Publications by authors named "Liang Sun"

718 Publications

"Hand as Foot" in the simple motor test of the upper limb nerve in children.

Asian J Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.05.026DOI Listing
June 2021

Monte Carlo determination of dose coefficients at different developmental stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in experimental condition.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Jun 8;237:106667. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiological Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions. Electronic address:

The release of liquid effluent of nuclear power into aquatic system increases with the rapid development of nuclear facilities in coastal and inland regions. Aquatic model animals are very important for the study of the radiation hazards to non-human biota in water environment and its extrapolation of dose-effect relationship to human models. However, the study of the radiation dose rate calculation model of the aquatic animal zebrafish is still on the homogeneous isotropic model used for the protection of the environment. A series of zebrafish models (including adults, larvae and embryos, named zebrafish-family: ZF-family) with multiple internal organs are established in this study to investigate the mechanism of radiation damage effect in order to protect non-human species. The internal and external dose coefficients (DCs) of the whole body, heart and gonads of zebrafishes are calculated in water environment with the combination of the real experimental culture condition, using Monte Carlo application package GATE (Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography) and eight nuclides, i.e., H, C, Sr, Co, Ag, Cs, Cs, I, which are commonly found in the liquid effluent of nuclear power plants, as the source items, The results show that the level of nuclide γ energy determines the external DCs (DC), and Sr plays the most important role in internal DCs (DC). The comparison between the external DCs of the heart and gonad and that of the whole body shows that DCs (DC) of heart and gonad for females are 80% and 43% lower than that of whole body, respectively, while for males, the DCs (DC) of heart is 44% lower than that of the whole body, and DCs (DC) of gonad is slightly higher than that of the whole body for most nuclides (up to 25%).The dose of internal radiation makes greater contribution than that of external radiation to pure beta emitter (H, C, Sr). This internal DCs of ZF-family model with complex internal structure turns out to demonstrate more sensitive DCs change trend and higher calculation values compared with the internal DCs of the simple ellipsoid model. In this model, the photon emitter with strong penetrating power has higher internal DCs, while the low-energy pure beta nuclide does not alter much. In conclusion, it is vital to carry out refined systematic modeling for model organisms, and the determination of DCs of model organs can promote the evaluation of the radiation effects on non-human species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2021.106667DOI Listing
June 2021

Solid fuel use and cardiovascular events: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Indoor Air 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Although solid fuel use has been increasingly linked to cardiovascular events (CVEs), conclusions have been inconsistent. We systematically searched 3 databases (PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) up to July 3, 2020, to identify English language reports that assessed the association of solid fuel use with CVEs. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity and to test the stability of the results. We finally included 13 observational studies (8 cohort, 3 cross-sectional, and 2 case-control studies comprising 791,220 participants) in the meta-analysis. The risk of CVEs was increased 21% with the highest versus the lowest solid fuel use (highest/lowest, RR  = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10-1.34). As for the subgroup analyses on study design, the pooled RR for cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies were 1.11 (95%CI: 1.03-1.19), 4.80 (95%CI: 2.22-10.39), and 1.46 (95%CI: 0.82-2.62), respectively. The results of this study suggested that high solid fuel use was associated with increased CVE risk, and that reducing the use of solid fuel will be important for improving the health of the populations in developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ina.12867DOI Listing
June 2021

Metal-chelating benzothiazole multifunctional compounds for the modulation and Cu PET imaging of Aβ aggregation.

Chem Sci 2020 Jul 9;11(30):7789-7799. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 600 S. Mathews Avenue Urbana Illinois 61801 USA

While Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, there is still a dearth of efficient therapeutic and diagnostic agents for this disorder. Reported herein are a series of new multifunctional compounds (MFCs) with appreciable affinity for amyloid aggregates that can be potentially used for both the modulation of Aβ aggregation and its toxicity, as well as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of Aβ aggregates. Firstly, among the six compounds tested is shown to be capable to reroute the toxic Cu-mediated Aβ oligomerization into the formation of less toxic amyloid fibrils. In addition, can also alleviate the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by Cu ions through Fenton-like reactions. Secondly, these MFCs can be easily converted to PET imaging agents by pre-chelation with the Cu radioisotope, and the Cu complexes of and exhibit good fluorescent staining and radiolabeling of amyloid plaques both and . Importantly, the Cu-labeled is shown to have a significant brain uptake of up to 0.99 ± 0.04 %ID per g. Overall, by evaluating the various properties of these MFCs valuable structure-activity relationships were obtained that should aid the design of improved therapeutic and diagnostic agents for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc02641gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163150PMC
July 2020

Achieving Concurrent High Energy Density and Efficiency in All-Polymer Layered Paraelectric/Ferroelectric Composites via Introducing a Moderate Layer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, P. R. China.

Dielectric polymer capacitors are extensively applied in advanced electronics by virtue of their extremely high power density. However, it remains a challenge to concurrently realize high energy density and high discharge efficiency. In order to solve this conundrum, we herein design a novel all-polymer trilayer structure, where the paraelectric poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used as the top layer to obtain a high discharge efficiency, and ferroelectric P(VDF-HFP) is employed as the bottom layer to obtain a high energy density. Particularly, the PMMA/poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) blend composite is used as the middle layer to homogenize the electric field inside the trilayer composites, turning out an obviously boosted breakdown strength and elevated energy density. Consequently, an efficiency as high as 85% and an energy density up to 7.5 J/cm along with excellent cycling stability are simultaneously realized at an ultrahigh electric field of 490 kV/mm. These attractive characteristics of the all-polymer trilayer structure suggest that the feasible pathway presented herein is significant to realize concurrently a high energy density and discharge efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c08063DOI Listing
June 2021

TLR3 polymorphisms are associated with the severity of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enterovirus A71 in a Chinese children population.

J Med Virol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a contagious viral disease, and toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential roles in resisting the pathogen. The aim of this study was to assess the potential relationship between several TLRs polymorphisms and the HFMD severity in a Chinese children population. A total of 328 Chinese children with HFMD were included in the present study. The polymorphisms of TLR3 (rs3775290, rs3775291, rs3775296, rs1879026, rs5743312, rs5743313, rs5743303, rs13126816, and rs3775292), TLR4 (rs4986790, rs4986791, rs2149356, rs11536889, and rs41426344), TLR7 (rs179009, rs179010, rs179016, rs3853839, rs2302267, rs1634323, and rs5741880), and TLR8 (rs3764880, rs2159377, rs2407992, rs5744080, rs3747414, rs3764879, and rs5744069) genes were selected. The study indicated that individuals with the GG genotype of TLR3 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1879026 had a higher risk of developing severe cases (GG vs. GT: OR = 1.875; 95% CI, 1.183-2.971; p = .007). Meanwhile, TLR3 rs3775290 CC genotype and C allele were associated with lower disease severity in females (CC vs. CT: OR = 0.350; 95% CI, 0.163-0.751; p = .006; C vs. T: OR = 0.566; 95% CI, 0.332-0.965; p = .036). TLR3 rs3775291 CC genotype showed 2.537 folds higher risk of developing severe cases in females (CC vs. CT: OR = 2.537; 95% CI, 1.108-5.806; p = .026). Moreover, TLR3 rs1879026 GG genotype was found to be related to increased risk of severe cases in males (GG vs. GT: OR = 2.076; 95% CI, 1.144-3.768; p = .016). The current findings show that the genetic variants of TLR3 rs1879026, rs3775290, and rs3775291 are associated with the severity of EV-A71-associated HFMD in a Chinese children population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27115DOI Listing
June 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 Jun 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Cap-assisted large cold snare removal of a giant phytobezoar.

Endoscopy 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Gastroenterology, Nanchong Central Hospital, Nanchong City, Sichuan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1492-1874DOI Listing
May 2021

Association Between Gut and Metabolic Syndrome is Dose-Dependent and Affected by Microbial Interactions: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 17;14:2177-2188. Epub 2021 May 17.

The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, National Health Commission, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Objective: is among the most abundant bacterial species in the human intestine; however, its relationship to metabolic syndrome (MetS)-which is linked to gut dysbiosis-is not known. In this study, we investigated the association between abundance and risk of MetS and its components, as well as dose-response effects and the influence of microbial interactions on the association.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 6896 Chinese participants aged 18 to 97 years from the Guangdong Gut Microbiome Project. MetS was defined according to Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults criteria. The abundance of was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for common confounders was performed to evaluate the association between and MetS and its components. Models with restricted cubic splines and interaction terms were used to examine the dose-response association and microbial interactions, respectively.

Results: The prevalence of MetS was 20.4%, and the median abundance of was 0.08% (interquartile range: 0.04-0.93%). Increased abundance was associated with decreased risk of MetS (<0.05), but this effect was not observed until the level was 0.2% of the total gut microbiota abundance (odds ratio=0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.98). Of the 5 MetS components, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia showed the strongest association with , followed by reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. Microbial interaction analyses showed that Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were the predominant bacterial families and were not only correlated with abundance but also influenced the -MetS association.

Conclusion: There is a dose-response association between reduced risk of MetS and increased abundance of . The association between and 5 MetS components is variable and affected by microbial interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S311388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139944PMC
May 2021

Cohort study evaluation of New Chinese Diabetes Risk Score: A new non-invasive indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome.

Prim Care Diabetes 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the association of the baseline New Chinese Diabetes Risk Score (NCDRS) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk and to evaluate the power of the baseline NCDRS to predict MetS based on the rural Chinese cohort study.

Methods: Study participants were classified by baseline quartiles of NCDRS by gender. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of MetS according to different diagnostic criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the power of the baseline NCDRS for predicting MetS according to different diagnostic criteria.

Results: We included 7,133 participants, and 1,651 MetS cases were identified after 6 years follow-up. After adjusting for multivariable confounding factors and with NCDRS quartile 1 as the reference, with quartile 4, the risk of MetS was increased for all participants, men and women: ORs (95% CIs) 4.03 (3.23-5.02), 3.59 (2.56-5.05) and 5.71 (4.23-7.70), respectively. Similar results were found on sensitivity analysis. The baseline NCDRS was a good predictor of MetS for all participants, men and women with MetS defined according to the diagnostic criteria of the Chinese Joint Committee on the Development of Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults (JCDCG).

Conclusions: Our study, based on the cohort study, found that the baseline NCDRS was positively associated with risk of MetS. Furthermore, our study might provide suggestions for developing a useful and inexpensive tool for predicting MetS in the Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2021.05.005DOI Listing
May 2021

LncRNA H19 aggravates intervertebral disc degeneration by promoting the autophagy and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells via the miR-139/CXCR4/NF-κB axis.

Stem Cells Dev 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Nanjing Jiangbei People's Hospital Affiliated of Nantong University, China;

The etiology of lumbocrural pain is closely related to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) serve crucial roles in IDD progression. This study investigated the effect of lncRNA H19 on autophagy and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) in IDD. The rat model of IDD was established. Normal NPCs and degenerative NPCs (DNPCs) were cultured in vitro. H19 expression in IDD rat was detected. DNPCs were treated with si-H19 to evaluate autophagy and apoptosis of DNPCs. The binding relationships between H19 and miR-139-3p, and miR-139-3p and CXCR4 were verified. DNPCs were co-transfected si-H19 and miR-139-3p inhibitor. The phosphorylation of NF-κB pathway related p65 in DNPCs was detected. LncRNA H19 was upregulated in IDD rats. Downregulation of H19 inhibited autophagy and apoptosis of DNPCs. LncRNA H19 sponged miR-139-3p to inhibit CXCR4 expression. si-H19 and miR-139-3p inhibitor co-treatment induced autophagy and apoptosis, and enhanced CXCR4 expression. si-H19 decreased p-p65 phosphorylation, while si-H19 and miR-139-3p inhibitor co-treatment partially elevated p-p65 phosphorylation. In conclusion, lncRNA H19 facilitated the autophagy and apoptosis of DNPCs via the miR-139-3p/CXCR4/NF-κB axis, thereby aggravating IDD. This study may offer new insights for the management of IDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2021.0009DOI Listing
May 2021

Coacervation of Spherical Polyelectrolyte Brushes with Additional Polyelectrolytes Bearing Positive or Negative Charges.

Langmuir 2021 Jun 19;37(21):6388-6396. Epub 2021 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Large Scale Reactor Engineering and Technology (Ministry of Education), and International Joint Research Center of Green Energy Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, P.R. China.

By combining small-angle X-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray scattering, and rheology, the effect of additional polyelectrolyte chains on interactions among spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPB) was systematically investigated both on microscopic and macroscopic levels. The negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains and positively charged poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA) chains were used as additional polyelectrolyte chains to investigate the local ordered structure and the "polyelectrolyte peak" among SPB. Interestingly, coacervation appeared in the SPB emulsion while introducing additional free polyelectrolyte chains. The addition of excess positively charged PDDA chains would lead to the transformation of the SPB emulsion from the coacervation to the aggregation, while it has not been observed in the case of PAA chains. Moreover, it was further confirmed that the specific local ordered structure was caused by the electrostatic interaction among polyelectrolyte chains of adjacent SPB. This work could enrich our understanding of polyelectrolyte assembly in concentrated SPB, thereby greatly broadening the application fields of SPB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00026DOI Listing
June 2021

A novel tumor suppressor ASMTL-AS1 regulates the miR-1228-3p/SOX17/β-catenin axis in triple-negative breast cancer.

Diagn Pathol 2021 May 18;16(1):45. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Breast Surgery, Dushuhu Public Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, 215006, SuZhou, JiangSu, China.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a special type of breast cancer that lacks effective therapeutic targets. There is a significant need to clarify its pathogenesis, so as to bring new targeted approaches for TNBC management. Here, we identified a long-non coding RNA (lncRNA) ASMTL-AS1 that linked to TNBC development and progression.

Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot assays were used to test gene and protein levels, respectively. The regulatory axis of miR-1228-3p/SOX17/β-catenin was determined by luciferase reporter and RNA pull-down assays. In vivo assay was conducted by using the nude mice model via subcutaneous transplantation of tumor cells.

Results: ASMTL-AS1 was significantly downregulated in TNBC tissues compared to normal tissues, which was closely associated with aggressive clinical features and unfavorable prognosis. Lentivirus-mediated ASMTL-AS1 overexpression evidently reduced the ability of TNBC cell colony formation, activity and invasion by more than 2.5 times. RNA pull-down and luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-1228-3p directly bound to ASMTL-AS1, ASMTL-AS1 increased SOX17 expression via sponging and repressing miR-1228-3p. Subsequently, the upregulated SOX17 trans-suppressed β-catenin expression, resulting in the inactivation of carcinogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby restraining TNBC cell growth and dissemination. Importantly, the xenograft tumor model showed that the ASMTL-AS1 overexpression significantly retarded tumor growth, and negatively regulated Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Conclusions: Our data characterize a novel tumor suppressor in TNBC, restoration of ASMTL-AS1 may be a candidate therapeutic intervention for TNBC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-021-01105-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130432PMC
May 2021

Effects of a 4-year intervention on hand hygiene compliance and incidence of healthcare associated infections: a longitudinal study.

Infection 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 100 Kexue Avenue, Gaoxin District, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.

Purpose: Studies have demonstrated improvements in hand hygiene (HH) compliance through interventions, noting the negative association of HH and healthcare associated infections (HAIs), but how to sustain long-term improvement is still unknown in the Chinese population. This study sought to determine the extent of change in HH compliance after multimodal HH interventions, and to evaluate the relationship between that change and HAI incidence.

Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a general teaching hospital in China from 2017 to 2020. Trained investigators observed HH practices based on the World Health Organization's 5 moments for HH. We identified the incidence of HAIs using semi-automated constant surveillance software. We used the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to assess the secular trend of HH compliance and HAIs. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) was used to evaluate the relationship between the incidence of HAIs and compliance with HH.

Results: The study made 480,943 observations, where HH was occurring between 2017 and 2020. HH compliance increased from 68.90 to 91.76% during that period (P < 0.01), while the incidence of HAIs decreased from 1.10 to 0.91%. Compliance also increased for each moment type and for each healthcare worker (P < 0.01). Lower HH compliance was observed in before-patient contact and after contact with patient surroundings, and among interns and cleaners. We also observed a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between the monthly HH compliance and incidence of HAIs (r =  - 0.27; P = 0.037).

Conclusions: The multimodal HH implementation delivered sustained improvement in HH compliance, and this change was associated with a decline in the incidence of HAIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-021-01626-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120257PMC
May 2021

Association between serum level of C-reactive protein and risk of cardiovascular events based on cohort studies.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Although the association between serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) has been reported, the comprehensive assessment of the quantitative association of CRP level with risk of CVEs has not been reported. Our meta-analysis aims to quantitatively evaluate the association of CRP level and risk of CVEs. We searched PubMed and Embase databases for articles published up to December 6, 2019. Studies with data on men and women, different types of CVEs and multiple cohorts within a study were treated as independent studies. Generalized least-squares regression models were used to assess the quantitative association between CRP level and risk of CVEs. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the possible linear association between CRP and CVEs. We included 36 articles (60 studies; 227,715 participants) in the analysis. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of high versus low CRP level for cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) were 1.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-1.82), 1.46 (95% CI, 1.35-1.58), and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.47-1.63), respectively. A linear association was found between CRP level and CVD (P = 0.429), stroke (P = 0.940), and CHD (P = 0.931); with each 1-mg/L increase in CRP level, the pooled RRs for CVD, stroke, and CHD were 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12-1.24), 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04-1.09), and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.08-1.16), respectively. This meta-analysis suggests that risk of CVEs increases with increasing serum CRP level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00546-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Lipopolysaccharide promotes metastasis via acceleration of glycolysis by the nuclear factor-κB/snail/hexokinase3 signaling axis in colorectal cancer.

Cancer Metab 2021 May 12;9(1):23. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, and Department of General Surgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cancer cell is generally characterized by enhanced glycolysis. Inflammasome activation is interaction with glycolysis. The concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a classic inflammasome activator, is significantly higher in colorectal cancer tissue than in normal intestinal mucosa. However, the mechanism of LPS on glycolysis and metastasis has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the roles of LPS on inflammasome activation, glycolysis, and metastasis, and unravel metformin's potential in treatment of CRC.

Methods: We detected inflammasome activation and cell motility following LPS exposure in CRC cell lines. Glycolysis analysis was performed, and the key glycolytic rate-limiting enzymes were detected. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, co-immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis, and ChIP-reChIP assay were performed to identify the specific mechanisms of LPS on glycolysis. Mouse metastasis models were used to determine the effects of LPS and metformin on metastasis. Correlation analysis of the expression of various molecules was performed in 635 CRC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas and 83 CRC samples from our lab.

Results: LPS activates caspase-1 through NF-κB and upregulates the expression of Snail and HK3 depending on caspase-1 activation. LPS potentiates migration and invasion depending on accelerated glycolysis, which could be reversed by knockdown of glycolytic rate-limiting enzyme HK3. Nuclear Snail is upregulated by NF-κB under LPS treatment and then forms a complex with NF-κB, then directly binds to the HK3 promoter region to upregulate the expression of HK3. Metformin suppresses the NF-κB/Snail/HK3 signaling axis that is activated by LPS and then inhibits LPS-induced metastasis. In vivo, LPS-treated cells form more metastasis in the lungs of mice, and metformin completely reverses this effect of LPS.

Conclusion: LPS activates inflammasomes in cancer cells through NF-κB and promotes metastasis through glycolysis enhanced by the NF-κB/Snail/HK3 signaling pathway in CRC. Metformin could prevent this effect of LPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40170-021-00260-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117511PMC
May 2021

Association of BMI with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in the patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Aims: The relation of body mass index (BMI) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality has been extensively investigated in the general population but is less clear in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We performed a meta-analysis of cohort studies to quantitatively evaluate the association of BMI with CVD incidence and mortality in patients with T2DM.

Data Synthesis: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant cohort articles published up to June 8, 2020. Restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate the potential linear or non-linear dose-response associations. We identified 17 articles (21 studies) with 1,349,075 participants and 57,725 cases (49,354 CVD incidence and 8371 CVD mortality) in the meta-analysis. We found a linear association between BMI and risk of CVD incidence (P = 0.182); the pooled RR for CVD incidence was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04-1.20) with a 5-unit increase in BMI. We found an overall nonlinear relationship between BMI and CVD mortality (P < 0.001). The lowest risk was at BMI about 28.4 kg/m, with increased mortality risk for higher BMI values; the RR with a 5-unit increase in BMI was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.96) and 1.11 (95% CI, 1.04-1.18) for BMI ≤28.4 kg/m and BMI >28.4 kg/m, respectively.

Conclusions: In individuals with T2DM, BMI may have a positive linear association with risk of CVD incidence but a nonlinear association with CVD mortality. Our results can provide evidence for weight control and lifestyle intervention for preventing and managing cardiovascular disease in T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.03.003DOI Listing
March 2021

Copper exposure association with prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance among US adults (NHANES 2011-2014).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 4;218:112295. Epub 2021 May 4.

The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, National Health Commission, PR China; Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, PR China; The NHC Key Laboratory of Drug Addiction Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650032, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Excessive copper (Cu) has risky effect on insulin resistance (IR), oxidative stress and inflammation. Instead, some studies reported serum Cu to be protective for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to reevaluate the evidence for a potential risky correlation of serum Cu to NAFLD in large-scale and non-institutionalized American subjects.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 3211 subjects was from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Logistic regression and cubic spline-based curve-fitting analyses were used to estimate the independent risky effect of Cu to hepatic steatosis index (HSI), US fatty liver index (USFLI) and NAFLD and their dose-effect relationship. Moreover, this association was analyzed in stratification of HOMA-IR, Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and severity of NAFLD, besides age and gender.

Results: The average level of serum Cu was 18.67 μmol/L and the prevalence of NAFLD was 54.53% and 32.60%, respectively defined by HSI and USFLI. Generally, the level of Cu was higher in females than males. Serum Cu was positively associated with higher HSI, USFLI index and risk of NAFLD. In fully adjusted models, compared with the lowest quartile, the risk of NAFLD increased 97% in the highest quartile of Cu. Interestingly, stratified analysis showed that the risky effect of Cu to NAFLD was more prominent in the middle-aged, females and subjects with improved status of IR (lower HOMA-IR and non-Mets) compared with their counterparts. Moreover, we further found that circulating copper was correlated to severity of NAFLD only in males.

Conclusion: Excess serum Cu is significantly associated with risk of NAFLD, which is prominent in females, middle-aged and subjects with improved status of IR, and seems to be related to the severity of NAFLD, additionally. It is necessary to be cautious of the toxic effect of Cu and prospective cohort and mechanism studies are needed to verify the causal effect of Cu to NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112295DOI Listing
May 2021

Do the successful revision surgery for humeral nonunion solve all the effects on health-related quality of life? A retrospective cohort study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 5;22(1):414. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Hong Hui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University College of Medicine, No. 555, East Youyi Road, Shaanxi, 710000, Xi'an, China.

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of successful revision operation on health quality of life(QoL) and functional outcome in humeral nonunion patients.

Methods: This retrospective study included 62 patients with humeral nonunion from Northwest China, who were admitted to the Department of Trauma Surgery, Honghui Hospital between March 2013 and September 2019. The following data were retrospectively evaluated: demographic data, clinical data, imaging findings, and treatment methods. The QoL assessment indicators for humeral nonunion patients included the SF-12 mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS),brief pain inventory-severity(BPI-S) and brief pain inventory-interference (BPI-I). The mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) was used to assess the elbow function of the patients.

Results: Successful revision surgery significantly improved the patient's PCS, MCS, BPI-S and BPI-I scores (p<0.001). According to the MEPS criteria, the excellent and good rates were 95.16% in this study. The impact of humeral nonunion on mental health was comparable with the reported impact of stroke and type II diabetes (p>0.05).The impact of post-op on physical health was comparable with the reported impact of COPD, silicosis, hypertension, barrentt's esophagus and lower urinary tract symptoms(p>0.05).

Conclusion: Humeral nonunion is a devastating chronic medical condition that negatively affects both physical and mental health as well as quality of life. Although the effects of pain in the body can be completely relieved by treatment, the entire medical process may cause everlasting psychological trauma to the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04283-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097853PMC
May 2021

Dual Attention Multi-Instance Deep Learning for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis with Structural MRI.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 May 3;PP. Epub 2021 May 3.

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is widely used for the brain neurological disease diagnosis, which could reflect the variations of brain. However, due to the local brain atrophy, only a few regions in sMRI scans have obvious structural changes, which are highly correlative with pathological features. Hence, the key challenge of sMRI-based brain disease diagnosis is to enhance the identification of discriminative features. To address this issue, we propose a dual attention multi-instance deep learning network (DA-MIDL) for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Specifically, DA-MIDL consists of three primary components: 1) the Patch-Nets with spatial attention blocks for extracting discriminative features within each sMRI patch whilst enhancing the features of abnormally changed micro-structures in the cerebrum, 2) an attention multi-instance learning (MIL) pooling operation for balancing the relative contribution of each patch and yield a global different weighted representation for the whole brain structure, and 3) an attention-aware global classifier for further learning the integral features and making the AD-related classification decisions. Our proposed DA-MIDL model is evaluated on the baseline sMRI scans of 1689 subjects from two independent datasets (i.e., ADNI and AIBL). The experimental results show that our DA-MIDL model can identify discriminative pathological locations and achieve better classification performance in terms of accuracy and generalizability, compared with several state-of-the-art methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3077079DOI Listing
May 2021

Changes in Plasma Metabolome Profiles Following Oral Glucose Challenge among Adult Chinese.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

Little is known about changes in plasma metabolome profiles during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in Chinese. We aimed to characterize plasma metabolomic profiles at 0 and 2 h of OGTT and their changes in individuals of different glycemic statuses. A total of 544 metabolites were detected at 0 and 2 h of OGTT by a nontarget strategy in subjects with normal glucose ( = 234), prediabetes ( = 281), and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) ( = 66). Regression model, mixed model, and partial least squares discrimination analysis were applied. Compared with subjects of normal glucose, T2D cases had significantly higher levels of glycerone at 0 h and 22 metabolites at 2 h of OGTT (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, variable importance in projection (VIP) > 1). Seven of the twenty-two metabolites were also significantly higher in T2D than in prediabetes subjects at 2 h of OGTT (FDR < 0.05, VIP > 1). Two hours after glucose challenge, concentrations of 35 metabolites (normal: 18; prediabetes: 23; T2D: 13) significantly increased (FDR < 0.05, VIP > 1, fold change (FC) > 1.2), whereas those of 45 metabolites (normal: 36; prediabetes: 29; T2D: 18) significantly decreased (FDR < 0.05, VIP > 1, FC < 0.8). Distinct responses between cases and noncases were detected in metabolites including 4-imidazolone-5-acetate and 4-methylene-L-glutamine. More varieties of distinct metabolites across glycemic statuses were observed at 2 h of OGTT compared with fasting state. Whether the different patterns and responsiveness of certain metabolites in T2D reflect a poor resilience of specific metabolic pathways in regaining glucose homeostasis merits further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146292PMC
April 2021

Heterogeneity of Associations between Total and Types of Fish Intake and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Federated Meta-Analysis of 28 Prospective Studies Including 956,122 Participants.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90040-060, Brazil.

The association between fish consumption and new-onset type 2 diabetes is inconsistent and differs according to geographical location. We examined the association between the total and types of fish consumption and type 2 diabetes using individual participant data from 28 prospective cohort studies from the Americas (6), Europe (15), the Western Pacific (6), and the Eastern Mediterranean (1) comprising 956,122 participants and 48,084 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associations of total fish, shellfish, fatty, lean, fried, freshwater, and saltwater fish intake and type 2 diabetes were derived for each study, adjusting for a consistent set of confounders and combined across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. We stratified all analyses by sex due to observed interaction ( = 0.002) on the association between fish and type 2 diabetes. In women, for each 100 g/week higher intake the IRRs (95% CIs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.02 (1.01-1.03, = 61%) for total fish, 1.04 (1.01-1.07, = 46%) for fatty fish, and 1.02 (1.00-1.04, = 33%) for lean fish. In men, all associations were null. In women, we observed variation by geographical location: IRRs for total fish were 1.03 (1.02-1.04, = 0%) in the Americas and null in other regions. In conclusion, we found evidence of a neutral association between total fish intake and type 2 diabetes in men, but there was a modest positive association among women with heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by geographical location and types of fish intake. Future research should investigate the role of cooking methods, accompanying foods and environmental pollutants, but meanwhile, existing dietary regional, national, or international guidelines should continue to guide fish consumption within overall healthy dietary patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068031PMC
April 2021

The Adelphocoris lineolatus OBP4: Support for evolutionary and functional divergence of a mirid pheromone-binding protein from that found in lepidopteran moths.

Insect Sci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China.

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) have been extensively investigated in lepidopteran moths, but their evolution and function in hemipteran species remain unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that an odorant-binding protein, OBP4, of the mirid bug Adelphocoris lineolatus functions as a candidate hemipteran PBP but clustered with lepidopteran antennae-binding proteins (ABPs) rather than in the PBP/general odorant-binding protein (GOBP) clade. In this study, we hypothesized that origin and function of PBPs in hemipteran bugs may differ from those of lepidopteran moths. To test this hypothesis, we first constructed a phylogenetic tree using insect OBPs from sister hemipteran and holometabolous lineages, and the results indicated that neither OBP4 nor other types of candidate PBPs of mirid bugs clustered with the lepidopteran PBP/GOBP clade. Then, a fluorescence competitive binding assay was employed to determine binding affinities of recombinant OBP4 protein to host plant volatiles, with functional groups different from A. lineolatus sex pheromone components. The results revealed that OBP4 highly bound the female adult attractant 3-hexanone and 15 other mirid bug biologically active plant volatiles. Finally, we examined cellular expression profiles of OBP4 in putative antennal sensilla that are related to female A. lineolatus host plant location. The fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical labeling assay showed that the OBP4 gene was highly expressed in the multiporous olfactory sensilla medium-long sensilla basiconica rather than in the short sensilla basiconica or uniporous sensilla chaetica. These results, together with those of our previous studies, indicate that OBP4 not only functions in recognition of bug-produced sex pheromones in males, but is probably involved in detection of host plant volatiles in both A. lineolatus sexes. Our findings support the hypothesis that the origin and function of PBPs in hemipteran bugs differ from those of well-known PBPs in lepidopteran moths, which provides a novel perspective on evolutionary mechanisms of sex pheromone communication across insect orders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12919DOI Listing
April 2021

''Hands as Foots" in the Wilkins Modification of Gartland's classification of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.

Asian J Surg 2021 Jun 20;44(6):883-884. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.03.042DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Administration for Blood Management in Revision Surgery for Femoral Shaft Nonunion: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2021 Jan-Dec;27:10760296211002277

Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Hong Hui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University College of Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

Femoral shaft nonunion is a complication that seriously affects physiological functions. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of short- and long-term intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in the perioperative period of revision surgery for femoral shaft nonunion. In this retrospective study, 53 patients undergoing double-locking plates with channel bone grafting technology for the treatment of femoral shaft nonunion were divided into 3 groups: the patients in group A without use TXA during hospitalization, the patients in group B received intravenous (IV) 1-g TXA at 30 min before the surgery and deep soaked 1-g TXA for 5 min before closing the incision, and then 1-g TXA IV again 6 h after surgery, and the patients in group C received 1-g TXA IV before the operation, 1-g TXA topically during the operation, and subsequent long-term 1-g TXA IV until discharged. The primary outcomes were total blood loss (TBL) and hidden blood loss (HBL). The secondary outcomes included actual hemoglobin (Hb) loss values, transfusion requirement, number of units transfused, postoperative laboratory values (Hb, hematocrit, fibrinogen, and D-dimer), visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, and hospitalization time. The mean TBL was lower in group C than in group A (1168 mL vs. 2714 mL, < 0.001) and group B (1168 mL vs. 1557 mL, = 0.008). The differences in HBL volumes were also significant between groups A and C ( < 0.001) and between groups A and B ( < 0.01). The actual Hb loss in the 3 groups showed a consistent trend with TBL, but no significant differences between groups B and C ( = 0.23). On postoperative day (POD) 3, the Hb level was higher in group C than in group A (111.1 g/L vs. 94.6 g/L, = 0.02). No significant differences were found in VAS, hospital stay, thromboembolic complications, incision-related complications, and TXA adverse reactions among groups. Long-term intravenous TXA during hospitalization can effectively reduce perioperative blood loss, Hb drop, and postoperative hyperfibrinolysis, but is associated with an increased incidence of adverse reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10760296211002277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047849PMC
April 2021

Plasma glycerophospholipid profile, erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs, and metabolic syndrome incidence: a prospective study in Chinese men and women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Background: Animal studies have highlighted critical roles of glycerophospholipid (GP) metabolism in various metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related features such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and insulin resistance. However, human prospective studies of associations between circulating GPs and risks of MetS are scarce.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether GPs are associated with incidence of MetS in a well-established cohort.

Methods: A total of 1243 community-dwelling Chinese aged 50-70 y without MetS at baseline and followed up for 6 y were included in current analyses. A total of 145 plasma GPs were quantified by high-throughput targeted lipidomics. MetS was defined using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans.

Results: After 6 y, 429 participants developed MetS. Eleven GPs, especially those with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) or very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) at the sn-2 position, including 1 phosphatidylcholine (PC) [PC(18:0/22:6)], 9 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) [PE(16:0/22:6), PE(18:0/14:0), PE(18:0/18:1), PE(18:0/18:2), PE(18:0/20:3), PE(18:0/22:5), PE(18:0/22:6), PE(18:1/22:6), and PE(18:2/22:6)], and 1 phosphatidylserine (PS) [PS(18:0/18:0)], were positively associated with incident MetS (RRs: 1.16-1.30 per SD change; Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.05). In network analysis, the strongest positive association for MetS incidence was evidenced in a module mainly composed of PEs containing C22:6 and PSs [RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.31 per SD change; Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.05]. This association was more pronounced in participants with lower erythrocyte total n-3 PUFA concentrations [Bonferroni-corrected Pinter(P value for the interaction)< 0.05].

Conclusions: Elevated plasma concentrations of GPs, especially PEs with LCPUFAs or VLCPUFAs at the sn-2 position, are associated with higher risk of incident MetS. Future studies are merited to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab050DOI Listing
April 2021

Study on diffusion mechanism and failure behavior of epoxy coatings focusing on synergistic effect of temperature and water molecules.

Des Monomers Polym 2021 Mar 29;24(1):73-88. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao China).

The research on the diffusion of water in coatings has been a hot topic in many fields, such as chemistry, coating structure and hydrogen bonding. In this paper, DGEBA epoxy coating was used as a sample to explore the diffusion process of 3 wt.% NaCl solution at different temperatures. Two-stage diffusion was established by immersion experiment and MD simulation. The synergistic effect of temperature and water on DGEBA properties was revealed by FTIR method and adsorption-desorption cyclic testing. The results showed that as the temperature increased, the saturation water content in coatings increased. At different temperatures, the diffusion process of water presented two-phase characteristics, and the influence of temperature on the diffusion process was mainly manifested in the cross-linking density at higher locations. Based on the variation law of swelling coefficient in per unit time (24 h), the conditions for water-coating interaction and formation of water clusters in this paper were proposed. The synergistic effect of water and temperature on DGEBA properties was reflected in two aspects: at lower temperature (20 °C), water would only change the physical structure of the coatings, while the water broke the DGEBA chains at higher temperature (60 °C).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15685551.2021.1904581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009131PMC
March 2021

Binning-based local-threshold filtering for enhancement of underwater 3D gated range-intensity correlation imaging.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):9385-9395

3D gated range-intensity correlation imaging (GRICI) can reconstruct a 3D scene with high range resolution in real time. However, in the applications of underwater range-gated imaging, targets with low reflectivity or at a far distance typically have a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially in turbid water. Usually, a global threshold is set to suppress noise in gated images, which easily results in data holes in the degraded depth map reconstructed by 3D GRICI. To solve the problem, we have proposed a binning-based local-threshold filtering (BLF) algorithm to fill depth data holes. Firstly, raw gated images are added to obtain a sum image, and global threshold filtering and pixel binning for the sum image are used to obtain a reference image. Secondly, hole pixels can be registered according to the reference image. Finally, a smaller local threshold is reset for the hole pixels, and then a repaired depth map is given by 3D GRICI. The experimental results have shown that the proposed method can effectively fill depth data holes and the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the repaired depth map is increased from 10.23 dB to 22.45 dB by suppressing water noise with the improved range resolution from 6.25 mm to 4.12 mm. In addition, the 3D depth of viewing is enlarged, and the limit detection distance is increased by 21% in experiment. The research can promote the practical applications of 3D GRICI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.420359DOI Listing
March 2021

Detecting SARS-CoV-2 in the Breath of COVID-19 Patients.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 17;8:604392. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Commune of Scientific Engineers, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

In the COVID-19 outbreak year 2020, a consensus was reached on the fact that SARS-CoV-2 spreads through aerosols. However, finding an efficient method to detect viruses in aerosols to monitor the risk of similar infections and enact effective control remains a great challenge. Our study aimed to build a swirling aerosol collection (SAC) device to collect viral particles in exhaled breath and subsequently detect SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Laboratory tests of the SAC device using aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus indicated that the SAC device can produce a positive result in only 10 s, with a collection distance to the source of 10 cm in a biosafety chamber, when the release rate of the pseudovirus source was 1,000,000 copies/h. Subsequent clinical trials of the device showed three positives and 14 negatives out of 27 patients in agreement with pharyngeal swabs, and 10 patients obtained opposite results, while no positive results were found in a healthy control group ( = 12). Based on standard curve calibration, several thousand viruses per minute were observed in the tested exhalations. Furthermore, referring to the average tidal volume data of adults, it was estimated that an exhaled SARS-CoV-2 concentration of approximately one copy/mL is detectable for COVID-19 patients. This study validates the original concept of breath detection of SARS-CoV-2 using SAC combined with RT-PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.604392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010128PMC
March 2021

Sharpening ECOSTRESS and VIIRS land surface temperature using harmonized Landsat-Sentinel surface reflectances.

Remote Sens Environ 2020 Dec 8;251:112055. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Land surface temperature (LST) is a key diagnostic indicator of agricultural water use and crop stress. LST data retrieved from thermal infrared (TIR) band imagery, however, tend to have a coarser spatial resolution (e.g., 100 m for Landsat 8) than surface reflectance (SR) data collected from shortwave bands on the same instrument (e.g., 30 m for Landsat). Spatial sharpening of LST data using the higher resolution multi-band SR data provides an important path for improved agricultural monitoring at sub-field scales. A previously developed Data Mining Sharpener (DMS) approach has shown great potential in the sharpening of Landsat LST using Landsat SR data co-collected over various landscapes. This work evaluates DMS performance for sharpening ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) LST (~70 m native resolution) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) LST (375 m) data using Harmonized Landsat and Sentinel-2 (HLS) SR data, providing the basis for generating 30-m LST data at a higher temporal frequency than afforded by Landsat alone. To account for the misalignment between ECOSTRESS/VIIRS and Landsat/HLS caused by errors in registration and orthorectification, we propose a modified version of the DMS approach that employs a relaxed box size for energy conservation (EC). Sharpening experiments were conducted over three study sites in California, and results were evaluated visually and quantitatively against LST data from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) flights and from Landsat 8. Over the three sites, the modified DMS technique showed improved sharpening accuracy over the standard DMS for both ECOSTRESS and VIIRS, suggesting the effectiveness of relaxing EC box in relieving misalignment-induced errors. To achieve reasonable accuracy while minimizing loss of spatial detail due to the EC box size increase, an optimal EC box size of 180-270 m was identified for ECOSTRESS and about 780 m for VIIRS data based on experiments from the three sites. Results from this work will facilitate the development of a prototype system that generates high spatiotemporal resolution LST products for improved agricultural water use monitoring by synthesizing multi-source remote sensing data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.112055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011572PMC
December 2020