanced restriction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway. Besides, the tumorigenic capacity and growing speed were obviously suppressed in Sal-Doc-SE-NPs-treated group in rechallenge experiment. Our results suggest that Sal-Doc-loaded gelatinase-stimuli nanoparticles could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor efficacy and reduce side effects by simultaneously suppressing CSCs and non-CSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1886378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935125PMC
December 2021

High population-attributable fractions of traditional risk factors for non-AIDS-defining diseases among people living with HIV in China: a cohort study.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):416-423

Medical School of Chinese PLA, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Morbidity and mortality of non-AIDS-defining diseases (NADs) have become the increasing burden of people living with HIV (PLWH) with long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to quantify the contribution of modifiable risk factors to NADs. We included PLWHs starting ART at the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen (China) from Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2017. We defined NAD outcomes of interest as cardiovascular disease (CVD), end-stage liver disease (ESLD), advanced renal disease (ARD), and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs). We estimated incidence of outcomes and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of modifiable traditional and HIV-related risk factors for each outcome. Overall, 8,301 participants (median age at study entry, 31 years) contributed 33,146 person-years of follow-up (PYFU). Incidence of CVD (362/100,000 PYFU) was the highest among outcomes, followed by that of ARD (270/100,000 PYFU), ESLD (213/100,000 PYFU), and NADC (152/100,000 PYFU). Totally, 34.14% of CVD was attributable to smoking, 7.98% to hypertension, and 6.44% to diabetes. For ESLD, 24.57% and 25.04% of it could be avoided if chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection, respectively, did not present. The leading PAFs for ARD were declined estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (39.68%) and low CD4 count (39.61%), followed by diabetes (10.19%). PAFs of hypertension, diabetes, and smoking for CVD, and declined eGFR and diabetes for ARD increased with age. The contribution of traditional risk factors for these NADs far outweighed the HIV-related risk factors. Individual-level interventions and population-level policy-making is needed to focus on these factors to prevent NADs in long-term management of HIV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1894904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971336PMC
December 2021

World Gastroenterology Organisation classification and a new type-based prognostic model for hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 May 22;45(3):101548. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Peking University 302 Clinical Medical School, Beijing, China; Liver Failure Treatment and Research Center, Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China; Medical School of Chinese PLA, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) classification, proposed by the World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO), attempts to cover all ACLF patients diagnosed in the East and West. This study aimed to explore and establish a prognostic model based on this classification.

Methods: A total of 1159 hepatitis B virus-ACLF patients, enrolled with 90-day follow-up data, were divided into three groups (type A, B, and C) according to WGO ACLF classification and analyzed. A model of ACLF prognosis based on type (MAPT) was developed in a derivation cohort (n = 566); its reproducibility was tested in a validation cohort (n = 593).

Results: A significant difference in 90-day mortality among the three groups was observed (31.1%, type A; 40.9%, type B; 61.4%, type C, P < 0.001). ACLF type was determined to be an independent risk factor of 90-day mortality in HBV-ACLF patients. An MAPT, inclusive of type and five other variables, was built and validated; it was found to be superior to the Chronic Liver Failure (CLIF) Consortium ACLF score, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, CLIF-Sequential Organ Failure, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scores in predicting 90-day mortality, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.802 (95% CI [0.763-0.836]), sensitivity of 71.77%, and specificity of 75.82%.

Conclusions: The MAPT model showed excellent predictive value for 90-day mortality in HBV-ACLF and can likely expand the clinical application of WGO ACLF classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.09.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of armodafinil nanocrystal nasal hydrogel on recovery of cognitive function in sleep-deprived rats.

Int J Pharm 2021 Mar 3;597:120343. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, China; Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:

Armodafinil is typically used in clinical practice to maintain cognition and wakefulness in patients suffering from sleep deprivation. However, its poor water solubility and large dosage limit its effective application. Herein, we formulated armodafinil in a nanocrystal hydrogel (NCsG) with appropriate fluidity and viscosity, capable of rapidly dissolving after staying in the nasal cavity for > 4 h and then penetrating the mucosa as quickly as possible in vitro. We found that armodafinil NCsG was biologically safe, as it had no visible ciliary toxicity, as well as extremely stable due to the existence of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding forces. Nasal administration of armodafinil NCsG proved to be more efficient and targeted than oral administration due to its preferential absorption in plasma and more-concentrated distribution in the brain. In addition, compared with the model group, sleep-deprived rats treated with NCsG undergoing Morris water maze (MWM) behavioral experiments had shorter escape latency and much more shuttle times across the platform. Meanwhile, in the open-field test (OFT), these same rats had longer periods of movement in the center, longer time spent upright, and lower anxiety, which clearly demonstrated improved cognitive awareness and wakefulness after intranasal administration. Moreover, we speculated that armodafinil NCsG had a protective effect on hippocampal neurons in Cortical Area 1 (CA1), which is closely related to cognitive function, by upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein expression. Consequently, the intranasal administration of armodafinil NCsG could serve as a promising integrated-control measure for sleep deprivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120343DOI Listing
March 2021

Determination of Organophosphorus Esters in Fall Protection Equipment by Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with LC-MS/MS Detection.

J Anal Methods Chem 2021 5;2021:8878247. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

School of Life Science, Wuchang University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430223, China.

An analysis method was established to determine 14 organophosphorus ester (OPE) flame retardants in fall protection equipment by combining accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The ASE parameters were optimized as follows: static extraction with acetonitrile at 80°C for 5 min for two cycles. The combined extract was purified with the ENVI-18 cartridge before further analysis. A HILIC column was used to separate the OPEs using an acetonitrile/water mixture as the mobile phase with the detection by the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which was operated under the positive mode. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection for the target OPEs ranged in 0.015-1.33 ng/g, with a spike recovery of 71.6%-114% and a relative standard deviation of 0.8%-11.2%. The developed method was used to analyze OPEs in fall protection equipment (safety helmets and ropes), where OPEs were all detectable. Safety ropes displayed a higher concentration of OPEs than ones in safety helmets, with the pollutants being mainly triphenyl phosphate, 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, and tri-n-butyl phosphate in the range of 11.07 ng/g‒815.53 ng/g. The EHDPP was the dominant compound in safety helmets with the concentration from 26.84 to 95.29 ng/g, while the other OPEs in safety helmets were lower than 5.136 ng/g. The potential health and environmental risks of these fall protection equipment during their use and disposal call for further attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8878247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803397PMC
January 2021

Spin blockade and phonon bottleneck for hot electron relaxation observed in n-doped colloidal quantum dots.

Nat Commun 2021 Jan 22;12(1):550. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Dynamics Research Center for Energy and Environmental Materials, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023, Liaoning, China.

Understanding and manipulating hot electron dynamics in semiconductors may enable disruptive energy conversion schemes. Hot electrons in bulk semiconductors usually relax via electron-phonon scattering on a sub-picosecond timescale. Quantum-confined semiconductors such as quantum dots offer a unique platform to prolong hot electron lifetime through their size-tunable electronic structures. Here, we study hot electron relaxation in electron-doped (n-doped) colloidal CdSe quantum dots. For lightly-doped dots we observe a slow 1P hot electron relaxation (~10 picosecond) resulting from a Pauli spin blockade of the preoccupying 1S electron. For heavily-doped dots, a large number of electrons residing in the surface states introduce picosecond Auger recombination which annihilates the valance band hole, allowing us to observe 300-picosecond-long hot electrons as a manifestation of a phonon bottleneck effect. This brings the hot electron energy loss rate to a level of sub-meV per picosecond from a usual level of 1 eV per picosecond. These results offer exciting opportunities of hot electron harvesting by exploiting carrier-carrier, carrier-phonon and spin-spin interactions in doped quantum dots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20835-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822822PMC
January 2021

Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitor Lonafarnib Enhances α7nAChR Expression Through Inhibiting DNA Methylation of CHRNA7 and Increases α7nAChR Membrane Trafficking.

Front Pharmacol 2020 29;11:589780. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Inhibition of Ras farnesylation in acute has been found to upregulate the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) activity. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chronic administration for 7 days of farnesyl transferase inhibitor lonafarnib (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally injected) to male mice on the expression and activity of α7nAChR in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Herein, we show that lonafarnib dose dependently enhances the amplitude of ACh-evoked inward currents (), owning to the increased α7nAChR expression and membrane trafficking. Lonafarnib inhibited phosphorylation of c-Jun and JNK, which was related to DNA methylation. In addition, reduced DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression was observed in lonafarnib-treated mice, which was reversed by JNK activator. Lonafarnib-upregulated expression of α7nAChR was mimicked by DNMT inhibitor, and repressed by JNK activator. However, only inhibited DNA methylation did not affect , and the JNK activator partially decreased the lonafarnib-upregulated . On the other hand, lonafarnib also increased the membrane expression of α7nAChR, which was partially inhibited by JNK activator or CaMKII inhibitor, without changes in the α7nAChR phosphorylation. CaMKII inhibitor had no effect on the expression of α7nAChR. Lonafarnib-enhanced spatial memory of mice was also partially blocked by JNK activator or CaMKII inhibitor. These results suggest that Ras inhibition increases α7nAChR expression through depressed DNA methylation of Ras-c-Jun-JNK pathway, increases the membrane expression of α7nAChR resulting in part from the enhanced CaMKII pathway and total expression of this receptor, and consequently enhances the spatial memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.589780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801264PMC
December 2020

Exploring Natural Allelic Variations of the β-Triketone Herbicide Resistance Gene HIS1 for Application in indica Rice and Particularly in Two-Line Hybrid Rice.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Jan 7;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha, China.

Background: Benzobicyclon (BBC) is a β-triketone herbicide (bTH) used in rice paddy fields. It has the advantages of high efficiency, low toxicity, high crop safety, and good environmental compatibility, and shows efficacy against paddy weeds resistant to other types of herbicides. However, as some important indica rice varieties are susceptible to BBC, BBC is currently only registered and applied in japonica rice cultivation areas.

Results: By analyzing haplotypes of the bTHs broad-spectrum resistance gene HIS1 and phenotypes for BBC in 493 major indica rice accessions in China, we identified a novel non-functional allelic variant of HIS1 in addition to the previously reported 28-bp deletion. Through detection with markers specific to the two non-functional mutations, it was clear that 25.4% of indica conventional varieties, 59.9% of fertility restorers, and 15.9% of sterile lines were susceptible to BBC. In addition, due to natural allelic variations of the HIS1 gene in the sterile and restorer lines, some two-line hybrid sterile lines were sensitive to bTHs, and the corresponding restorers were resistant. We showed the potential effectiveness of using bTHs to address the issue of two-line hybrid rice seed purity stemming from the self-crossing of sterile lines during hybrid rice seed production. Finally, allelic variations of the HIS1 gene may also play an important role in the mechanized seed production of hybrid rice.

Conclusions: Our findings offer guidance for the application of BBC in indica rice areas and provide a non-transgenic approach to address the seed purity issue of two-line hybrid rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-020-00448-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790941PMC
January 2021

Diverse conditions contribute to the cholesterol-lowering ability of different strains.

Food Funct 2021 Feb;12(3):1079-1086

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Food Microbiology, School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China.

It has been reported that Lactobacillus can remove cholesterol and thus might play an important role in lowering cholesterol in humans, but the underlying mechanism is still controversial. To confirm whether different strains have different cholesterol-lowering mechanisms, we explored the cholesterol-lowering abilities of different Lactobacillus plantarum strains, and the factors influencing their abilities. We found that all nine strains reduced the cholesterol concentration to some extent, but there were significant differences among them. In MRS broth, L. plantarum AR113 and AR171 showed the greatest cholesterol-lowering abilities of 27.89% and 19.90%, respectively, but AR501 and AR300 only showed reductions of 0.34% and 0.91%, respectively. Upon addition of 0.1% ox bile, the cholesterol-removal capability of most strains increased. L. plantarum AR511 showed the highest cholesterol removal rate, which increased from 5.8% to 37.14%, i.e., by a factor of approximately 6.4, but there was no significant change in the cholesterol removal rate of AR171. These results suggested that the effect of ox bile on the cholesterol-lowering ability was strain-specific. Except for the strains AR171, AR237 and AR495, the cholesterol-removal ability of the remaining six strains was positively correlated with the amount of free bile acid released. The addition of a bile salt hydrolase inhibitor had some effect on the cholesterol-removal ability of the six strains of bacteria other than AR171, AR237 and AR495, but little influence on the latter three. The effect of BSH was strain-specific. Similarly, the effect of pH was also strain-specific. Taken together, these results suggest that different strains of L. plantarum have different cholesterol-lowering capacities and different influencing factors. Therefore, further research is needed to explore the exact mechanism by which different strains lower cholesterol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02073gDOI Listing
February 2021

Identification and characterization of yak α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Mar 25;104(3):2520-2528. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Food Science College, Northeast Agriculture University, Harbin 150036, China.

α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) were isolated from yak milk and identified by mass spectrometry. The variant of α-LA (L8IIC8) in yak milk had 123 amino acids, and the sequence differed from α-LA from bovine milk. The amino acid at site 71 was Asn (N) in domestic yak milk, but Asp (D) in bovine and wild yak milk sequences. Yak β-LG had 2 variants, β-LG A (P02754) and β-LG E (L8J1Z0). Both domestic yak and wild yak milk contained β-LG E, but it was absent in bovine milk. The amino acid at site 158 of β-Lg E was Gly (G) in yak but Glu (E) in bovine. The yak α-LA and β-LG secondary structures were slightly different from those in bovine milk. The denaturation temperatures of yak α-LA and β-LG were 52.1°C and 80.9°C, respectively. This study provides insights relevant to food functionality, food safety control, and the biological properties of yak milk products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18546DOI Listing
March 2021

Electron and Hole Spin Relaxation in CdSe Colloidal Nanoplatelets.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jan 11;12(1):86-93. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Dynamics Research Center for Energy and Environmental Materials, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023, China.

Solution-processed quantum-confined nanocrystals are important building blocks for scalable implementation of quantum information science. Extensive studies on colloidal quantum dots (QDs) have revealed subpicosecond hole spin relaxation, whereas the electron spin dynamics remains difficult to probe. Here we study electron and hole spin dynamics in CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets (also called quantum wells) of varying thicknesses using circularly polarized transient absorption spectroscopy at room temperature. The clear spectroscopic features of transition bands associated with heavy, light, and spin-orbit split-off holes enabled separate probes of electron and hole dynamics. The hole spin-flip occurred within ∼200 fs, arising from strong spin-orbit coupling in the valence band. The electron spin lifetime decreased from 6.2 to 2.2 ps as the platelet thickness is reduced from 6 to 4 monolayers, reflecting an exchange interaction between the electron and the hole and/or surface dangling bond spins enhanced by quantum confinement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c03257DOI Listing
January 2021

Key Odorant Differences in Fragrant and Oils Revealed by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Odor Activity Values, and Aroma Recombination.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Dec 23;68(50):14950-14960. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Oil Crops and Lipids Process Technology National& Local Joint Engineering Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Oilseeds processing of Ministry of Agriculture, Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition, Wuhan 430062, China.

Fragrant species seed oils (FBO) produced in China are mainly obtained from rapeseed (: ) and mustard seeds (: ). The characterization and differences of aroma profiles between those two species remain unclear. In this study, the volatile compounds in FBOs were systemically extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with ultrasound and identified by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Ninety-three odorants were identified as aroma-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 1 to 6561. Moreover, 63 key compounds exhibited their odor activity values (OAVs) to be greater than 1. The oils of the two species were successfully recombinated with their key odorants. oils presented stronger pungent-like, pickled-like, and fishy like notes compared to oils. The key odor differences were primarily attributed to the concentration of 3-butenenitrile, 4-(methylsulfanyl)butanenitrile, 5-(methylsulfanyl)pentanenitrile, 3-isothiocyanato-1-propene, 3-methyl-3-butenenitrile, isothiocyanatocyclopropane, (methylsulfanyl)acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and 3-(methyldisulfanyl)-1-propene. This work provides a guide for the selection of raw materials and odor markers in fragrant and oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05944DOI Listing
December 2020

Litter chemical traits strongly drove the carbon fractions loss during decomposition across an alpine treeline ecotone.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 8;753:142287. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

National Forestry and Grassland Administration Key Laboratory of Forest Resources Conservation and Ecological Safety on the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering on the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Institute of Ecology & Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

The decomposition of litter carbon (C) fraction is a major determinant of soil organic matter pool and nutrient cycling. However, knowledge of litter chemical traits regulate C fractions release is still relatively limited. A litterbag experiment was conducted using six plant functional litter types at two vegetation type (coniferous forest and alpine shrubland) in a treeline ecotone. We evaluated the relative importance of litter chemistry (i.e. Nutrient, C quality, and stoichiometry) on the loss of litter mass, non-polar extractables (NPE), water-soluble extractables (WSE), acid-hydrolyzable carbohydrates (ACID), and acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) during decomposition. Litter nutrients contain nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu), litter C quality contains C, WSE, NPE, ACID, and AUR, and stoichiometry was defined by C:N, C:P; N:P, ACID:N, and AUR:N. The results showed single exponential model fitted decomposition rates of litter mass and C fractions better than double exponential or asymptotic decomposition, and the decomposition rates of C fractions were strongly correlated with initial litter nutrients, especially K, Na, Ca. Furthermore, the temporal dynamics of litter nutrients (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Zn, and Fe) strongly regulated C fractions loss during the decomposition process. Changes in litter C quality had an evident effect on the degradation of ACID and AUR, supporting the concept of "priming effect" of soluble carbon fraction. The significant differences were found in the release of NPE, WSE, and ACID rather than AUR among coniferous forest and alpine shrubland, and the vegetation type effects largely depend on the changes in litter stoichiometry, which is an important implication for the change in plant community abundance regulate decay. Collectively, elucidating the hierarchical drivers of litter chemistry on decomposition is critical to soil C sequestration in alpine ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142287DOI Listing
January 2021

Boosting Potassium Storage by Integration Advantageous of Defect Engineering and Spatial Confinement: A Case Study of Sb Se.

Small 2020 Dec 17;16(49):e2005272. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China.

The potassium ion batteries (KIBs) based on conversion/alloying reaction mechanisms show high theoretical capacity. However, their applications are hampered by the poor cyclability resulting from the inherent large volume variations and the sluggish kinetics during K repeated insertion/extraction process. Herein, taken Sb Se as a model material, by rational design, nickel doped-carbon coated Sb Se nanorods (denoted as (Sb Ni ) Se @C) are prepared through combined strategies of the conductive encapsulation and crystal structure modification. The carbon coating acts as an efficient buffer layer that maintains superior structural stability upon cycling. The introduction of Ni atoms can enhance electrical conductivity, leading to outstanding rate performance, which are confirmed by density functional theory calculation. The (Sb Ni ) Se @C displays excellent reversible capacity (410 mAh g at 0.1 A g after 100 cycles) and unprecedented rate capability (140 mAh g at 10 A g ). Furthermore, KFeHCF//(Sb Ni ) Se @C full cell exhibits a high specific capacity (408 mAh g at 0.1 A g ), superior rate capability (260 mAh g at 2 A g ). This work can open up a new avenue for the design of stable conversion/alloying-based anodes for high energy density KIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202005272DOI Listing
December 2020

Camrelizumab Plus Apatinib in Extensive-Stage SCLC (PASSION): A Multicenter, Two-Stage, Phase 2 Trial.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 02 6;16(2):299-309. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Treatment options in the second-line extensive-stage SCLC (ED-SCLC) setting are limited. The PASSION study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03417895) was a phase 2 study of camrelizumab plus apatinib in ED-SCLC after platinum-based chemotherapy.

Methods: In stage I of the study, patients were randomized (1:1:1) to receive camrelizumab 200 mg every 2 weeks plus apatinib 375 mg once daily (QD), 5 days on and 2 days off, or 7 days on and 7 days off (six patients each cohort). On the basis of tolerability during the first 28-day cycle and efficacy data at stage I, one cohort was chosen to expand to 45 patients at stage II. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR).

Results: From April 20, 2018 to March 12, 2019, a total of 59 patients were enrolled, with 47 patients in the QD cohort. In the QD cohort, confirmed ORR reached 34.0% (95% confidence interval: 20.9‒49.3), the median progression-free survival was 3.6 months, and the median overall survival was 8.4 months. Chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant patients (defined as patients with disease relapse at ≥90 and <90 d after platinum-based chemotherapy, respectively) had comparable confirmed ORR (37.5% versus 32.3%), median progression-free survival (3.6 versus 2.7 mo), and median overall survival (9.6 versus 8.0 mo). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher were reported in 43 of 59 patients (72.9%). Five patients (8.5%) discontinued because of treatment-related adverse events.

Conclusions: Camrelizumab plus apatinib exhibited potential antitumor activity in patients with both chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant ED-SCLC who had failed platinum-based chemotherapy with an acceptable toxicity profile. This phase 2 data warrant further clinical studies of camrelizumab plus apatinib in SCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.10.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Marein ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting renal sodium glucose transporter 2 and activating the AMPK signaling pathway in db/db mice and high glucose-treated HK-2 cells.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Nov 17;131:110684. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical College, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, 830000, Xinjiang, China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogenesis, Prevention, Treatment of Central Asian High Incidence Diseases, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830000, China; College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, 830000, Xinjiang, China; Peak Discipline of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, 830000, Xinjiang, China. Electronic address:

Marein, an active component of the Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. plant, is known to improve diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, its anti-diabetic functions in DN and potential mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects and mechanisms of Marein in diabetic db/db mice with DN, and in high glucose-treated HK-2 cells. In vivo, treating diabetic db/db mice with Marein for 12 consecutive weeks restored diabetes-induced hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, and ameliorated renal function deterioration, glomerulosclerosis, and renal ectopic lipid deposition. Marein exerted renoprotective effects by directly inhibiting renal tubule sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) expression, and then activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway in db/db mice. Meanwhile, Marein ameliorated fibrosis and inflammation by suppressing the pro-inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and expression of the extracellular matrix proteins, fibronectin (FN) and collagen 1 (COL1) in diabetic mice. In vitro, MDCK monolayer cells were established to explore the characteristics of Marein transmembrane transport. Marein was found to be absorbed across the membrane at a medium level that involved active transport and this was mediated by SGLTs. In HK-2 cells, Marein decreased uptake of the fluorescent glucose analog, 2-NBDG, by 22 % by inhibiting SGLT2 expression. In high glucose-treated HK-2 cells, Marein decreased SGLT2 expression and increased phosphorylated (p)-AMPK/p-ACC to improve high glucose-induced cellular dysfunction. Furthermore, Marein treatment decreased SGLT2 expression in SGLT2-overexpressing HK-2 cells. In addition, molecular docking and dynamics analysis revealed that SGLT2 was a direct target of Marein. Collectively, our results demonstrated that Marein ameliorates DN by inhibiting renal SGLT2 and activating p-AMPK, suggesting Marein can potentially prevent DN by suppressing renal SGLT2 expression directly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110684DOI Listing
November 2020