Publications by authors named "Lidia Watrud"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sub-lethal glyphosate exposure alters flowering phenology and causes transient male-sterility in Brassica spp.

BMC Plant Biol 2014 Mar 21;14:70. Epub 2014 Mar 21.

USDA-ARS Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY 14456, USA.

Background: Herbicide resistance in weedy plant populations can develop through different mechanisms such as gene flow of herbicide resistance transgenes from crop species into compatible weedy species or by natural evolution of herbicide resistance or tolerance following selection pressure. Results from our previous studies suggest that sub-lethal levels of the herbicide glyphosate can alter the pattern of gene flow between glyphosate resistant Canola®, Brassica napus, and glyphosate sensitive varieties of B. napus and B. rapa. The objectives of this study were to examine the phenological and developmental changes that occur in Brassica crop and weed species following sub-lethal doses of the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. We examined several vegetative and reproductive traits of potted plants under greenhouse conditions, treated with sub-lethal herbicide sprays.

Results: Our results indicate that exposure of Brassica spp. to a sub-lethal dose of glyphosate results in altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. Flowering of all sensitive species was significantly delayed and reproductive function, specifically male fertility, was suppressed. Higher dosage levels typically contributed to an increase in the magnitude of phenotypic changes.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that Brassica spp. plants that are exposed to sub-lethal doses of glyphosate could be subject to very different pollination patterns and an altered pattern of gene flow that would result from changes in the overlap of flowering phenology between species. Implications include the potential for increased glyphosate resistance evolution and spread in weedy communities exposed to sub-lethal glyphosate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-14-70DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3998022PMC
March 2014

Changes in constructed Brassica communities treated with glyphosate drift.

Ecol Appl 2011 Mar;21(2):525-38

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division, 200 SW 35th Street, Corvallis, Oregon 97333, USA.

We constructed a mixed-species community designed to simulate roadside and field edge plant communities and exposed it to glyphosate drift in order to test three hypotheses: (1) higher fitness in transgenic Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene that confers resistance to glyphosate will result in significant changes in the plant community relative to control communities; (2) given repeated years of glyphosate drift selective pressure, the increased fitness of the transgenic Brassica with CP4 EPSPS will contribute to an increase in the proportion of transgenic progeny produced in plant communities; and (3) the increased fitness of Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene will contribute to decreased levels of mycorrhizal infection and biomass in a host species (Trifolium incarnatum). Due to regulatory constraints that prevented the use of outdoor plots for our studies, in 2005 we established multispecies communities in five large cylindrical outdoor sunlit mesocosms (plastic greenhouses) designed for pollen confinement. Three of the community members were sexually compatible Brassica spp.: transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola (B. napus) cultivar (cv.) RaideRR, glyphosate-sensitive non-transgenic B. napus cv. Sponsor, and a weedy B. rapa (GRIN Accession 21735). Additional plant community members were the broadly distributed annual weeds Digitaria sanguinalis, Panicum capillare, and Lapsana communis. Once annually in 2006 and 2007, two mesocosms were sprayed with glyphosate at 10% of the field application rate to simulate glyphosate drift as a selective pressure. After two years, changes were observed in community composition, plant density, and biomass in both control and treatment mesocosms. In control mesocosms, the weed D. sanguinalis (crabgrass) began to dominate. In glyphosate drift-treated mesocosms, Brassica remained the dominant genus and the incidence of the CP4 EPSPS transgene increased in the community. Shoot biomass and mycorrhizal infection in Trifolium incarnatum planted in 2008 were significantly lower in mesocosms that had received glyphosate drift treatments. Our results suggest that, over time, glyphosate drift can contribute to persistence of Brassica that express the CP4 EPSPS transgene and that increased representation of Brassica (a non-mycorrhizal host) within plant communities may indirectly negatively impact beneficial ecosystem services associated with arbuscular mycorrhiza.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/09-2366.1DOI Listing
March 2011

Glyphosate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus) to nontransgenic B. napus and B. rapa.

New Phytol 2011 Aug 28;191(3):840-849. Epub 2011 Mar 28.

US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division, 200 SW 35th Street Corvallis, OR 97333, USA.

• Transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, but the escape of transgenes is an environmental concern. In this study we tested the hypothesis that glyphosate drift and herbivory selective pressures can change the rate of transgene flow between the crop Brassica napus (canola), and weedy species and contribute to the potential for increased transgene escape risk and persistence outside of cultivation. • We constructed plant communities containing single transgenic B. napus genotypes expressing glyphosate herbicide resistance (CP4 EPSPS), lepidopteran insect resistance (Cry1Ac), or both traits ('stacked'), plus nontransgenic B. napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra. Two different selective pressures, a sublethal glyphosate dose and lepidopteran herbivores (Plutella xylostella), were applied and rates of transgene flow and transgenic seed production were measured. • Selective treatments differed in the degree in which they affected gene flow and production of transgenic hybrid seed. Most notably, glyphosate-drift increased the incidence of transgenic seeds on nontransgenic B. napus by altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. • The findings of this study indicate that transgenic traits may be transmitted to wild populations and may increase in frequency in weedy populations through the direct and indirect effects of selection pressures on gene flow.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03706.xDOI Listing
August 2011

Glyphosate drift promotes changes in fitness and transgene gene flow in canola (Brassica napus) and hybrids.

Ann Bot 2010 Dec 18;106(6):957-65. Epub 2010 Sep 18.

National Research Council Associate, 200 SW 35th Street, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA.

Background And Aims: With the advent of transgenic crops, genetically modified, herbicide-resistant Brassica napus has become a model system for examining the risks and potential ecological consequences of escape of transgenes from cultivation into wild compatible species. Escaped transgenic feral B. napus and hybrids with compatible weedy species have been identified outside of agriculture and without the apparent selection for herbicide resistance. However, herbicide (glyphosate) exposure can extend beyond crop field boundaries, and a drift-level of herbicide could function as a selective agent contributing to increased persistence of transgenes in the environment.

Methods: The effects of a drift level (0·1 × the field application rate) of glyphosate herbicide and varied levels of plant competition were examined on plant fitness-associated traits and gene flow in a simulated field plot, common garden experiment. Plants included transgenic, glyphosate-resistant B. napus, its weedy ancestor B. rapa, and hybrid and advanced generations derived from them.

Key Results: The results of this experiment demonstrate reductions in reproductive fitness for non-transgenic genotypes and a contrasting increase in plant fitness for transgenic genotypes as a result of glyphosate-drift treatments. Results also suggest that a drift level of glyphosate spray may influence the movement of transgenes among transgenic crops and weeds and alter the processes of hybridization and introgression in non-agronomic habitats by impacting flowering phenology and pollen availability within the community.

Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the potential for persistence of glyphosate resistance transgenes in weedy plant communities due to the effect of glyphosate spray drift on plant fitness. Additionally, glyphosate drift has the potential to change the gene-flow dynamics between compatible transgenic crops and weeds, simultaneously reducing direct introgression into weedy species while contributing to an increase in the transgenic seed bank.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcq190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2990662PMC
December 2010

A composite transcriptional signature differentiates responses towards closely related herbicides in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus.

Plant Mol Biol 2010 Mar 31;72(4-5):545-56. Epub 2009 Dec 31.

National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA.

In this study, genome-wide expression profiling based on Affymetrix ATH1 arrays was used to identify discriminating responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to five herbicides, which contain active ingredients targeting two different branches of amino acid biosynthesis. One herbicide contained glyphosate, which targets 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), while the other four herbicides contain different acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting compounds. In contrast to the herbicide containing glyphosate, which affected only a few transcripts, many effects of the ALS inhibiting herbicides were revealed based on transcriptional changes related to ribosome biogenesis and translation, secondary metabolism, cell wall modification and growth. The expression pattern of a set of 101 genes provided a specific, composite signature that was distinct from other major stress responses and differentiated among herbicides targeting the same enzyme (ALS) or containing the same chemical class of active ingredient (sulfonylurea). A set of homologous genes could be identified in Brassica napus that exhibited a similar expression pattern and correctly distinguished exposure to the five herbicides. Our results show the ability of a limited number of genes to classify and differentiate responses to closely related herbicides in A. thaliana and B. napus and the transferability of a complex transcriptional signature across species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-009-9590-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816244PMC
March 2010

Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: a meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2008 May 7;3(5):e2118. Epub 2008 May 7.

Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America.

Background: Uncertainty persists over the environmental effects of genetically-engineered crops that produce the insecticidal Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the abundance and interactions of arthropod non-target functional guilds.

Methodology/principal Findings: We compared the abundance of predators, parasitoids, omnivores, detritivores and herbivores under scenarios in which neither, only the non-Bt crops, or both Bt and non-Bt crops received insecticide treatments. Predators were less abundant in Bt cotton compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls. As expected, fewer specialist parasitoids of the target pest occurred in Bt maize fields compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls, but no significant reduction was detected for other parasitoids. Numbers of predators and herbivores were higher in Bt crops compared to sprayed non-Bt controls, and type of insecticide influenced the magnitude of the difference. Omnivores and detritivores were more abundant in insecticide-treated controls and for the latter guild this was associated with reductions of their predators in sprayed non-Bt maize. No differences in abundance were found when both Bt and non-Bt crops were sprayed. Predator-to-prey ratios were unchanged by either Bt crops or the use of insecticides; ratios were higher in Bt maize relative to the sprayed non-Bt control.

Conclusions/significance: Overall, we find no uniform effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the functional guilds of non-target arthropods. Use of and type of insecticides influenced the magnitude and direction of effects; insecticde effects were much larger than those of Bt crops. These meta-analyses underscore the importance of using controls not only to isolate the effects of a Bt crop per se but also to reflect the replacement of existing agricultural practices. Results will provide researchers with information to design more robust experiments and will inform the decisions of diverse stakeholders regarding the safety of transgenic insecticidal crops.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0002118PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2346550PMC
May 2008

Long-distance GM pollen movement of creeping bentgrass using modeled wind trajectory analysis.

Ecol Appl 2007 Jun;17(4):1244-56

National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, 200 Southwest 35th Street, Corvallis, Oregon 97333, USA.

The importance of understanding the role of atmospheric conditions in pollen dispersal has grown in recent years with increased field-testing of genetically modified (GM) crop plants. An atmospheric model was used to characterize wind trajectories at 10 m and 100 m above GM pollen source fields located within a 4452-ha "control" area north of Madras, Oregon, USA, designated by the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA). The area was used in 2003 for the growth of GM creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) engineered to be resistant to glyphosate herbicide. The presence of the GM gene (CP4 EPSPS) provided a distinct selectable marker for pollen-mediated gene flow to sentinel and resident Agrostis spp. plants. Linkage of GM gene presence with wind flow characteristics over the "control" area became essential to understand the timing and processes leading to long-distance transport of this pollen. Wind trajectories showed a general pattern of northwest to southeast air movement. Trajectory travel distances calculated hourly from 06:00 hours to 15:00 hours during the 2003 pollination period (15 June-15 July) showed movement up to 15 km from the "control" area's center by the first hour. Maximum travel distances increased to 40 and 55 km after two and three hours from release, respectively. Calculated wind trajectory positions corresponded with observed long-distance pollen-mediated gene flow in the seedlings of sentinel and resident plants. The highest correlations were found during the late morning hours. Back-calculated wind trajectories from sentinel and resident locations with GM-gene-positive progeny suggested that most successful fertilizations occurred in the direction of prevailing winds during late June 2003. The occurrence of positive progeny from sentinel plants, upwind of the "control" area during this period, indicated the additional influence of local topography on pollen dispersal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/06-0962DOI Listing
June 2007

Establishment of transgenic herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) in nonagronomic habitats.

Mol Ecol 2006 Nov;15(13):4243-55

Western Ecology Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA.

Concerns about genetically modified (GM) crops include transgene flow to compatible wild species and unintended ecological consequences of potential transgene introgression. However, there has been little empirical documentation of establishment and distribution of transgenic plants in wild populations. We present herein the first evidence for escape of transgenes into wild plant populations within the USA; glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) plants expressing CP4 EPSPS transgenes were found outside of cultivation area in central Oregon. Resident populations of three compatible Agrostis species were sampled in nonagronomic habitats outside the Oregon Department of Agriculture control area designated for test production of glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass. CP4 EPSPS protein and the corresponding transgene were found in nine A. stolonifera plants screened from 20,400 samples (0.04 +/- 0.01% SE). CP4 EPSPS-positive plants were located predominantly in mesic habitats downwind and up to 3.8 km beyond the control area perimeter; two plants were found within the USDA Crooked River National Grassland. Spatial distribution and parentage of transgenic plants (as confirmed by analyses of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK gene trees) suggest that establishment resulted from both pollen-mediated intraspecific hybridizations and from crop seed dispersal. These results demonstrate that transgene flow from short-term production can result in establishment of transgenic plants at multi-kilometre distances from GM source fields or plants. Selective pressure from direct application or drift of glyphosate herbicide could enhance introgression of CP4 EPSPS transgenes and additional establishment. Obligatory outcrossing and vegetative spread could further contribute to persistence of CP4 EPSPS transgenes in wild Agrostis populations, both in the presence or absence of herbicide selection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03072.xDOI Listing
November 2006

Comparison of taxonomic, colony morphotype and PCR-RFLP methods to characterize microfungal diversity.

Mycologia 2006 May-Jun;98(3):384-92

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division, 200 SW 35th Street, Corvallis, Oregon 97333, USA.

We compared three methods for estimating fungal species diversity in soil samples. A rapid screening method based on gross colony morphological features and color reference standards was compared with traditional fungal taxonomic methods and PCR-RFLP for estimation of ecological indices of soil microfungal community composition. Normalized counts of colony morphotypes on dichloran rose bengal medium were used to estimate species richness (S) and evenness (J) and to calculate Shannon's diversity (H) and Simpson's (SI) dominance indices. Isolates were obtained by dilution plating techniques from litter and soil layer samples taken from Douglas-fir forest and clear-cut areas at two locations in the Cascade Mountains. The highest correspondence (97%) was observed between taxonomic identification and RFLP patterns (32:33). Cladistic analyses of PCR-RFLP patterns indicated an 81% correspondence between RFLP patterns:colony morphotypes (33:41). A correspondence of 78% was observed between traditional taxonomic identification:colony morphotypes (32:41). Statistical analyses of ecological indices based on quantitative application of the colony morphotyping method indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) in fungal community composition between forested and clear-cut areas at the Toad Road site but not at the Falls Creek site. Comparisons of ecological indices based on traditional identification of taxa by microscopic characterization on defined culture media resulted in identical findings of statistical significance. The colony morphotyping approach is proposed as a screening method to identify potential effects of land management practices, edaphic factors and pollutants on microfungal diversity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.98.3.384DOI Listing
December 2006

Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Oct 24;101(40):14533-8. Epub 2004 Sep 24.

National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, 200 Southwest 35th Street, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA.

Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. Most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximal gene flow distances observed were 21 km and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants, respectively, that were located in primarily nonagronomic habitats. The selectable marker used in these studies was the CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium spp. strain CP4 that encodes 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and confers resistance to glyphosate herbicide. Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results. Additional studies are needed to determine whether introgression will occur and whether it will affect the ecological fitness of progeny or the structure of plant communities in which transgenic progeny may become established.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0405154101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC521937PMC
October 2004
-->