Publications by authors named "Liang Gao"

530 Publications

The Validity of Neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio as A Predictive Factor for Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome after Flexible Ureteroscopy Lithotripsy.

Urol J 2021 06 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China 74#Linjiang Road, Chongqing, CN 400010.

Purpose: To explore the risk factors and predictive factors of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) for upper urinary tract stones.

Materials And Methods: Patients experienced fURS from January 2014 to September 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, which were divided into the SIRS group and non-SIRS group. Clinical data of all patients, including gender, age, American society of anesthesia score, diabetes, etc., were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the independent risk factors for SIRS after fURS, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to verify the validity of results. In addition, patients from October 2019 to January 2020 were prospectively collected to verify the results.

Results: A total of 369 patients were retrospectively included. Univariate analysis showed significant differences in postoperative stone residuals (P = 0.039), preoperative neutrophil/ lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P < 0.001), and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) (P = 0.001) between two groups. Further, preoperative NLR and postoperative stone residuals were independent according to multivariate logistic regression analysis. The optimal cut-off value of preoperative NLR by ROC curve was 2.61, and the area under ROC curve was 77.9%. Prospective analysis based on 53 patients showed that the incidence of SIRS in patients with NLR > 2.61 was significantly higher than that in other patients. (RR = 4.932, P = 0.040).

Conclusion: Preoperative NLR can be used as a predictive factor for SIRS in patients with fURS according to our study. It may provide an evidence for clinicians to make preoperative decisions or medical plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v18i.6570DOI Listing
June 2021

Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Human Brucellar Spondylodiscitis.

J Vis Exp 2021 May 23(171). Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Spine Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University;

Brucellar spondylodiscitis (BS) is the most prevalent and significant osteoarticular presentation of human Brucellosis, which is commonly manifested in pastoral communities. It is difficult to differentially diagnose and usually leads to irreversible neurologic deficits and spinal deformities. The initial diagnosis of BS is based on clinical findings and radiographic assessments, and the confirmed diagnosis should be established by the isolation of Brucella species from the blood and/or the standard tube agglutination test. Differential diagnosis of multifocal BS from either degenerative disc diseases or tuberculosis is especially highlighted. The surgical approach, either endoscopic or open, is demonstrated in detail, accompanied by radiographic evidence of structural compression or severe instability. Further, the crucial surgical steps, including single-stage transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and internal fixation, are explained. Moreover, perioperative care and postoperative rehabilitation are also addressed. Taken together, this clinical algorithm presents a practical guide that has yielded substantially satisfactory outcomes in the past decades, which can also be introduced for large-scale application to manage human BS, especially in endemic regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61840DOI Listing
May 2021

Protocol for constructing a versatile tiling light sheet microscope for imaging cleared tissues.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 19;2(2):100546. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Structural Biology of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310024, China.

Here, we describe a protocol to construct, calibrate, and operate a versatile tiling light sheet microscope for imaging cleared tissues. The microscope uses adjustable tiling light sheets to achieve higher spatial resolution and better optical sectioning ability than conventional light sheet microscopes and to image cleared tissues with the cellular to the subcellular spatial resolution. It is compatible with all tissue clearing methods and aligned semiautomatically through the phase modulation of the illumination light. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Chen et al. (2020).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164092PMC
June 2021

Risk Score for Predicting Dysphagia in Patients After Neurosurgery: A Prospective Observational Trial.

Front Neurol 2021 11;12:605687. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Nursing, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Acquired dysphagia is common in patients with tracheal intubation and neurological disease, leading to increased mortality. This study aimed to ascertain the risk factors and develop a prediction model for acquired dysphagia in patients after neurosurgery. A multicenter prospective observational study was performed on 293 patients who underwent neurosurgery. A standardized swallowing assessment was performed bedside within 24 h of extubation, and logistic regression analysis with a best subset selection strategy was performed to select predictors. A nomogram model was then established and verified. The incidence of acquired dysphagia in our study was 23.2% (68/293). Among the variables, days of neurointensive care unit (NICU) stay [odds ratio (OR), 1.433; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.141-1.882; = 0.005], tracheal intubation duration (OR, 1.021; CI, 1.001-1.062; = 0.175), use of a nasogastric feeding tube (OR, 9.131; CI, 1.364-62.289; = 0.021), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-II C score (OR, 1.709; CI, 1.421-2.148; < 0.001) were selected as risk predictors for dysphagia and included in the nomogram model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.980 (CI, 0.965-0.996) in the training set and 0.971 (0.937-1) in the validation set, with Brier scores of 0.045 and 0.056, respectively. Patients who stay longer in the NICU, have a longer duration of tracheal intubation, require a nasogastric feeding tube, and have higher APACHE-II C scores after neurosurgery are likely to develop dysphagia. This developed model is a convenient and efficient tool for predicting the development of dysphagia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.605687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144441PMC
May 2021

Metal Cluster-Based Electrochemical Biosensing System for Detecting Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

ACS Sens 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biology, Faculty of Environment and Life Science, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

N-cadherin serves as an important oncobiomarker of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression, which identifies invasion and metastasis of malignant tumor cells. Although many efforts have been devoted to quantitative detection of N-cadherin, efforts to analyzing the protein of interest at intact cellular levels are scarce. Herein, a metal cluster-based electrochemical biosensing system is developed to determine the expressing levels of N-cadherin during the EMT process of tumor cells. To be specific, a peptide with a unique sequence and function is designed as a reductant and an anchor to synthesize metal clusters in a precise manner. Consequently, peptide-modified metal clusters possess N-cadherin-targeting, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties. Especially, the redox-active metal clusters function as both an electron-transfer mediator and an electronic conductor for enhanced electrochemical sensing. These favorable features enable them as a rapid, sensitive, and reliable whole-cell biosensor, which integrates the fluorescence and electrochemical signals. This cytosensor can accurately quantify the expression levels of N-cadherin on at least 5000 tumor cells. Further, the current signals of model cancer cells gradually increase with EMT progression, indicating tumor cell-type evolution. Our study represents the advanced bioprobe and analytical methods for accurate quantitation of a biomarker to identify tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c00339DOI Listing
May 2021

Modeling and Balancing for Disassembly Lines Considering Workers With Different Efficiencies.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 May 25;PP. Epub 2021 May 25.

To achieve sustainable manufacturing of large-scale end-of-life products, disassembly for recycling and remanufacturing has been widely adopted by industries. Disassembly line balancing becomes an important and challenging issue. The disassembly efficiencies of workers are different in the actual disassembly line due to some factors, including disassembly environment, skill level, work enthusiasm, etc. However, efficiency differences are often ignored in previous studies, which ultimately lead to unbalanced workloads among stations. Therefore, this article establishes a disassembly line balancing model that considers workers with different efficiencies and introduces the bucket brigade model into the disassembly line. Its optimization objectives include workload smoothness, cost of workers, disassembly risk, and disassembly demand. To obtain high-quality solutions, a discrete flower pollination algorithm based on problem characteristics is proposed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by comparing it with 11 algorithms. Finally, the proposed model and algorithm are applied to an actual television disassembly case considering workers with different efficiencies, and provide decision makers with multiple disassembly schemes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3070122DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of manganese on microglia M1/M2 polarization and SIRT1-mediated transcription of STAT3-dependent genes in mouse.

Environ Toxicol 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Public Health, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China.

Overexposure to manganese (Mn) can lead to neurological diseases, characterized by behavioral and motor impairments. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial M1 and M2 phenotypes play pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively, in response to microenvironmental disturbances. Silent information regulator (SIRT1) has been demonstrated to play an important role in the neuroinflammatory response by deacetylating various transcription factors, such as proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In addition, PGC-1α and STAT3 have been implicated in microglial polarization and inflammatory response. In this study, Mn exposure (50, 100, 200 μmol/kg) induced neuroinflammatory injury and interfered with microglial M1/M2 polarization in mice, as indicated by the upregulated expression of M1 polarization marker mRNA (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS), whereas changes in M2 polarization markers (IL-4, TGF-β, and Arg1) varied, with some increasing and some decreasing, in response to increasing Mn doses, which was consistent with the flow cytometry results used to detect the percentages of each microglial type. We found that Mn could downregulate SIRT1 expression and activate NF-κB signaling. Following mice in the 200 μmol/kg Mn treatment, STAT3 and PGC-1α levels in the nuclear fraction both significantly decreased, and the interaction between the proteins decreased, affecting the transcription of STAT3-mediated genes. These findings provide new insights regarding the role played by Mn neurotoxicity in the suppression of neuroinflammation through the regulation of microglial polarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23294DOI Listing
May 2021

FMR1/circCHAF1A/miR-211-5p/HOXC8 feedback loop regulates proliferation and tumorigenesis via MDM2-dependent p53 signaling in GSCs.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 20;40(24):4094-4110. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Glioma is the most common and fatal primary malignant brain tumor. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) may be an important factor in glioma cell proliferation, invasion, chemoradiotherapy tolerance, and recurrence. Therefore, discovering novel GSCs related circular RNAs (circRNAs) may finds out a prospective target for the treatment of glioma. A novel circRNA-CHAF1A (circCHAF1A) was first found in our study. CircCHAF1A was overexpressed in glioma and related to the low survival rate. Functionally, it was found that no matter in vitro or in vivo, circCHAF1A can facilitate the proliferation and tumorigenesis of TP53wt GSCs. Mechanistically, circCHAF1A upregulated transcription factor HOXC8 expression in GSCs through miR-211-5p sponging. Then, HOXC8 can transcriptionally upregulate MDM2 expression and inhibited the antitumor effect of p53. Furtherly, the RNA binding protein FMR1 can bind to and promoted the expression of circCHAF1A via maintaining its stability, while HOXC8 also transcribed the FMR1 expression to form a feedback loop, which may be involved in the malignant transformation of glioma. The novel feedback loop among FMR1, circCHAF1A, miR-211-5p, and HOXC8 in GSCs can facilitate the proliferation and tumorigenesis of glioma and GSCs. It also provided a helpful biomarker for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of glioma and may be applied to molecular targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01833-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Kupffer cell receptor CLEC4F is important for the destruction of desialylated platelets in mice.

Cell Death Differ 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, NHC Key Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, China.

The liver has recently been identified as a major organ for destruction of desialylated platelets. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Kupffer cells, which are professional phagocytic cells in the liver, comprise the largest population of resident tissue macrophages in the body. Kupffer cells express a C-type lectin receptor, CLEC4F, that recognizes desialylated glycans with an unclear in vivo role in mediating platelet destruction. In this study, we generated a CLEC4F-deficient mouse model (Clec4f) and found that CLEC4F was specifically expressed by Kupffer cells. Using the Clec4f mice and a newly generated platelet-specific reporter mouse line, we revealed a critical role for CLEC4F on Kupffer cells in mediating destruction of desialylated platelets in the liver in vivo. Platelet clearance experiments and ultrastructural analysis revealed that desialylated platelets were phagocytized predominantly by Kupffer cells in a CLEC4F-dependent manner in mice. Collectively, these findings identify CLEC4F as a Kupffer cell receptor important for the destruction of desialylated platelets induced by bacteria-derived neuraminidases, which provide new insights into the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in disease conditions such as sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00797-wDOI Listing
May 2021

High-Quality CoFeP Nanocrystal/N, P Dual-Doped Carbon Composite as a Novel Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zn-Air Battery.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 10;13(19):22282-22291. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, P. R. China.

A novel composite catalyst ([email protected]) was constructed by high-quality CoFeP nanoparticles embedded in a N, P dual-doped carbon matrix. These CoFeP nanoparticles are rich in active sites of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at surfaces and provide metallic conductivity in their bulk phases. The N, P dual-doped carbon matrix provided abundant active sites of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and formed a conductive network substrate. The ideal composite structure endowed [email protected] with highly efficient bifunctional performance for catalyzing both OER and ORR, accordingly making [email protected] an ideal catalyst for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The liquid Zn-air battery of [email protected] has achieved a large power density of 143.5 mW/cm and can be charged and discharged stably for 200 h (1200 cycles). The solid-state Zn-air battery of [email protected] has achieved a power density of 72.6 mW/cm and can stably run for 20 h. This work has deepened the understanding of synergistic catalysis and paved one way for the development of high-performance bifunctional catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00484DOI Listing
May 2021

Transferrin receptor 1 ablation in satellite cells impedes skeletal muscle regeneration through activation of ferroptosis.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 6;12(3):746-768. Epub 2021 May 6.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Satellite cells (SCs) are critical to skeletal muscle regeneration. Inactivation of SCs is linked to skeletal muscle loss. Transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) is associated with muscular dysfunction as muscle-specific deletion of Tfr1 results in growth retardation, metabolic disorder, and lethality, shedding light on the importance of Tfr1 in muscle physiology. However, its physiological function regarding skeletal muscle ageing and regeneration remains unexplored.

Methods: RNA sequencing is applied to skeletal muscles of different ages to identify Tfr1 associated to skeletal muscle ageing. Mice with conditional SC ablation of Tfr1 were generated. Between Tfr1 and Tfr1 (n = 6-8 mice per group), cardiotoxin was intramuscularly injected, and transverse abdominal muscle was dissected, weighted, and cryosectioned, followed by immunostaining, haematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson staining. These phenotypical analyses were followed with functional analysis such as flow cytometry, tread mill, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscopy to identify pathological pathways that contribute to regeneration defects.

Results: By comparing gene expression between young (2 weeks old, n = 3) and aged (80 weeks old, n = 3) mice among four types of muscles, we identified that Tfr1 expression is declined in muscles of aged mice (~80% reduction, P < 0.005), so as to its protein level in SCs of aged mice. From in vivo and ex vivo experiments, Tfr1 deletion in SCs results in an irreversible depletion of SCs (~60% reduction, P < 0.005) and cell-autonomous defect in SC proliferation and differentiation, leading to skeletal muscle regeneration impairment, followed by labile iron accumulation, lipogenesis, and decreased Gpx4 and Nrf2 protein levels leading to reactive oxygen species scavenger defects. These abnormal phenomena including iron accumulation, activation of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, and lipid peroxidation are orchestrated with the occurrence of ferroptosis in skeletal muscle. Ferroptosis further exacerbates SC proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration. Ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor, could not rescue ferroptosis. However, intramuscular administration of lentivirus-expressing Tfr1 could partially reduce labile iron accumulation, decrease lipogenesis, and promote skeletal muscle regeneration. Most importantly, declined Tfr1 but increased Slc39a14 protein level on cellular membrane contributes to labile iron accumulation in skeletal muscle of aged rodents (~80 weeks old), leading to activation of ferroptosis in aged skeletal muscle. This is inhibited by ferrostatin-1 to improve running time (P = 0.0257) and distance (P = 0.0248).

Conclusions: Satellite cell-specific deletion of Tfr1 impairs skeletal muscle regeneration with activation of ferroptosis. This phenomenon is recapitulated in skeletal muscle of aged rodents and human sarcopenia. Our study provides mechanistic information for developing novel therapeutic strategies against muscular ageing and diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200440PMC
June 2021

Fe(III)-complex mediated bacterial cell surface immobilization of eGFP and enzymes.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(36):4460-4463

Lehrstuhl für Biotechnologie, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 3, Aachen 52074, Germany. and DWI - Leibniz Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Forckenbeckstraße 50, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

We report a facile and reversible method to immobilize a broad range of His6-tagged proteins on the E. coli cell surface through Fe(iii)-metal complexes. A His6-tagged eGFP and four His6-tagged enzymes were successfully immobilized on the cell surface. Additionally, a hydrogel sheath around E. coli cells was generated by immobilized His6-tagged HRP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01575cDOI Listing
May 2021

Efficient Dual-Band White-Light Emission with High Color Rendering from Zero-Dimensional Organic Copper Iodide.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4;13(19):22749-22756. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China.

Broad-band white-light emissions from organic-inorganic lead halide hybrids have attracted considerable attention in energy-saving solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. However, the toxicity of lead in these hybrids hinders their commercial prospects, and the low photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) cannot meet the requirements for efficient lighting. Here, we report a highly efficient dual-band white-light emission from organic copper iodide, (CHN)CuI, which exhibits a high PLQY of 54.3% and excellent air stability. The single-crystalline (CHN)CuI possesses a unique zero-dimensional (0D) structure, in which the isolated [CuI] dimers are periodically embedded in the wide band gap organic framework of CHN. This perfect 0D structure can cause significant quantum confinement and strong electron-phonon coupling, which contributes to efficient emissions from self-trapped excitons (STEs). Photophysical studies revealed the presence of two self-trapped emitting states in [CuI] dimers, whose populations are highly sensitive to the temperature that governs the molecular environment for [CuI] dimers and the thermal activation energy of STEs. An ultraviolet (UV) excited white light-emitting diode fabricated using this single-phase white-light emitter exhibits a high color rendering index (CRI) of 78. The new material provides a promising emitter, having a high PLQY and a high CRI simultaneously, for SSL and display applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03881DOI Listing
May 2021

Gold Cluster Capped with a BCL-2 Antagonistic Peptide Exerts Synergistic Antitumor Activity in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4;13(18):21108-21118. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry and Biology, Faculty of Environment and Life Science, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is still incurable by conventional chemotherapy due to the resistance to apoptosis. We have previously found that a peptide-capped gold cluster (AuSv) can target on the aberrant oxidative stress in CLL cells to specially inhibit thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity, resulting in significant apoptosis. However, the required doses of the gold cluster for inducing apoptosis are high, restricting its potential for further applications. Notably, the most recent studies suggested that CLL cells overexpressed antiapoptotic BCL-2 protein to prevent chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, indicating that BCL-2 could be a promising target for CLL therapy. Regrettably, the nonmitochondrial-targeted AuSv has little effect on BCL-2. In this study, we successfully screened a modified BADBH3 peptide (B1P) that could antagonize BCL-2 protein in CLL cells. We found that B1P could effectively sensitize MEC-1 cells to a subliminal dose of AuSv. To simplify the treatment regimen, we directly fabricated a gold cluster capped with the B1P peptides by one-step synthesis to integrate the BCL-2 antagonistic activity into the gold the cluster, named BGC. We already found that low doses of BGC could significantly induce more apoptosis in MEC-1 cells than equivalent doses of the AuSv cluster or B1P peptide alone. Mechanistically, in addition to the inherent inhibitory effect of gold clusters on TrxR activity, BGC could bind to BCL-2 on mitochondria and activate the BCL-2 family-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis cascade more effectively. These results demonstrated that antagonizing the overexpressed BCL-2 in CLL cells, together with inhibiting TrxR simultaneously by a single gold cluster, is a promising strategy for the treatment of CLL cells. This study will provide a paradigm and reference for the development of functionalized gold clusters with rationally designed peptides, and opens up a new opportunity for the treatment of CLL in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05550DOI Listing
May 2021

High serum superoxide dismutase activity improves radiation-related quality of life in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2021 26;76:e2226. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 453000, P.R. China.

Objectives: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volume-modulated arc therapy have become the main treatments for esophageal carcinoma; however, side effects caused by radiotherapy greatly impact the quality of life in these patients. This study aimed to explore the impact of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels on the prognosis of patients with ESCC undergoing radiotherapy.

Methods: Patients aged between 18 and 80 years with lower-middle ESCC who underwent radiotherapy were eligible for this assessment. Adverse events, responses, treatment outcomes, and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Between 2012 and 2014, 195 patients were enrolled, of which 65 were assigned to the low- and high-SOD groups based on their serum SOD values.

Results: The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, except for the T staging. Adverse events in the low-SOD group were significantly higher than those in the high-SOD group (radiation esophagitis, p=0.007; radiation pneumonitis, p=0.032; leukopenia, p=0.023; thrombocytopenia, p=0.037; anemia, p=0.041). There were no significant differences in response, treatment outcomes, or OS.

Conclusion: In conclusion, high serum SOD activity improved post-radiotherapy quality of life but did not impact the prognosis of patients with ESCC. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report that serum SOD activity is associated with radiation-induced toxicity and moderately increased radiotherapeutic response in patients with ESCC undergoing radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2021/e2226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050599PMC
May 2021

Lanthanide Metal-Organic Framework-Based Fluorescent Sensor Arrays to Discriminate and Quantify Ingredients of Natural Medicine.

Langmuir 2021 05 21;37(17):5321-5328. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine, The School of Basic Medical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211198, China.

The discrimination and quantification of the ingredients from natural medicines are a challenging issue due to their complicated and various structures. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great promise in sensing applications. Here, we report a fluorescent sensor array for rapid identification of some natural compounds using a sensor array composed of four kinds of lanthanide (Eu and Tb) fluorescent MOFs (Ln-MOFs), which have diversified fluorescent responses to 26 active/toxic compounds including 12 saponins, 7 flavonoids, 3 stilbenes, and 4 anthraquinones. The fluorescence of the Ln-MOFs after reaction with the compounds was summarized as datasets and processed by principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods. The corresponding responses of the 4 types of compounds are well separated on 2D/3D PCA score plots and HCA dendrograms. We have also tested typical blind samples by concentration-dependent PCA, and an accuracy of 100% was obtained. In addition, the response mechanisms of the Ln-MOFs to the compounds were also studied. Compared with traditional methods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the developed fluorescent sensor array provides a more efficient and economic strategy to discriminate various active/toxic ingredients in natural medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00412DOI Listing
May 2021

Generalized spatial coherence reconstruction for photoacoustic computed tomography.

J Biomed Opt 2021 Apr;26(4)

UCLA Samueli School of Engineering, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, United States.

Significance: Coherence, a fundamental property of waves and fields, plays a key role in photoacoustic image reconstruction. Previously, techniques such as short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) and filtered delay, multiply, and sum (FDMAS) have utilized spatial coherence to improve the reconstructed resolution and contrast with respect to delay-and-sum (DAS). While SLSC uses spatial coherence directly as the imaging contrast, FDMAS employs spatial coherence implicitly. Despite being more robust against noise, both techniques have their own drawbacks: SLSC does not preserve a relative signal magnitude, and FDMAS shows a reduced contrast-to-noise ratio.

Aim: To overcome these limitations, our aim is to develop a beamforming algorithm-generalized spatial coherence (GSC)-that unifies SLSC and FDMAS into a single equation and outperforms both beamformers.

Approach: We demonstrated the application of GSC in photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) through simulation and experiments and compared it to previous beamformers: DAS, FDMAS, and SLSC.

Results: GSC outperforms the imaging metrics of previous state-of-the-art coherence-based beamformers in both simulation and experiments.

Conclusions: GSC is an innovative reconstruction algorithm for PACT, which combines the strengths of FDMAS and SLSC expanding PACT's applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.26.4.046002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056071PMC
April 2021

Resetting Weight Vectors in MOEA/D for Multiobjective Optimization Problems With Discontinuous Pareto Front.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Apr 20;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

When a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) is applied to solve problems with discontinuous Pareto front (PF), a set of evenly distributed weight vectors may lead to many solutions assembling in boundaries of the discontinuous PF. To overcome this limitation, this article proposes a mechanism of resetting weight vectors (RWVs) for MOEA/D. When the RWV mechanism is triggered, a classic data clustering algorithm DBSCAN is used to categorize current solutions into several parts. A classic statistical method called principal component analysis (PCA) is used to determine the ideal number of solutions in each part of PF. Thereafter, PCA is used again for each part of PF separately and virtual targeted solutions are generated by linear interpolation methods. Then, the new weight vectors are reset according to the interrelationship between the optimal solutions and the weight vectors under the Tchebycheff decomposition framework. Finally, taking advantage of the current obtained solutions, the new solutions in the decision space are updated via a linear interpolation method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed MOEA/D-RWV can achieve good results for bi-objective and tri-objective optimization problems with discontinuous PF. In addition, the test on a recently proposed MaF benchmark suite demonstrates that MOEA/D-RWV also works for some problems with other complicated characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3062949DOI Listing
April 2021

Ultraviolet irradiation-responsive dynamic ultralong organic phosphorescence in polymeric systems.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 16;12(1):2297. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) has drawn extensive attention in recent years. Efficient stimulus-responsive phosphorescent organic materials are attractive, but are extremely rare because of unclear design principles and intrinsically spin-forbidden intersystem crossing. Herein, we present a feasible and facile strategy to achieve ultraviolet irradiation-responsive ultralong RTP (IRRTP) of some simple organic phosphors by doping into amorphous poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix. In addition to the observed green and yellow afterglow emission with distinct irradiation-enhanced phosphorescence, the phosphorescence lifetime can be tuned by varying the irradiation period of 254 nm light. Significantly, the dynamic phosphorescence lifetime could be increased 14.3 folds from 58.03 ms to 828.81 ms in one of the obtained hybrid films after irradiation for 45 min under ambient conditions. As such, the application in polychromatic screen printing and multilevel information encryption is demonstrated. The extraordinary IRRTP in the amorphous state endows these systems with a highly promising potential for smart flexible luminescent materials and sensors with dynamically controlled phosphorescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22609-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052444PMC
April 2021

Wavelength beam-combining of terahertz quantum-cascade laser arrays.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1864-1867

Wavelength beam-combining of four terahertz (THz) distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) is demonstrated using low-cost THz components that include a lens carved out of a plastic ball and a mechanically fabricated blazed grating. Single-lobed beams from predominantly single-mode QCLs radiating peak power in the range of 50-170 are overlapped in the far field at frequencies ranging from 3.31-3.54. Collinear propagation with a maximum angular deviation of 0.3 is realized for the four beams. The total power efficiency for the focused and beam-combined radiation is as high as 25. This result could pave the way for future commercialization of beam-combined monolithic THz QCL arrays for multi-spectral THz sensing and spectroscopy at standoff distances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.420398DOI Listing
April 2021

Ultrafast light field tomography for snapshot transient and non-line-of-sight imaging.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2179. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Cameras with extreme speeds are enabling technologies in both fundamental and applied sciences. However, existing ultrafast cameras are incapable of coping with extended three-dimensional scenes and fall short for non-line-of-sight imaging, which requires a long sequence of time-resolved two-dimensional data. Current non-line-of-sight imagers, therefore, need to perform extensive scanning in the spatial and/or temporal dimension, restricting their use in imaging only static or slowly moving objects. To address these long-standing challenges, we present here ultrafast light field tomography (LIFT), a transient imaging strategy that offers a temporal sequence of over 1000 and enables highly efficient light field acquisition, allowing snapshot acquisition of the complete four-dimensional space and time. With LIFT, we demonstrated three-dimensional imaging of light in flight phenomena with a <10 picoseconds resolution and non-line-of-sight imaging at a 30 Hz video-rate. Furthermore, we showed how LIFT can benefit from deep learning for an improved and accelerated image formation. LIFT may facilitate broad adoption of time-resolved methods in various disciplines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22461-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041853PMC
April 2021

Supercapsular percutaneously-assisted total hip (SuperPath) versus mini-incision posterolateral total hip arthroplasty for hip osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):392

Department of Orthopaedics, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Supercapsular percutaneously-assisted total hip (SuperPath) arthroplasty has been proposed to be minimally invasive and tissue sparing, with possible superior postoperative outcomes compared with conventional approaches for total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, previous studies have underlined the shortcomings of conventional THA approaches, including higher dislocation, more blood loss, longer incisions, more tissue damage, and delayed postoperative rehabilitation. In the present study, we compared the short-term outcomes of unilateral THA with those of SuperPath and the mini-incision posterolateral approach (PLA) for hip osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: Patients with unilateral hip OA were prospectively recruited and underwent either SuperPath (SuperPath group) or mini-incision PLA THA (PLA group). Perioperative status [operative time, incision length, intraoperative blood loss, soft tissue damage, and length of hospital stay (LOS)], and postoperative function outcomes, including range of motion (ROM), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and Harris Hip Score (HHS), were evaluated and compared between the groups at scheduled time points within 12 months postoperatively.

Results: Compared with the PLA group, the SuperPath group yielded a significantly shorter incision length (7.83 12.45 cm, P<0.001), longer operative time (102.72 66.22 min, P<0.001), more blood loss (1,007.38 844.55 mL, P=0.005), and more soft tissue damage (creatine kinase: 1,056.05 821.50 U/L, P=0.006) on postoperative day 3. The SuperPath group also showed deficient acetabular cup positioning (abduction angle: 36.94° 42.66°, P=0.004) and a greater decrease in ROM (flexion: 107.66° 114.44°, P=0.004; 109.83° 116.11°, P=0.002; 111.66° 118.88°, P<0.001) on postoperative days 1, 3, and 14, as well as severe early-term pain symptoms (pain VAS on postoperative day 3: 7.05 6.55, P=0.041). However, the LOS, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (within 2 weeks postoperatively), and HHS were comparable between the groups during the 12 months postoperatively.

Conclusions: SuperPath may be a promising, minimally invasive technique for the treatment of OA in the future. Further investigation is necessary to evidence the possible superiority of SuperPath over other conventional mini-incision THA approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-1793aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033341PMC
March 2021

Association of apolipoproteins A1 and B with type 2 diabetes and fasting blood glucose: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Apr 1;21(1):59. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Scientific Education Section, Affiliated Maternity & Child Health Care Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 226018, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Apolipoprotein (Apo) may be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), however, little is known whether or not serum apolipoproteins are correlated with fasting blood glucose (FBG) and the prevalence of T2D in Chinese populations. In this study, we examined the association of serum ApoA1, ApoB, and the ratio of ApoB/ApoA1 (ApoB/A1 ratio) with T2D and FBG level, and compared apolipoprotein indicators in predicting T2D in Chinese adults.

Methods: A total of 1027 subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The association of ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoB/A1 ratio with T2D prevalence was determined using logistic regression models. Multivariate-analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed for comparisons of the mean difference in FBG level.

Results: We found that ApoB and ApoB/A1 ratio were positively associated with T2D prevalence and FBG, while inverse association was noted between ApoA1 and T2D prevalence as well as FBG. Stratified analyses for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption showed no significant difference for the association of ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoB/A1 ratio with the prevalence of T2D among subgroups (all p-interactions> 0.05). Nonetheless, ApoA1 poorly performed in predicting T2D as it provided an AUC value of 0.310 that was significantly lower than those observed for ApoB (AUC value: 0.631) and ApoB/A1 ratio (AUC value: 0.685). Finally, path analyses indicated that the association between ApoB and T2D was mediated by BMI.

Conclusions: This study reveals the association of serum ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoB/A1 ratio with T2D and FBG in Chinese adults, suggesting that ApoB and ApoB/A1 ratio may be early indicators for predicting T2D. Prospective investigation in large cohort is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00726-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017773PMC
April 2021

Systematic review and meta-analysis of transgluteal versus prone approach to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for patients with distal ureteral stones.

Asian J Surg 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

To explore the effectiveness of transgluteal approach during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for patients with distal ureteral stones compared to the prone approach. A systematic literature search was carried out by two reviewers independently on the basis of three electronic databases up to Aug. 2020. Three randomized controlled trials (RCT) and one cohort studies (CS), with a total of 516 patients, comparing transgluteal approach with prone approach during ESWL for distal ureteral stones were included. The methodological quality of RCT was evaluated by Cochrane collaboration's tools, and the quality of CS and CCS was evaluated by modified Newcatle-Ottawa scale. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and odds ratio (OR) was respectively used to describe results of continuous and dichotomous variables. Pooled data showed that transgluteal approach could significantly improve the rate of stone free after the first treatment [OR = 3.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.19-4.63, p < 0.00001] and the rate of overall stone free (OR = 4.03, 95% CI 2.43-6.69, p < 0.00001). In addition, compared with the prone approach, the transgluteal one could also significantly reduce the rate of ureteroscopy (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.12-0.36, p < 0.00001). What's more, complications were rarely reported, which demonstrated a similar safety for two approaches. Our study suggested that, during ESWL for patients with distal ureteral stones, transgluteal approach was a safe and more effective choice than the prone position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.02.021DOI Listing
March 2021

Regulating Work Function of [CaAlO]:4e Electrides Via Changing Solvated Electron Characters.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 25;12(13):3274-3280. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China.

Since electrides behave as electron donors in catalytic reactions and device substrates due to the anionic electrons localized in periodic interstitial spaces, their work functions (Φ) could be used as key indicators in describing the high electron-donating power. Taking the [CaAlO]:4e electride as an example, we here propose a new computational scheme of Φ and, further, characterize Φ of the bulk derivative structures of the electride for clarifying the relationship between structural characteristics and Φ. Results indicate that the external strain hardly affects Φ, but the interior heteroatom-doping and distortion bring about significant changes. All these unique variations of the bulk Φ are governed by the distribution and solvation character of anionic electrons in the cage conduction band states. The mechanism of regulating Φ revealed in this work may play a role in the rational design of electride-based catalysts and devices with a superior performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00180DOI Listing
April 2021

Combined transcriptome and proteome analyses reveal differences in the longissimus dorsi muscle between Kazakh cattle and Xinjiang brown cattle.

Anim Biosci 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 832000, China.

Objective: With the rapid development of proteomics sequencing and RNA sequencing technology, multi-omics analysis has become a current research hotspot. Our previous study indicated that Xinjiang brown cattle have better meat quality than Kazakh cattle. In this study, Xinjiang brown cattle and Kazakh cattle were used as the research objects.

Methods: Proteome sequencing and RNA sequencing technology were used to analyze the proteome and transcriptome of the longissimus dorsi muscle of the two breeds of adult steers (n=3).

Results: In this project, 22677 transcripts and 1874 proteins were identified through quantitative analysis of the transcriptome and proteome. By comparing the identified transcriptome and proteome, we found that 1737 genes were identified at both the transcriptome and proteome levels. The results of the study revealed 12 differentially expressed genes and proteins: TNNI1, CRYAB, CSRP3, PTER, MYBPH, GSTM3, MYL3, NID2, DPYSL2, GOT1, REEP5 and ASPA. We performed functional enrichment of these differentially expressed genes and proteins. The KEGG results showed that these differentially expressed genes and proteins are enriched in the fatty acid degradation and histidine metabolism signaling pathways. We performed PRM verification of the differentially expressed proteins, and the PRM results were consistent with the sequencing results.

Conclusion: Our study provided and identified the differentially expressed genes and proteins. In addition, identifying functional genes and proteins with important breeding value will provide genetic resources and technical support for the breeding and industrialization of new genetically modified beef cattle breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0751DOI Listing
February 2021

Variability of Lipids in Human Milk.

Metabolites 2021 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Singapore Lipidomics Incubator, Life Sciences Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119077, Singapore.

Lipids in breastmilk play a critical role in infant growth and development. However, few studies have investigated sources of variability of both high- and low-abundant milk lipids. The objective of our study was to investigate individual and morning-evening differences in the human milk lipidome. In this study, a modified two-phase method (MTBE: Methanol 7:2) was validated for the extraction of lipids from human breastmilk. This method was then applied to samples from a group of 20 healthy women to measure inter- and intra-individual (morning versus evening) variability of the breastmilk lipidome. We report here the levels of 237 lipid species from 13 sub-classes using reversed-phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RP-LCMS) and direct-infusion mass spectrometry (DI-MS). About 85% of lipid species showed stable inter-individual differences across time points. Half of lipid species showed higher concentrations in the evening compared with the morning, with phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) exhibiting the largest changes. In morning and evening samples, the biological variation was greater for diacylglycerols (DAGs) and TAGs compared with phospholipids and sphingolipids, and the variation in DAGs and TAGs was greater in evening samples compared with morning samples. These results demonstrate that variation in the milk lipidome is strongly influenced by individual differences and time of day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11020104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916976PMC
February 2021

Programmable Morphology Evolution of Rod-Coil-Rod Block Copolymer Assemblies Induced by Variation of Chain Ordering.

Langmuir 2021 Mar 4;37(10):3148-3157. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, Frontiers Science Center for Materiobiology and Dynamic Chemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Morphology transition of block copolymer assemblies in response to external stimuli has attracted considerable attention. However, our knowledge about the mechanism of such a transition is still limited, especially for rod-coil block copolymers. Here, we report a programmable morphology evolution of assemblies induced by variation of chain ordering for rod-coil-rod triblock copolymers. A sequence of morphology transition from ellipsoids to disks, bowls, and vesicles is observed by increasing the solution temperature. At high temperatures, the mobility of the rod chain increases and the rigidity of the rod chain decreases. This gives rise to an ellipsoid-to-vesicle morphology transition. Dissipative particle dynamics theoretical simulations were performed to reveal the mechanism of this morphology transition process. It was found that the increase of rod chain mobility and the decrease of rod chain rigidity induce a decrease of chain ordering of rod blocks as temperature increases, which results in an ellipsoid-to-vesicle morphology transition. The gained information can guide the construction of nanoassemblies based on the rod-coil block copolymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c03644DOI Listing
March 2021

LICAR: An Application for Isotopic Correction of Targeted Lipidomic Data Acquired with Class-Based Chromatographic Separations Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring.

Anal Chem 2021 02 3;93(6):3163-3171. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive #03-03, 117456 Singapore.

Lipidomics is developing as an important area in biomedical and clinical research. Reliable quantification of lipid species is required for clinical translation of lipidomic studies. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC), and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are commonly used techniques in lipidomics and provide class-based separation of lipids. While co-elution of lipid species and their internal standards is an advantage for accurate quantification, it leads to isotopic overlap between species of the same lipid class. In shotgun lipidomics, isotopic correction is typically done based on elemental formulas of precursor ions. In multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analyses, however, this approach should not be used, as the overall contribution of heavy isotopes to the MRM transitions' intensities depends on their location in the molecule with respect to the fragmentation pattern. We present an algorithm, provided in the R programming language, for isotopic correction in class-based separation using MRM, extracting relevant structural information from MRM transitions to apply adequate isotopic correction factors. Using standards, we show that our algorithm accurately estimates the isotopic contribution of isotopologues to MRM transitions' measured intensities. Using human plasma as an example, we demonstrate the necessity of adequate isotopic correction for accurate quantitation of lipids measured by MRM with class-based chromatographic separation. We show that over a third of the measured phosphatidylcholine species had their intensity corrected by more than 10%. This isotopic correction algorithm and R-implemented application enable a more accurate quantification of lipids in class-based separation-MRM, a prerequisite for successful translation of lipidomic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04565DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical Significance of has_circ_0055625 in Colon Cancer Patients Undergoing FOLFOX Chemotherapy Treatment.

Int J Gen Med 2021 22;14:221-227. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Pathology, Xiamen Haicang Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian, 361000, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Colon cancer is a leading global cancer-related cause of morbidity and mortality. The oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and leucovorin (FOLFOX) regimen is a standard chemotherapeutic approach used to treat colon cancer. However, chemoresistant tumor cells typically lead to the emergence of recurrent FOLFOX-resistant tumors after initial treatment. As such, it is vital that novel approaches to identifying and eliminating such chemoresistant tumors be developed in an effort to improve patient chemotherapy outcomes.

Materials And Methods: In total, 100 samples of serum were obtained between April 2014 and April 2019 from patients who had been pathologically diagnosed with colon cancer from the Xiamen Haicang Hospital, and after these patients received FOLFOX chemotherapy treatment, serum samples were collected again. The expression of has_circ_0055625 in these serum samples was assessed via qPCR. Additionally, 5-FU IC50 values were detected via CCK-8 assay.

Results: We found has_circ_0055625 to be significantly upregulated in colon cancer patient serum. After FOLFOX treatment, chemotherapy-resistance was associated with the upregulation of has_circ_0055625.

Conclusion: In summary, these data may provide a foundation for future studies of chemotherapeutic resistance in patients undergoing FOLFOX treatment, potentially guiding treatment adjustment strategies. However, further work will be necessary to expand upon these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S290440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837584PMC
January 2021