Publications by authors named "Liang Xu"

1,670 Publications

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Meta-analysis of patent foramen ovale closure versus medical therapy for prevention of recurrent ischemic neurological events: Impact of medication type.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26473

Department of Ultrasound, The First College of Clinical Medical Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei Province, China.

Background: The optimal treatment strategy for patent foramen ovale (PFO) patients with cryptic stroke remains controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of PFO closure versus different types of medical therapy.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The primary efficacy endpoints were the composite outcome of recurrent stroke and/or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Secondary efficacy endpoints included separate stroke and TIA. Safety endpoints included new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF)/atrial flutter and bleeding.

Results: Compared with antiplatelet therapy, PFO closure significantly reduced the risk of composite outcome (odds ratio [OR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.51), stroke (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.13-0.36], and TIA (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.98); Compared with the mixed medical therapy group (consist of antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulant therapy, or both), PFO closure still showed some benefits, but the effect was not as significant as that of antiplatelet therapy (composite outcome: OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.69; stroke: OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.34-0.68; TIA: OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.96); Compared with anticoagulant therapy, PFO closure showed no benefit (composite outcome: OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.46-1.28; stroke: OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.28-1.25; TIA: OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.50-2.04). In terms of safe endpoints, compared with antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulant therapy, PFO closure increased the risk of AF/atrial flutter (OR 9.56, 95% CI 2.85-32.06; OR 18.96, 95% CI 1.11-323.8, respectively) and reduced the risk of bleeding (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.24-1.05; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.46, respectively); compared with mixed medical therapy, PFO closure increased the risk of AF/atrial flutter (OR 4.40,95% CI 2.24-8.67), but there was no difference in bleeding (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.56-1.68).

Conclusions: With the addition of anticoagulants, the benefit of PFO closure decreased gradually. Patient groups that adopt individualized medical therapy strategies may benefit more.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026473DOI Listing
June 2021

Multicenter phase II study of apatinib single or combination therapy in HER2-negative breast cancer involving chest wall metastasis.

Chin J Cancer Res 2021 Apr;33(2):243-255

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Breast Oncology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100142, China.

Objective: Breast cancer (BC) with chest wall metastasis (CWM) usually shows rich neovascularization. This trial explored the clinical effect of apatinib on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced BC involving CWM.

Methods: This trial involved four centers in China and was conducted from September 2016 to March 2020. Patients received apatinib 500 mg/d [either alone or with endocrine therapy if hormone receptor-positive (HR+)] until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint.

Results: We evaluated 26 patients for efficacy. The median PFS (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 4.9 [range: 2.0-28.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.1-8.3] months and 18 (range: 3-55; 95% CI: 12.9-23.1) months, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) was 42.3% (11/26), and the disease-control rate was 76.9% (20/26). In the subgroup analysis, HR+ patients compared with HR-negative patients had significantly improved mPFS of 7.0 (95% CI: 2.2-11.8) months 2.3 (95% CI: 1.2-3.4) months, respectively (P=0.001); and mPFS in patients without or with chest wall radiotherapy was 6.4 (95% CI: 1.6-19.5) months 3.0 (95% CI: 1.3-4.6) months, respectively (P=0.041). In the multivariate analysis, HR+ status was the only independent predictive factor for favorable PFS (P=0.014).

Conclusions: Apatinib was highly effective for BC patients with CWM, especially when combined with endocrine therapy. PFS improved significantly in patients with HR+ status who did not receive chest wall radiotherapy. However, adverse events were serious and should be carefully monitored from the beginning of apatinib treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2021.02.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181870PMC
April 2021

Solving, analyzing, manufacturing, and experimental testing of thickness distribution for a cycloid-like variable curvature mirror.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(12):18010-18025

A cycloid-like variable curvature mirror (VCM) for zoom-imaging systems was investigated. An analytical-deformation solution to a thin-elastic plate with a cycloid-like thickness distribution and simply supported boundary condition under uniform pressure was found using a small parameter method. The finite-element analysis of the thin-elastic plate and designed VCM showed a good correlation with the analytical solution. The VCM was manufactured and polished to the initial shape with a root mean square (RMS) of 1/80λ. Finally, with air-pressure-based actuation testing under 0.07 MPa, the VCM deforms approximately 36.89 µm and maintains the RMS surface performance of 1/10λ, 1/40λ with and without spherical aberrations, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.426989DOI Listing
June 2021

MEF/KSF-conditioned culture medium: An effective method for culture of mouse dermal papilla cells with osteogenic differentiation potential.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 3;22(2):828. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, P.R. China.

Hair follicle stem cells are pluripotent and have a self-renewal capacity and multi-differentiation potential . As hair follicle stem cells can be easily sampled from the skin and hair of clinical patients at a considerable quantity, these cells have potential applications in wound repair and skin tissue engineering. Effective approaches for the culture and amplification of mouse hair follicle stem cells, as well as the osteogenic differentiation potential and cell source when obtaining mouse-separated cells were examined. Serial subculture was performed in different culture systems. Cell source was detected based on the relevant surface markers derived from mouse hair follicles at the gene and protein levels, and the differential potential was determined. The proliferative ability of hair follicle-derived stem cells obtained from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)/keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSF)-conditioned medium was the highest among all culture systems. The induced group had a stronger osteogenic differentiation potential compared with the non-induced group, indicating that the cells obtained from MEF/KSF-conditioned medium were cells derived from the hair follicle dermal papilla. Therefore, the strong osteogenic differentiation potential of the hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells was screened with MEF/KSF-conditioned culture medium following amplification, and biological characteristics similar to those of hair follicle dermal papilla cells were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200806PMC
August 2021

Genome-wide identification of AUX/IAA in radish and functional characterization of RsIAA33 gene during taproot thickening.

Gene 2021 Jun 16:145782. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Biology and Genetic Improvement (East China) of MOA, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short lived nuclear proteins that cooperated with auxin or auxin response factor (ARF), which are involved in plant growth and developmental processes. However, it's still ambiguous how the Aux/IAA genes regulate the process governing taproot thickening in radish. Herein, 65 Aux/IAA genes were identified from the radish genome. Gene duplication analysis showed that two pairs of tandem duplication and 17 (27%) segmental duplication events were identified among Aux/IAA family genes in radish. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that most of Aux/IAA genes (52/65) exhibited differential expression pattern in root different tissues, and six root-specific genes were high abundance expression in root cortex, cambium, xylem, and root tip in radish. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression level of RsIAA33 was the highest at cortex splitting stage (CSS), and early expanding stage (ES). Furthermore, amiRNA-mediated gene silencing of RsIAA33 indicated it could inhibit the reproductive growth, thus promoting taproot thickening and development. These results would provide valuable information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of Aux/IAA genes involved in taproot thickening in radish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145782DOI Listing
June 2021

Transcriptional processing of an unnatural base pair by eukaryotic RNA polymerase II.

Nat Chem Biol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The development of unnatural base pairs (UBPs) has greatly increased the information storage capacity of DNA, allowing for transcription of unnatural RNA by the heterologously expressed T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP) in Escherichia coli. However, little is known about how UBPs are transcribed by cellular RNA polymerases. Here, we investigated how synthetic unnatural nucleotides, NaM and TPT3, are recognized by eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and found that Pol II is able to selectively recognize UBPs with high fidelity when dTPT3 is in the template strand and rNaMTP acts as the nucleotide substrate. Our structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulation provide structural insights into transcriptional processing of UBPs in a stepwise manner. Intriguingly, we identified a novel 3'-RNA binding site after rNaM addition, termed the swing state. These results may pave the way for future studies in the design of transcription and translation strategies in higher organisms with expanded genetic codes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-021-00817-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Unprecedented Improvement of Near-Infrared Photothermal Conversion Efficiency to 87.2% by Ultrafast Non-radiative Decay of Excited States of Self-Assembly Cocrystal.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 17;12(24):5796-5801. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory for Preparation and Application of Ordered Structural Materials of Guangdong Province, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China.

Near-infrared (NIR) photothermal conversion is of great interest in many fields. Here, a self-assembly organic cocrystal (,,','-tetramethyl--phenylenediamine (TMPD) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA)) with strong absorption in NIR range is constructed, with widespread absorption (200-1500 nm) and very high NIR photothermal conversion efficiency (87.2%). Essentially, in this cocrystal, a small HOMO-LUMO gap of donor-acceptor pair boosts the absorption ability of this cocrystal in the NIR range. The mixed stacking structure significantly enhances the intermolecular interactions as well as the electron-hole delocalization, suppressing the emission processes, leading to nonradiative decay processes from excited states. Strong intermolecular interactions enable the cocrystal to have dense electronic energy levels, leading to a high proportion (94.4%) vibrational cooling and internal conversion processes with ultrafast excited-state relaxation (0.12 ps), which contributes to high NIR photothermal conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the cocrystal has exhibited capable ability for being an excellent candidate for a NIR photothermal therapy agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01021DOI Listing
June 2021

Immediate breast reconstruction using latissimus dorsi muscular flap: A retrospective study of Chinese patients with breast cancer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26175

Department of Breast Surgery, Breast Cancer Institute, The Third Hospital of Nanchang, Nanchang, China.

Abstract: Reconstruction of breast defects of patients who underwent mastectomy can be challenging. This study was designed to review a series of 43 breast cancer patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) using the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with/without implants. The demographic characteristics, clinical application feasibility, and the satisfaction rates of the patients were retrospectively collected and evaluated.A total of 43 breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy between August 2015 and February 2020 were included in the retrospective study. The included patients were subjected to IBR using latissimus dorsi muscular flap (LDMF) with/without implants. The clinical application feasibility and the satisfaction rates of the patients were evaluated.Among these patients, 35 patients underwent nipple-sparing mastectomy and 8 patients underwent skin-sparing mastectomy. Twenty-nine patients underwent IBR using LDMF with implants, and 14 patients underwent IBR using LDMF without implants. Among these patients, 2 patients had partial LDMF necrosis and atrophy, and showed significant shrink of the reconstructed breast. One patient developed seromas, and seromas were improved by active dressing change and sucking out the fluid via the skin using a syringe. Two patients had local skin flap necrosis on the chest, 1 patient had preserved areola and local necrosis of the nipple, and this was healed after dressing change. Based on the Harris method, 27, 9, 5, and 2 cases were evaluated as "excellent," "good," "fair," and "poor," respectively.In the present study, the reconstructed breast has natural shape, good symmetry, and hidden postoperative scars. The aesthetic effect is relatively good, and the use of LDMF may represent an acceptable and valid option for IBR. The success of this procedure depends on the design of the incision, the skill and proficiency of the operation, as well as the correct treatment after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213275PMC
June 2021

A Novel Study on Alar Mobility of HAN Female by 3dMD Dynamic Surface Imaging System.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aim: The aim of this study is to conduct a quantitative analysis on alar mobility of HAN females and provided referenced materials for alar dynamic aesthetic.

Methods: One hundred and fifty healthy HAN females without rhinoplasty, nasal injury, nasal deformity and craniofacial deformity were included in this study. 3dMD surface imaging system was used for anthropometric analysis. All participants were instructed to perform the desired dynamic facial expression from rest to maximum smile without reveling teeth and recorded by 3dMD dynamic surface imaging system simultaneously. Two frames of rest status and alar maximum enlargement were selected for measuring alar width, alar base width and inner-canthal distance. The difference between two status represented alar mobility, which was generated through equation: [Formula: see text].

Results: Alar mobility consisted of alar flaring mobility and alar base mobility. The alar flaring mobility was (9.49 ± 4.90)%, reference range was(1.45, 17.53)% and regression equation between rest and maximum smile was Y = 7.953 + 0.886X (R = 0.641, p = 0.000); the alar base mobility was (17.94 ± 10.44)%, reference range was (0.88, 35.00)% and regression equation between rest and maximum smile was Y = 4.481 + 0.966X (R = 0.528, p = 0.000.

Conclusion: Asian alar anatomy has great distinction from Caucasian, processing conspicuous alar movement and damaging alar aesthetic dynamically. This study novelly defined alar mobility by three-dimensional anthropometric analysis, providing objective references for alar dynamic aesthetic and arousing plastic surgeons' attention on keeping balance of static and dynamic aesthetic in rhinoplasty.

Level Of Evidence Iv: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02386-1DOI Listing
June 2021

A highly conductive self-assembled multilayer graphene nanosheet film for electronic tattoos in the applications of human electrophysiology and strain sensing.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 9;13(24):10798-10806. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100144, China.

Highly conductive, conformable and gel-free electrodes are desirable in human electrophysiology. Besides, intimately coupling with human skin, wearable strain sensors can detect numerous physiological signals, such as wrist pulse and breath. In this study, a multilayer graphene nanosheet film (MGNF) with high conductivity was prepared by the Marangoni self-assembly for using in tattoo dry electrodes (TDEs) and in a graphene tattoo strain sensor (GTSS). Compared to commercial Ag/AgCl gel electrodes, TDEs have lower skin-electrode contact impedance and could detect human electrocardiogram for 24-hour wearing more accurately as well as electromyogram. Through designing a slim serpentine ribbon structure, a resistance-type GTSS, without deterioration even after 2000 cycles, is well demonstrated for human wrist pulse and breath sensing. With the advantages of high conductivity and conformability, MGNF provides support to fabricate low-cost, customizable, and high-performance electronic tattoos for human electrophysiology and strain sensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr08032bDOI Listing
June 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of Decne. (Asteraceae, Falc.).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 May 19;6(6):1691-1693. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dalian, China.

The complete mitochondrial genome of was sequenced for the first time. The mitochondrial genome length was 320,439 bp, with 45.05% GC contents. There were 67 genes annotated, including 31 known protein-coding genes, 25 tRNAs, and six rRNAs. The maximum likelihood method was used to establish the phylogenetic tree of 37 species. Results have shown that and were sister groups. It reveals the genetic relationship between different species and provides a theoretical basis for the establishment of a classification system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1914524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143591PMC
May 2021

Synthesis, stability, and anti-tumour activity of a new category of "stapled" antisense oligonucleotides with stimuli-responsive feature.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, China.

The development of nucleic acid drugs with unique structures and mechanisms has stimulated great research interest. Herein, we report a general strategy to construct "stapled" structures of single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs) with a stimuli-responsive feature. "Stapled" cyclic structures can be synthesized with reactive bifunctional handles that react with thiol groups of phosphorothioate (PS)-modified ASONs, and can be alternatively adjusted depending on the desired PS sites in the ASON strand. The disulphide group in the stapled handle can be cleaved in the reducing microenvironment of tumour cells. Thus, "stapled" ASONs may be transformed back to a linear conformation to facilitate binding to target mRNAs. Stapling conferred protection against degradation, and enhanced anti-tumour activity compared to linear counterparts. This study provides a new, effective, and convenient strategy for designing ASONs with "stapled" structures, and also adds a further contribution to facilitate the stability and biological efficacy of novel nucleic acid-based therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2021.05.024DOI Listing
June 2021

Photocontrol of CRISPR/Cas9 function by site-specific chemical modification of guide RNA.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 25;11(42):11478-11484. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University Guangzhou 510275 China

The function of CRISPR/Cas9 can be conditionally controlled by the rational engineering of guide RNA (gRNA) to target the gene of choice for precise manipulation of the genome. Particularly, chemically modified gRNA that can be activated by using specific stimuli provides a unique tool to expand the versatility of conditional control. Herein, unlike previous engineering of gRNA that generally focused on the RNA part only but neglected RNA-protein interactions, we aimed at the interactive sites between 2'-OH of ribose in the seed region of gRNA and the Cas9 protein and identified that chemical modifications at specific sites could be utilized to regulate the Cas9 activity. By introducing a photolabile group at these specific sites, we achieved optical control of Cas9 activity without disrupting the Watson-Crick base pairing. We further examined our design through CRISPR-mediated gene activation and nuclease cleavage in living cells and successfully manipulated the gene expression by using light irradiation. Our site-specific modification strategy exhibited a highly efficient and dynamic optical response and presented a new perspective for manipulating gRNA based on the RNA-protein interaction rather than the structure of RNA itself. In addition, these specific sites could also be potentially utilized for modification of other stimuli-responsive groups, which would further enrich the toolbox for conditional control of CRISPR/Cas9 function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc04343eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162494PMC
September 2020

Coronal imbalance after growing rod treatment in early-onset scoliosis: a minimum of 5 years' follow-up.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Jun 4:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of coronal imbalance (CI) in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS) who underwent growing rod (GR) treatment.

Methods: A consecutive series of 61 patients with EOS (25 boys and 36 girls, mean age 5.8 ± 1.7 years) who underwent GR treatment was retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative CI was defined as postoperative C7 translation on either side ≥ 20 mm. Patients were divided into an imbalanced and a balanced group. Coronal patterns were classified into three types: type A (C7 translation < 20 mm), type B (C7 translation ≥ 20 mm with C7 plumb line [C7PL] shifted to the concave side of the curve), and type C (C7 translation ≥ 20 mm and a C7PL shifted to the convex side of the curve).

Results: Each patient had an average of 5.3 ± 1.0 lengthening procedures and was followed for an average of 6.2 ± 1.3 years. Eleven patients (18%) were diagnosed with CI at the latest distraction, 5 of whom graduated from GRs and underwent definitive fusion. However, these patients continued to present with CI at the last follow-up evaluation. The proportion of preoperative type C pattern (54.5% vs 16.0%, p = 0.018), immediate postoperative apical vertebral translation (30.4 ± 13.5 mm vs 21.2 ± 11.7 mm, p = 0.025), lowest instrumented vertebra tilt (11.4° ± 8.2° vs 7.3° ± 3.3°, p = 0.008), and spanned obliquity angle (SOA) (9.7° ± 10.5° vs 4.1° ± 4.5°, p = 0.006) values in the imbalanced group were significantly higher than in the balanced group. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that a preoperative type C pattern and immediate postoperative SOA > 11° were independent risk factors for postoperative CI.

Conclusions: The incidence of CI in patients with EOS who underwent GR treatment was 18%. This complication could only be slightly improved after definitive spinal fusion because of the autofusion phenomenon. A preoperative type C pattern and immediate postoperative SOA > 11° were found to be the risk factors for CI occurrence at the latest follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.10.SPINE201581DOI Listing
June 2021

Psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools after the COVID-19 pandemic: a national cross-sectional study in China.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 06 3;11(1):342. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Child Health Care, Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China.

This study aims to explore the psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools. In this national cross-sectional study, a total of 11072 students from China were naturally divided into two groups based on their schooling status: reopened schools (RS) and home schooling (HS) group. The psychosocial and behavioral functioning were measured by Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and compared in these two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the independent predictors associated with the psychosocial and behavioral problems. Our results showed that the students in the RS group had more adverse behaviors than that of HS group. The RS group had the higher rates of parent-offspring conflict, prolonged homework time, increased sedentary time and sleep problems (all p < 0.001). When separate analyses were conducted in boys and girls, the RS group had the higher scores for (1) overall behavioral problems (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01), internalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02) and externalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004) behaviors in the 6-11 age group; (2) externalizing (p = 0.049 and p = 0.006) behaviors in the 12-16 age group. Multivariable regression showed parent-offspring conflict and increased sedentary time were the most common risk factors, while physical activity and number of close friends were protective factors for behavior problems in RS students (p < 0.01 or 0.05). The present study revealed that students' psychosocial and behavioral problems increased in the early stage of schools reopened unexpectedly. These findings suggest that close attention must be paid and holistic strategies employed in the school reopening process of post-COVID-19 period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01462-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172553PMC
June 2021

Synthesis of high-performance conjugated microporous polymer/TiO photocatalytic antibacterial nanocomposites.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 23;126:112121. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

College of Communications and Electronics Engineering, Qiqihar University, WenhuaStreet42, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang 161006, China.

High-performance conjugated microporous polymer (CMP)/TiO photocatalytic antibacterial nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by in situ Sonogashira polymerization. TiO was uniformly dispersed onto the surface and within the CMP which show the microporous nature with narrow pore size distribution. The high crystallinity and thermal stability of the CMP/TiO nanocomposites are attractive for use as antibacterial materials. The composites we prepared showed excellent photocatalytic antibacterial properties for the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic antibacterial rates of nanocomposites against E. coli and S. aureus after 120 min of visible light irradiation were 98.14% and 100%, respectively. The superoxide anion (O) was confirmed to be an important substance in the antibacterial process above. The cytocompatibility of the antibacterial agents was studied in terms of cytotoxicity against NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. More than 95% of the cells were still alive in the presence of the nanocomposites, both without and with light irradiation, indicating the good cytocompatibility of the nanocomposites. Judging from the excellent photocatalytic antibacterial properties and ultralow toxicity of nanocomposites, these materials can be used in many fields such as medical treatment, transportation and construction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112121DOI Listing
July 2021

Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Analysis of the Testes Characterizes BDE-47-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Mice.

Biomolecules 2021 May 31;11(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Public Health, Hongqiao International Institute of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

A representative congener of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), is associated with male reproductive toxicity, yet the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, mice were administered environmentally relevant concentrations of BDE-47 for six weeks. Histopathological observations showed that BDE-47 induced inflammatory reactions and damaged the testes. By conducting an integrated proteomic and metabolomic analysis coupled with a bioinformatic analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) methods, we found that BDE-47 mainly affected the molecules involved in free radical scavenging, cell death and survival, neurological disease, and inflammatory response. IPA canonical pathways showed inflammatory and apoptosis pathways, including hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation, the GP6 signaling pathway, tight junction signaling, acute phase response signaling, LXR/RXR activation, unfolded protein response, and FXR/RXR activation, which are related to male reproductive toxicity. Key transcriptional regulator networks were activated via a focus on upstream regulator analysis. The expression of and Clu as the core transcriptional factor and targeted protein, respectively, was verified. It is further proposed that may contribute to the etiology of male reproductive toxicity. These findings will improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for BDE-47-induced male reproductive toxicity, which may promote the discovery of useful biomarkers indicative of BDE-47 exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11060821DOI Listing
May 2021

Ultrapurified Alginate Gel Containing Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate Enhances Cartilage and Bone Regeneration on Osteochondral Defects in a Rabbit Model.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Jun 1:3635465211014186. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: Ultrapurified alginate (UPAL) gel implantation has been demonstrated as effective in cartilage repair for osteochondral defects; however, cell transplantation within UPAL gels would be required to treat larger defects.

Hypothesis: The combination of UPAL gel and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) would enhance cartilage repair and subchondral bone repair for large osteochondral defects.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: A total of 104 osteochondral defects (1 defect per knee) of 52 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (26 defects per group): defects without any treatment (Defect group), defects treated using UPAL gel alone (UPAL group), defects treated using UPAL gel containing allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (UPAL-MSC group), and defects treated using UPAL gel containing BMAC (UPAL-BMAC group). At 4 and 16 weeks postoperatively, macroscopic and histologic evaluations and measurements of repaired subchondral bone volumes of reparative tissues were performed. Collagen orientation and mechanical properties of the reparative tissue were assessed at 16 weeks.

Results: The defects in the UPAL-BMAC group were repaired with hyaline-like cartilage with well-organized collagen structures. The histologic scores at 4 weeks were significantly higher in the UPAL-BMAC group (16.9 ± 2.0) than in the Defect group (4.7 ± 1.9; < .05), the UPAL group (10.0 ± 3.3; < .05), and the UPAL-MSC group (12.2 ± 2.9; < .05). At 16 weeks, the score in the UPAL-BMAC group (24.4 ± 1.7) was significantly higher than those in the Defect group (9.0 ± 3.7; < .05), the UPAL group (14.2 ± 3.9; < .05), and the UPAL-MSC group (16.3 ± 3.6; < .05). At 4 and 16 weeks, the macroscopic evaluations were significantly superior in the UPAL-BMAC group compared with the other groups, and the values of repaired subchondral bone volumes in the UPAL-BMAC group were significantly higher than those in the Defect and UPAL groups. The mechanical properties of the reparative tissues were significantly better in the UPAL-BMAC group than in the other groups.

Conclusion: The implantation of UPAL gel containing BMAC-enhanced hyaline-like cartilage repair and subchondral bone repair of osteochondral defects in a rabbit knee model.

Clinical Relevance: These data support the potential clinical application of 1-step treatment for large osteochondral defects using biomaterial implantation with cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211014186DOI Listing
June 2021

Melatonin-induced DNA demethylation of metal transporters and antioxidant genes alleviates lead stress in radish plants.

Hortic Res 2021 Jun 1;8(1):124. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Biology and Genetic Improvement (East China) of MOAR, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, P.R. China.

Melatonin (MT) is a tryptophan-derived natural product that plays a vital role in plant response to abiotic stresses, including heavy metals (HMs). However, it remains elusive how exogenous MT mediates lead (Pb) accumulation and detoxification at the methylation and transcriptional levels in radish. In this study, decreased Pb accumulation and increased antioxidant enzyme activity were detected under MT treatment in radish. Single-base resolution maps of DNA methylation under Pb stress (Pb200) and Pb plus MT treatment (Pb_50MT) were first generated. The genome-wide methylation level was increased under Pb stress, while an overall loss of DNA methylation was observed under MT treatment. The differentially methylated region (DMR)-associated genes between Pb_50MT and Pb200 were uniquely enriched in ion binding terms, including cation binding, iron ion binding, and transition metal ion binding. Hyper-DMRs between Pb200 and Control exhibited a decreasing trend of methylation under Pb_50MT treatment. A few critical upregulated antioxidant genes (e.g., RsAPX2, RsPOD52 and RsGST) exhibited decreased methylation levels under MT treatment, which enabled the radish plants to scavenge lead-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease oxidative stress. Notably, several MT-induced HM transporter genes with low methylation (e.g., RsABCF5, RsYSL7 and RsHMT) and transcription factors (e.g., RsWRKY41 and RsMYB2) were involved in reducing Pb accumulation in radish roots. These findings could facilitate comprehensive elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying MT-mediated Pb accumulation and detoxification in radish and other root vegetable crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00561-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167184PMC
June 2021

Free-standing electrochemical biosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen detection based on highly stable and flexible conducting polypyrrole nanocomposite.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 May 31;188(6):217. Epub 2021 May 31.

Key Laboratory of Optic-electric Sensing and Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, MOE, Shandong Key Laboratory of Biochemical Analysis, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science in Universities of Shandong, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266042, China.

A flexible free-standing electrochemical biosensor to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is described based on a conducting polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite film electrode. The conducting PPy composite was constructed by the sandwiched structure formed by PPy doped with pentaerythritol ethoxylate (PEE) and 2-naphthalene sulfonate (2-NS-PPy) separately via electropolymerization. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were fixed on the PPy composite film by electrodeposition and then connected to CEA aptamer through self-assembly to construct a free-standing electrochemical biosensor breaking away from additional soft substrates and current collector. This PPy composite film-based electrochemical biosensor exhibits satisfying sensing performance for CEA detection, with a linear range from 10 g/mL to 10 g/mL and a detection limit of 0.033 ng/mL, good specificity and long-term sensing stability (96.8% of the original signal after 15 days). The biosensor also presents acceptable reproducibility with 1.7% relative standard deviation. Moreover, this electrochemical biosensor owns the deformation stability that could bear various deformations (twisting, folding, and knotting) without affecting device's sensing performance. It can even maintain 99.4% of the original signal under 25% strain deformation. Due to the superior sensing performance, high stability (mechanical deformation and long-term storage), and flexibility, this free-standing electrochemical biosensor proves huge potential in application of flexible and wearable electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04859-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Denitrification potential of sodium alginate gel beads immobilized iron-carbon, Zoogloea sp. L2, and riboflavin: Performance optimization and mechanism.

Bioresour Technol 2021 May 25;336:125326. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China.

A kind of gel beads loaded with iron-carbon powder (Fe-C), Zoogloea sp. L2, and riboflavin (VB2) were prepared through cross-linking of sodium alginate (SA) to establish an immobilized bioreactor. The optimal ratio of SA beads was adjusted by orthogonal experiment. The change of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and the concentration of Fe and Fe showed that the addition of VB2 as a redox mediator can promote denitrification. Under the optimal conditions (carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio = 2.0, pH = 7.0, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 8 h), the nitrate removal efficiency (NRE) of bioreactor reached 98.48% (1.99 mg Lh). Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas chromatography (GC) analysis revealed that the immobilization and denitrification of the immobilized bioreactor were excellent. High throughput sequencing also showed that Zoogloea played a vital role in nitrate removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125326DOI Listing
May 2021

A mutational signature for colorectal cancer prognosis prediction: Associated with immune cell infiltration.

Clin Transl Med 2021 May;11(5):e414

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Diseases, Department of Colorectal Surgery, Guangdong Institute of Gastroenterology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101534PMC
May 2021

Simultaneous removal of nitrate and diethyl phthalate using a novel sponge-based biocarrier combined modified walnut shell biochar with FeO in the immobilized bioreactor.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 4;414:125578. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China.

A novel biological carrier combining sponge and modified walnut shell biochar with FeO ([email protected]) was fabricated to achieve simultaneous removal of nitrate and diethyl phthalate (DEP). The optimal reaction conditions of the immobilized bioreactor were: carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 1.5, Fe concentration of 20 mg L, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h. Under the optimal conditions and DEP concentration of 800 μg L, the highest removal efficiency of DEP and nitrate in the immobilized bioreactor with the novel biological carrier were 67.87% and 83.97% (68.43 μg L h and 1.71 mg L h), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the novel biological carrier in this study carried more bio-sediments which is closely related to the denitrification efficiency. The gas chromatography (GC) data showed that the nitrogen production of the immobilized bioreactor (99.85%) was higher than that of another experimental group (97.84%). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) indicated the immobilized bioreactor emerged more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which was related to favourable biological stability under the DEP environment. Moreover, according to high-throughput sequencing data, the Zoogloea sp. L2 responsible for iron-reduction and denitrification was the main strain in this immobilized bioreactor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125578DOI Listing
July 2021

Neural Network-Based Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Profile Compensation for Glaucoma Diagnosis in Myopia: Model Development and Validation.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 May 18;9(5):e22664. Epub 2021 May 18.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China.

Background: Due to the axial elongation-associated changes in the optic nerve and retina in high myopia, traditional methods like optic disc evaluation and visual field are not able to correctly differentiate glaucomatous lesions. It has been clinically challenging to detect glaucoma in highly myopic eyes.

Objective: This study aimed to develop a neural network to adjust for the dependence of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (RNFLT) profile on age, gender, and ocular biometric parameters and to evaluate the network's performance for glaucoma diagnosis, especially in high myopia.

Methods: RNFLT with 768 points on the circumferential 3.4-mm scan was measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. A fully connected network and a radial basis function network were trained for vertical (scaling) and horizontal (shift) transformation of the RNFLT profile with adjustment for age, axial length (AL), disc-fovea angle, and distance in a test group of 2223 nonglaucomatous eyes. The performance of RNFLT compensation was evaluated in an independent group of 254 glaucoma patients and 254 nonglaucomatous participants.

Results: By applying the RNFL compensation algorithm, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting glaucoma increased from 0.70 to 0.84, from 0.75 to 0.89, from 0.77 to 0.89, and from 0.78 to 0.87 for eyes in the highest 10% percentile subgroup of the AL distribution (mean 26.0, SD 0.9 mm), highest 20% percentile subgroup of the AL distribution (mean 25.3, SD 1.0 mm), highest 30% percentile subgroup of the AL distribution (mean 24.9, SD 1.0 mm), and any AL (mean 23.5, SD 1.2 mm), respectively, in comparison with unadjusted RNFLT. The difference between uncompensated and compensated RNFLT values increased with longer axial length, with enlargement of 19.8%, 18.9%, 16.2%, and 11.3% in the highest 10% percentile subgroup, highest 20% percentile subgroup, highest 30% percentile subgroup, and all eyes, respectively.

Conclusions: In a population-based study sample, an algorithm-based adjustment for age, gender, and ocular biometric parameters improved the diagnostic precision of the RNFLT profile for glaucoma detection particularly in myopic and highly myopic eyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/22664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170554PMC
May 2021

Improving the precision of optical metrology by detecting fewer photons with biased weak measurement.

Light Sci Appl 2021 May 17;10(1):103. Epub 2021 May 17.

CAS Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026, Hefei, China.

In optical metrological protocols to measure physical quantities, it is, in principle, always beneficial to increase photon number n to improve measurement precision. However, practical constraints prevent the arbitrary increase of n due to the imperfections of a practical detector, especially when the detector response is dominated by the saturation effect. In this work, we show that a modified weak measurement protocol, namely, biased weak measurement significantly improves the precision of optical metrology in the presence of saturation effect. This method detects an ultra-small fraction of photons while maintains a considerable amount of metrological information. The biased pre-coupling leads to an additional reduction of photons in the post-selection and generates an extinction point in the spectrum distribution, which is extremely sensitive to the estimated parameter and difficult to be saturated. Therefore, the Fisher information can be persistently enhanced by increasing the photon number. In our magnetic-sensing experiment, biased weak measurement achieves precision approximately one order of magnitude better than those of previously used methods. The proposed method can be applied in various optical measurement schemes to remarkably mitigate the detector saturation effect with low-cost apparatuses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-021-00543-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128924PMC
May 2021

DE-MR simulation imaging for prone radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery: assessing its application in lumpectomy cavity delineation based on deformable image registration.

Radiat Oncol 2021 May 17;16(1):91. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 440 Jiyan Road, Jinan, 250117, Shandong Province, China.

Background: The application of delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance (DE-MR) simulation imaging in lumpectomy cavity (LC) delineation for prone radiotherapy in patients with an invisible seroma or a low seroma clarity score (SCS) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) based on deformable image registration (DIR) was assessed.

Methods: Twenty-six patients who were suitable for radiotherapy in prone positions after BCS were enrolled, and both computed tomography (CT) and DE-MR simulation scans were acquired. The LC delineated based on titanium surgical clips on CT images was denoted as LC. The LC delineated based on the signal of cavity boundaries on fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and multiphase delayed-enhancement T1-weighted imaging (DE-T1WI), which was performed at 2 min, 5 min and 10 min postinjection, were denoted as LC, LC, LC and LC, respectively. Afterwards, DIR was performed to compare the volumes and locations of the LCs with MIM software. The generalized conformity index (CIgen) of inter (intra) observer (Inter-CIgen and Intra-CIgen) was also used to explore the inter(intra) observer variation for LC delineation on each image modality.

Results: LC-LC provided the best conformal index (CI) and degree of inclusion (DI), increasing by 2.08% and 4.48% compared to LC-LC, 11.36% and 2.94% for LC-LC, and 8.89% and 7.69% for LC-LC, respectively. The center of mass (COM) of LC-LC decreased by 17.86%, 6.12% and 13.21% compared with that of LC-LC, LC-LC and LC-LC, respectively. The agreement of LC delineation was strongest for 10th min DE-TIWI (coefficient of variation, COV = 2.30%, Inter-CIgen = 87.06%, Intra-CIgen = 92.64%).

Conclusion: For patients with a low SCS (SCS ≤ 2) after BCS, it is feasible to contour the LC based on prone DE-MR simulation images. Furthermore, the LC derived from prone DE-T1WI at 10 min was found to be most similar to that derived from prone CT simulation scans using titanium surgical clips regardless of the volume and location of the LC. Inter (intra) variability was minimal for the delineation of the LC based on 10th min DE-TIWI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-021-01817-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130288PMC
May 2021

Mucus composition abnormalities in sinonasal mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps.

Inflammation 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 1E Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore, 119228, Singapore.

Mucus secretion and its composition are vital in the maintenance of airway health, among which hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are thought to be involved in the regulation of mucin synthesis and regulation. Nasal mucus composition difference between healthy individuals and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients may contribute to the pathology of chronic nasal diseases, but so far, their role has yet to be completely understood. Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from 24 healthy subjects and 99 patients with CRS without (CRSsNP, n=36) or with (CRSwNP, n=63) nasal polyps. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and immunofluorescent (IF) staining, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot were performed to compare the nasal mucus composition between the subjects. Areas of the serous gland and mucous gland were both significantly increased in CRSsNP patients. In CRSwNP patients, a decrease in submucosal gland density and a marked increase in goblet cells were observed. The major gel-forming mucins in the sinonasal mucosa of CRSsNP and CRSwNP are MUC5B and MUC5AC respectively. Mucous cells are found in a higher proportion in both CRSsNP and CRSwNP. The proportion of MUC5AC-positive goblet cells was increased in CRSwNP. The mRNA level of HIF-2α was significantly increased in CRS, and both HIF-1α and HIF-2α were expressed in serous cell but not mucous cell. Over secretion and altered composition of mucus are observed in sinonasal mucosa of CRS, which was mainly associated with glandular hyperplasia in CRSsNP and goblet cell hyperplasia in CRSwNP. Mucus abnormality compromised both non-specific and specific antimicrobial capabilities in the sinonasal mucosa. HIF expression may contribute to differences in mucin synthesis and serous gland regulation, which needs further investigation to understand the pathology of CRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-021-01471-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Inhibitory Effects of Hayata Extract ECB on Melanoma-Induced Hyperplasia of Blood Vessels in Zebrafish Embryos.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 26;2021:5543259. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Toxicant Monitoring and Toxicant and Toxicology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia 028000, China.

Melanoma is a serious malignant form of skin cancer. Euphorbiaceae compound B (ECB, 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylacetophenone) is an acetophenone compound that is isolated from Hayata (EEH), an herbaceous perennial, and has antitumor activity. Here, we transplanted human melanoma cells into zebrafish embryos to establish a zebrafish/melanoma model. We showed that this model can be used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of EEH and ECB and discussed its potential mechanism of action. The results showed that ECB was an active ingredient of EEH in inhibiting melanoma-induced hyperplasia of blood vessels in zebrafish embryos, similar to the angiogenic inhibitor vatalanib. ECB inhibited the number and length of subintestinal veins ( < 0.05), as well as the distribution of melanoma in zebrafish embryos ( < 0.05). More importantly, unlike vatalanib, ECB only inhibited melanoma-induced abnormal and excessive growth of blood vessels in xenografts. In addition, ECB inhibited the mRNA expression of and in zebrafish. Both and are essential genes that regulate blood vessel formation and upregulate the expression of and genes in zebrafish. Together, the above-mentioned results indicate that ECB has a potential antimelanoma effect , which may be mediated by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5543259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096565PMC
April 2021

Necessity of facial contouring in feminization surgery for Chinese transgender females.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):603

Department of Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: An increasing number of transgender females are suffering from a critical gender dysphoria, which often presents as depression and self-destructive behavior. Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is an effective method to alleviate symptoms of gender dysphoria, which could be more important than genital reassignment surgery for Chinese. Facial contour surgery is perceived as an ordinary FFS for the Chinese women to improve their facial appearance. The zygoma and jaw are key areas for feminizing the facial contour. This study mainly emphasized the necessity of FFS and discussed the importance of facial contour surgery of Chinese individuals.

Methods: The differences of facial contour before and after FFS in terms of skeletal and soft tissue were analyzed. The pre- and postoperative images were evaluated for feminization. The results of the full suite of measurements were compared to reveal the effective change of FFS. Furthermore, a surgery satisfaction survey was conducted among these patients after recovery.

Results: All the patients expressed their satisfaction with the reduction in the intergonial width as well as the middle face prominence. All the facial contour ratios changed significantly after surgery in both hard tissue and soft tissue.

Conclusions: Facial contour surgery is crucial to changing one's facial appearance and sex impression, which significantly alleviates gender dysphoria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-5887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105846PMC
April 2021

Myelinated Retinal Nerve Fiber Progression in a 10-Year Follow-Up. The Beijing Eye Study 2001/2011.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China; Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany; Institute of Clinical and Scientific Ophthalmology and Acupuncture Jonas & Panda, Heidelberg, Germany; Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MRNFs), the rate of their change in a 10-year follow-up, and associations with ocular and systematic parameters in a population-based cohort.

Design: Longitudinal population-based cohort study.

Methods: The Beijing Eye study including 4439 participants aged 40+ years in 2001 and was repeated in 2011, with 2695 individuals (66.4% of the surviving) being re-examined in 2011. All participants underwent detailed physical and ocular examinations. MRNFs were diagnosed on fundus photographs and their change was assessed using a flicker method of fundus photographs.

Results: Out of 35 eyes (29 participants) with detected MRNFs at baseline (mean prevalence:0.4±0.26% per eye or 0.7%±0.41% per individual), 23 eyes from 20 individuals (17 (85%) participants with unilateral MRNFs) were re-examined in 2011. MRNF enlargement was detected in all 19 eyes (100%) with clear fundus photographs. The mean MRNF area increased from 4233±3670 µm (range:178-11643 µm) at baseline to 5243±4092 µm (range:196-13297µm) at follow-up (P<0.001), by 1010±1026 µm (18-3967 µm) or by 47%±74% (9-315%). A larger MRNF increase was associated with an MRNF location distant from the optic disc as compared to a juxtapapillary location (P=0.001, standardized regression coefficient beta:-0.53), smaller MRNF area at baseline (P=0.006, beta:-0.34), and higher serum concentration of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (P<0.001, beta:0.57).

Conclusions: MRNFs (mean prevalence per eye:0.4%) showed, in association with higher LDL serum concentration and peripheral located MRNF, an enlargement during a 10-year follow-up, while in the same period no new MRNFs were detected in the total study cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2021.04.018DOI Listing
May 2021