Publications by authors named "Lidija K Gorsic"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional Genetic Variation in the Anti-Müllerian Hormone Pathway in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 07;104(7):2855-2874

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly heritable, common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses, and polycystic ovaries. PCOS is often accompanied by elevated levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). AMH inhibits follicle maturation. AMH also inhibits steroidogenesis through transcriptional repression of CYP17A1. We recently identified 16 rare PCOS-specific pathogenic variants in AMH.

Objective: To test whether additional members of the AMH signaling pathway also contribute to the etiology of PCOS.

Participants/design: Targeted resequencing of coding and regulatory regions of AMH and its specific type 2 receptor, AMHR2, was performed on 608 women affected with PCOS and 142 reproductively normal control women. Prediction tools of deleteriousness and in silico evidence of epigenetic modification were used to prioritize variants for functional evaluation. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and splicing assays were used to measure the impact of genetic variants on function.

Results: We identified 20 additional variants in/near AMH and AMHR2 with significantly reduced signaling activity in in vitro assays. Collectively, from our previous study and as reported herein, we have identified a total of 37 variants with impaired activity in/near AMH and AMHR2 in 41 women affected with PCOS, or 6.7% of our PCOS cohort. Furthermore, no functional variants were observed in the 142 phenotyped controls. The functional variants were significantly associated with PCOS in our cohort of 608 women with PCOS and 142 controls (P = 2.3 × 10-5) and very strongly associated with PCOS relative to a larger non-Finnish European (gnomAD) population-based control cohort (P < 1 × 10-9).

Conclusion: The AMH signaling cascade plays an important role in PCOS etiology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6543512PMC
July 2019

Identification of Novel Protein Expression Changes Following Cisplatin Treatment and Application to Combination Therapy.

J Proteome Res 2017 11 29;16(11):4227-4236. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Department of Medicine, ‡Committee on Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, ∥Ben May Department for Cancer Research; ⊥Committee on Genetics, Genomics and Systems Biology; #The Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology; ∇Committee on Cancer Biology; and □Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago , Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States.

Determining the effect of chemotherapeutic treatment on changes in protein expression can provide important targets for overcoming resistance. Due to challenges in simultaneously measuring large numbers of proteins, a paucity of data exists on global changes. To overcome these challenges, we utilized microwestern arrays that allowed us to measure the abundance and modification state of hundreds of cell signaling and transcription factor proteins in cells following drug exposure. HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were exposed to cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat testicular, head and neck, non-small cell lung, and gynecological cancers. We evaluated the expression of 259 proteins following 2, 6, and 12 h of cisplatin treatment in two LCLs with discordant sensitivity to cisplatin. Of these 259 proteins, 66 displayed significantly different protein expression changes (p < 0.05). Fifteen of these proteins were evaluated in a second pair of LCLs with discordant sensitivities to cisplatin; six demonstrated significant differences in expression. We then evaluated a subset of 63 proteins in a second set of LCLs with discordant sensitivity, and 40% of those that were significant in the first pair were also significant in the second part with concordant directionality (p < 0.05). We functionally validated one of the top proteins identified, PDK1, and demonstrated a synergistic relationship between cisplatin and a PDK1 inhibitor in multiple lung cancer lines. This study highlights the potential for identifying novel targets through an understanding of cellular changes in protein expression and modification following drug treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00576DOI Listing
November 2017

Pathogenic Anti-Müllerian Hormone Variants in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 08;102(8):2862-2872

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611.

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine condition, is the leading cause of anovulatory infertility.

Objective: Given that common disease-susceptibility variants account for only a small percentage of the estimated PCOS heritability, we tested the hypothesis that rare variants contribute to this deficit in heritability.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Unbiased whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 80 patients with PCOS and 24 reproductively normal control subjects identified potentially deleterious variants in AMH, the gene encoding anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Targeted sequencing of AMH of 643 patients with PCOS and 153 control patients was used to replicate WGS findings.

Main Outcome Measures: Dual luciferase reporter assays measured the impact of the variants on downstream AMH signaling.

Results: We found 24 rare (minor allele frequency < 0.01) AMH variants in patients with PCOS and control subjects; 18 variants were specific to women with PCOS. Seventeen of 18 (94%) PCOS-specific variants had significantly reduced AMH signaling, whereas none of 6 variants observed in control subjects showed significant defects in signaling. Thus, we identified rare AMH coding variants that reduced AMH-mediated signaling in a subset of patients with PCOS.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify rare genetic variants associated with a common PCOS phenotype. Our findings suggest decreased AMH signaling as a mechanism for the pathogenesis of PCOS. AMH decreases androgen biosynthesis by inhibiting CYP17 activity; a potential mechanism of action for AMH variants in PCOS, therefore, is to increase androgen biosynthesis due to decreased AMH-mediated inhibition of CYP17 activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-00612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5546867PMC
August 2017

Differential contribution of cis-regulatory elements to higher order chromatin structure and expression of the CFTR locus.

Nucleic Acids Res 2016 Apr 15;44(7):3082-94. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

Human Molecular Genetics Program, Lurie Children's Research Center, Chicago, IL 60614, USA Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA

Higher order chromatin structure establishes domains that organize the genome and coordinate gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling transcription of individual loci within a topological domain (TAD) are not fully understood. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene provides a paradigm for investigating these mechanisms.CFTR occupies a TAD bordered by CTCF/cohesin binding sites within which are cell-type-selective cis-regulatory elements for the locus. We showed previously that intronic and extragenic enhancers, when occupied by specific transcription factors, are recruited to the CFTR promoter by a looping mechanism to drive gene expression. Here we use a combination of CRISPR/Cas9 editing of cis-regulatory elements and siRNA-mediated depletion of architectural proteins to determine the relative contribution of structural elements and enhancers to the higher order structure and expression of the CFTR locus. We found the boundaries of the CFTRTAD are conserved among diverse cell types and are dependent on CTCF and cohesin complex. Removal of an upstream CTCF-binding insulator alters the interaction profile, but has little effect on CFTR expression. Within the TAD, intronic enhancers recruit cell-type selective transcription factors and deletion of a pivotal enhancer element dramatically decreases CFTR expression, but has minor effect on its 3D structure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv1358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4838340PMC
April 2016

Pharmacoethnicity in Paclitaxel-Induced Sensory Peripheral Neuropathy.

Clin Cancer Res 2015 Oct 26;21(19):4337-46. Epub 2015 May 26.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Purpose: Paclitaxel is used worldwide in the treatment of breast, lung, ovarian, and other cancers. Sensory peripheral neuropathy is an associated adverse effect that cannot be predicted, prevented, or mitigated. To better understand the contribution of germline genetic variation to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we undertook an integrative approach that combines genome-wide association study (GWAS) data generated from HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and Asian patients.

Methods: GWAS was performed with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity generated in 363 LCLs and with paclitaxel-induced neuropathy from 145 Asian patients. A gene-based approach was used to identify overlapping genes and compare with a European clinical cohort of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Neurons derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells were used for functional validation of candidate genes.

Results: SNPs near AIPL1 were significantly associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in Asian LCLs (P < 10(-6)). Decreased expression of AIPL1 resulted in decreased sensitivity of neurons to paclitaxel by inducing neurite morphologic changes as measured by increased relative total outgrowth, number of processes and mean process length. Using a gene-based analysis, there were 32 genes that overlapped between Asian LCL cytotoxicity and Asian patient neuropathy (P < 0.05), including BCR. Upon BCR knockdown, there was an increase in neuronal sensitivity to paclitaxel as measured by neurite morphologic characteristics.

Conclusions: We identified genetic variants associated with Asian paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and functionally validated the AIPL1 and BCR in a neuronal cell model. Furthermore, the integrative pharmacogenomics approach of LCL/patient GWAS may help prioritize target genes associated with chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-0133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4592389PMC
October 2015

Identification and validation of genetic variants that influence transcription factor and cell signaling protein levels.

Am J Hum Genet 2014 Aug 31;95(2):194-208. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Committee on Genetics, Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Committee on Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

Many genetic variants associated with human disease have been found to be associated with alterations in mRNA expression. Although it is commonly assumed that mRNA expression changes will lead to consequent changes in protein levels, methodological challenges have limited our ability to test the degree to which this assumption holds true. Here, we further developed the micro-western array approach and globally examined relationships between human genetic variation and cellular protein levels. We collected more than 250,000 protein level measurements comprising 441 transcription factor and signaling protein isoforms across 68 Yoruba (YRI) HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and identified 12 cis and 160 trans protein level QTLs (pQTLs) at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 20%. Whereas up to two thirds of cis mRNA expression QTLs (eQTLs) were also pQTLs, many pQTLs were not associated with mRNA expression. Notably, we replicated and functionally validated a trans pQTL relationship between the KARS lysyl-tRNA synthetase locus and levels of the DIDO1 protein. This study demonstrates proof of concept in applying an antibody-based microarray approach to iteratively measure the levels of human proteins and relate these levels to human genome variation and other genomic data sets. Our results suggest that protein-based mechanisms might functionally buffer genetic alterations that influence mRNA expression levels and that pQTLs might contribute phenotypic diversity to a human population independently of influences on mRNA expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4129400PMC
August 2014

Protein quantitative trait loci identify novel candidates modulating cellular response to chemotherapy.

PLoS Genet 2014 Apr 3;10(4):e1004192. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America; Committee on Genetics, Genomics and Systems Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America; Committee on Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Annotating and interpreting the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) remains challenging. Assigning function to genetic variants as expression quantitative trait loci is an expanding and useful approach, but focuses exclusively on mRNA rather than protein levels. Many variants remain without annotation. To address this problem, we measured the steady state abundance of 441 human signaling and transcription factor proteins from 68 Yoruba HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines to identify novel relationships between inter-individual protein levels, genetic variants, and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Proteins were measured using micro-western and reverse phase protein arrays from three independent cell line thaws to permit mixed effect modeling of protein biological replicates. We observed enrichment of protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) for cellular sensitivity to two commonly used chemotherapeutics: cisplatin and paclitaxel. We functionally validated the target protein of a genome-wide significant trans-pQTL for its relevance in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. GWAS overlap results of drug-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity for paclitaxel and cisplatin revealed unique SNPs associated with the pharmacologic traits (at p<0.001). Interestingly, GWAS SNPs from various regions of the genome implicated the same target protein (p<0.0001) that correlated with drug induced cytotoxicity or apoptosis (p ≤ 0.05). Two genes were functionally validated for association with drug response using siRNA: SMC1A with cisplatin response and ZNF569 with paclitaxel response. This work allows pharmacogenomic discovery to progress from the transcriptome to the proteome and offers potential for identification of new therapeutic targets. This approach, linking targeted proteomic data to variation in pharmacologic response, can be generalized to other studies evaluating genotype-phenotype relationships and provide insight into chemotherapeutic mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3974641PMC
April 2014

EPS8 inhibition increases cisplatin sensitivity in lung cancer cells.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(12):e82220. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Cisplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic, is associated with ototoxicity, renal toxicity and neurotoxicity, thus identifying means to increase the therapeutic index of cisplatin may allow for improved outcomes. A SNP (rs4343077) within EPS8, discovered through a genome wide association study of cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), provided impetus to further study this gene. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the role of EPS8 in cellular susceptibility to cisplatin in cancerous and non-cancerous cells. We used EPS8 RNA interference to determine the effect of decreased EPS8 expression on LCL and A549 lung cancer cell sensitivity to cisplatin. EPS8 knockdown in LCLs resulted in a 7.9% increase in cisplatin-induced survival (P = 1.98 × 10(-7)) and an 8.7% decrease in apoptosis (P = 0.004) compared to control. In contrast, reduced EPS8 expression in lung cancer cells resulted in a 20.6% decrease in cisplatin-induced survival (P = 5.08 × 10(-5)). We then investigated an EPS8 inhibitor, mithramycin A, as a potential agent to increase the therapeutic index of cisplatin. Mithramycin A decreased EPS8 expression in LCLs resulting in decreased cellular sensitivity to cisplatin as evidenced by lower caspase 3/7 activation following cisplatin treatment (42.7% ± 6.8% relative to control P = 0.0002). In 5 non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, mithramycin A also resulted in decreased EPS8 expression. Adding mithramycin to 4 NSCLC cell lines and a bladder cancer cell line, resulted in increased sensitivity to cisplatin that was significantly more pronounced in tumor cell lines than in LCL lines (p<0.0001). An EGFR mutant NSCLC cell line (H1975) showed no significant change in sensitivity to cisplatin with the addition of mithramycin treatment. Therefore, an inhibitor of EPS8, such as mithramycin A, could improve cisplatin treatment by increasing sensitivity of tumor relative to normal cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0082220PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868552PMC
October 2014

Whole-genome studies identify solute carrier transporters in cellular susceptibility to paclitaxel.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2012 Jul;22(7):498-507

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objective: The clinical use of paclitaxel is limited by variable responses and the potential for significant toxicity. To date, studies of associations between variants in candidate genes and paclitaxel effects have yielded conflicting results. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between global gene expression and paclitaxel sensitivity.

Methods: We utilized well-genotyped lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from the International HapMap Project to evaluate the relationships between cellular susceptibility to paclitaxel and global gene expression. Cells were exposed to varying concentrations of paclitaxel to evaluate paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Among the top genes, we identified solute carrier (SLC) genes associated with paclitaxel sensitivity and narrowed down the list to those that had single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with both the expression level of the SLC gene and also with paclitaxel sensitivity. We performed an independent validation in an independent set of cell lines and also conducted functional studies using RNA interference.

Results: Of all genes associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity at P less than 0.05 (1713 genes), there was a significant enrichment in SLC genes (31 genes). A subset of SLC genes, namely SLC31A2, SLC43A1, SLC35A5, and SLC41A2, was associated with paclitaxel sensitivity and had regulating single nucleotide polymorphisms that were also associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity. Multivariate modeling demonstrated that those four SLC genes together explained 20% of the observed variability in paclitaxel susceptibility. Using RNA interference, we demonstrated increased paclitaxel susceptibility with knockdown of three SLC genes, SLC31A2, SLC35A5, and SLC41A2.

Conclusion: Our findings are novel and lend further support to the role of transporters, specifically solute carriers, in mediating cellular susceptibility to paclitaxel.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0b013e328352f436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3376193PMC
July 2012

Genome-wide local ancestry approach identifies genes and variants associated with chemotherapeutic susceptibility in African Americans.

PLoS One 2011 6;6(7):e21920. Epub 2011 Jul 6.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Chemotherapeutic agents are used in the treatment of many cancers, yet variable resistance and toxicities among individuals limit successful outcomes. Several studies have indicated outcome differences associated with ancestry among patients with various cancer types. Using both traditional SNP-based and newly developed gene-based genome-wide approaches, we investigated the genetics of chemotherapeutic susceptibility in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 83 African Americans, a population for which there is a disparity in the number of genome-wide studies performed. To account for population structure in this admixed population, we incorporated local ancestry information into our association model. We tested over 2 million SNPs and identified 325, 176, 240, and 190 SNPs that were suggestively associated with cytarabine-, 5'-deoxyfluorouridine (5'-DFUR)-, carboplatin-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, respectively (p≤10(-4)). Importantly, some of these variants are found only in populations of African descent. We also show that cisplatin-susceptibility SNPs are enriched for carboplatin-susceptibility SNPs. Using a gene-based genome-wide association approach, we identified 26, 11, 20, and 41 suggestive candidate genes for association with cytarabine-, 5'-DFUR-, carboplatin-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, respectively (p≤10(-3)). Fourteen of these genes showed evidence of association with their respective chemotherapeutic phenotypes in the Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria (p<0.05), including TP53I11, COPS5 and GAS8, which are known to be involved in tumorigenesis. Although our results require further study, we have identified variants and genes associated with chemotherapeutic susceptibility in African Americans by using an approach that incorporates local ancestry information.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0021920PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3130766PMC
November 2011

Chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis: a phenotype for pharmacogenomics studies.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2011 Aug;21(8):476-88

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

Aim: To determine whether cellular apoptosis is a suitable phenotypic trait for pharmacogenomics studies by evaluating caspase 3/7-mediated activity in lymphoblastoid cell lines after treatment with six chemotherapeutic agents: 5'-deoxyfluorouridine, pemetrexed, cytarabine, paclitaxel, carboplatin, and cisplatin.

Materials And Methods: Using monozygotic twin pair and sibling pair lymphoblastoid cell lines, we identified conditions for measurement of caspase 3/7 activity in lymphoblastoid cell lines. Genome-wide association studies were performed with over 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HapMap CEU cell lines (n=77).

Results: Although treatment with 5'-deoxyfluorouridine and pemetrexed for up to 24 h resulted in low levels of apoptosis or interindividual variation in caspase-dependent cell death; paclitaxel, cisplatin, carboplatin, and cytarabine treatment for 24 h resulted in 9.4-fold, 9.1-fold, 7.0-fold, and 6.0-fold increases in apoptosis relative to control, respectively. There was a weak correlation between caspase activity and cytotoxicity (r(2)=0.03-0.29) demonstrating that cytotoxicity and apoptosis are two distinct phenotypes that may produce independent genetic associations. Estimated heritability (h(2)) for apoptosis was 0.57 and 0.29 for cytarabine (5 and 40 μmol/l, respectively), 0.22 for paclitaxel (12.5 nmol/l), and 0.34 for cisplatin (5 μmol/l). In the genome-wide association study using the HapMap CEU panel, we identified a significant enrichment of cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity SNPs within the significant cisplatin-induced apoptosis SNPs and an enrichment of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Among these eQTLs, we identified several eQTLs with known function related to apoptosis and/or cytotoxicity.

Conclusion: Our study identifies apoptosis as a phenotype for pharmacogenomic studies in lymphoblastoid cell lines after treatment with paclitaxel, cisplatin, carboplatin, and cytarabine that may have utility for discovering biomarkers to predict response to certain chemotherapeutics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283481967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3134538PMC
August 2011