Publications by authors named "Liang Huo"

39 Publications

Positive antithyroid antibody predicts severity of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in children.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Nov 24;57:103425. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China. Electronic address:

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD) is a rare autoimmune disease, which can coexist with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDS). There has been no report on the clinical characteristics of NMOSD in children with positive anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAbs). The aim of this study is to evaluate thyroid function and detect the difference between ATAbs seropositive and seronegative NMOSD children.

Methods: 108 children with a confirmed diagnosis of NMOSD who were admitted to Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from January 2015 to September 2020 were enrolled and their thyroid functions were evaluated. They were divided into two groups by ATAbs abnormalities. Their demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, laboratory and MRI scan results of the brain and spinal cord were assessed.

Results: ATAbs positive rate was higher in children with NMOSD when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). Most NMOSD children with positive ATAbs were female (P < 0.01). The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score was significantly higher in the ATAbs positive group (P < 0.01). There were statistically significant differences for the incidence of bulbar area postrema symptoms, spinal cord symptoms, and fever of unknown origin of the first onset between the ATAbs positive and negative group (P < 0.05). The ANA and MOG antibody positive rate, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), and electroencephalogram (EEG) were significantly higher in ATAbs positive group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: MOG antibody-positive is a unique marker of aggravation of neurological dysfunction in ATAbs-positive NMOSD children. Monitoring ATAbs may play an important role in predicting the prognosis of NMOSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.103425DOI Listing
November 2021

Pharmacological Modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway as a Therapeutic Target of Parkinson's Disease.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:757161. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Neurology, Aerospace Center Hospital, Peking University Aerospace School of Clinical Medicine, Beijing, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder featuring both motor and nonmotor symptoms associated with a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Genetic and environmental factors can produce OS, which has been implicated as a core contributor to the initiation and progression of PD through the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) orchestrates activation of multiple protective genes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which protects cells from OS. Nrf2 has also been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects and modulate both mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Recently, a series of studies have reported that different bioactive compounds were shown to be able to activate Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) and can ameliorate PD-associated neurotoxin, both in animal models and in tissue culture. In this review, we briefly overview the sources of OS and the association between OS and the pathogenesis of PD. Then, we provided a concise overview of Nrf2/ARE pathway and delineated the role played by activation of Nrf2/HO-1 in PD. At last, we expand our discussion to the neuroprotective effects of pharmacological modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 by bioactive compounds and the potential application of Nrf2 activators for the treatment of PD. This review suggests that pharmacological modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway by bioactive compounds is a therapeutic target of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.757161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8650509PMC
November 2021

SARS-CoV-2-Associated Cerebrovascular Disease Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 26;14:4967-4975. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cerebrovascular diseases associated with SARS-CoV-2 are being increasingly reported in the literature as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues. However, a case-based retrospective analysis of the literature about SARS-CoV-2-cerebrovascular disease (SCVD) is not yet well established. Thus, we reviewed the literature on SCVD covering a comprehensive range of topics spanning the clinical features, mechanism, treatment, and outcomes of patients with SCVD.

Methods: We searched PubMed and included single-case reports and case series with full text in English that reported original data of patients with CVD and a confirmed recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical data were extracted.

Results: We included all 51 articles indexed in PubMed that were published between January 1, 2020, and June 20, 2020. The selected studies reported a total of 167 cerebrovascular events including ischemic stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebral venous thrombosis in patients with confirmed COVID-19. The detailed demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with CVD are summarized.

Conclusion: This summary of patient characteristics may help clinicians better anticipate SCVD outcomes and complications in their COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S340314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8631829PMC
November 2021

Digital in-service relative time delay estimation for SDM self-homodyne coherent systems.

Opt Express 2021 Nov;29(24):39079-39095

For space division multiplexing self-homodyne coherent systems, we propose a novel digital in-service relative time delay (RTD) estimation method without any additional optoelectronic device. Taking advantage of the frequency-domain periodicity of the colored frequency modulation noise, we manage to find the peak with location reflecting the RTD in its autocorrelation function (ACF). The peak to average ratio is further enhanced by leveraging a low-pass differential finite impulse response filter for robust identification. By simulations, the method is validated to be feasible for various linewidths, formats (16QAM, 32QAM and 64QAM), and links up to 80 km. Particularly, it is proved to be inherently compatible with large-linewidth low-cost lasers for the 10-km link. Also, for a low-complexity implementation, we discuss the way to reduce the number of points used to calculate the ACF while maintaining the same dynamic range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a 50-GBaud 16-QAM experiment to investigate its performances. With received optical power varying from -11 dBm to -17 dBm, 2 points are sufficient to provide an estimation accuracy of standard deviation (STD) less than 0.089 ns for the RTD range of [2.6, 491.0 ns]. The STD can be lowered to 0.036 ns by adopting 2 points. Especially, at -11-dBm ROP, the highest performance has been achieved with an accuracy smaller than the symbol period (0.018-ns STD) and a RTD range of [1.5, 491.0 ns].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.442919DOI Listing
November 2021

Intracranial Metastases Tend to Be Overt and Predict Poor Prognosis in Children With Neuroblastoma.

Front Pediatr 2021 3;9:716880. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Pediatrics, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common pediatric extracranial solid neoplasm after leukemia. Intracranial metastases (IM) rarely occur in patients with NB. The present study aimed to review the clinical characteristics of NB patients from a single center presenting with IM. Two hundred children (aged 3-91 months) with NB admitted to the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University between January 2009 and December 2015 were enrolled, and their clinical characteristics were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of IM. Their clinical characteristics, including demographics, clinical features, and laboratory and imaging studies, were retrospectively analyzed. IM occurred in 22 of 200 (11%) neuroblastoma patients, with a median age of 42.5 months (range, 3-91 months), with a male-to-female ratio of 1.4:1. Seven patients had IM at the initial diagnosis. Among the 15 children who did not have IM at initial presentation, the median interval from presentation to the diagnosis of IM was 17.3 months (range, 1-55 months). Compared with the control group, NB patients with IM tended to be asymptomatic at the time of NB diagnosis, which was made incidentally during routine physical examination (5 of 22, 22.7%, < 0.05). In addition, this group had more primary intra-abdominal sites (18 of 22, 81.8%, < 0.001) and worse prognosis (5 of 22, 22.7%, < 0.05). NB patients with IM have insidious onset in the early stage and a lower survival rate, especially patients with primary intra-abdominal lesions. Regular neurological monitoring could improve the rate of early diagnosis and prognosis of NB children with IM. Familiarity with the characteristic findings of NB with IM is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis and initiate necessary interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.716880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8596640PMC
November 2021

An All-Hydrophobic Fluid Diode for Continuous and Reduced-Wastage Water Transport.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Nov 19;13(43):51708-51717. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

School of Textile Materials and Engineering, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020, China.

Directional water transport that occurs in natural insects and plants is important to both organisms and advanced science and technology. Despite the many studies conducted to facilitate directional liquid transport by constructing double-layered hydrophilic/hydrophobic materials, it remains difficult to achieve continuous water transport and reduce liquid wastage due to the hydrophilic regions. Herein, a directional water transport fabric (DWTF) was fabricated using a simple single-side coating method based on entirely hydrophobic materials. With coating thicknesses of 13-29 μm, the fabric could guide the continuous water motion from the coated to the uncoated side and can be utilized as a "liquid diode". In addition, the DWTF exhibited a water wastage reduction during the transport process, benefiting from the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the material. Moreover, a plausible mechanism of water transport is proposed to explain the water droplet transfer in the bilayered hydrophobic materials. Consequently, the resulting DWTF exhibited an excellent accumulative one-way transport capability (AOTC) of 965.7% and a desirable overall moisture management capability (OMMC) of 0.92. This work provides an avenue for fabricating smart fluid delivery materials to various applications such as flexible microfluidics, wound dressing, oil-water separation processes, and engineered desiccant materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c14724DOI Listing
November 2021

Efficacy Evaluation of Temporomandibular Arthroscopic-Assisted Masseter Nerve Avulsion on Hemimasticatory Spasm.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Professor, Department of Oral Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Huangpu District, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Hemimasticatory spasm (HMS) is a masticatory muscle disorder without an effective treatment approach at present. This retrospective analysis aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of temporomandibular arthroscope-assisted masseteric nerve avulsion on HMS and thereby further determine a more effective therapeutic strategy for HMS patients.

Methods: Four patients with HMS receiving temporomandibular arthroscope-assisted masseteric nerve avulsion in the neurology department of oral surgery of our hospital from April 2017 to April 2018 were recruited in this study. Through a clinical follow-up period of 36 months, the comprehensive efficacy of arthroscope-assisted masseteric nerve avulsion was evaluated combined with an electrophysiological electromyogram. Furthermore, the maximum muscle strength and masticatory efficiency of the sound and affected sides were measured to determine whether there were complications. The morphology of the myelin sheath of the masseteric nerve avulsed in the operation was observed under the transmission electron microscope.

Results: The 3 years of follow-up showed that complete remission of HMS was seen in 4 patients with the score reduced to grade 0, showing satisfactory clinical efficacy. Electrophysiological electromyogram demonstrated an absence of obvious high-frequency group discharge potential in the 4 patients within 3 years after the operation, and the overall efficacy combined with the clinical efficacy was considered satisfactory. The maximum masseter strength of the sound side had no significant change, but that of the affected side was slightly decreased. The masticatory efficiency of the affected side was slightly decreased immediately after the operation but returned to the preoperative level 1 year after the operation, suggesting that this operation did not affect the masticatory function of the patients. No obvious demyelination was found in the avulsed nervous tissues.

Conclusions: Temporomandibular arthroscope-assisted masseteric nerve avulsion yielded satisfactory and stable overall efficacy on the treatment of HMS. The masticatory efficiency of the affected side was optimally preserved, while the maximum masseter muscle strength of the affected side was partially decreased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2021.08.157DOI Listing
August 2021

SARS-CoV-2-associated acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a systematic review of the literature.

J Neurol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Neurology, Aerospace Center Hospital, Peking University Aerospace School of Clinical Medicine, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China.

The literature on cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been rapidly increasing. However, the specific clinical features of ADEM associated with SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2-ADEM) have not been previously evaluated. We screened all articles resulting from a search of PubMed and Web of Science databases looking for reports of ADEM published between December 01, 2019, and June 5, 2021. Of the 48 ADEM cases identified from 37 studies, 34 (71%) had ADEM while 14 (29%) were of AHLE. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 83% (n = 19) of patients. 26 patients (54%) were male, and 18 patients (38%) were female, with a male to female sex ratio of 1.4:1; median age was 44 (1.4-71) years. 9 patients (19%, 9/48) were children. Of the 9 children patients, their median age was 9 years (range 1.4-13 years), 6 patients (67%) were female, and 2 patients (22%) were male, with a female to male sex ratio of 3:1.39 patients (81%) was performed CSF analysis. PCR for SARS-CoV-2 tested positive in 3 patients (14%, 3/22) on CSF sample. 31 (64%) of patients had a poor outcome on discharge from hospital. Five (10%) patients died in hospital. Compared to classic ADEM, SARS-CoV-2-ADEM have a more longer duration between the onset of the antecedent infective symptoms and the start of ADEM symptoms, the older age distribution of the patients, relatively poor outcome, a lower full recovery rate, a more frequently brain lesions involved the periventricular white matter and corpus callosum, and less frequently affected the deep gray matter. Taken together, the present comprehensive review reveals that although rare, ADEM can be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2-ADEM seems to share most features of classic ADEM, with moderate discrepancies from the classical ADEM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10771-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403692PMC
August 2021

Usher syndrome type 2A complicated with glycogen storage disease type 3 due to paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 1 in a sporadic patient.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 10 18;9(10):e1779. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Chigene (Beijing) Translational Medical Research Center Co., Ltd., Beijing, P.R. China.

Background: The condition of uniparental disomy (UPD) occurs when an individual inherits two copies of a chromosome, or part of a chromosome, from one parent. Most cases of uniparental heterodisomy (UPhD) do not cause diseases, whereas cases of uniparental isodisomy (UPiD), while rare, may be pathogenic. Theoretically, UPiD may cause rare genetic diseases in a homozygous recessive manner.

Methods: A 4-year-old girl presented with congenital hearing loss, developmental delay, hepatomegaly, and other clinical features. She and her parents were genetically tested using trio whole exome sequencing (Trio-WES) and copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq). In addition, we built a structural model to further examine the pathogenicity of the UPiD variants.

Results: Trio-WES identified a paternal UPiD in chromosome 1, and two homozygous pathogenic variants AGL c.4284T>G/p.Tyr1428* and USH2A c.6528T>A/p.Tyr2176* in the UPiD region. We further analyzed the pathogenicity of these two variations. The patient was diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 2A (USH2A) and glycogen storage disease type III (GSD3).

Conclusions: Our study reports a rare case of a patient carrying two pathogenic variants of different genes caused by paternal UPiD, supporting the potential application of Trio-WES in detecting and facilitating the diagnosis of UPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580083PMC
October 2021

Case Report: A Case of Eyelid Myoclonic Status With Tonic-Clonic Seizure and Literature Review.

Front Pediatr 2021 22;9:671732. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Eyelid myoclonus with or without absence epilepsy is a rare and usually misdiagnosed disease in the neurology department. It is an idiopathic general epileptic syndrome, the onset period is 6-8 years, and is more common in girls. It is characterized by rapid abnormal eye blinking, accompanied by upward rolling of the eye and slight backward movement of the head, with eye closure sensitivity and photosensitivity. The seizure is frequent and short, dozens or even hundreds of times a day; a small number of patients may have eyelid myoclonus status. We report a patient who visits the hospital for the first time with eyelid myoclonic problem; the patient continued to wink the eyes, eye rolled up, and backward movement of the head, accompanied by impairment of consciousness. Video electroencephalography (VEEG) suggests continued spike slow-wave, polyspike slow-wave. After the patient had 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 Hz of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS), her seizures and epileptic discharges reduced or stopped. Seven min after giving stimulation at 20 Hz, the child developed an occipital-initiated tonic-clonic seizure, which demonstrated that after sufficient IPS stimulation, the occiput cortex became excited and initiated a brain network, leading to diffuse brain discharge and tonic-clonic seizures. At 1 h after onset, the child developed a nonconvulsive state, with impairment of consciousness despite no eyelid myoclonic movements, and VEEG suggested a large number of epileptic discharges. After 10 min of administrating midazolam, the patient's EEG immediately became normal, and the patient regained consciousness. Therefore, this paper presents an eyelid myoclonus status patient with occipital origin seizure, we recorded the whole course of the disease and the treatment effect, and reviewed the literature accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.671732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100049PMC
April 2021

Rosavin suppresses osteoclastogenesis and by blocking the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):383

Department of Oral and Craniofacial Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Bone homeostasis is mediated by osteoblast-related bone formation and osteoclast-related resorption. The imbalance of bone homeostasis due to excessive osteoclastogenesis or reduced osteogenesis can result in various disorders, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP). The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are essential in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of rosavin, an alkylbenzene diglycoside compound from the traditional Chinese medicine Rhodiola Rosea L, on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and .

Methods: The effects of rosavin on osteoclastogenesis were assessed by TRAP staining of bone marrow monocyte cells (BMMCs) and RAW 264.7 cells. The effects of rosavin on osteogenesis were determined using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red staining, as well as real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Actin ring formation and bone formation experiments were performed to evaluate osteoclast function. Western blotting was carried out to determine the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes, and the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways was evaluated by performing western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Ovariectomized mice were used to explore the effect of rosavin on bone loss.

Results: Rosavin could inhibit osteoclastogenesis, suppress the function of osteoclasts, and decrease the expression of osteoclast differentiation-related genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), calcitonin receptor (CTR), TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), and colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (c-fms). Rosavin inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of p65 and inhibitory subunit of NF-κB alpha (IκBα), and suppressed p65 nuclear translocation. Rosavin was also found to inhibit the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Furthermore, rosavin promoted osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). experiments showed that treatment with rosavin could alleviate ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice.

Conclusions: Our results indicated that rosavin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and by blocking the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Rosavin treatment is a potential therapy for the clinical treatment of osteoclastogenesis-related disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033352PMC
March 2021

Clinical features of SARS-CoV-2-associated encephalitis and meningitis amid COVID-19 pandemic.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Feb;9(5):1058-1078

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province, China.

Background: Since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic, numerous studies have been published on SARS-CoV-2-related encephalitis/meningitis, but it has not been established if there are specific clinical characteristics of encephalitis/meningitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Aim: To identify the specific clinical features of cases of encephalitis/meningitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of this virus infection pandemic and investigate their relationship with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: We searched PubMed, and included single case reports and case series with full text in English, reporting original data of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients with encephalitis/meningitis and a confirmed recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical data were extracted.

Results: We identified 22 articles (18 single case reports and 4 case series) reporting on a total of 32 encephalitis/meningitis patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed through reverse transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) in 96.88% of cases. A total of 22 (68.75%) patients had symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in about 1 wk (7.91 d) preceding the onset of neurologic symptoms. The most common neurological symptoms were consciousness disturbance (59.38%), seizure (21.88%), delirium (18.75%), and headache (18.75%). Four cases were confirmed by positive RT-PCR results in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), one was confirmed by positive RT-PCR results in postoperative brain tissue, and one by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in CSF. The mainly damaged targets identified by neuroimaging included the temporal lobe (15.63%), white matter (12.5%), frontal lobe (9.38%), corpus callosum (9.38%), and cervical spinal cord (9.38%). Eighty percent of patients had electroencephalograms that showed a diffuse slow wave. Twenty-eight (87.5%) patients were administered with specific treatment. The majority (65.63%) of patients improved following systemic therapy.

Conclusion: Encephalitis/meningitis is the common neurological complication in patients with COVID-19. The appropriate use of definitions and exclusion of potential similar diseases are important to reduce over-diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 associated encephalitis or meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i5.1058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896657PMC
February 2021

Epigenetic regulation of virulence and the transcription of ribosomal protein genes involves a YEATS family protein in Cryptococcus deneoformans.

FEMS Yeast Res 2021 03;21(1)

Beijing Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering Drug and Biotechnology, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University (CLS-BNU), Beijing 100875, PR China.

Epigenetic marks or post-translational modifications on histones have important regulatory roles in gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. The epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus deneoformans remains largely undetermined. The YEATS domain proteins are readers of crotonylated lysine residues in histones. Here, we reported the identification of a single-copy gene putatively coding for a YEATS domain protein (Yst1) in C. deneoformans. To define its function, we created a mutant strain, yst1Δ, using CRISPR-Cas9 editing. yst1Δ exhibited defects in phenotype, for instance, it was hypersensitive to osmotic stress in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl or KCl. Furthermore, it was hypersensitive to 1% Congo red, suggesting defects in the cell wall. Interestingly, RNA-seq data revealed that Yst1p was critical for the expression of genes encoding the ribosomal proteins, that is, most were expressed with significantly lower levels of mRNA in yst1Δ than in the wild-type strain. The mutant strain was hypersensitive to low temperature and anti-ribosomal drugs, which we putatively attribute to the impairment in ribosomal function. In addition, the yst1Δ strain was less virulent to Galleria mellonella. These results generally suggest that Yst1, as a histone modification reader, might be a key coordinator of the transcriptome of this human pathogen. Yst1 could be a potential target for novel antifungal drugs, which might lead to significant developments in the clinical treatment of cryptococcosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsyr/foab001DOI Listing
March 2021

Related Network and Differential Expression Analyses Identify Nuclear Genes and Pathways in the Hippocampus of Alzheimer Disease.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Jan 28;26:e919311. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Alzheimer disease (AD) is a typical progressive and destructive neurodegenerative disease that has been studied extensively. However, genetic features and molecular mechanisms underlying AD remain unclear. Here we used bioinformatics to investigate the candidate nuclear genes involved in the molecular mechanisms of AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS First, we used Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to obtain the expression profiles of the mRNAs from hippocampus microarray and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) the plier algorithm. Second, functional annotation and visualization of the DEGs were conducted by the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. Finally, BioGRID, IntAct, STRING, and Cytoscape were utilized to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Hub genes were analytically obtained from the PPI network and the microRNA (miRNA)-target network. RESULTS Two hippocampus microarrays (GSE5281 and GSE48350) were obtained from the GEO database, comprising 161 and 253 cases separately. Among these, 118 upregulated genes and 694 downregulated genes were identified. The upregulated DEGs were mainly involved in positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, positive regulation of cartilage development, and response to wounding. The downregulated DEGs were enriched in chemical synaptic transmission, neurotransmitter secretion, and learning. By combining the results of PPI and miRNA-target network, 8 genes and 2 hub miRNAs were identified, including YWHAZ, DLG4, AGAP2, EGFR, TGFBR3, PSD3, RDX, BRWD1, and hsa-miR-106b-5p and hsa-miR-93-5p. These target genes are highly enriched in various key pathways, such as amyloid-beta formation, regulation of cardiocyte differentiation, and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. CONCLUSIONS In this study, YWHAZ, DLG4, AGAP2, EGFR, TGFBR3, PSD3, RDX, and BRWD1 were identified as candidate genes for future molecular studies in AD, which is expected to improve our understanding of its cause and potential molecular mechanisms. Nuclear genes, DEGs, and related networks identified by integrated bioinformatics analysis may serve as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.919311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001513PMC
January 2020

Temporomandibular joint anchorage surgery: a 5-year follow-up study.

Sci Rep 2019 12 13;9(1):19106. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Oral Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology & Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center of Stomatology, Shanghai, China.

The purpose of this study was to confirm the 5-year efficiency of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) anchorage, using clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also studied the influence of disc length and position on efficiency and postoperative condylar height. Sixty-one patients (76 joints) undergoing TMJ disc anchorage were followed up for >5 years. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score and maximum mouth-opening pre-and postsurgery were analysed and patient satisfaction recorded. Disc length, condyle height and disc position pre- and postsurgery were measured using MRI. Patients were ranked as A, B or C degree according to postoperative disc condyle position. Mean follow-up time was 71.34 months. Maximum mouth-opening improved by 14.34 ± 5.87 mm, and VAS score decreased by 33.44 ± 20.56 (P < 0.05). Clinical evaluation efficiency was 84.21%; patient satisfaction rate was 85.53%. On follow-up MRI, 68 joints were judged A or B degree (89.67%). Disc length was 7.96 ± 1.38 mm, 7.10 ± 1.41 mm and 5.75 ± 1.16 mm in A, B and C groups, respectively. In patients evaluated as C, condylar height decreased by 0.43 ± 1.36 mm, while increasing by 0.67 ± 1.88 mm and 0.51 ± 1.09 mm in A and B groups, respectively (all P < 0.05). We concluded that anchorage surgery improves mouth-opening and eliminates pain, longer disc length is related to better postoperative disc position, and significant condylar reconstruction occurs after disc repositioning. MRI confirmed that TMJ disc anchorage is reliable 5 years postsurgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54592-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6911021PMC
December 2019

Long-period fiber gratings inscribed in few-mode fibers for discriminative determination.

Opt Express 2019 Sep;27(19):26307-26316

We successfully fabricated the long-period fiber gratings in few-mode fibers (FMF-LPFGs) with micro-tapered method, which are different from the traditional LPFGs that only couple the fundamental mode to different cladding modes to obtain multiple resonant dips. There are two resonant dips on the transmission spectrum of the FMF-LPFGs, which are induced by the coupling between the fundamental mode and the low-order cladding mode LP (dip 1) and the coupling between the fundamental mode and the high-order core mode LP (dip 2). Due to the difference of the coupling mechanism involved in two dips, the shift of resonant wavelengths has different characteristics with the variation of the external environment parameter. The corresponding wavelength of dip 1 exhibits a red shift as the temperature increased. But for dip 2, the resonant wavelength has a blue shift. In addition, the two dips have different temperature and strain sensitivities. Therefore, discriminative determination of temperature and strain is realized by establishing the cross coefficient matrix, and the relative measurement error is less than 3%. What's more, we theoretically analyzed the reason why the two resonant wavelengths shift toward opposite direction with the increase of temperature and toward the same direction with the increase of strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.026307DOI Listing
September 2019

Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Is Involved in Apoptosis in Rat Astrocytes Exposed to Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation.

Biomed Res Int 2019 27;2019:1613820. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (Lifr) protect CNS cells, specifically neurons and myelin-sheath oligodendrocytes, in conditions of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In the case of astrocyte apoptosis resulting from reperfusion injury following hypoxia, the function of the Lifr remains to be fully elucidated. This study established models of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) using an model of OGD to investigate the direct impact of silencing the Lifr on astrocyte apoptosis. Astrocytes harvested from newborn Wistar rats were exposed to OGD. Cell viability and apoptosis levels were determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining assays, respectively. Apoptosis was further investigated by the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. A standard western blotting protocol was applied to determine levels of the protein markers Bcl2, Bax, p-Akt/Akt, p-Stat3/Stat3, and p-Erk/Erk. The cell viability assay (MTT) showed that astrocyte viability decreased in response to OGD. Furthermore, blocking RNA to silence the Lifr further reduces astrocyte viability and increases levels of apoptosis as detected by annexin V/PI double staining. Likewise, western blotting after Lifr silencing demonstrated increased levels of the apoptosis-related proteins Bax and p-Erk/Erk and correspondingly lower levels of Bcl2, p-Akt/Akt, and p-Stat/Stat3. The data gathered in these analyses indicate that the Lifr plays a pivotal role in the astrocyte apoptosis induced by hypoxic/low-glucose environments. Further investigation of the relationship between apoptosis and the Lifr may provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neurological injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1613820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415309PMC
July 2019

Features of Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke in China.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2019 Aug 19;38(4):317-325. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

a Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University , Shenyang , China.

: The aim of this study was to identify the features and risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children. : We retrospectively analyzed the initial symptoms, clinical manifestations, risk factors, neuroradiological findings, and treatment data of 75 Chinese children aged between 1 month and 14 years (median 5.7 years) who were diagnosed with AIS in our hospital between 2013 and 2018. : Among these 75 cases of childhood AIS, 53 patients (70.67%) were male, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.41:1. A total of 55 cases (73.33%) had respiratory tract infection with fever. Seventy cases had lesions in the basal ganglia (46 left, 24 right). All patients were treated conservatively without thrombolytic therapy. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment was given to children with fever and drowsiness. : Infection was an important risk factor for children with AIS in China. Infection and thrombophilia risk factors were more likely to occur in isolation. The stroke lesions commonly occurred in the basal ganglia region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2019.1588438DOI Listing
August 2019

A novel splice site mutation in AP1S2 gene for X-linked mental retardation in a Chinese pedigree and literature review.

Brain Behav 2019 03 4;9(3):e01221. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Pettigrew syndrome (PGS) is a rare X-linked mental retardation that caused by AP1S2 mutation. The pathogenesis of AP1S2 deficiency has remained elusive. The purpose of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of AP1S2 mutations.

Methods: This study systematically analyzed clinical features and genetic information of a Chinese family with AP1S2 variation, and reviewed previously reported literatures with the same gene variation.

Results: We identified a new c.1-1 G>C mutation in AP1S2 gene from a four generation family with seven affected individuals and found the elevated neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in a patient. We summarized the clinical manifestation of 59 patients with AP1S2 mutation. We found that pathogenic point mutations affecting AP1S2 are associated with dysmorphic features and neurodevelopmental problems, which included highly variable mental retardation (MR), delayed in walking, abnormal speech, hypotonia, abnormal brain, abnormal behavior including aggressive behavior, ASD, self-abusive, and abnormal gait. Patients with splice site mutation were more likely to lead to seizures. By contrast, patients with nonsense mutations are more susceptible to microcephaly.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest AP1S2 mutations contribute to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders and are important in the etiological spectrum of PGS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422709PMC
March 2019

Clinical Features of and Risk Factors for Hydrocephalus in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis.

J Child Neurol 2019 01 29;34(1):11-16. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

1 Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of and analyze the risk factors for hydrocephalus in children with bacterial meningitis.

Methods: Retrospective study of a sample of children with bacterial meningitis seen on the pediatric service of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2016.

Results: Overall, 9.36% (25/267) of patients presented with hydrocephalus. Among patients with hydrocephalus, the age at onset of bacterial meningitis was usually <6 months, 15 patients had confirmed bacterial etiology, and 1 patient died. The most significant results of multivariate analysis for hydrocephalus were a rural living situation, altered level of consciousness, previous treatment with antibiotics, initial cerebrospinal fluid protein >2 g/L, C-reactive protein >100 mg/L, and dexamethasone use.

Conclusions: A severe clinical manifestation and significant laboratory index at admission are the most important predictors of hydrocephalus in children with bacterial meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073818799155DOI Listing
January 2019

Design of highly mode group selective photonic lanterns with geometric optimization.

Appl Opt 2018 Aug;57(24):7065-7069

Highly mode group selective photonic lanterns (PLs) are desired for mode-division multiplexing transmission systems. Usually, mode selectivity is achieved by using input fibers with different core diameters or refractive indices to break degeneracy between mode groups. We demonstrate that mode group selectivity can be greatly improved by optimizing core geometry of PLs. For three-mode PLs with optimized core geometry, based on beam propagation method (BPM) simulation results, mode selectivity is improved from 23.8 dB to 43.9 dB for LP mode, and mode selectivity of LP mode is improved from 26.8 dB to 45.5 dB. The reason is the optimized core geometry can significantly slow down the changing of mode profile along the taper of the PL; thus adiabatic tapering requirement can be greatly alleviated. It can also be observed that the simulation results by the BPM are in good agreement with calculation of coupled-mode theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.57.007065DOI Listing
August 2018

Bidirectional long-reach PON using Kramers-Kronig-based receiver for Rayleigh Backscattering noise and SSBI interference elimination.

Opt Express 2018 Jul;26(15):19020-19036

In this paper, a novel bidirectional long-reach PON is proposed and demonstrated by using Kramers-Kronig (KK)-based receiver and 7-core fiber to simultaneously cope with the induced signal-signal beating interference (SSBI) and Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noises. A low-cost self-homodyne detection using only one PD is used at both OLT and ONU, and the middle core of 7-core fiber is used to deliver the seed light to ONUs for colorless upstream transmission, and the upstream and downstream signals are transmitted simultaneously over the same outer core for each ONU. By this means, the signals and local oscillators for upstream and downstream transmission all originate from the same laser which is located at OLT. With the help of the KK-based receiver, SSBI could be effectively eliminated and the fiber dispersion can also be digitally compensated due to the reconstruction of the complex field of the received signal. Moreover, by using single sideband Nyquist-shaped subcarrier modulation with 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (SSB-Nyquist-16QAM) technique, the upstream and downstream signals are allocated to occupy the left and right sideband of the optical carrier respectively, and thus the RB noise can be easily removed by a simple optical filter in the receiver. In our experiment, the carrier-to-signal power ratio (CSPR) and the frequency gap between the upstream and downstream signals are investigated. Furthermore, bidirectional transmission of 60 Gbps SSB-Nyquist-16QAM signals over 50 km 7-core fiber are successfully achieved, and the frequency gap between the upstream and downstream signals is only 3 GHz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.019020DOI Listing
July 2018

Role of the fungus-specific flavin carrier Flc1 in antifungal resistance in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

Med Mycol 2019 Jun;57(4):468-477

Beijing Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering Drug and Biotechnology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University (CLS-BNU), Beijing 100875, China.

FLC family, a conserved fungus-specific family of integral membrane proteins, has been demonstrated to play important roles in flavin transport, growth, and virulence in several fungi but not yet in Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we have identified the single homologue of flavin adenine dinucleotide transporter in the opportunistic pathogen C. neoformans. The computational and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the fungal specificity of cryptococcal Flc1 protein, thus providing a promising drug target for clinical treatment of cryptococcosis. Disruption of FLC1 conferred sensitivity to 1% Congo red and 0.02% SDS, as well as leading to impaired chitin distribution in cell wall as observed with Calcofluor White staining, which collectively indicated the roles of FLC1 in maintenance of cell wall integrity. Further investigations revealed the defects of flc1Δ mutant in resistance to poor nutrition and elevated temperatures, and the ability to undergo invasive growth under nutrient-depleted conditions was reduced as well in flc1Δ mutant, suggesting the roles of Flc1 in response to environmental stresses. More importantly, our results showed that flc1Δ mutant exhibited severe susceptibility to antifungal aminoglycosides (hygromycin B and geneticin) and amphotericin B, but developed multidrug resistance to flucytosine and rapamycin, which provided great hints for therapeutic failure of cryptococcosis in clinic with the standard combination therapy. Finally, typical virulence factors including melanin biosynthesis and capsule formation in flc1Δ mutant were reduced as well, indicating the possible involvement of Flc1 in virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myy050DOI Listing
June 2019

Genome-Wide Identification of circRNAs in Pathogenic Basidiomycetous Yeast Cryptococcus neoformans Suggests Conserved circRNA Host Genes over Kingdoms.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Feb 26;9(3). Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering Drug and Biotechnology, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University (CLS-BNU), Beijing 100875, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of ubiquitous and intriguing noncoding RNA, have been found in a number of eukaryotes but not yet basidiomycetes. In this study, we identified 73 circRNAs from 39.28 million filtered RNA reads from the basidiomycete JEC21 using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the bioinformatics tool circular RNA identification (CIRI). Furthermore, mapping of newly found circRNAs to the genome showed that 73.97% of the circRNAs originated from exonic regions, whereas 20.55% were from intergenic regions and 5.48% were from intronic regions. Enrichment analysis of circRNA host genes was conducted based on the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. The results reveal that host genes are mainly responsible for primary metabolism and, interestingly, ribosomal protein production. Furthermore, we uncovered a high-level circRNA that was a transcript from the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase gene (gene ID: 3255052) in our yeast. Coincidentally, , 's ortholog of the GTPase in , protists, and humans, has already been proven to generate circRNAs. Additionally, overexpression of RNA debranching enzyme had varied influence on the expression of circRNAs, indicating that multiple circRNA biosynthesis pathways exist in . Our study provides evidence for the existence of stable circRNAs in the opportunistic human pathogen and raises a question regarding their role related to pathogenesis in this yeast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes9030118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867839PMC
February 2018

Identification of a basidiomycete-specific Vilse-like GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and its roles in the production of virulence factors in Cryptococcus neoformans.

FEMS Yeast Res 2017 12;17(8)

Beijing Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering Drug and Biotechnology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous pathogenic yeast that causes fatal infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Regulation on the production of its virulence factors is not fully understood. Here we reported the characterization of a gene, named CVH1(CNA06260), encoding a Drosophila Vilse-like RhoGAP homolog, which is hallmarked by three conserved functional domains: WW, MyTH4 and RhoGAP. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that CVH1 is highly conserved from protists to mammals and interestingly in basidiomycetes, but absent in plants or Ascomycota and other lower fungi. This phylogenetic distribution indicates an evolutionary link among these groups of organisms. Functional analyses demonstrated that CVH1 was involved in stress tolerance and virulence factor production. By disrupting CVH1, we created a second mutant cvh1Δ with the CRISPR-Cas9 editing tool. The mutant strain exhibited hypersensitivity to osmotic stress by 2 M sorbitol and NaCl, suggesting defects in the HOG signaling pathway and an interaction of Cvh1 with the HOG pathway. Hypersensitivity of cvh1Δ to 1% Congo red and 0.01% SDS suggests that the cell wall integrity was impaired in the mutant. And cvh1Δ hardly produced the pigment melanin and capsule. Our study for the first time demonstrates that the fungal Vilse-like RhoGAP CVH1 is an important regulator of multiple biological processes in C. neoformans, and provides novel insights into the regulatory circuit of stress resistance/cell wall integrity, and laccase and capsule synthesis in C. neoformans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsyr/fox089DOI Listing
December 2017

Bacterial Contribution in Chronicity of Wounds.

Microb Ecol 2017 04 14;73(3):710-721. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Centro de Análises Proteômicas e Bioquímicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brazil, 70790-160, Brazil.

A wound is damage of a tissue usually caused by laceration of a membrane, generally the skin. Wound healing is accomplished in three stages in healthy individuals, including inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling stages. Healing of wounds normally starts from the inflammatory phase and ends up in the remodeling phase, but chronic wounds remain in an inflammatory stage and do not show progression due to some specific reasons. Chronic wounds are classified in different categories, such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), venous leg ulcers (VLU) and pressure ulcer (PU), surgical site infection (SSI), abscess, or trauma ulcers. Globally, the incidence rate of DFU is 1-4 % and prevalence rate is 5.3-10.5 %. However, colonization of pathogenic bacteria at the wound site is associated with wound chronicity. Most chronic wounds contain more than one bacterial species and produce a synergetic effect that results in previously non-virulent bacterial species becoming virulent and causing damage to the host. While investigating bacterial diversity in chronic wounds, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Peptoniphilus, Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Finegoldia, and Serratia were found most frequently in chronic wounds. Recently, it has been observed that bacteria in chronic wounds develop biofilms that contribute to a delay in healing. In a mature biofilm, bacteria grow slowly due to deficiency of nutrients that results in the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. The present review reflects the reasons why acute wounds become chronic. Interesting findings include the bacterial load, which forms biofilms and shows high-level resistance toward antibiotics, which is a threat to human health in general and particularly to some patients who have acute wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-016-0867-9DOI Listing
April 2017

Amyloid Arthropathy of the Hip Joint Associated with Multiple Myeloma: A Case Report.

Hip Pelvis 2016 Jun 30;28(2):127-31. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by the deposition of non-soluble fibrous protein in multiple tissues with a number of possible causes. This protein deposition can occur in any tissue, yet is most commonly seen in kidneys, heart, and gastrointestinal tracts. However, invasion to bone tissues is not often reported. The deposition of amyloid proteins in bone tissues may result in joint pain and pathological fractures; it is important to elucidate the causes and detect early to determine prognosis and treat optimally. In the present case report, with relevant literature review, the authors report a case of total hip arthroplasty in an amyloidosis patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5371/hp.2016.28.2.127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4972887PMC
June 2016

Amyloid Arthropathy of the Hip Joint Associated with Multiple Myeloma: A Case Report.

Hip Pelvis 2016 Jun 30;28(2):127-31. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by the deposition of non-soluble fibrous protein in multiple tissues with a number of possible causes. This protein deposition can occur in any tissue, yet is most commonly seen in kidneys, heart, and gastrointestinal tracts. However, invasion to bone tissues is not often reported. The deposition of amyloid proteins in bone tissues may result in joint pain and pathological fractures; it is important to elucidate the causes and detect early to determine prognosis and treat optimally. In the present case report, with relevant literature review, the authors report a case of total hip arthroplasty in an amyloidosis patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5371/hp.2016.28.2.127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4972887PMC
June 2016

Melanin is required for the formation of the multi-cellular conidia in the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora.

Microbiol Res 2015 Oct 26;179:1-11. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

State Key Program of Microbiology and Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 3 00071, China; Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University (CLS-BNU), Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address:

Melanin plays an important role in regulating various biological processes in many fungi. However, its biological role in conidiation remains largely elusive. We report here that conidia production, morphogenesis, integrity, germination and their viability in Pestalotiopsis microspora require the polyketide-derived melanin. A polyketide synthase gene, pks1, was identified and demonstrated responsible for melanin biosynthesis in this fungus. A targeted deletion mutant strain Δpks1 displayed a defect in pigmentation of conidia and had an albino colonial phenotype. Interestingly, Δpks1 produced approximately 6-fold as many conidia as the wild type did, suggesting a negative modulation of melanin on conidia production in this fungus. Moreover, the conidia failed to develop into the normal five-cell morphology, rather the three main-body cells separated via constriction at the original septum position to generate three independent mutant conidia. This result suggests a novel role of melanin in the formation of the multi-cellular conidia. Germ tubes could develop from the three different types of mutant conidia and kept elongating, despite a significantly lower germination rate was observed for them. Still more, the unpigmented conidia became permeable to Calcofluor White and DAPI, suggesting the integrity of the conidia was impaired. Deliberate inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a specific inhibitor, tricyclazole, led to a similar phenotypes. This work demonstrates a new function of fungal melanin in conidial development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2015.06.004DOI Listing
October 2015

Magnetic resonance imaging applied to the diagnosis of perforation of the temporomandibular joint.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2014 Sep 21;42(6):874-8. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology & Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, No. 639, Zhi Zao Ju Rd, 200011 Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for perforation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

Methods: Consecutive 1845 patients (2524 joints) diagnosed as internal derangement (ID) of TMJ were collected from April 2003 to March 2010 in our department. All the patients were examined by MRI and treated by arthroscopy or open surgeries. The findings of interpreting MRI were recorded as positive, suspicious and negative according to the MRI radiographic criteria. After comparing the findings of MRI with those of arthroscopy or open surgeries, the numbers of true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative were obtained. Through SPSS16.0, receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was made with 1-specificity as abscissa and the sensitivity as ordinate, and the area under the ROC curve was calculated. According to the area, the diagnostic value of MRI was evaluated.

Results: Arthroscopic or open surgeries findings confirmed that 207 joints had disc perforation among all joints. MRI findings showed 189 joints were positive, 197 joints suspicious, and 2138 joints negative. The true positive accuracy of MRI findings was 102/189 while true negative accuracy was 2075/2138. 42 of the 197 suspicious joints had perforation. The area under the ROC curve was 0.808 (0.77, 0.85), P < 0.05.

Conclusion: We concluded that MRI proved to be a good modality to diagnose disc perforation of TMJ, and the diagnostic result of disc perforation by MRI had certain guiding significance in our clinical work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2014.01.001DOI Listing
September 2014
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