Publications by authors named "Liang Xin"

420 Publications

Simultaneous multiparameter whole blood hemostasis assessment using a carbon nanotube-paper composite capacitance sensor.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Nov 14;197:113786. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA. Electronic address:

Rapid and accurate clinical assessment of hemostasis is essential for managing patients who undergo invasive procedures, experience hemorrhages, or receive antithrombotic therapies. Hemostasis encompasses an ensemble of interactions between the cellular and non-cellular blood components, but current devices assess only partial aspects of this complex process. In this work, we describe the development of a new approach to simultaneously evaluate coagulation function, platelet count or function, and hematocrit using a carbon nanotube-paper composite (CPC) capacitance sensor. CPC capacitance response to blood clotting at 1.3 MHz provided three sensing parameters with distinctive sensitivities towards multiple clotting elements. Whole blood-based hemostasis assessments were conducted to demonstrate the potential utility of the developed sensor for various hemostatic conditions, including pathological conditions, such as hemophilia and thrombocytopenia. Results showed good agreements when compared to a conventional thromboelastography. Overall, the presented CPC capacitance sensor is a promising new biomedical device for convenient non-contact whole-blood based comprehensive hemostasis evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113786DOI Listing
November 2021

Creation of a Novel Nomogram Based on the Direct Bilirubin-To-Indirect Bilirubin Ratio and Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels in Resectable Colorectal Cancer.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:751506. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology Surgery, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, China.

Recently, many studies have suggested that bilirubin is associated with the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Conversely, there is substantial evidence that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are associated with the prognosis of cancer. Therefore, we sought to find a novel marker based on the above to predict prognosis in patients with resectable CRC. A total of 702 patients from Hubei Cancer Hospital were included. The whole population was randomly divided into training ( = 491) and testing ( = 211) cohorts. Next, we established a new index based on direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin and LDH levels. Chi-square tests, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate prognosis. The prediction accuracies of models for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated through Harrell's concordance index (C-index) and the Brier score. The median DFS duration was 32 months (range: 0-72.6 months), whereas the median OS duration was 35 months (range: 0 months-73.8 months). In addition, a new indicator, (DIR.LDH) (HR: 1.433; 95% CI, 1.069-1.920) could independently predict outcomes in CRC patients. Moreover, the module based on DIR. LDH was found to have exceptional performance for predicting OS and DFS. The C-index of the nomogram for OS was 0.802 (95% CI, 0.76-0.85) in the training cohort and 0.829 (95% CI, 0.77-0.89) in the testing cohort. The C-index of the nomogram for DFS was 0.774 (95% CI, 0.74-0.81) in the training cohort and 0.775 (95% CI, 0.71-0.84) in the testing cohort. We successfully established a novel module to guide clinical decision-making for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.751506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8564357PMC
October 2021

3,4,5-O-tricaffeoylquinic acid alleviates ionizing radiation-induced injury in vitro and in vivo through regulating ROS/JNK/p38 signaling.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Nov 6. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering & Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

Ionizing radiation (IR) brings many health problems to humans, causing damage to the digestive system, hematopoietic system, and immune system. Natural compounds derived from plants have attracted widespread attention due to their low toxicity. Here, we found that 3,4,5-O-tricaffeoylquinic acid (tCQA) extracted from natural plant Azolla imbricata could significantly alleviate the systemic damage in mice caused by IR. In order to further explore the molecular mechanism of the radioprotective effect of tCQA, in vitro experiments confirmed that tCQA could attenuate the cytotoxic effect of IR on the colonic epithelial cell line NCM460 and alleviate the IR-induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by the decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, ROS production, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. In addition, the generation of ROS induced by H O could also be reversed by tCQA. Then, Western blot demonstrated that tCQA could reverse the MAPK signaling pathway activated by IR. However, the inhibitory effect of tCQA on JNK and P38 levels activated by the JNK agonist anisomycin is not obvious; meanwhile, tCQA could inhibit the activation of JNK/P38 induced by H O , which suggests that tCQA might inhibit the JNK/P38 signaling pathway by reducing ROS. In short, tCQA inhibits the generation of ROS caused by IR, and then regulates the activity of caspase in the mitochondrial pathway by inhibiting the JNK/P38 signaling pathway, thereby alleviating the apoptosis of NCM460. This research provides an experimental basis for the development of new types of radioprotective agents for medical diagnosis and radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23403DOI Listing
November 2021

Establishment of a New Cell Line of Canine Mammary Tumor CMT-1026.

Front Vet Sci 2021 12;8:744032. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Canine mammary tumors (CMTs) have histopathological, epidemiologic and clinical characteristics similar to those in humans and are known to be one of the best models for human breast cancer (HBC). This research aimed to describe a newly established canine cell line, CMT-1026. Tumor samples were collected from a female dog exhibiting clinical mammary neoplasm, and the adherent cells were cultured. Both the histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of tumor samples were estimated. Cell growth, ultrastructural, cytological and immunocytochemistry (ICC) features of CMT-1026 were examined. CMT-1026 cells were inoculated into 10 female BALB/c nude mice to evaluate oncogenicity and metastatic ability. Hematoxylin-eosin (H.E.) staining of the tumors revealed an epithelial morphology. Electron microscopy was used to detect histological and cytological of smears, and ultrathin sections showed that CMT-1026 cells were polygonal and characterized by atypia and high mitotic index in the tumor, with prominent nucleoli and multinucleated cells. IHC characterization of CMT-1026 indicated ER-, PR-, HER-2, p63+, CK5/6+, and α-SMA+ epithelial cells. ICC characterization of CMT-1026 showed high expression of Claudin-1, Delta-catenin, SOX-2, and KI-67. At 2 weeks after inoculation of the CMT-1026 cells, phyma was found in 100% of the mice. The xenograft cancers showed conservation of the original H.E. features of the female dog cancer. In conclusion, CMT-1026 may be a model of canine mammary cancer that can be used in research on the pathogenesis of both CMT and HBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.744032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8546253PMC
October 2021

Syringa microphylla Diels: A comprehensive review of its phytochemical, pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological characteristics and an investigation into its potential health benefits.

Phytomedicine 2021 Dec 12;93:153770. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Zhuhai Jinan Selenium Source Nanotechnology Co., Ltd., Hengqin New Area, Zhuhai 519030, PR China.

Background: Syringa microphylla Diels is a plant in the family Syringa Linn. For hundreds of years, its flowers and leaves have been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of cough, inflammation, colds, sore throat, acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, early liver cirrhosis, fatty liver, and oesophageal cancer.

Purpose: For the first time, we have comprehensively reviewed information on Syringa microphylla Diels that is not included in the Pharmacopoeia, clarified the pharmacological mechanisms of Syringa microphylla Diels and its active ingredients from a molecular biology perspective, compiled in vivo and in vitro animal experimental data and clinical data, and summarized the toxicology and pharmacokinetics of Syringa microphylla Diels. The progress in toxicology research is expected to provide a theoretical basis for the development of new drugs from Syringa microphylla Diels, a natural source of compounds that are potentially beneficial to human health.

Methods: The PubMed, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, SciFinder Scholar and Thomson Reuters databases were utilized to conduct a comprehensive search of published literature as of July 2021 to find original literature related to Syringa microphylla Diels and its active ingredients.

Results: To date, 72 compounds have been isolated and identified from Syringa microphylla Diels, and oleuropein, verbascoside, isoacteoside, echinacoside, forsythoside B, and eleutheroside B are the main active components. These compounds have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, and their safety and effectiveness have been demonstrated in long-term traditional applications. Molecular pharmacology experiments have indicated that the active ingredients of Syringa microphylla Diels exert their pharmacological effects in various ways, primarily by reducing oxidative stress damage via Nrf2/ARE pathway regulation, regulating inflammatory factors and inducing apoptosis through the MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

Conclusion: This comprehensive review of Syringa microphylla Diels provides new insights into the correlations among molecular mechanisms, the importance of toxicology and pharmacokinetics, and potential ways to address the limitations of current research. As Syringa microphylla Diels is a natural low-toxicity botanical medicine, it is worthy of development and utilization and is an excellent choice for treating various diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153770DOI Listing
December 2021

Foresight regarding drug candidates acting on the succinate-GPR91 signalling pathway for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) treatment.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Dec 12;144:112298. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Hydrogen Medicine Center of Taishan Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian City Central Hospital, Taian 271000, PR China. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, and it is a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome, with a histological spectrum from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH can evolve into progressive liver fibrosis and eventually lead to liver cirrhosis. The pathological mechanism of NASH is multifactorial, involving a series of metabolic disorders and changes that trigger low-level inflammation in the liver and other organs. In the pathogenesis of NASH, the signal transduction pathway involving succinate and the succinate receptor (G-protein-coupled receptor 91, GPR91) regulates inflammatory cell activation and liver fibrosis. This review describes the mechanism of the succinate-GPR91 signalling pathway in NASH and summarizes the drugs that act on this pathway, with the aim of providing a new approach to NASH treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112298DOI Listing
December 2021

α1A and α1C form microtubules to display distinct properties mainly mediated by their C-terminal tails.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

Microtubules consisting of α/β-tubulin dimers play critical roles in cells. More than seven genes encode α-tubulin in vertebrates. However, the property of microtubules composed of different α-tubulin isotypes is largely unknown. Here, we purified recombinant tubulin heterodimers of mouse α-tubulin isotypes including α1A and α1C with β-tubulin isotype β2A. In vitro microtubule reconstitution assay detected that α1C/β2A microtubules grew faster and underwent catastrophe less frequently than α1A/β2A microtubules. Generation of chimeric tail-swapped and point-mutation tubulins revealed that the carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) tails of α-tubulin isotypes largely accounted for the differences in polymerization dynamics of α1A/β2A and α1C/β2A microtubules. Kinetics analysis showed that in comparison to α1A/β2A microtubules, α1C/β2A microtubules displayed higher on-rate, lower off-rate, and similar GTP hydrolysis rate at the plus-end, suggesting a contribution of higher plus-end affinity to faster growth and less frequent catastrophe of α1C/β2A microtubules. Furthermore, EB1 had a higher binding ability to α1C/β2A microtubules than to α1A/β2A ones, which could also be attributed to the difference in the C-terminal tails of these two α-tubulin isotypes. Thus, α-tubulin isotypes diversify microtubule properties, which, to a great extent, could be accounted by their C-terminal tails.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjab062DOI Listing
October 2021

Biological calcium carbonate with a unique organic-inorganic composite structure to enhance biochar stability.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Nov 17;23(11):1747-1758. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

College of Environment and Ecology, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China.

Biochar stability is a key factor affecting the efficiency of soil carbon sequestration. Mineral calcium carbonate (M-CaCO) can enhance the stability of biochar, and the mechanism has been extensively studied; however, similar studies on biological calcium carbonate (Bio-CaCO), another natural form of calcium carbonate, are lacking. In this work, Bio-CaCO was used as an additive to explore the mechanism by which it enhances the stability of biochar. The results showed that Bio-CaCO improved the stability of biochar at pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 250 to 700 °C, and the enhancement effects increased upon increasing the pyrolysis temperature. The enhancement effects of M-CaCO were better at lower temperatures (250 and 400 °C) while Bio-CaCO was better at higher temperatures (550 and 700 °C). Mechanistic studies showed that the enhanced stability of Bio-CaCO at 250 °C was due to the fact that the inorganic component in Bio-CaCO promoted the deoxidation of the carbon matrix and the aromatization of aliphatic carbon at 400 °C. The reasons for the increased stability using Bio-CaCO at high temperatures included two mechanisms. One is that the inorganic components in Bio-CaCO promoted the aromatization of the carbon matrix. The other is that the unique organic nitrogen-containing functional groups in Bio-CaCO underwent dimerization and cyclization with the organic carbon components in biomass to form a more stable pyridinic-N structure. This work provides novel ideas for enhancing biochar stability using Bio-CaCO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1em00247cDOI Listing
November 2021

circGNAQ, a circular RNA enriched in vascular endothelium, inhibits endothelial cell senescence and atherosclerosis progression.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Dec 8;26:374-387. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan 523808, P.R. China.

Endothelial cell senescence is one of the most important causes of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous RNA molecules with covalently closed-loop structures, which have been reported to be abnormally expressed in many human diseases. However, the potential role of circRNAs in endothelial cell senescence and atherosclerosis remains largely unknown. Here, we compared the expression patterns of circRNAs in young and senescent human endothelial cells with RNA sequencing. Among the differentially expressed circRNAs, circGNAQ, a circRNA enriched in vascular endothelium, was significantly downregulated in senescent endothelial cells. circGNAQ silencing triggered endothelial cell senescence, as determined by a rise in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, reduced cell proliferation, and suppressed angiogenesis; circGNAQ overexpression showed the opposite effects. Mechanistic studies revealed that circGNAQ acted as an endogenous miR-146a-5p sponge to increase the expression of its target gene by decoying the miR-146a-5p, thereby delaying endothelial cell senescence. studies showed that circGNAQ overexpression in the endothelium inhibited endothelial cell senescence and atherosclerosis progression. These results suggest that circGNAQ plays critical roles in endothelial cell senescence and consequently the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, implying that the management of circGNAQ provides a potential therapeutic approach for limiting the progression of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.07.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8426466PMC
December 2021

3D Tungsten Disulfide/Carbon Nanotube Networks as Separator Coatings and Cathode Additives for Stable and Fast Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 16;13(38):45547-45557. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Institute of Industry & Equipment Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials & Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, P. R. China.

Commercial application of Li-S batteries is greatly restricted by their unsatisfactory cycle retention and poor cycling life originating from the lithium polysulfide (LiPS) shuttling effect and sluggish sulfur redox kinetics. Various strategies have been proposed to boost the performances of Li-S batteries, including nanostructured sulfur composites, functional separators/interlayers, electrode/electrolyte additives, and so on. However, how to combine two or more strategies to efficiently settle these challenging issues confronted by Li-S batteries is in desperate need. Here, we demonstrate a powerful combined strategy of introducing novel 3D WS/carbon nanotube (CNT) networks built by hybridization of 1D CNTs with 2D WS into Li-S batteries, simultaneously serving as a functional cathode additive and separator coating. Such 3D WS2/CNTs networks with abundant edge sites, a large active surface, and a fast electron pathway twice perform functions from the cathode side and separator surface: (1) to suppress polysulfide diffusion through a physical barrier and chemical interactions; (2) to accelerate LiPS conversion reactions; and (3) to enhance conductivity for better sulfur reactivation and high utilization. As a result, the as-built WS2/CNTs-incorporated battery configuration achieves a commendable combination of capacity, rate, and cycle stability (1491 mA h g at 0.2 C, 754 mA h g at 5 C, and initial capacity of 1069 mA h g with an ultralow decay rate of 0.040% per cycle over 1000 cycles at 1 C) along with remarkably mitigated anode corrosion and low self-discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c13193DOI Listing
September 2021

Primary Sites of Uveal Melanoma Associated with Distinct Survival Outcomes and Clinicopathological Features: A SEER Population-Based Study of 4359 Cases.

Int J Gen Med 2021 4;14:5221-5232. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Objective: We sought to investigate clinicopathological characteristics correlated with the prognosis of uveal melanoma (UM) patients and find the driving factors of prognosis for ciliary/iris melanoma relative to choroid melanoma.

Materials And Methods: We collected patients with uveal melanoma between 1983 and 2012 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Primary outcomes were evaluated as cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). The Kaplan-Meier analysis was applied for the univariate analysis of CSS and OS and corresponding survival curves. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for multivariate analysis to value hazard ratio (HR) of ciliary body/iris melanoma subgroup versus choroid melanoma subgroup.

Results: A total of 4359 eligible patients were collected in our study. Novel potential prognostic factors for CSS and OS of UM were identified. Age at diagnosis, sex, primary tumor site, histologic subtype, tumor size, the extent of disease, and treatment were the independent prognostic factors for UM patients ( < 0.05). Interestingly, when concerned with the primary site of UM, we found that the ciliary body/iris melanoma subgroup showed significant differences in prognosis (both CSS and OS), sex, histologic type, the extent of disease, and treatment options relative to choroid melanoma subgroup ( < 0.05). Subsequently, stratification analyses suggested that the distinct survival outcomes between the ciliary body/iris melanoma and choroid melanoma subgroups mainly attributed to patient sex, age, tumor size, the extent of disease, and treatment options ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Age, sex, primary tumor site, histologic subtype, tumor size, the extent of disease, and treatment options are independent prognostic indicators for UM patients. Besides, the ciliary body/iris melanoma subgroup shows worse survival outcomes than choroid melanoma. Our findings offer inspiration to the individual treatment for UM patients with different primary sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S328910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427688PMC
September 2021

Bufalin suppresses tumour microenvironment-mediated angiogenesis by inhibiting the STAT3 signalling pathway.

J Transl Med 2021 09 8;19(1):383. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.

Background: Antiangiogenic therapy has increasingly become an important strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Recent studies have shown that the tumour microenvironment (TME) promotes tumour angiogenesis. Bufalin is an active antitumour compound whose efficacy has been indicated by previous studies. However, there are very few studies on the antiangiogenic effects of bufalin.

Methods: Herein, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation, migration and adhesion tests were used to assess angiogenesis in vitro. Western blotting and quantitative PCR were used to detect relevant protein levels and mRNA expression levels. A subcutaneous xenograft tumour model and a hepatic metastasis model were established in mice to investigate the influence of bufalin on angiogenesis mediated by the TME in vivo.

Results: We found that angiogenesis mediated by cells in the TME was significantly inhibited in the presence of bufalin. The results demonstrated that the proangiogenic genes in HUVECs, such as VEGF, PDGFA, E-selectin and P-selectin, were downregulated by bufalin and that this downregulation was mediated by inhibition of the STAT3 pathway. Overexpression of STAT3 reversed the inhibitory effects of bufalin on angiogenesis. Furthermore, there was little reduction in angiogenesis when bufalin directly acted on the cells in the tumour microenvironment.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that bufalin suppresses tumour microenvironment-mediated angiogenesis by inhibiting the STAT3 signalling pathway in vascular endothelial cells, revealing that bufalin may be used as a new antiangiogenic adjuvant therapy medicine to treat colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-03058-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424978PMC
September 2021

Beneficial effects of running exercise on hippocampal microglia and neuroinflammation in chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression model rats.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 09 6;11(1):461. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Medical University, 400016, Chongqing, P. R. China.

Running exercise has been shown to relieve symptoms of depression, but the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects are unclear. Microglia and concomitant dysregulated neuroinflammation play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of depression. However, the effects of running exercise on hippocampal neuroinflammation and the number and activation of microglia in depression have not been studied. In this study, rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 5 weeks followed by treadmill running for 6 weeks. The depressive-like symptoms of the rats were assessed with a sucrose preference test (SPT). Immunohistochemistry and stereology were performed to quantify the total number of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) microglia, and immunofluorescence was used to quantify the density of Iba1/cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) in subregions of the hippocampus. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The results showed that running exercise reversed the decreased sucrose preference of rats with CUS-induced depression. In addition, CUS increased the number of hippocampal microglia and microglial activation in rats, but running exercise attenuated the CUS-induced increases in the number of microglia in the hippocampus and microglial activation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Furthermore, CUS significantly increased the hippocampal levels of inflammatory factors, and the increases in inflammatory factors in the hippocampus were suppressed by running exercise. These results suggest that the antidepressant effects of exercise may be mediated by reducing the number of microglia and inhibiting microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01571-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421357PMC
September 2021

Lipid Peroxide-Derived Short-Chain Aldehydes are Involved in Aluminum Toxicity of Wheat () Roots.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 6;69(36):10496-10505. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Lipid peroxidation is a common event during aluminum (Al) toxicity in plants, and it generates an array of aldehyde fragments. The present study investigated and compared the profile and physiological functions of lipid peroxide-derived aldehydes under Al stress in two wheat genotypes that differed in Al resistance. Under Al stress, the sensitive genotype Yangmai-5 suffered more severe plasma membrane damage and accumulated higher levels of aldehydes in roots than the Al-tolerant genotype Jian-864. The complementary use of high-resolution mass spectrometry and standard compounds allowed the identification and quantification of 13 kinds of short-chain aldehydes sourced from lipids in wheat roots. Among these aldehydes, acetaldehyde, isovaldehyde, valeraldehyde, ()-2-hexenal (HE), heptaldehyde, and nonyl aldehyde were the predominant species. Moreover, it was found that HE in the sensitive genotype was over 2.63 times higher than that in the tolerant genotype after Al treatment. Elimination of aldehydes using carnosine rescued root growth inhibition by 19.59 and 11.63% in Jian-864 and Yangmai-5, respectively, and alleviated Al-induced membrane damage and protein oxidation. Exogenous aldehyde application further inhibited root elongation and exacerbated oxidative injury. The tolerant genotype Jian-864 showed elevated aldehyde detoxifying enzyme activity and transcript levels. These results suggest that lipid peroxide-derived short-chain aldehydes are involved in Al toxicity, and a higher aldehyde-detoxifying capacity may be responsible for Al tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c03975DOI Listing
September 2021

P4HA2-induced prolyl hydroxylation suppresses YAP1-mediated prostate cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis.

Oncogene 2021 Oct 1;40(41):6049-6056. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology and the David H. Koch Center for Applied Research of Genitourinary Cancers, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a key player in the Hippo pathway, has been shown to play a critical role in tumor progression. However, the role of YAP1 in prostate cancer cell invasion, migration, and metastasis is not well defined. Through functional, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic analyses, we showed that prolyl hydroxylation of YAP1 plays a critical role in the suppression of cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in prostate cancer. Knockdown (KD) or knockout (KO) of YAP1 led to an increase in cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in prostate cancer cells. Microarray analysis showed that the EMT pathway was activated in Yap1-KD cells. ChIP-seq analysis showed that YAP1 target genes are enriched in pathways regulating cell migration. Mass spectrometry analysis identified P4H prolyl hydroxylase in the YAP1 complex and YAP1 was hydroxylated at multiple proline residues. Proline-to-alanine mutations of YAP1 isoform 3 identified proline 174 as a critical residue, and its hydroxylation suppressed cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. KO of P4ha2 led to an increase in cell migration and invasion, which was reversed upon Yap1 KD. Our study identified a novel regulatory mechanism of YAP1 by which P4HA2-dependent prolyl hydroxylation of YAP1 determines its transcriptional activities and its function in prostate cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-02000-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8526415PMC
October 2021

Catalyst-Free Spontaneous Polymerization with 100% Atom Economy: Facile Synthesis of Photoresponsive Polysulfonates with Multifunctionalities.

JACS Au 2021 Mar 19;1(3):344-353. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, and Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Photoresponsive polymers have attracted extensive attention due to their tunable functionalities and advanced applications; thus, it is significant to develop facile synthesis strategies, extend polymers family, and establish various applications for photoresponsive polymers. Herein, we develop a catalyst-free spontaneous polymerization of dihaloalkynes and disulfonic acids without photosensitive monomers for the synthesis of photoresponsive polysulfonates at room temperature in air with 100% atom economy in high yields. The resulting polysulfonates could undergo visible photodegradation with strong photoacid generation, leading to various applications including dual-emissive or 3D photopatterning, and practical broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The halogen-rich polysulfonates also exhibit a high and photoswitched refractive index and could undergo efficient postfunctionalizations to further expand the variety and functionality of photoresponsive heteroatom-containing polyesters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.0c00100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395608PMC
March 2021

Effect of Methionine Supplementation on Rumen Microbiota, Fermentation, and Amino Acid Metabolism in In Vitro Cultures Containing Nitrate.

Microorganisms 2021 Aug 12;9(8). Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Key Laboratory of Buffalo Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Technology, Ministry of Agriculture and Guangxi Buffalo Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530001, China.

This study evaluated the effect of methionine on in vitro methane (CH) production, rumen fermentation, amino acid (AA) metabolism, and rumen microbiota in a low protein diet. We evaluated three levels of methionine (M0, 0%; M1, 0.28%; and M2, 1.12%) of in the presence of sodium nitrate (1%) in a diet containing elephant grass (90%) and concentrate (10%). We used an in vitro batch culture technique by using rumen fluid from cannulated buffaloes. Total gas and CH production were measured in each fermentation bottle at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72 h of incubation. Results revealed that M0 decreased ( < 0.001) the total gas and CH production, but methionine exhibited no effect on these parameters. M0 decreased ( < 0.05) the individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFAs), while increasing ( < 0.05) the ruminal pH, acetate to propionate ratio, and microbial protein content. Methionine did not affect ruminal AA contents except asparagine, which substantially increased ( = 0.003). M2 increased the protozoa counts, but both M0 and M1 decreased ( < 0.05) the relative abundance of Firmicutes while increasing ( < 0.05) the Campilobacterota and Proteobacteria. However, and were identified as biomarkers in the nitrate group. Our findings indicate that methionine can increase ruminal asparagine content and the population of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397988PMC
August 2021

Revisiting Lung Cancer Metastasis: Insight From the Functions of Long Non-coding RNAs.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211038488

Reproductive & Women-Children Hospital, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China.

Globally, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. After diagnosis at all stages, <7% of patients survive for 10 years. Thus, diagnosis at later stages and the lack of effective and personalized drugs reflect a significant need to better understand the mechanisms underpinning lung cancer progression. Metastasis should be responsible for the high lethality and recurrence rates seen in lung cancer. Metastasis depends on multiple crucial steps, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, vascular remodeling, and colonization. Therefore, in-depth investigations of metastatic molecular mechanisms can provide valuable insights for lung cancer treatment. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their complex roles in cancer progression. In lung cancer, multiple lncRNAs have been reported to regulate metastasis. In this review, we highlight the major molecular mechanisms underlying lncRNA-mediated regulation of lung cancer metastasis, including (1) lncRNAs acting as competing endogenous RNAs, (2) lncRNAs regulating the transduction of several signal pathways, and (3) lncRNA coordination with enhancer of zeste homolog 2. Thus, lncRNAs appear to execute their functions on lung cancer metastasis by regulating angiogenesis, autophagy, aerobic glycolysis, and immune escape. However, more comprehensive studies are required to characterize these lncRNA regulatory networks in lung cancer metastasis, which can provide promising and innovative novel therapeutic strategies to combat this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15330338211038488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392855PMC
August 2021

Immunological Involvement of MicroRNAs in the Key Events of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:699684. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Reproductive & Women-Children Hospital, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an archetype autoimmune disease characterized by a myriad of immunoregulatory abnormalities that drives injury to multiple tissues and organs. Due to the involvement of various immune cells, inflammatory cytokines, and related signaling pathways, researchers have spent a great deal of effort to clarify the complex etiology and pathogenesis of SLE. Nevertheless, current understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE is still in the early stages, and available nonspecific treatment options for SLE patients remain unsatisfactory. First discovered in 1993, microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that control the expression of 1/3 of human genes at the post-transcriptional level and play various roles in gene regulation. The aberrant expression of miRNAs in SLE patients has been intensively studied, and further studies have suggested that these miRNAs may be potentially relevant to abnormal immune responses and disease progression in SLE. The aim of this review was to summarize the specific miRNAs that have been observed aberrantly expressed in several important pathogenetic processes in SLE, such as DCs abnormalities, overactivation and autoantibody production of B cells, aberrant activation of CD4 T cells, breakdown of immune tolerance, and abnormally increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Our summary highlights a novel perspective on the intricate regulatory network of SLE, which helps to enrich our understanding of this disorder and ignite future interest in evaluating the molecular regulation of miRNAs in autoimmunity SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.699684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365877PMC
August 2021

Decreased iris thickness on swept-source optical coherence tomography in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 09 23;49(7):696-703. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Purpose: To investigate the iris thickness (IT) of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and older adults using anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT).

Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, 154 participants were enrolled, including 40 patients with POAG and 114 healthy individuals. Nasal-angle SS-OCT images were analysed using callipers to measure the thickness of the iris, including the anterior border layer, stromal, and pigmented epithelial layer, at 1 and 2 mm from the pupil edge. The relationship between IT and glaucoma severity was analysed, and receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the ability of each IT parameter to distinguish patients with glaucoma from healthy controls.

Results: The IT parameters and iris area were lower in the POAG group than in the age-matched control group (p < 0.05). In the POAG group, the thickness of the pigmented epithelial layer at 1 and 2 mm was significantly correlated with the severity of glaucoma (p < 0.05). Iris area, with a cut-off of 1.43 mm exhibited the highest sensitivity (85%) and specificity (64.81%; area under the curve = 0.783) for distinguishing patients with POAG from healthy controls. Older adults tended to have the thinnest IT, children had the smallest iris area (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In patients with POAG, the severity of iris atrophy was associated with glaucoma severity. The results of IT measurements by SS-OCT may help in the clinical evaluation of POAG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ceo.13981DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetic Properties and Mass Balance of Henagliflozin in Healthy Male Volunteers.

Clin Ther 2021 09 6;43(9):e264-e273. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Henagliflozin is a highly selective and effective sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitor developed for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of meal intake on the pharmacokinetic properties of henagliflozin, and to understand the excretion pathways of henagliflozin in humans.

Methods: In this Phase I, randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period crossover study, 12 healthy male Chinese volunteers were randomized to receive either henagliflozin 10 mg in the fasted condition followed by henagliflozin 10 mg in the fed condition, or the reverse schedule, with the two administrations separated by a washout period of at least 7 days. Samples of blood, urine, and feces were collected and analyzed for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic profile and excretion pathways in the fasted and fed conditions. Any adverse events that occurred throughout the study were recorded for tolerability assessment.

Findings: After the administration of a single oral dose of henagliflozin, mean (SD) plasma AUC and C were 1200 (274) h · ng/mL and 179 (48.8) ng/mL, respectively, in the fasted state and were decreased to 971 (245) h · ng/mL and 115 (34.2) ng/mL in the fed state. The fed/fasted ratios (90% CIs) of the geometric mean values of C, AUC, and AUC were 64% (54%-76%), 80% (76%-85%), and 80% (76%-85%), respectively. The median (range) T was prolonged from 1.5 (1-3) hours in the fasted condition to 2 (1.5-6) hours in the fed condition. Mass-balance testing revealed that henagliflozin was eliminated primarily as the parent drug in feces and as glucuronide metabolites in urine. In the fasted state, the cumulative excretion percentages of the parent drug and its metabolites to dose in feces and urine were 40.6% and 33.9%, respectively. The values in the fed condition were changed to 50.4% and 25.5%, respectively. These findings suggest that postprandial administration decreases the absorption rate and the extent of henagliflozin exposure in humans, but has no effect on the metabolism or elimination of the drug.

Implications: In the present study, the consumption of a high-fat meal prior to henagliflozin administration was associated with reductions in AUC and C of 19.4% and 36.4%, respectively. However, based on the analysis of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic findings on henagliflozin, this slight change may not have clinical significance. Mass balance of henagliflozin in humans was achieved with ∼75% of the administered dose recovered in excretions within 4 days after administration whether in the fasted or fed state. These findings suggest that henagliflozin tablets can be administered with or without food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.07.008DOI Listing
September 2021

Thermal Comfort Index for Lactating Water Buffaloes under Hot and Humid Climate.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 11;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Key Laboratory of Buffalo Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Technology, Ministry of Agriculture and Guangxi Buffalo Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530001, China.

Heat stress results in serious performance losses and adversely affects animal health and welfare under various production systems. This study was conducted to develop a thermal comfort model for lactating buffaloes under hot and humid climate. Twenty Nili-Ravi buffaloes were randomly enrolled for this one-year study. Physiological parameters including rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST) and environmental variables such as wet bulb temperature (WBT), dew point temperature (DPT), and black globe temperature (BGT) were recorded twice a week on each Tuesday and Thursday ( = 1602 and 1560, respectively) at 8:00 am and 2:30 pm. Moreover, ambient temperature (AT, °C) and relative humidity (RH, %), at an interval of every 30 min were recorded. We used a typical correlation analysis to build the index models for thermal comfort. The results revealed that AT positively correlated with BGT, WBT, DPT, BST, RT, and RR, while RH negatively correlated with RT. Moreover, a physiological index model consisting of BST, RT and RR (P1 = 0.578 × BST + 0.047 × RT + 0.429 × RR) and an environmental index model (E1 = 0.881 × AT + 0.194 × RH + 0.455 × BGT - 0.347 × WBT + 0.032 × DPT) proved to be a more accurate index as a pair to reveal the state of thermal comfort in lactating buffaloes. Moreover, these models correlated well with physiological variables, indicating that this this pair of index models can be used to effectively evaluate the thermal comfort in buffaloes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11072067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300202PMC
July 2021

LncRNA as a multifunctional regulator in cancer multi-drug resistance.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Aug 31;48(8):1-15. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Reproductive & Women-Children Hospital, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Malignant tumors have become the most dangerous disease in recent years. Chemotherapy is the most effective treatment for this disease; however, the problem of drug resistance has become even more common, which leads to the poor prognosis of patients suffering from cancers. Thus, necessary measures should be taken to address these problems at the earliest. Many studies have demonstrated that drug resistance is closely related to the abnormal expressions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs).

Methods And Results: This review aimed to summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of lncRNAs and the development of drug resistance and to find potential strategies for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer drug resistance. Studies showed that lncRNAs can regulate the expression of genes through chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation, and post-transcriptional processing. Furthermore, lncRNAs have been reported to be closely related to the occurrence of malignant tumors. In summary, lncRNAs have gained attention in related fields during recent years. According to previous studies, lncRNAs have a vital role in several different types of cancers owing to their multiple mechanisms of action. Different mechanisms have different functions that could result in different consequences in the same disease.

Conclusions: LncRNAs closely participated in cancer drug resistance by regulating miRNA, signaling pathways, proteins, cancer stem cells, pro- and ant-apoptosis, and autophagy. lncRNAs can be used as biomarkers of the possible treatment target in chemotherapy, which could provide solutions to the problem of drug resistance in chemotherapy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06603-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Lifestyle Intervention for Overweight/Obese Pregnant Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Lessons and Challenges.

Obes Facts 2021 26;14(4):405-414. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Obstetrics, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Introduction And Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive disorder in women of reproductive age, and overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in women with PCOS. This study aims to explore whether lifestyle intervention can improve gestational weight gain (GWG), glucolipid metabolism, and perinatal outcomes in overweight/obese pregnant women with PCOS.

Methods: This study is a randomized controlled trial that included overweight and obese pregnant women with PCOS who met the inclusion criteria of 8-12 gestational weeks. They were randomly allocated to the intervention group and the control group. Women in the intervention group were given individualized counseling on diet and exercise from a trained dietitian and followed up regularly by a trained dietitian. Women in the control group received guidance on diet and exercise in the form of group education.

Results: A total of 296 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, including 164 in the intervention group and 132 in the control group. GWG was 11.93 ± 5.67 kg in the intervention group and 11.86 ± 5.35 kg in the control group and did not differ between the 2 groups. According to the per-protocol analyses, women with good compliance had a lower weight gain (10.11 ± 5.56 vs. 12.70 ± 5.31, p = 0.0042). The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus and other perinatal outcomes did not differ between the 2 groups. For the lipid profile, we did not find significant improvement in the intervention group.

Conclusions: Our study showed that lifestyle intervention of diet and exercise did not affect GWG, glucolipid metabolism, and perinatal outcomes of overweight/obese pregnant women with PCOS. However, women with good compliance can benefit from the lifestyle intervention for GWG. We believe that future studies should focus on trial design and increasing compliance to improve the quality of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406241PMC
November 2021

Arabidopsis ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR-A1s mediate tapetum-controlled pollen development.

Plant J 2021 Oct 20;108(1):268-280. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

Propagation of angiosperms mostly relies on sexual reproduction, in which gametophytic development is a pre-requisite. Male gametophytic development requires both gametophytic and sporophytic factors, most importantly early secretion and late programmed cell death of the tapetum. In addition to transcriptional factors, proteins at endomembrane compartments, such as receptor-like kinases and vacuolar proteases, control tapetal function. The cellular machinery that regulates their distribution is beginning to be revealed. We report here that ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR-A1s (ArfA1s) are critical for tapetum-controlled pollen development. All six ArfA1s in the Arabidopsis genome are expressed during anther development, among which ArfA1b is specific to the tapetum and developing microspores. Although the ArfA1b loss-of-function mutant showed no pollen defects, probably due to redundancy, interference with ArfA1s by a dominant negative approach in the tapetum resulted in tapetal dysfunction and pollen abortion. We further showed that all six ArfA1s are associated with the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network/early endosome, suggesting that they have roles in regulating post-Golgi trafficking to the plasma membrane or to vacuoles. Indeed, we demonstrated that the expression of ArfA1b interfered with the targeting of proteins critical for tapetal development. The results presented here demonstrate a key role of ArfA1s in tapetum-controlled pollen development by mediating protein targeting through post-Golgi trafficking routes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15440DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of ropivacaine and sufentanil in epidural labor analgesia.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):7001-7007. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Central People's Hospital of Zhanjiang Zhanjiang 524045, Guangdong, China.

Objective: To investigate the application value of ropivacaine combined with sufentanil for epidural labor analgesia in painless labor.

Methods: A total of 157 cases of pregnant female received painless labor in our hospital from January 2019 to December 2020 were randomly divided into observation group (n=81 cases) and control group (n=76 cases). The subjects in the observation group received 0.1% ropivacaine combined with sufentanil (0.25 μg/ml) 10 ml and added into the painless delivery pump, and the control group received 0.1% ropivacaine 10 ml into the painless delivery pump. The analgesic effect, lactation function, delivery outcomes and the labor course of the two groups were compared.

Results: In the active stage of labor, the time of first labor process was shorter compared with the control group, those in the observation group were more active than the control group (P<0.05). The lactation initiation time of the observation group was shorter than that of the control group, and the effective rate of lactation was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The Visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 5 min, 30 min, 60 min, and 90 min after analgesia were improved in the observation group, the analgesic effect of ropivacaine combined with sufentanil for epidural labor analgesia was prior to ropivacaine alone. There were significant differences in the rates of conversion to cesarean section and usage rate of forceps between the two groups (P<0.05), while there had no significant differences in lateral episiotomy rate and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min after birth between the two groups (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Ropivacaine combined with sufentanil for epidural labor analgesia in painless labor can effectively relieve labor pain, improve lactation function, active the first stage of labor, shorten the time of labor, reduce the incidence of cesarean section and ensure the safety of mother and infant.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290753PMC
June 2021

Free Vibration Analysis of a Graphene-Reinforced Porous Composite Plate with Different Boundary Conditions.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China.

Plates are commonly used in many engineering disciplines, including aerospace. With the continuous improvement in the capacity of high value-added airplanes, large transport aircrafts, and fighter planes that have high strength, high toughness, and corrosion resistance have gradually become the development direction of airplane plate structure production and research. The strength and stability of metal plate structures can be improved by adding reinforced materials. This paper studies graphene platelets (GPLs) reinforced with a free vibration porous composite plate. The porous plate is constructed with a multi-layer model in a metal matrix containing uniform or non-uniformly distributed open-cell internal pores. Considering the random and directional arrangement of graphene platelets in the matrix, the elastic modulus of graphene composites was estimated using the Halpin-Tsai micromechanical model, and the vibration frequencies of graphene composite were calculated using the differential quadrature method. The effects of the total number of layers, GPL distribution pattern, porosity coefficient, GPL weight fraction, and boundary conditions on the free vibration frequency of GPLs reinforced porous composite plates are studied, and the accuracy of the conclusions are verified by the finite element software.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14143879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304675PMC
July 2021

The Crosstalk Between Long Non-Coding RNAs and Various Types of Death in Cancer Cells.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211033044

School of Medical and Life Sciences/Reproductive & Women-Children Hospital, 118385Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

With the increasing aging population, cancer has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the number of cancer cases and deaths is only anticipated to grow further. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are closely associated with the expression level of downstream genes and various types of bioactivity, are regarded as one of the key regulators of cancer cell proliferation and death. Cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, plays a vital role in the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the regulatory relationships between lncRNAs and these various types of cancer cell death is therefore urgently required. The occurrence and development of tumors can be controlled by increasing or decreasing the expression of lncRNAs, a method which confers broad prospects for cancer treatment. Therefore, it is urgent for us to understand the influence of lncRNAs on the development of different modes of tumor death, and to evaluate whether lncRNAs have the potential to be used as biological targets for inducing cell death and predicting prognosis and recurrence of chemotherapy. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the various forms of cancer cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, and to describe the mechanisms of different types of cancer cell death that are regulated by lncRNAs in order to explore potential targets for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15330338211033044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293842PMC
July 2021

Physiological, oxidative and metabolic responses of lactating water buffaloes to tropical climate of South China.

Vet Med Sci 2021 Sep 17;7(5):1696-1706. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Key Laboratory of Buffalo Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Technology, Ministry of Agriculture and Guangxi Buffalo Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning, China.

Background: Heat stress in tropics is generally associated with significant economic losses resulting from reduced performance, morbidity, and mortality of livestock. To avoid serious consequences of heat stress, it is imperative to better understand the physiological responses and biochemical changes under the state of altered body homeostasis during different seasons of the year.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of physiological, oxidative and metabolic responses of lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes to the tropical climate of South China.

Methods: Physiological responses including rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BST) and respiratory rate (RR) along with serum biochemical and antioxidant parameters of 20 lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were evaluated during different seasons of the year.

Results: Higher temperature-humidity Index (THI) during the summer season (>80) resulted in a significant increases in RR and BST as compared to the winter season. Higher oxidative stress was observed in the summer season as revealed by significantly higher MDA while lower serum antioxidant enzyme (TAC, GSH-Px, SOD and CAT) contents. Moreover, serum cortisol was also significantly higher in summer and autumn. The levels of growth hormone and ACTH were also significantly (P < 0.05) lower in summer and autumn as compared to other seasons. The negative association of THI with physiological and antioxidant parameters was observed while it was positively associated with serum MDA and cortisol levels.

Conclusions: Our study revealed moderate heat stress in lactating buffaloes in the summer season which calls for attention to avoid economic losses and animal welfare issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464237PMC
September 2021

Regulatory Mechanisms of LncRNAs in Cancer Glycolysis: Facts and Perspectives.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 5;13:5317-5336. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Reproductive & Women-Children Hospital, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611137, People's Republic of China.

Cancer cells exhibit distinct metabolic characteristics that employ glycolysis to provide energy and intermediary metabolites. This aberrant metabolic phenotype favors cancer progression. LncRNAs are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that do not encode proteins. LncRNAs contribute to cancer progression and therapeutic resistance and affect aerobic glycolysis via multiple mechanisms, including modulating glycolytic transporters and enzymes. Further, dysregulated signaling pathways are vital for glycolysis. In this review, we highlight regulatory mechanisms for lncRNAs in aerobic glycolysis that provide novel insights into cancer development. Moreover, a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs in aerobic glycolysis can provide new strategies for clinical cancer management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S314502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275123PMC
July 2021
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