Publications by authors named "Liang Wan"

115 Publications

Complete Genome Sequence of Pasteurella multocida HuN001, a Capsular Type A Strain from a Human.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jul 1;10(26):e0039521. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of clinical Pasteurella multocida strain HuN001, which was cultured from a sputum sample from a patient with pneumonia. Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing provided a complete genome sequence of P. multocida HuN001, which contains a 2,287,216-bp circular chromosome with an average G+C content of 40.33%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00395-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248868PMC
July 2021

Isolation, Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes, and Virulence Genes of From Pigs in China, 2018-2020.

Front Vet Sci 2021 8;8:672716. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

is a leading cause of respiratory diseases in pigs. However, epidemiological data of in pigs particularly in China, the largest pig rearing country in the world is still limited. We isolated 181 strains from 4259 lung samples of dead pigs with respiratory diseases in 14 provinces in China from 2018 to 2020. The average isolation rate of this 3-year period was 4.25% (181/4259). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed by disc diffusion method revealed that most of the isolates in this study were resistant to ampicillin (83.98%), while a proportion of isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (30.39%%), chloramphenicol (12.71%), gentamicin (11.60%), florfenicol (11.60%), tetracycline (8.84%), amoxicillin (8.29%), tobramycin (6.63%), ceftriaxone (4.97%), and cefepime (0.55%). There were no isolates with resistant phenotypes to imipenem, meropenem, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and amikacin. In addition, ~13.18% of the isolates showed phenotypes of multidrug resistance. Detection of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by PCR showed that 16.57% of the isolates in this study was positive to , while 3.87%, 2.21%, 1.10%, 0.55%, 0.55%, and 0.55% of the isolates were positive to , , , and , respectively. Detection of virulence factors encoding genes (VFGs) by conventional PCR showed that over 90% of the pig isolates in this study were positive to the five VFGs examined (, 97.24%; , 91.16%; , 98.34%; , 98.34%; , 92.82%). These results demonstrate as an important pathogen associated with pig respiratory disorders in China. The present work contributes to the current understanding of the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of in pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.672716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217433PMC
June 2021

Comparison of the effects of continuous and accumulative exposure to nanoplastics on microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa during chronic toxicity.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 21;788:147934. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Hubei Biomass-Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology Key Laboratory, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079, PR China. Electronic address:

Most previous studies have focused on the continuous exposure of aquatic organisms to nanoplastics. However, persistent pollutants in natural aquatic surroundings are a threat, and their concentrations are continuously increasing. The discussion and research into the effects of accumulative exposure to these materials are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of continuous and accumulative exposure to polystyrene (PS) nanoplastics (80 nm) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa during chronic toxicity. The results indicated that under conditions of continuous exposure, this alga exhibited self-recovery to defend against the negative effects of PS nanoplastics during 15-21 days of exposure (the 21-d inhibitory rate was 1.41%). However, one unanticipated finding was that during the same period of accumulative exposure, nanoplastics retained a substantial and stable inhibitory effect on the algal growth (the 21-d inhibitory rate was 6.79% in accumulative exposure for twice), indicating the invalid self-recovery of algae. The results of scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that on day 21, the degree of damage to the algal cells under accumulative exposure was more severe than that under continuous exposure. Hence, nanoplastics exerted an irreversibly negative effect on aquatic organisms depending on the pattern, frequency, concentration, and duration of exposure. This project evaluated the practical significance of nanoplastics in aquatic ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147934DOI Listing
September 2021

Does ecological compensation have a spillover effect on industrial structure upgrading? Evidence from China based on a multi-stage dynamic DID approach.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 6;294:112934. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

University of Science and Technology of China, China.

China's rapid economic development has led to increasingly serious environmental problems, such as the deterioration of its ecology in important river basins. Adjusting the industrial structure through the mechanism of ecological compensation (EC) is a key measure for solving this economic and environmental dilemma. Early research on the impact of ecological compensation mechanisms has mainly focused on evaluating their performance in terms of the ecological environment, with little empirical evidence. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the economic effects of ecological compensation mechanisms in order to achieve sustainable economic and environmental development. Based on panel data from the Xin'an River Basin in China from 2009 to 2018, a multistage dynamic difference-in-differences (DID) model was constructed to systematically study the impact of the ecological compensation mechanism on the upgrading of the industrial structure. The research results show that due to the implementation of the policy, the industrial structure in pilot ecological compensation areas tends to be rational and advanced. The ecological compensation policy has dynamic effects on the upgrading of the industrial structure during the different stages of its implementation. This study is conducive to further enriching the relevant theories and practices underlying the study of ecological compensation mechanisms. At the same time, this paper provides operational suggestions for ecological protection, the adjustment of the industrial structure, and the formulation of relevant macroeconomic policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112934DOI Listing
September 2021

Transcriptome analysis of the toxic mechanism of nanoplastics on growth, photosynthesis and oxidative stress of microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa during chronic exposure.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 19;284:117413. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Hubei Biomass-Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology Key Laboratory, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430079, PR China. Electronic address:

The toxicity of nanoplastics to aquatic organisms has been widely studied in terms of biochemical indicators. However, there is little discussion about the underlying toxic mechanism of nanoplastics on microalgae. Therefore, the chronic effect of polystyrene (PS) nanoplastics (80 nm) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa was investigated, in terms of responses at the biochemical and molecular/omic level. It was surprising that both inhibitory and promoting effects of nanoplastcis on C. pyrenoidosa were found during chronic exposure. Before 13 days, the maximum growth inhibition rate was 7.55% during 10 mg/L PS nanoplastics treatment at 9 d. However, the inhibitory effect gradually weakened with the prolongation of exposure time. Interestingly, algal growth was promoted for 1-5 mg/L nanoplastics during 15-21 d exposure. Transcriptomic analysis explained that the inhibitory effect of nanoplastics could be attributed to suppressed gene expression of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that resulted in the reduced synthesis of related enzymes. The promotion phenomenon may be due to that C. pyrenoidosa defended against nanoplastics stress by promoting cell proliferation, regulating intracellular osmotic pressure, and accelerating the degradation of damaged proteins and organs. This study is conducive to provide theoretical basis for evaluating the actual hazard of nanoplastics to aquatic organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117413DOI Listing
September 2021

A model for phenotyping crop fractional vegetation cover using imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun;72(13):4691-4707

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, and State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is the key trait of interest for characterizing crop growth status in crop breeding and precision management. Accurate quantification of FVC among different breeding lines, cultivars, and growth environments is challenging, especially because of the large spatiotemporal variability in complex field conditions. This study presents an ensemble modeling strategy for phenotyping crop FVC from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based multispectral images by coupling the PROSAIL model with a gap probability model (PROSAIL-GP). Seven field experiments for four main crops were conducted, and canopy images were acquired using a UAV platform equipped with RGB and multispectral cameras. The PROSAIL-GP model successfully retrieved FVC in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with coefficient of determination, root mean square error (RMSE), and relative RMSE (rRMSE) of 0.79, 0.09, and 18%, respectively. The robustness of the proposed method was further examined in rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and a high accuracy of FVC retrieval was obtained, with rRMSEs of 12%, 6%, and 6%, respectively. Our findings suggest that the proposed method can efficiently retrieve crop FVC from UAV images at a high spatiotemporal domain, which should be a promising tool for precision crop breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab194DOI Listing
June 2021

How can government environmental enforcement and corporate environmental responsibility consensus reduce environmental emergencies?

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.

Environmental emergencies have become a severe challenge to human society due to their great harmfulness, which seriously restrict the sustainable development of human society. Previous studies mainly focused on the pollutant sources and consequences of environmental emergencies, yet lacking highlight of the antecedents of environmental emergencies. Based on a panel data of 31 provinces in China, this paper establishes a mediating effect model to empirically investigate how government environmental enforcement and corporate environmental responsibility consensus (CCER) influence environmental emergencies. The results show that there exists a significant positive correlation between the intensity of government environmental enforcement and CCER, while CCER has negative influence on the frequency of environmental emergencies. In addition, CCER plays a full mediating role in the relationship between government environmental enforcement and environmental emergencies. In short, this research clarified the relationship between government environmental enforcement, CCER, and environmental emergencies, verified the intermediary role of CCER. This paper uncovers another "black box" of the mechanism of environmental emergencies, makes up for the limitations of previous studies from a single perspective, expands the scope of research on environmental emergencies, and proposes corresponding policy recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-00916-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of Chlorophyll Content and Fluorescence Response Within Rice ( L.) Canopies Under Different Nitrogen Treatments.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:645977. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Accurate acquisition of plant phenotypic information has raised long-standing concerns in support of crop breeding programs. Different methods have been developed for high throughput plant phenotyping, while they mainly focused on the canopy level without considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity at different canopy layers and growth stages. This study aims to phenotype spatiotemporal heterogeneity of chlorophyll (Chl) content and fluorescence response within rice leaves and canopies. Multipoint Chl content and high time-resolved Chl fluorescence (ChlF) transient (OJIP transient) of rice plants were measured at different nitrogen levels and growth stages. Results showed that the Chl content within the upper leaves exhibited an increasing trend from the basal to the top portions but a decreasing pattern within the lower leaves at the most growth stages. Leaf Chl content within the rice canopy was higher in the lower leaves in the vegetative phase, while from the initial heading stage the pattern gradually reversed with the highest Chl content appearing in the upper leaves. Nitrogen supply mainly affects the occurrence time of the reverse vertical pattern. This could be the result of different nutritional demands of leaves transforming from sinks to sources, and it was further confirmed by the fall of the JI phase of OJIP transient in the vegetative phase and the rise in the reproductive phase. We further deduced that the vertical distribution of Chl content could have a defined pattern at a specific growth stage. Furthermore, the reduction of end acceptors at photosystem I (PSI) electron acceptor side per cross section (RE/CS) was found to be a potential sensitive predictor for identifying the vertical heterogeneity of leaf Chl content. These findings provide prior knowledge on the vertical profiles of crop physiological traits, which explore the opportunity to develop more efficient plant phenotyping tools for crop breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.645977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028447PMC
March 2021

Study on bioleaching of heavy metals and resource potential from tannery yard sludge.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 20;28(29):38867-38879. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Shanghai Guohui Environmental Technology Group Co., Ltd., Shanghai, 201100, China.

Tannery sludge that has accumulated in the natural environment of a tannery industrial zone for a long time contains large amounts of toxic heavy metal elements such as Cr, which has a serious impact on the surrounding environment. This study used indigenous acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from local tannery wastewater treatment plants to examine the effects of bioleaching on the removal of heavy metals in local tannery sludge accumulated in the natural environment. The effect of pre-oxygenation on bioleaching was investigated, and trends of sludge dewaterability during bioleaching and changes in the total amount of heavy metals, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) during bioleaching were determined. Changes in the contents of different bound forms of heavy metals in tannery yard sludge during the bioleaching process were revealed. The experimental results showed that pre-oxygenation treatment of tannery yard sludge can shorten the bioleaching period (by at least 4 days) and improve the removal efficiency of all heavy metals. To ensure sludge dewaterability, the pH of the leaching system at the end of the bioleaching must not be lower than 1.67. The main components of heavy metals were stable in the tannery yard sludge, which critically affected the final removal efficiency of all heavy metals. The dissolution process of heavy metals showed that the morphology of heavy metals changed from stable to unstable forms in the bioleaching process, further dissolving into the liquid phase to be removed. In this experiment, the removal efficiency of all heavy metals in the tannery yard sludge was higher than 88.49%, and these heavy metals had good stability in morphology (the stable forms accounted for more than 87% of the total). In addition, the TN content in the remaining sludge was 27.9 g/kg, which is much higher than fertilizer TN requirements, indicating a high potential for resource utilization. Therefore, the method of bioleaching to remove heavy metals in tannery yard sludge for reuse is worthy of in-depth study and promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13425-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Three novel immunogenic proteins determined through 2-Dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with immune serum confer protection against challenge with porcine Pasteurella multocida in mouse models.

Res Vet Sci 2021 May 13;136:303-309. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China; The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Pasteurella multocida is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes multiple diseases in both animals and humans. Test of good immunogenic proteins is beneficial for vaccine development and disease control. In the present study, we determined four novel immunogenic proteins of P. multocida by using 2-DE MALDI-TOF MS with immune serum. These four proteins included a trimethylamine-N-oxide reductase TorA, a translation elongation factor Ts, a phosphoglyceromutase PGAM, and a peroxiredoxin PrX. Among these proteins, TorA, Prx, and PGAM were successfully expressed by using E. coli. Western-blotting assays showed that recombinant TorA, Prx, and/or PGAM displayed good reactions with infectious sera of P. multocida serogroups A, B, D and F. Immunization of either rTorA, rPrx, and/or rPGAM induced significantly high levels of antibodies as well as IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in mice (P < 0.01). Protective efficacy tests revealed that vaccination of either rTorA, rPrx, and/or rPGAM protected 60% ~ 80% of the tested mice against the challenge with P. multocida field isolate. Our results obtained from the present study suggest that these three proteins could be tested as good vaccine candidates against P. multocida infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.03.013DOI Listing
May 2021

Structural Knowledge Distillation for Efficient Skeleton-Based Action Recognition.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 17;30:2963-2976. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Skeleton data have been extensively used for action recognition since they can robustly accommodate dynamic circumstances and complex backgrounds. To guarantee the action-recognition performance, we prefer to use advanced and time-consuming algorithms to get more accurate and complete skeletons from the scene. However, this may not be acceptable in time- and resource-stringent applications. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using low-quality skeletons, which can be quickly and easily estimated from the scene, for action recognition. While the use of low-quality skeletons will surely lead to degraded action-recognition accuracy, in this paper we propose a structural knowledge distillation scheme to minimize this accuracy degradations and improve recognition model's robustness to uncontrollable skeleton corruptions. More specifically, a teacher which observes high-quality skeletons obtained from a scene is used to help train a student which only sees low-quality skeletons generated from the same scene. At inference time, only the student network is deployed for processing low-quality skeletons. In the proposed network, a graph matching loss is proposed to distill the graph structural knowledge at an intermediate representation level. We also propose a new gradient revision strategy to seek a balance between mimicking the teacher model and directly improving the student model's accuracy. Experiments are conducted on Kenetics400, NTU RGB+D and Penn action recognition datasets and the comparison results demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3056895DOI Listing
February 2021

Proteomic and Metabolomic Analyses Provide Insights into the Mechanism on Arginine Metabolism Regulated by tRNA Modification Enzymes GidA and MnmE of .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 11;10:597408. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control Agents for Animal Bacteriosis, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Pathogenic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China.

GidA and MnmE, two important tRNA modification enzymes, are contributed to the addition of the carboxymethylaminomethyl (cmnm) group onto wobble uridine of tRNA. GidA-MnmE modification pathway is evolutionarily conserved among Bacteria and Eukarya, which is crucial in efficient and accurate protein translation. However, its function remains poorly elucidated in zoonotic (SS). Here, a and double knock-out (DKO) strain was constructed to systematically decode regulatory characteristics of GidA-MnmE pathway proteomic. TMT labelled proteomics analysis identified that many proteins associated with cell divison and growth, fatty acid biosynthesis, virulence, especially arginine deiminase system (ADS) responsible for arginine metabolism were down-regulated in DKO mutant compared with the wild-type (WT) SC19. Accordingly, phenotypic experiments showed that the DKO strain displayed decreased in arginine consumption and ammonia production, deficient growth, and attenuated pathogenicity. Moreover, targeted metabolomic analysis identified that arginine was accumulated in DKO mutant as well. Therefore, these data provide molecular mechanisms for GidA-MnmE modification pathway in regulation of arginine metabolism, cell growth and pathogenicity of SS. Through proteomic and metabolomic analysis, we have identified arginine metabolism that is the links between a framework of protein level and the metabolic level of GidA-MnmE modification pathway perturbation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.597408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793837PMC
June 2021

Rapid and simultaneous detection of Japanese encephalitis virus by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jan 2;150:104724. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control Agents for Animal Bacteriosis (Ministry of Agriculture), Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430064, China. Electronic address:

Japaneses encephalitis (JE) is most common zoonoses caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) with a high mortality and disability rate. To take timely preventive and control measures, early and rapid detection of JE RNA is necessary. But due to characteristic brief and low viraemia, JE RNA detection remains challenging. In this study, a real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (RT-NASBA) was developed for rapid and simultaneous detection of JEV. Four pairs of primer were designed using a multiple genome alignment of all JEV strains from GenBank. NASBA assay established and optimal reaction conditions were confirmed by using primers and probe on ns1 gene of JEV. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were compared with RT-PCR by using serial RNA and virus cultivation dilutions. The results showed that JEV RT-NASBA assay was established, and robust signals could be observed in 10 min with high specificity. The limit of dectetion of RT-NASBA was 6 copies per reaction. The assay was thus 100 to 1, 000 times more sensitive than RT-PCR. The cross-reaction was performed with other porcine pathogens, and negative amplification results indicated the high specificity of this method. The novel JEV RT-NASBA assay could be used as an efficient molecular biology tool to diagnose JEV, which would facilitate the surveillance of reproductive failure disease in swine and would be beneficial for public health security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104724DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparision of Mechanical Thrombectomy With Contact Aspiration or Stent Retriever in Patients With Large-vessel Occlusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov 23. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, XinHua Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Whether the direct aspiration approach of thrombectomy for recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke has a similar efficacy and safety compared to the stent-retriever still remains uncertain.

Methods: A retrospective data analysis was performed to identify patients with large cerebral artery acute ischemic stroke treated with endovascular thrombectomy. The study was conducted between January 2018 and December 2019 in a single stroke center.

Results: Twenty patients met inclusion criteria for this study with a mean age 66.64 ± 17.92 years' old. The symptom occurred on the left side were in 13, and the right side in 7. The location of occlusion was 8 in M1 of the middle cerebral artery of M2, and 6 in internal carotid artery. Nine patients were randomized to first-line treatment with contact aspiration and eleven to first-line treatment with a stent retriever. The mean time from admission time to groin puncture was 55.51 ± 31.03 minutes. The average time from groin puncture to maximal revascularizion after mechanical thrombectomy was 50.9 ± 22.5 minutes in contact aspiration group, but this time was 71.37 ± 25.45 minutes in the group of stent retriever. The overall successful revascularization rate (TICI 2b-3) was 88.9% in contact aspiration (TICI2a = 1, TICI 2b = 4 patients, TICI 3 = 4 patients), and 90.1% in stent retriever (TICI2a = 1, TICI 2b = 6 patients, TICI 3 = 4 patients).

Discussion: First-line thrombectomy with contact aspiration did not result in a higher successful revascularization rate at the end of the procedure but had a short time from groin puncture to maximal revascularizion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007264DOI Listing
November 2020

Tea polyphenols inhibit the growth and virulence of ETEC K88.

Microb Pathog 2021 Mar 21;152:104640. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control Agents for Animal Bacteriosis (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs), Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430064, China; Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Pathogenic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430064, China. Electronic address:

Diarrhea caused by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes high levels of morbidity and mortality in neonatal piglets. Owing to the abuse of antibiotics and emergence of drug resistance, antibiotics are no longer considered only beneficial, but also potentially harmful drugs. Supplements that can inhibit the growth of bacteria are expected to replace antibiotics. Tea polyphenols have numerous important biological functions, including antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive effects. We investigated the role of tea polyphenols in ETEC K88 infection using a mouse model. Pretreating with tea polyphenols attenuated the symptoms induced by ETEC K88. Furthermore, in a cell adherence assay, tea polyphenols inhibited ETEC K88 adherence to IPEC-J2 cells. When cells were infected with ETEC K88, mRNA and protein levels of claudin-1 were significantly decreased compared with those of control cells. However, when cells were pretreated with tea polyphenols, claudin-1 mRNA and protein levels were higher than those in cells without pretreatment upon cell infection with ETEC K88. TLR2 mRNA levels were also higher following cell infection with ETEC K88 when cells were pretreated with tea polyphenols. These data revealed that tea polyphenols could increase the barrier integrity of IPEC-J2 cells by upregulating expression of claudin-1 through activation of TLR2. Tea polyphenols had beneficial effects on epithelial barrier function. Therefore, tea polyphenols could be used as a novel strategy to control and treat pig infections caused by ETEC K88.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104640DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin stress on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant responses, and microcystin release in Microcystis aeruginosa.

J Hazard Mater 2021 05 9;409:124518. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, PR China; Hubei Biomass-Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology Key Laboratory, School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, PR China. Electronic address:

Moxifloxacin (MOX) and gatifloxacin (GAT) are fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics that are frequently detected in surface water environments and pose a threat to aquatic organisms. However, research into their toxicity to Microcystis aeruginosa, a cyanobacterium, has thus far been limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these antibiotics on M. aeruginosa growth, photosynthesis, oxidative stress, and microcystin (MC) release. The results of the 96 h EC values of MOX and GAT were 60.34 and 25.30 μg/L, respectively, and the risk quotients calculated indicated that these antibiotics could pose considerable ecological risks at actual environmental concentrations. Photosynthetic fluorescence intensity was shown to decline markedly, and Fv/Fm significantly decreased without any evidence of recovery, suggesting that the organism's photosystems were irreversibly damaged. Chlorophyll a and carotenoid content decreased, whereas the ratio of carotenoids to chlorophyll a increased, indicating that carotenoids were less susceptible to damage than chlorophyll a. The reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content significantly increased, as well as the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, indicating that exposure caused serious oxidative stress. Additionally, MC release increased. These results demonstrate that the environmental risks posed by MOX and GAT should be given serious consideration, particularly as their use is increasing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124518DOI Listing
May 2021

Isolation and evolutionary analyses of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in Asia.

PeerJ 2020 20;8:e10114. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control Agents for Animal Bacteriosis (Ministry of Agriculture), Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a leading cause of diarrhea in pigs worldwide. Virus isolation and genetic evolutionary analysis allow investigations into the prevalence of epidemic strains and provide data for the clinical diagnosis and vaccine development. In this study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of PEDV circulation in Asia through virus isolation and comparative genomics analysis. APEDV strain designated HB2018 was isolated from a pig in a farm experiencing a diarrhea outbreak. The complete genome sequence of HB2018 was 28,138 bp in length. Phylogenetic analysis of HB2018 and 207 PEDVs in Asia showed that most PEDV strains circulating in Asia after 2010 belong to genotype GII, particularly GII-a. The PEDV vaccine strain CV777 belonged to GI, and thus, unmatched genotypes between CV777 and GII-a variants might partially explain incomplete protection by the CV777-derived vaccine against PEDV variants in China. In addition, we found the S protein of variant strains contained numerous mutations compared to the S protein of CV777, and these mutations occurred in the N-terminal domain of the S protein. These mutations may influence the antigenicity, pathogenicity, and neutralization properties of the variant strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583610PMC
October 2020

Effects of Selenium on MAC-T Cells in Bovine Mastitis: Transcriptome Analysis of Exosomal mRNA Interactions.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Aug 23;199(8):2904-2912. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Selenium, a micronutrient, is indispensable for maintaining normal metabolic functions in animals and plants. Selenium has shown promise in terms of its effect on the immune function, ability to control inflammation, and ability to improve bovine mammary gland health. Bovine mastitis remains a major threat to dairy herds globally and has economically significant impacts. The exosomes are a new mode of intercellular communication. Exosomal transfer of mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells affects the protein production of recipient cells. The development of novel high-throughput omics approaches and bioinformatics tools will help us understand the effects of selenium on immunobiology. However, the differential expression of mRNAs in bovine mammary epithelial cell-derived exosomes has rarely been studied. In the present study, differences in the exosomal transcriptome between control and selenium-treated MAC-T cells were identified by RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis. The results of mRNA profiling revealed 1978 genes in exosomes that were differentially expressed between the selenium-treated and control cells. We selected and analyzed 91 genes that are involved in inflammation, redox reactions, and immune cell function related to mastitis. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed enrichment pathways involved in selenoproteins and the Ras/PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and FOXO signaling pathways. Our results revealed that selenium may play a crucial role in immune and inflammatory regulation by influencing the differential expression of exosomal mRNAs of key genes in bovine mastitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02439-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Chemical- and species-specific toxicity of nonylphenol and octylphenol to microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jan 17;81:103517. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, PR China; School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Hubei Biomass-Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology Key Laboratory, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430079, PR China. Electronic address:

As typical endocrine disrupters, nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) are emerging pollutants that have attracted wide attention. This study investigated the toxicity effects of NP and OP on microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus, particularly on their growth inhibition, photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll fluorescence, and superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels. Results showed that the 96 h EC of NP and OP was 2.89 and 5.21 mg/L on C. pyrenoidosa, respectively, and 1.54 and 8.48 mg/L on S. obliquus, respectively. NP exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on cell growth, photosynthesis, and PSII activity, and it contributed more oxidative stress on C. pyrenoidosa than on S. obliquus. By contrast, OP exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on S. obliquus than on C. pyrenoidosa. Furthermore, the toxicity of OP to the tested microalgae was lower than that of NP. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson's correlation indicate that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species is the dominant mechanism of NP and OP cellular toxicity. The principal components of NP and OP affecting microalgae are distinct in the PCA plot, and different endocrine disrupters have varying chemical-specific influences on algal cells. This study confirmed that the toxicity of NP and OP to microalgae C. pyrenoidosa and S. obliquus is chemical- and species-specific. These findings should be considered when assessing the health risk of environmental pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2020.103517DOI Listing
January 2021

FTO interacts with FOXO3a to enhance its transcriptional activity and inhibits aggression in gliomas.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020 07 28;5(1):130. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1665 Kongjiang Road, 200092, Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00234-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387469PMC
July 2020

Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome virus 2 in mainland China, 2017-2018.

Arch Virol 2020 Jul 14;165(7):1621-1632. Epub 2020 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV2) is a major threat to the global pig industry, particularly in China, the world's largest pig-rearing and pork-production country. Continuously monitoring the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PRRSV epidemic strains is beneficial for prevention and control of infection. Previously, we reported the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PRRSV2 in China from 2012 to 2016. Here, the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PRRSV2 in China from 2017 to 2018 are reported. During these two years, we collected different types of porcine samples from 2428 pig farms in 27 provinces in China. Of the 7980 samples collected, 2080 (26.07%) were positive for PRRSV2 ORF5 by RT-PCR. The positive rate of PRRSV detection between different regions of China ranged from 8.12% to 29.33%, and from 7.96% to 55.50% between different months. Phylogenetic analysis based on the ORF5 gene revealed that the PRRSV2 strains currently circulating in China belong to five clades, and most of the PRRSVs detected are highly pathogenic PRRSVs (HP-PRRSVs; clade IV) and PRRSV NADC30-like strains (clade I). Sequence analysis revealed multiple amino acid mutation types, including amino acid changes and deletions in both the GP5 and Nsp2 proteins. The presence of these mutations may have an effect on the evolution of the virus by altering the viral titer and/or affecting the antibody response against the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04661-zDOI Listing
July 2020

Zinc Deficiency Aggravation of ROS and Inflammatory Injury Leading to Renal Fibrosis in Mice.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Feb 12;199(2):622-632. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Zinc (Zn) is a trace element with a variety of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Zn deficiency is related to tissue fibrosis. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Zn on renal fibrosis. Mouse models were successfully established by feeding mice diets with different concentrations of Zn. Zn deficiency induced a decrease in Zn levels in kidney tissue. The results also revealed renal vasodilation, hyperemia, and inflammatory cell infiltration, and the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen were increased. Furthermore, the TUNEL results showed a large degree of renal cell necrosis caused by Zn deficiency. Meanwhile, the corresponding antioxidant and anti-inflammatory regulators (MT-1, MT-2, Nrf2, and TGF-β1) were detected by RT-PCR, showing that the expression of MT-1, MT-2, and Nrf2 decreased but that TGF-β1 expression increased. The results of Sirius red staining proved that the expression of collagen was increased by Zn deficiency. The immunohistochemical experiments found that the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) increased. ELISA showed that the expression of Collagen I, III, and IV; fibronectin (FN); and inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-1β) were remarkably increased. The expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-12, and TIMP-1, which are extracellular matrix-regulating molecules, was detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that the expression of TIMPs was increased but that the expression of MMPs was decreased. We also obtained consistent results in vivo. All the experimental results indicated that Zn deficiency could aggravate fibrosis by increasing inflammation in the kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02184-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Dietary Selenium Deficiency Facilitated Reduced Stomatin and Phosphatidylserine Externalization, Increasing Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility in Mice.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Feb 23;199(2):594-603. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element that maintains normal physiological functions in organisms. Since the discovery of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), public interest in selenoproteins has gradually increased. Based on previous studies, dietary Se maintains erythrocyte homeostasis through selenoprotein-induced mediation of redox reactions. Furthermore, both the surface phosphatidylserine (PS) and intramembrane stomatin contents can be used as indicators of erythrocyte osmotic fragility. This study focused on the mechanism by which dietary Se deficiency increases erythrocyte osmotic fragility. We fed Se-deficient grain to mice for 8 weeks to establish a Se deficiency model in mice. We measured Se levels in the blood as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes associated with selenoproteins in a Se-deficient environment. We used Western blotting, routine blood analysis, and other methods to detect red blood cell oxidative stress levels, membrane stomatin levels, and PS externalization. Fresh blood was collected to test erythrocyte osmotic fragility. The results showed that antioxidant enzyme activity was affected by dietary Se deficiency. Oxidative stress increased lipid peroxidation and the ROS content in the blood of the mice. Under such conditions, decreased PS exposure and stomatin content in the erythrocyte membrane eventually affected the structure of the erythrocyte membrane and increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02162-3DOI Listing
February 2021

The combined toxicity influence of microplastics and nonylphenol on microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Jun 19;195:110484. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, PR China; School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Hubei Biomass-Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology Key Laboratory, Wuhan University, Wuhan Hubei, 430079, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics and nonylphenol (NP) are considered as emerging pollutant and have attracted wide attention, while their combined toxicity on aquatic organisms is barely researched. Therefore, the combined toxicity influence of NP with three types of microplastics containing polyethylene (PE1000, 13 μm and PE, 150 μm), polyamide (PA1000, 13 μm and PA, 150 μm) polystyrene (PS, 150 μm) on microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa was analyzed. Both growth inhibition, chlorophyll fluorescence, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and catalase (CAT) were determined. We found that single microplastics and NP both inhibited algal growth, thereby causing oxidative stress. The order of inhibition effect in single microplastics experiment was PE1000 > PA1000 > PE ≈ PS > PA. The combined toxicity experiment results indicated that the presence of microplastics had positive effect in terms of alleviating NP toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa, and the microplastics adsorption capacity to NP was the dominant contributing factor for this effect. According to the independent action model, the combined toxicity was antagonistic. Because the negative effect of smaller size microplastics on algal growth was aggravated with prolonged exposure time, the optimum effect of microplastics alleviated NP toxicity was PA1000 at 48 h, while this effect was substituted by PA at 96 h during combined toxicity. Thus, the toxicity of smaller size microplastics has a nonnegligible influence on combined toxicity. This study confirms that microplastics significantly affected the toxicity of organic pollutants on microalgae. Further research on the combined toxicity of smaller size microplastics with pollutants in chronic toxicity is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110484DOI Listing
June 2020

Global Analysis of Alternative Splicing Difference in Peripheral Immune Organs between Tongcheng Pigs and Large White Pigs Artificially Infected with PRRSV .

Biomed Res Int 2020 30;2020:4045204. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding, and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China.

Alternative splicing (AS) plays a significant role in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level in eukaryotes. Flexibility and diversity of transcriptome and proteome can be significantly increased through alternative splicing of genes. In the present study, transcriptome data of peripheral immune organs including spleen and inguinal lymph nodes (ILN) were used to identify AS difference between PRRSV-resistant Tongcheng (TC) pigs and PRRSV-susceptible Large White (LW) pigs artificially infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) . The results showed that PRRSV infection induced global alternative splicing events (ASEs) with different modes. Among them, 373 genes and 595 genes in the spleen and ILN of TC pigs, while 458 genes and 560 genes in the spleen and ILN of LW pigs had significantly differential ASEs. Alternative splicing was subject to tissue-specific and lineage-specific regulation in response to PRRSV infection. Enriched GO terms and pathways showed that genes with differential ASEs played important roles in transcriptional regulation, immune response, metabolism, and apoptosis. Furthermore, a splicing factor associated with apoptosis, , was significantly upregulated in LW pigs. Functional analysis on apoptosis associated genes was validated by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. These findings revealed different response to PRRSV between PRRSV-resistant TC pigs and PRRSV-susceptible LW pigs at the level of alternative splicing, suggesting the potential relationship between AS and disease resistance to PRRSV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4045204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011390PMC
October 2020

Resistance of cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa to erythromycin with multiple exposure.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 7;249:126147. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Key Laboratory for Biomass -Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology of Hubei Province, School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Here we report a set of experiments in which water blooming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa was repeatedly exposed to erythromycin. Growth inhibition increased with increasing erythromycin concentration (1-150 μg/L) upon first exposure. Maximum inhibition rate (76.06%), occurred under 150 μg/L erythromycin. Moreover, 96-h 50% effective concentration (EC) was 22.97 μg/L, indicating that the growth of M. aeruginosa was affected by erythromycin under common environmental concentrations. Photosynthesis was hindered by chlorophyll and photosystem II limitations. Malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, and superoxide dismutase contents increased significantly under certain concentrations of erythromycin, but superoxide dismutase was suppressed by 150 μg/L erythromycin. Synthesis of intracellular and extracellular microcystins was promoted by 10-60 and by 20-60 μg/L erythromycin, respectively, but both were inhibited by 100-150 μg/L. Principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation revealed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species as the dominant mechanism of erythromycin toxicity to cells. M. aeruginosa repeatedly subjected to erythromycin exposure showed obvious resistance against the antibiotic, especially when treated twice with 60 μg/L erythromycin. The 96-h EC was 81.29 μg/L. As compared to the first exposure to erythromycin, photosynthetic and antioxidant activities increased, while growth inhibition and oxidation stress decreased upon multiple exposures. Production and release of microcystins were enhanced by repeated exposure to the antibiotic. Thus, erythromycin persistence in water should be examined, as repeated exposure may lead to serious environmental and human health hazards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126147DOI Listing
June 2020

Does emission trading scheme have spillover effect on industrial structure upgrading? Evidence from the EU based on a PSM-DID approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Apr 28;27(11):12345-12357. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, No.96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, 230026, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China.

The coordinated development of environmental pollution and the economy has become a global problem. Emission trading scheme (ETS) has become a significant environmental policy instrument, prior studies primarily concentrated on micro-level factors with specific industries; there lacks discussion on the effects of ETS on macro-level industrial structure such as industrial structure upgrading. In this paper, we first use the propensity score matching (PSM) to screen out the control group in which countries are matched with the members of the EU, and then utilize the difference-in-differences (DID) method, to examine the effects of ETS implementation on national industrial structure upgrading in the members of the EU. Empirical results show that the EU ETS may does not have a significant impact on industrial structure change, while the implementation of EU ETS has significantly promoted the upgrading of the country's industrial structure, and the policy effect of EU ETS on industrial structure upgrading gradually increases as time goes by and there is a dynamic effect. The conclusions of this paper can be used as reference for the development of emission reduction policies in large countries with unbalanced internal development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07818-0DOI Listing
April 2020

Toxicity, Biodegradation, and Metabolic Fate of Organophosphorus Pesticide Trichlorfon on the Freshwater Algae .

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Feb 30;68(6):1645-1653. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Hubei Biomass-Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology Key Laboratory, School of Resource and Environmental Sciences , Wuhan University , Wuhan 430079 , P. R. China.

This study investigated the toxicity of trichlorfon (TCF) to the freshwater algae , as well as its biodegradation and metabolic fate. The growth of decreased with increasing TCF concentration, and the maximum inhibition ratio was 51.3% at 200 mg L TCF compared to the control. Analyses of pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidant enzymes indicated that can produce resistance and acclimatize to the presence of TCF. The variations in pH during cultivation suggested that photosynthetic microalgae have innate advantages over bacteria and fungi in remediating TCF. A 100% biodegradation rate was achieved at a maximum concentration of 100 mg L TCF. Ten metabolites were identified by GC-MS, and the degradation pathways of TCF by the algae were proposed. This research demonstrated that is highly tolerant to and can efficiently degrade TCF. Thus, can be used to remove traces of TCF from natural water environments and to treat TCF-contaminated wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b05765DOI Listing
February 2020

Selenium alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced endometritis via regulating the recruitment of TLR4 into lipid rafts in mice.

Food Funct 2020 Jan;11(1):200-210

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for living organisms and plays diverse biological roles. Endometritis is a common reproductive disorder in dairy cows, causing huge economic losses. In this study, we explored the effects of Se on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endometritis in mice and expounded its underlying mechanism of action. We validated the anti-inflammatory effects of Se in vivo by establishing a mouse model of endometriosis induced by LPS. Se significantly reversed the LPS-induced uterine histopathological changes, MPO activity and inflammatory cytokine levels in vivo. Simultaneously, TLR4 and its downstream signaling pathways, lipid rafts and cholesterol levels in the tissues were also attenuated by Se under LPS stimulation. In addition, the molecular mechanism of the Se anti-inflammatory effect was clarified in mouse endometrial epithelial cells. Se inhibited TLR4-mediated NF-κB and IRF3 signal transduction pathways to reduce the production of inflammatory factors. We found that Se promoted the consumption of cholesterol to suppress the lipid rafts coming into being and inhibited the TLR4 positioning to the lipid raft to prevent the inflammatory response caused by LPS. Meanwhile, Se activated the LxRα-ABCA1 pathway to cause the outflow of cholesterol in cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of Se was disrupted by silencing LxRα. In conclusion, Se exerted anti-inflammatory effects most likely by the LxRα-ABCA1 pathway activation, which inhibited lipid rafts by depleting cholesterol and ultimately impeded the migration of TLR4 to lipid rafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02415hDOI Listing
January 2020

Selective Spatial Regularization by Reinforcement Learned Decision Making for Object Tracking.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2019 Nov 28. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Spatial regularization (SR) is known as an effective tool to alleviate the boundary effect of correlation filter (CF), a successful visual object tracking scheme, from which a number of state-of-the-art visual object trackers can be stemmed. Nevertheless, SR highly increases the optimization complexity of CF and its target-driven nature makes spatially-regularized CF trackers may easily lose the occluded targets or the targets surrounded by other similar objects. In this paper, we propose selective spatial regularization (SSR) for CF-tracking scheme. It can achieve not only higher accuracy and robustness, but also higher speed compared with spatially-regularized CF trackers. Specifically, rather than simply relying on foreground information, we extend the objective function of CF tracking scheme to learn the target-context-regularized filters using target-context-driven weight maps. We then formulate the online selection of these weight maps as a decision making problem by a Markov Decision Process (MDP), where the learning of weight map selection is equivalent to policy learning of the MDP that is solved by a reinforcement learning strategy. Moreover, by adding a special state, representing not-updating filters, in the MDP, we can learn when to skip unnecessary or erroneous filter updating, thus accelerating the online tracking. Finally, the proposed SSR is used to equip three popular spatially-regularized CF trackers to significantly boost their tracking accuracy, while achieving much faster online tracking speed. Besides, extensive experiments on five benchmarks validate the effectiveness of SSR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2019.2955292DOI Listing
November 2019
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