Publications by authors named "Liang Yu"

1,095 Publications

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METTL3-mediated mA mRNA modification promotes esophageal cancer initiation and progression via Notch signaling pathway.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Dec 21;26:333-346. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Center for Translational Medicine, Precision Medicine Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Esophageal cancer is a lethal malignancy with a high mortality rate, while the molecular mechanisms underlying esophageal cancer pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we found that the N6-methyladenosine (mA) methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) is significantly upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and associated with poor patient prognosis. Depletion of METTL3 results in decreased ESCC growth and progression and . We further established ESCC initiation and progression models using conditional knockout mouse and revealed that 3METTL3-mediated mA modification promotes ESCC initiation and progression . Moreover, using METTL3 overexpression ESCC cell model and conditional knockin mouse model, we demonstrated the critical function of METTL3 in promoting ESCC tumorigenesis and . Mechanistically, METTL3-catalyzed mA modification promotes NOTCH1 expression and the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. Forced activation of Notch signaling pathway successfully rescues the growth, migration, and invasion capacities of METTL3-depleted ESCC cells. Our data uncovered important mechanistical insights underlying ESCC tumorigenesis and provided molecular basis for the development of novel strategies for ESCC diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416973PMC
December 2021

Alcohol use among patients with epilepsy in western China. A hospital-based study.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Sep 8;124:108302. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 32# W. Sec 2, 1st Ring Rd, Chengdu, Sichuan 610072, People's Republic of China; Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, 32# W. Sec 2, 1st Ring Rd, Chengdu, Sichuan 610072, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

AMIS: Alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy, including precipitation of seizure or status epilepticus, worsening of seizure control, increased adverse effects of anti-seizure medications, increased sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, and premature mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol use and explore the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with alcohol use among patients with epilepsy in western China.

Methods: A face-to-face questionnaire on alcohol use was conducted at Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from December 2020 to June 2021. All adult patients who came to our epilepsy center (inpatient and outpatient) were invited to participate in this study. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the possible risk factors associated with alcohol use within the last 12 months.

Results: A total of 425 patients completed this study, 24.2% of patients with epilepsy had used alcohol within the last 12 months, being male and having a history of alcohol use were independently associated factors. Among patients who had used alcohol within the last 12 months, 52.4% complained of worsening of seizure control, heavy alcohol use, and frequent alcohol use were independently associated with worsening of seizure control after alcohol use in patients with epilepsy.

Conclusion: This study revealed that the rate of alcohol use among patients with epilepsy was high. Male patients with a history of alcohol use were more prone to alcohol use after a diagnosis of epilepsy. Heavy alcohol use and frequent alcohol use were independently associated with worsening of seizure control after alcohol use in patients with epilepsy. Patient education on the destructive effects of alcohol use is needed for patients with epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108302DOI Listing
September 2021

A network embedding framework based on integrating multiplex network for drug combination prediction.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, P.R. China.

Drug combination is a sensible strategy for disease treatment because it improves the treatment efficacy and reduces concomitant side effects. Due to the large number of possible combinations among candidate compounds, exhaustive screening is prohibitive. Currently, a large number of studies have focused on predicting potential drug combinations. However, these methods are not entirely satisfactory in terms of performance and scalability. In this paper, we proposed a Network Embedding frameWork in MultIplex Network (NEWMIN) to predict synthetic drug combinations. Based on a multiplex drug similarity network, we offered alternative methods to integrate useful information from different aspects and to decide the quantitative importance of each network. For drug combination prediction, we found seven novel drug combinations that have been validated by external sources among the top-ranked predictions of our model. To verify the feasibility of NEWMIN, we compared NEWMIN with other five methods, for which it showed better performance than other methods in terms of the area under the precision-recall curve and receiver operating characteristic curve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab364DOI Listing
September 2021

Cyclophosphamide inhibits the progression of Meniere's disease by reducing the generation of circulating immune complex.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Oct 13;22(4):1177. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Otolaryngology, The Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010110, P.R. China.

Endolymphatic hydrops is a characteristic pathological manifestation of Meniere's disease (MD) that has been previously associated with autoimmunity. Interest in the circulating immune complex (CIC) has increased due to its reported role in the occurrence of MD. The present study aimed to investigate the potential value of serum CIC concentration in the diagnosis of MD and the therapeutic potential of cyclophosphamide (CTX) for the treatment of MD. In the present study, guinea pigs were immunized with isologous crude inner ear antigens to establish an autoimmune MD model. Pure tone audiometry, Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test, electrocochleography test and auditory brainstem response was applied in this study for assessing the severity of MD in guinea pigs. ELISA was applied to measure CIC, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression levels in the serum samples of different groups of patients. Western blotting was applied to detect the protein expression of HSP70 in inner ear tissues in guinea pigs. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was applied to visualize the spiral ganglions in spiral ganglions models. CIC expression in the inner ear was detected by immunohistochemistry. experiments were performed to confirm the therapeutic effects of CTX in MD. Serum concentrations of CIC, TNF-α and HSP70 were found to be significantly higher in patients with MD, which were also associated with increases in hearing classification and the severity of endolymphatic hydrops. Using a guinea pig MD model, ELISA results revealed significantly increased serum CIC, TNF-α and HSP70 concentrations compared with those in the control group. ABR results showed that the thresholds in the CTX group were notably decreased compared with that in the dexamethasone group, whereas CIC concentrations in the serum were reduced following dexamethasone and CTX treatments compared with those after saline treatment. In the inner ear tissues, the CIC concentration in CTX group was lower than that in the dexamethasone group. Similarly, reductions in HSP70 and TNF-α concentrations was also observed in a similar manner. Immunohistochemistry staining found notably lower CIC deposition in the inner ear tissues following CTX treatment than that in dexamethasone group. Taken together, higher CIC expression can be used as a biomarker for MD diagnosis. The efficacy of CTX in MD was found to be higher compared with that in dexamethasone, which may be associated with the effective inhibition of CIC, HSP70 and TNF-α generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393373PMC
October 2021

Development of a Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Soybean Mosaic Virus, Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Field Samples of Soybean.

J Virol Methods 2021 Sep 6:114278. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Sichuan Engineering Research Center for Crop Strip Intercropping System and Key Laboratory of Crop Eco-physiology and Farming System in Southwest China, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China; College of Agronomy and Key Laboratory for Major Crop Diseases, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Soybean is susceptible to viral diseases which are often present as mixed infections. The individual simplex RT-PCR methods used for the identification of multiple viruses are more tedious and time-consuming than the corresponding multiplex RT-PCR. This study used soybean mosaic virus (SMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected leaf samples from southern China as the test materials to evaluate a multiplex RT-PCR assay developed for the simultaneous detection of these viruses. The parameters optimised included the annealing temperature, extension time, number of cycles, and primer type and concentration. The specific fragments sizes obtained by the multiplex RT-PCR were 550 bp (SMV), 288 bp (BCMV) and 99 bp (CMV). The assay was tested using infected soybean samples obtained from farmers' fields in Sichuan Province, China. The multiplex RT-PCR assay had high sensitivity, was rapid and simple, and could be used for the diagnosis of soybean infected with various combinations of these viruses in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2021.114278DOI Listing
September 2021

STAT3-mediated upregulation of the AIM2 DNA sensor links innate immunity with cell migration to promote epithelial tumourigenesis.

Gut 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

Objective: The absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) cytosolic pattern recognition receptor and DNA sensor promotes the pathogenesis of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases via caspase-1-containing inflammasome complexes. However, the role of AIM2 in cancer is ill-defined.

Design: The expression of AIM2 and its clinical significance was assessed in human gastric cancer (GC) patient cohorts. Genetic or therapeutic manipulation of AIM2 expression and activity was performed in the genetically engineered spontaneous GC mouse model, as well as human GC cell line xenografts. The biological role and mechanism of action of AIM2 in gastric tumourigenesis, including its involvement in inflammasome activity and functional interaction with microtubule-associated end-binding protein 1 (EB1), was determined in vitro and in vivo.

Results: AIM2 expression is upregulated by interleukin-11 cytokine-mediated activation of the oncogenic latent transcription factor STAT3 in the tumour epithelium of GC mouse models and patients with GC. Genetic and therapeutic targeting of AIM2 in mice suppressed tumourigenesis. Conversely, AIM2 overexpression augmented the tumour load of human GC cell line xenografts. The protumourigenic function of AIM2 was independent of inflammasome activity and inflammation. Rather, in vivo and in vitro AIM2 physically interacted with EB1 to promote epithelial cell migration and tumourigenesis. Furthermore, upregulated expression of AIM2 and EB1 in the tumour epithelium of patients with GC was independently associated with poor patient survival.

Conclusion: AIM2 can play a driver role in epithelial carcinogenesis by linking cytokine-STAT3 signalling, innate immunity and epithelial cell migration, independent of inflammasome activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323916DOI Listing
September 2021

Occurrence, distribution, and risk assessment of perfluoroalkyl acids in drinking water sources from the lower Yangtze River.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 28;287(Pt 1):132064. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, PR China; Yangtze Institute for Conservation and Development, Hohai University, Jiangsu, 210098, PR China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, PR China. Electronic address:

The occurrence, spatial distribution, potential sources, and risk assessment of 14 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and 3 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates acids, were investigated in 21 drinking water sources from the lower Yangtze River in November 2019. The total PFAAs (∑PFAAs) concentrations ranged from 39.3 to 220.3 ng/L, and perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonate were predominant with average concentrations of 19.4 and 15.4 ng/L, respectively. The higher ∑PFAAs concentrations in the southern shore and downstream could be attributed to industrial development and surface runoff/tide currents, respectively. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression revealed that the primary sources of PFAAs were fluororesin coatings/metal plating, surface runoff/textile, effluent discharge/food packaging, and leather/fabrics. Human intake risks of PFAAs were assessed by target hazard quotient (THQ), which showed that human health risks of PFAAs decreased with increasing age, excluding 13-17 years age group. Moreover, the total exposure risks of PFOA/PFOS in all sampling sites to people aged over 18 years calculated based on contribution from drinking water were noted to be at safe level. The results obtained were helpful for improving our understanding of human health risks of PFAAs, and expanding our knowledge on PFAAs in drinking water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132064DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficient generation of narrowband picosecond pulses from a femtosecond laser.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Aug;92(8):083001

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Dynamics Research Center for Energy and Environmental Materials, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.

In some applications of broadband ultrafast spectroscopy, such as surface sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy, femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, a narrowband picosecond pulse is required to obtain a high spectral resolution. Here, we present a method to generate narrowband picosecond second harmonic (SH) and fundamental frequency (FF) pulses with high-conversion efficiency from a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser amplifier. The narrowband picosecond SH pulse was generated based on the group velocity mismatch between the SH and FF pulses in a nonlinear crystal of β-barium borate (BBO). The small SH nonlinear optical coefficient was optimized by changing the azimuth angle of a thick BBO crystal, successfully avoiding the saturation effect in the SH generation process. The SH pulse was then used to pump an optical parametric amplifier to efficiently amplify the narrowband FF seed pulse, which was obtained with an etalon by spectrally filtering the output from the femtosecond laser amplifier. Dual-wavelength output, which could be very useful in femtosecond SRS, was also realized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0056050DOI Listing
August 2021

High Uric Acid Level Predicts Early Neurological Deterioration in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 24;17:2803-2809. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Science and Technology, First People's Hospital of Huainan, Huainan, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Increased level of serum uric acid (UA) is often considered a risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, there are limited data on the association between UA and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study aimed to examine the connection between UA and early neurological deterioration (END) in patients with ICH.

Methods: This is a prospective observational study. Patients with ICH were enrolled from January 2017 to December 2020. END was diagnosed as the Canadian Stroke Scale (CSS) score decreased ≥1 points between admission and 48 hours. UA was measured at admission. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between serum UA and END.

Results: Of the 498 enrolled patients, 132 (26.5%) were developed with END. Patients with END had a significantly higher level of serum UA (332 vs 270 µmol/L, < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that patients with the highest quartile of UA level had an OR of 3.256 (95% CI: 1.849-5.734, < 0.001) for END compared with those with the lowest quartile of UA level. After adjusting for major confounders, the highest UA quartile remained as an independent predictor for END (OR = 2.282, 95% CI: 1.112-4.685, = 0.013).

Conclusion: Higher serum UA level was independently associated with END in patients with ICH; therefore, intervention to lower UA level may be worth considering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S321778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403016PMC
August 2021

Comparison on binding interactions of quercetin and its metal complexes with calf thymus DNA by spectroscopic techniques and viscosity measurement.

J Mol Recognit 2021 Aug 25:e2933. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Natural Polymer Chemistry and Physics, College of Chemistry and Materials, Nanning Normal University, Nanning, China.

Quercetin (Qu) and its metal complexes have received great attention during the last years, due to their good antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. In this contribution, binding interactions of Qu and Qu-metal complexes with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated and compared systematically by using spectroscopic techniques and viscosity measurement. UV-vis absorption spectra of ctDNA-compound systems showed obvious hypochromic effect. Relative viscosity and melting temperature of ctDNA increased after the addition of Qu and Qu-metal complexes, and the change tendency is Qu-Cr(III) > Qu-Mn(II) > Qu-Zn(II) > Qu-Cu(II) > Qu. Fluorescence competition experiments show that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interaction play an important role in the intercalative binding of Qu and Qu-metal complexes with ctDNA. Qu and Qu-metal complexes could unwind the right-handed B-form helicity of ctDNA and further affect its base pair stacking. Space steric hindrance might be responsible for the differences in the intercalative binding between ctDNA and different Qu-metal complexes. These results provide new information for the molecular understanding of binding interactions of Qu-metal complexes with DNA and the strategy for research of structural influences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmr.2933DOI Listing
August 2021

TLR2 activation promotes tumour growth and associates with patient survival and chemotherapy response in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Oncogene 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has an extremely poor prognosis, and is plagued by a paucity of targeted treatment options and tumour resistance to chemotherapeutics. The causal link between chronic inflammation and PDAC suggests that molecular regulators of the immune system promote disease pathogenesis and/or therapeutic resistance, yet their identity is unclear. Here, we couple endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, which captures tumour biopsies from all stages, with whole transcriptome profiling of PDAC patient primary tumours to reveal enrichment of the innate immune Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) molecular pathway. Augmented TLR2 expression associated with a 4-gene "TLR2 activation" signature, and was prognostic for survival and predictive for gemcitabine-based chemoresistance. Furthermore, antibody-mediated anti-TLR2 therapy suppressed the growth of human PDAC tumour xenografts, independent of a functional immune system. Our results support TLR2-based therapeutic targeting for precision medicine in PDAC, with further clinical utility that TLR2 activation is prognostic and predictive for chemoresponsiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01992-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Undifferentiated Chordae Tendineae of the Mitral Valve: Large Cohort Study of a Rare Mitral Malformation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 27;8:695536. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

This study aimed to investigate the pathology, classification, diagnosis, and surgical prognosis of UCMV. Consecutive paediatric patients with ≥ moderate-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and mitral stenosis (MS) were recruited between October 2016 and July 2020. UCMV was diagnosed and classified into three grades according to the involvement of chorda groups and MS presence or absence; other mitral lesions were included as controls. Of 207 eligible patients, 75 with UCMV (10.0 m [interquartile range (IQR): 6.0-21.5]) and 110 with other mitral lesions (16.0 m [IQR: 5.0-43.5]) were diagnosed using echocardiography and surgical exploration. The associated chorda groups of UCMV were confirmed to show high agreement between echocardiography and surgery (kappa = 0.857, < 0.001). At baseline surgery assessment, the UCMV group exhibited worse New York Heart Association functional class, more severe MR and MS grades, and fewer associated complex anomalies (all, < 0.05) than the control group. After a mean follow-up of 8.3 (IQR:2.7-14.4) months and adjustment for covariates, the UCMV group required longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamp times, but there were no differences in the incidence of adverse events ( = 0.584). Class III was associated with higher risk of adverse events than classes I and II ( = 0.002). The UCMV spectrum constitutes a primary pathogenesis of paediatric MV dysfunction, which can be optimally diagnosed using echocardiography. Classification based on mitral anatomy and dysfunction can predict the risk of postoperative adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.695536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353112PMC
July 2021

Protective effects of VMY-2-95 on corticosterone-induced injuries in mice and cellular models.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 Jul 9;11(7):1903-1913. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target and Screening Research, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

Nicotinic 42 receptor antagonists have drawn increasing attention in the development of new antidepressants. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of VMY-2-95, the new selective antagonist of 42 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) on corticosterone (CORT) injured mice and cellular models. Fluoxetine was applied as a positive control, and the effects of VMY-2-95 were investigated with three different doses or concentrations (1, 3, 10 mg/kg in mice, and 0.003, 0.03, 0.1 μmol/L in cells). As a result, VMY-2-95 showed significant antidepressant-like effects in the CORT injured mice by improving neuromorphic function, promoting hippocampal nerve proliferation, and regulating the contents of monoamine transmitters. Meanwhile, VMY-2-95 exhibited protective effects on cell viability, cell oxidant, cell apoptosis, and mitochondrial energy metabolism on corticosterone-impaired SH-SY5Y cells. Also, the PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway was up-regulated by VMY-2-95 both and , and pathway blockers were also combined with VMY-2-95 to verify the effects furtherly. Therefore, we preliminarily proved that VMY-2-95 had protective effects in depressed mice and SH-SY5Y cells against injuries induced by corticosterone. This work indicated that the application of VMY-2-95 is a potential pharmacological solution for depression. This study also supported the development of 42 nAChR antagonists towards neuropsychiatric dysfunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2021.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8343195PMC
July 2021

Microstructure of Al-substituted goethite and its adsorption performance for Pb(II) and As(V).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 2;790:148202. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Soil Health and Green Remediation, Wuhan 430070, China.

Naturally occurring goethite commonly undergoes Al-substitution, while how changes in microstructure induced by Al-substitution affect the interactive reaction of Pb(II) or As(V) at the goethite-water interface remains poorly understood. This study reveals the structural properties of Al-substituted goethite and its adsorption behavior for Pb(II) and As(V) by multiple characterization techniques and Charge Distribution-Multisite Surface Complexation (CD-MUSIC) modeling. Al-substitution caused an obvious decrease in the length-to-width ratio in goethite particles and a slight decrease in the proportion of (110) facets. The presence of Al-O sites and higher surface roughness induced by Al-substitution contributed to a higher inner Stern layer capacitance (C) and surface charge density of goethite. CD-MUSIC modeling results further revealed that the affinity constant of Pb(II) complex (log K) at the goethite-water interface and the adsorption capacity of goethite for Pb(II) decreased with increasing amount of Al-substitution, while an opposite tendency was observed for As(V) adsorption. The dominant species of both Pb(II) and As(V) on goethite were bidentate complexes, and Al-substitution had a minor impact on the abundance of Pb(II) and As(V) complexes on the surface of goethite. Overall, these experimental and modeling results provide new and important insights into the interfacial reactivity of Al-substituted goethite and facilitate the prediction of the environmental fate of heavy metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148202DOI Listing
October 2021

Exosomal Noncoding RNAs in Hepatobiliary Cancer: A Rising Star.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Hepatobiliary cancers are a heterogeneous group of malignancies with a dismal prognosis. Despite intensive research efforts focused on these tumors, methods for early diagnosis and effective targeted therapies are still lacking. Exosomes, released by most cells, exist in all kinds of body fluids and play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. They are small membranous vesicles containing biological molecules, such as noncoding RNAs (ncRNA), which are not translated into proteins, but they exert effects on the regulation of gene transcription and translation. There is growing evidence for the essential roles of ncRNAs in exosomes in both physiologic and pathologic conditions of hepatobiliary cancers. They have been identified as sensitive diagnostic biomarkers as well as potential therapeutic targets. The present review discusses recent findings in the cross-talk between hepatobiliary cancers cells and the surrounding cells of the microenvironment and discuss their potential clinical usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-21-0363DOI Listing
August 2021

Perfluoroalkyl acids in surface sediments from the lower Yangtze River: Occurrence, distribution, sources, inventory, and risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 29;798:149332. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, PR China.

In this study, the occurrence, spatial distribution, potential sources, mass inventory, and ecological risk assessment of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface sediments from the lower Yangtze River were investigated based on field and laboratory assays conducted in November 2019. The total concentrations of 13 target PFAAs (∑PFAAs) ranged from 13.83 to 20.33 ng/g dw, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were predominant in the surface sediments with average concentrations of 2.89 and 4.07 ng/g dw, respectively. The ∑PFAAs concentrations in pore-water ranged from 23.30 to 58.81 ng/L, and PFOA and PFOS were predominant with mean concentrations of 6.29 and 5.04 ng/L, respectively. The profiles of PFAAs composition in surface sediments showed limited difference. Results of fugacity model revealed that PFOS was in relative equilibrium, whereas PFOA exhibited a diffusion trend from sediments to water body. Correlation analysis and positive matrix factorization demonstrated that the main sources of ∑PFAAs were electroplating and fast-food packaging, degradation products and textile, mixed sources, and PFOA-based products. The mass inventory of ∑PFAAs was estimated to be 1680.72 kg, and the results of ecological risk assessments based on equilibrium partition and species sensitivity distribution methods suggested that the hazards of PFAAs in sediments to local aquatic organisms are low. However, the evaluation methods and control measures of PFAAs in surface sediments are still limited, requiring further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149332DOI Listing
July 2021

A heterogeneous network embedding framework for predicting similarity-based drug-target interactions.

Authors:
Qi An Liang Yu

Brief Bioinform 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

College of Computer Science and Technology at Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, P.R. China.

Accurate prediction of drug-target interactions (DTIs) through biological data can reduce the time and economic cost of drug development. The prediction method of DTIs based on a similarity network is attracting increasing attention. Currently, many studies have focused on predicting DTIs. However, such approaches do not consider the features of drugs and targets in multiple networks or how to extract and merge them. In this study, we proposed a Network EmbeDding framework in mulTiPlex networks (NEDTP) to predict DTIs. NEDTP builds a similarity network of nodes based on 15 heterogeneous information networks. Next, we applied a random walk to extract the topology information of each node in the network and learn it as a low-dimensional vector. Finally, the Gradient Boosting Decision Tree model was constructed to complete the classification task. NEDTP achieved accurate results in DTI prediction, showing clear advantages over several state-of-the-art algorithms. The prediction of new DTIs was also verified from multiple perspectives. In addition, this study also proposes a reasonable model for the widespread negative sampling problem of DTI prediction, contributing new ideas to future research. Code and data are available at https://github.com/LiangYu-Xidian/NEDTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab275DOI Listing
August 2021

Excretory expression of IsPETase in E. coli by an enhancer of signal peptides and enhanced PET hydrolysis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 8;188:568-575. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, No. 30 Puzhu South Road, Nanjing 211816, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, No. 30 Puzhu South Road, Nanjing 211816, China. Electronic address:

The PET hydrolase from Ideonella sakaiensis (IsPETase) is efficient for PET degradation, which provides a promising solution for environmental contamination by plastics. This study focuses on improving the excretion of IsPETase from E. coli by signal peptide (SP) engineering. A SP enhancer B1 (MERACVAV) was fused to the N-terminal of commonly-used SP (PelB, MalE, LamB, and OmpA) to mediate excretion of IsPETase. Strikingly, the modified SP B1OmpA, B1PelB, and B1MalE significantly increased the excretion of IsPETase, while IsPETase was basically expressed in periplasmic space without enhancer B1. The excretion efficiency of IsPETase mediated by B1PelB was improved by 62 folds compared to that of PelB. The hydrolysis of PET by crude IsPETase in culture solution was also enhanced. Furthermore, the amount of released MHET/TPA from PET by IsPETase was increased by 2.7 folds with pre-incubation of hydrophobin HFBII. Taken together, this work may provide a feasible strategy for the excretion and application of the IsPETase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.012DOI Listing
August 2021

One-year follow-up of chest CT findings in patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

BMC Med 2021 08 9;19(1):191. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 79 Qingchun Rd., Hangzhou City, 310003, China.

Background: Knowledge about the 1-year outcome of COVID-19 is limited. The aim of this study was to follow-up and evaluate lung abnormalities on serial computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with COVID-19 after hospital discharge.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 from the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine was conducted, with assessments of chest CT during hospitalization and at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after hospital discharge. Risk factors of residual CT opacities and the influence of residual CT abnormalities on pulmonary functions at 1 year were also evaluated.

Results: A total of 41 patients were followed in this study. Gradual recovery after hospital discharge was confirmed by the serial CT scores. Around 47% of the patients showed residual aberration on pulmonary CT with a median CT score of 0 (interquartile range (IQR) of 0-2) at 1 year after discharge, with ground-glass opacity (GGO) with reticular pattern as the major radiologic pattern. Patients with residual radiological abnormalities were older (p = 0.01), with higher rate in current smokers (p = 0.04), higher rate in hypertensives (p = 0.05), lower SaO (p = 0.004), and higher prevalence of secondary bacterial infections during acute phase (p = 0.02). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that age was a risk factor associated with residual radiological abnormalities (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15, p = 0.02). Pulmonary functions of total lung capacity (p = 0.008) and residual volume (p < 0.001) were reduced in patients with residual CT abnormalities and were negatively correlated with CT scores.

Conclusion: During 1-year follow-up after discharge, COVID-19 survivors showed continuous improvement on chest CT. However, residual lesions could still be observed and correlated with lung volume parameters. The risk of developing residual CT opacities increases with age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-02056-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349604PMC
August 2021

Histone deacetylase inhibitor givinostat attenuates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common chronic liver disease that is increasingly prevalent worldwide. Liver inflammation is an important contributor to disease progression from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to NASH, but there is a lack of efficient therapies. In the current study we evaluated the therapeutic potential of givinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in the treatment of NASH in vivo and in vitro. Liver inflammation was induced in mice by feeding a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) or a fructose, palmitate, cholesterol diet (FPC). The mice were treated with givoinostat (10 mg·kg·d, ip) for 8 or 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the livers were harvested for analysis. We showed that givoinostat administration significantly alleviated inflammation and attenuated hepatic fibrosis in MCD-induced NASH mice. RNA-seq analysis of liver tissues form MCD-fed mice revealed that givinostat potently blocked expression of inflammation-related genes and regulated a broad set of lipid metabolism-related genes. In human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and human derived fetal hepatocyte cell line L02, givinostat significantly decreased palmitic acid-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. The benefit of givinostat was further confirmed in FPC-induced NASH mice. Givinostat administration significantly attenuated hepatic steatosis, inflammation as well as liver injury in this mouse model. In conclusion, givinostat is efficacious in reversing diet-induced NASH, and may serve as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of human NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00725-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Adiponectin Treatment Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through HIF-1-Mediated Antioxidation in Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 14;2021:5531048. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China.

Adiponectin (ADPN) plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although previous studies have confirmed that ADPN pretreatment has a protective effect on ischemic stroke, the therapeutic effect of ADPN on ischemic stroke and the underlying mechanism are still unclear. In order to clarify these questions, focal transient cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and ADPN was administered for three times at 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h after reperfusion. Meanwhile, a virus-delivered HIF-1 siRNA was used before ADPN administration. The infarct volume, neurological score, cellular apoptosis, and oxidative stress were assessed at 72 h after reperfusion. The long-term outcome of mice after stroke was recorded as well. The results indicated that ADPN treatment reduced the infarct volume ( = 0.032), neurological deficits ( = 0.047), cellular apoptosis ( = 0.041), and oxidative responses ( = 0.031) at 72 h after MCAO. Moreover, ADPN increased both the protein level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1 as evidenced by the transcription levels of VEGF ( = 0.046) and EPO ( = 0.043) at 72 h after MCAO. However, knockdown of HIF-1 partially reversed the antioxidant and treatment effect of ADPN after cerebral ischemia. In the observation of long-term outcome after ADPN treatment, it demonstrated that ADPN not only prevented the cerebral atrophy ( = 0.031) and the neurological function decline ( = 0.048), but also promoted angiogenesis ( = 0.028) after stroke. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ADPN is effective in treatment of ischemic stroke which could be attributed to the increased antioxidant capacity regulated by HIF-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5531048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298180PMC
July 2021

ADNP prompts the cisplatin-resistance of bladder cancer via TGF-β-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway.

J Cancer 2021 22;12(17):5114-5124. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Developmental Biology of the Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, 410081 Changsha, China.

Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is vital for embryonic development and brain formation. Besides, the upregulated expression of ADNP enhances tumorigenesis in some human tumors like bladder cancer (BC). However, the potential roles of ADNP in drug resistance and the related mechanisms in BC is unknown. We performed this study to elucidate the influence of ADNP in the chemoresistance of BC and tried to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. The expressions of ADNP in BC from progression and non-progression patient specimens were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). experiments including colony formation, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), wound healing, and tumorigenesis assay were performed to explore the effects of ADNP on chemoresistance of BC. The impacts of ADNP on TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways were explored by western blot. Our results showed that the expression of ADNP mRNA and protein were significantly upregulated in BC tissues of the patients who suffered tumor-progression via RT-PCR and western blot. Cox regression survival analysis revealed that patients with high ADNP expression closely linked to shorter tumor-free survival. ADNP downregulation in BC showed more sensitive to cisplatin , while ADNP overexpression showed the opposite results. Additionally, we confirmed that ADNP promoted cell migration and EMT, thereby inducing cisplatin resistance, which may be related to TGF-β / Smad signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.58049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317519PMC
June 2021

Self-adaptive metasurface platform based on computer vision.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3520-3523

Programmable metasurfaces allow real-time electromagnetic (EM) manipulation in a digital manner, showing great potential to construct advanced multifunctional EM devices. However, the current programmable metasurfaces typically need human participation to achieve various EM functions. In this Letter, we propose, design, and construct a self-adaptive metasurface platform that can achieve beam control automatically based on image recognition. Such a platform is composed of a metasurface with 36×36 active units, a single-board computer, and two independent cameras that can detect the position of the objects. The single-board computer, Raspberry Pi, is used to calculate the information of the objects and generate the coding sequences to control the digital metasurface based on a low complexity binocular localization algorithm. Such a smart metasurface platform can generate different beams according to the location of the receiver and can be used as intelligent antennas in future communications and radars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.427527DOI Listing
August 2021

The efficacy and safety of MR-HIFU and US-HIFU in treating uterine fibroids with the volume <300 cm: a meta-analysis.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):1126-1132

Department of Gynecology, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, China.

Background: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising and non-invasive therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Currently, the main image-guided methods for HIFU include magnetic resonance-guided (MR-HIFU) and ultrasound-guided (US-HIFU). However, there are few comparative studies on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of MR-HIFU and US-HIFU in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids with a volume <300 cm.

Objective: We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MR-HIFU and US-HIFU in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids with a volume <300 cm.

Methods: We searched relevant literature in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library CNKI from inception until 2021. The mean value, the proportion, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured by random-effects models. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots.

Results: 48 studies met our inclusion criteria-28 describing MR-HIFU and 20 describing US-HIFU. The mean non-perfused volume rate (NPVR) was 81.07% in the US-HIFU group and 58.92% in the MR-HIFU group, respectively. The mean volume reduction rates at month-3, month-6, and month-12 were 42.42, 58.72, and 65.55% in the US-HIFU group, while 34.79, 37.39, and 36.44% in the MR-HIFU group. The incidence of post-operative abdominal pain and abnormal vaginal discharge in the US-HIFU group was lower than that of MRI-HIFU. However, post-operative skin burn and sciatic nerve pain were more common in the US-HIFU group compared with MRI-HIFU. The one-year reintervention rate after MR-HIFU was 13.4%, which was higher than 5.2% in the US-HIFU group.

Conclusion: US-HIFU may show better efficiency and safety than MR-HIFU in treating symptomatic fibroids with a volume <300 cm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2021.1954245DOI Listing
August 2021

LncRNA DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 5: A crucial regulator in malignant tumors.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Sep 14;141:111889. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, Heilongjiang, China. Electronic address:

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), a subgroup of ncRNA with a length of more than 200 nt without protein coding function, has been recognized by the academia for its mediating effects of dysregulated expression on the tumorigenesis and development of a variety of tumors. LncRNA DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 5 (DGCR5), originally found to induce DiGeorge syndrome, has been confirmed to be extremely dysregulated in multiple tumors, which mediates the malignant phenotypes of hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, etc. through the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin, MEK/ERK1/2 and other cancerous signaling pathways as a molecular sponge. Researches on the cancerous derivation-related pathways involved in DGCR5 can provide potential molecular intervention targets for tumor precision treatment. Moreover, liquid biopsy based on the detection of DGCR5 in body fluids is also expected to provide a non-invasive evaluation method for the early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of malignant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111889DOI Listing
September 2021

Tissue Cytokine Adenoid Experssion in Hypertrophic Adenoid Gland in Children with Allergic Rhinitis.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Aug;31(8):903-909

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Shandong Provincial ENT Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, P.R. China.

Objective: To investigate the inflammatory pattern in terms of inflammatory cells and cytokines expression in children with adenoid hypertrophy (AH) and coexistent allergic rhinitis (AR).

Study Design: A cross-sectional analytical study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shandong Provincial ENT Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong P. R. China, from October 2018 to August 2020.

Methodology: A sample of 102 children with AH, who underwent adenoidectomy were enrolled. They were divided into two groups of AH, alone and AH with AR (AH+AR). A routine complete blood count, and the number of eosinophils in adenoid tissue was measured using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The tissue expression of cytokines was carried out using real-time quantitative PCR.

Results: Forty-eight children (47%) were diagnosed with AR. The number and percentage of eosinophils in peripheral blood and adenoid tissue were statistically (p <0.05) higher in the group of AH+AR than AH alone. Furthermore, in patients with AH+AR, the mRNA expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ decreased, while IL-4, IL-8, IL-18, IL-33, H2R, LTR1, LTR2 and GCR all increased in adenoid tissue.

Conclusion: The pathological mechanism underlying adenoid hypertrophy in children with comorbid allergic rhinitis can be involved with predominant tissue eosinophilia and type 2 (or Th 2) inflammation. Key Words: Adenoid hypertrophy, Allergic rhinitis, Inflammatory features, Cytokines, Eosinophils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2021.08.903DOI Listing
August 2021

Exosomes in hepatocellular carcinoma microenvironment and their potential clinical application value.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 26;138:111529. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pancreatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150086, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a challenging disease in the world today. Due to the limitations on the current diagnosis and treatment as well as its high metastatic ability and high recurrence rate, HCC gradually becomes the second deadliest tumor. Exosomes are one of the types of cell-derived vesicles and can carry intracellular materials such as genetic materials, lipids, and proteins. In recent years, it has been verified that exosomes are linked to numerous physiological and pathological processes, including HCC. However, how exosomes affect HCC progression remains largely unknown. In this review, the exosome-mediated cellular material transfer between cells of different types in the HCC microenvironment and their effects on the behaviors and functions of recipient cells are studied. Furthermore, we also addressed the underlying molecular mechanisms. We believe that new light on the diagnosis of this cancer as well as its treatment strategies will be shed after a collation of literature in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111529DOI Listing
June 2021

Analysis of factors influencing the network teaching effect of college students in a medical school during the COVID-19 epidemic.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Jul 23;21(1):397. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Oral Medicine, School of Stomatology, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, 241002, Anhui, China.

Background: The purpose of this study is to understand the influencing factors of Chinese college students' satisfaction with online teaching and psychological pressure on learning during the novel coronavirus epidemic.

Methods: We assessed the effect of online teaching of 7084 medical students from wannan medical college in March 5 to April 2, 2020 using cluster sampling. The respondents were asked to complete a 7-item self-compiled online teaching satisfaction questionnaire. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis are used.

Results: Sex is female (OR = 1.257, 95%CI: 1.132 ~ 1.396), grades are second and third grades (second grades: OR = 1.228, 95%CI: 1.080 ~ 1.397; third grades: OR = 1.197, 95%CI: 1.048 ~ 1.367), normal/unfamiliar learning platform operation (OR = 3.692, 95%CI: 3.321 ~ 4.103) were risk factors for satisfactory teaching effect. In addition, students whose school year system is four-year (OR = 0.870, 95%CI: 0.781 ~ 0.969) and grade 4 and above (OR = 0.594, 95%CI: 0.485 ~ 0.727) were more satisfied with the teaching effect of teachers. And, during the period of the COVID-19 epidemic, the risk factors for college students to have psychological stress were: female (OR = 1.258, 95%CI: 1.096 ~ 1.442), from rural areas (OR = 1.511, 95%CI: 1.312 ~ 1.740), and the academic year system is four-year system (OR = 1.191, 95%CI: 1.028 ~ 1.380), using mobile phones and other learning tools (OR = 1.388, 95%CI: 1.205 ~ 1.600), general/unfamiliar with learning platform operations (OR = 2.273), 95%CI: 1.888 ~ 2.735). While the protective factors for college students' psychological stress included: grade three and four and above (OR = 0.463, 95%CI: 0.387 ~ 0.554; OR = 0.232, 95%CI: 0.187 ~ 0.286), and they think that the teaching effect is satisfactory (OR = 0.314, 95%CI: 0.261 ~ 0.379).

Conclusion: This survey shows that compared with male college students, female college students were more dissatisfied with the teaching effect of teachers and havd greater psychological pressure on learning. Psychological counseling should be strengthened for students in rural areas and those who were not familiar with the operating platform to relieve their psychological pressure on learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02825-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300986PMC
July 2021

Selective Anisotropy of Mechanical Properties in Inconel718 Alloy.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 11;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 11.

College of Materials and Metallurgy, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

Mechanical anisotropy behaviors are investigated in slightly rolled Inconel718 alloy with string-like δ phase and carbides produced during various solid-solution and aging treatments. A weak anisotropy in the strengths and rupture properties at 650 °C is visible, whereas ductility, i.e., reduction in area (RA) and impact toughness (CVN), presents a sound anisotropy behavior. MC carbides promote the operation of slip systems and thus are conducive to weakening the strength anisotropy. The RA anisotropy mainly stems from high-density δ phase particles that provide more crack nucleation sites and stimulate rapid propagation because of the shorter bridge distance between micro-cracks at the rolling direction. In contrast, CVN anisotropy arises from both δ phase and carbides at a lower solid-solution temperature of 940 °C but only depends on carbides at 980 °C where the δ phase fully dissolves. Apart from dislocation motions operated at room temperature, the activated grain boundary processes are responsible for the weak anisotropy of rupture properties at the elevated temperature. This work provides a guideline for technological applications in the hot working processes for Inconel718 alloys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14143869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307731PMC
July 2021

An analysis of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, treatment, and survival outcomes of 36 extracranial malignant rhabdoid tumor patients.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Jun;10(6):1598-1609

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shanghai Childrens' Medical Center Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Extracranial malignant Rhabdoid tumors (eMRTs) are rare but aggressive lesions in young children. This work aimed to review and analyze the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, treatment, and survival of eMRTs so as to summarize experience for future therapy.

Methods: A total of 36 eMRT cases were treated between January 2008 and August 2019 according to Shanghai Children's Medical Center (SCMC) multimodal protocol of mixed surgery, radiation and chemotherapy involving vincristine, carboplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. We collected information including: age at diagnosis, tumor location, disease stage, therapy, outcomes, etc. Overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) were calculated and risk factors for survival were analyzed.

Results: The patients had a median age of 1.80 years at diagnosis (range, 1.4 m-13.42 years), and were followed up for 9.17 months in median (range, 4 d-11.14 y). A total of 16 patients achieved complete remission (CR), and 7 survived without reoccurrence till December 2019. The 3-year EFS was 17.4% (95% CI: 11.0-23.8%) with a 3-year OS of 23.4% (95% CI: 15.8-31.0%). Recurrence was found only in children younger than the median age (1.80 y). Localized staging (Log Rank P=0.039 for OS and P=0.021) and older age (Log Rank P=0.016 for OS and P=0.002 for EFS) were associated with improved outcome. Younger age (Cox regression, OS, OR =2.610, 95% CI: 1.147-5.937, P=0.022; EFS, OR =3.401, 95% CI: 1.495-7.752, P=0.004) were independent risk factors for death and recurrence.

Conclusions: Those eMRTs treated according to SCMC protocol turned out to have poor outcomes. Higher staging at diagnosis and reoccurrence in younger patients remain major threats to the prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-20-459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261579PMC
June 2021
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