Publications by authors named "Lian Yang"

124 Publications

Diagnosis and follow-up MRI evaluation of tennis leg:New understanding of the pathogenesis and imaging.

Injury 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of patients with a clinical diagnosis of tennis leg and to explore the pathogenesis of tennis leg.

Methods: A retrospective review of 58 (45 men, 13 women; age range, 7-81 years; mean age, 46.7 years) patients with a clinical diagnosis of tennis leg at our hospital during a 64-month period (May 2014 through Sep 2019) was conducted. All patients underwent MRI scan. Follow-up MRI was performed on 4 patients. Images findings, including integrity of the myotendinous junction and tendon of the gastrocnemius and soleus, and presence of fluid collection were analyzed.

Results: MRI revealed fluid collection between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and soleus in 44 cases (72.1%). In 25 cases (41.0%), the collected fluid spread to around the medial border of fascia cruris. Fifty-five cases (90.2%) had edema or disruption of the gastrocnemius, with most cases (n = 55) showing edema or disruption of the medial head of the gastrocnemius at the myotendinous junction. Twenty-two (36.1%) cases had edema or disruption of the soleus, with most cases (n = 17) showing edema or disruption of the soleus at the myotendinous junction. Plantaris tendon disruption was observed in 7 cases (11.5%). A thick area of reparative tissue at the distal myotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius was observed in all 4 MRI patients followed up.

Conclusion: Abnormalities of the medial head of the gastrocnemius at the myotendinous junction and tendon appear to be more common than those of the plantaris tendon. Reparative tissue at the distal myotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius may be an important specific indication of chronic tennis leg injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2021.06.035DOI Listing
July 2021

Sepsis-related hospital admissions and ambient air pollution: a time series analysis in 6 Chinese cities.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 21;21(1):1182. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Sichuan Administration of TCM, Chengdu, 610016, China.

Background: Some prevalent but rarely studied causes of hospital admissions, such as sepsis is still unknown whether affected by air pollution.

Methods: We used time-series regression within generalized additive models to estimate the effect of air pollutant level on the sepsis-related hospital admissions, for the years 2017-18, using data from six cities in Sichuan, China. Potential effect modifications by age and sex were also explored. The effects of air pollutant on hospital stays for sepsis were also quantified.

Results: Positive associations between short-term exposure to NO and O and risk of sepsis-related hospital admissions and stays were found. Each 10 μg/m increase in short-term NO at lag 03 and O at lag 4 was associated with an increase of 2.76% (95% CI: 0.67, 4.84%) and 0.64% (95% CI: 0.14, 1.14%) hospital admissions, respectively. An increase of 0.72% (95% CI: 0.05, 1.40%) hospital stay was associated with 10 μg/m increase in O concentration at lag 4. Besides, the adverse effect of exposure to NO was more significant in males and population aged less than 14 years; while more significant in females and population aged 14 ~ 65 and over 65 years for exposure to O. These associations remained stable after the adjustment of other air pollutants.8.

Conclusion: Exposure to ambient NO and O may cause substantial sepsis hospitalizations, and hospital stays in Sichuan, China. These associations were different in subgroup by age and sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11220-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218442PMC
June 2021

Structures of fructan and galactan from Polygonatum cyrtonema and their utilization by probiotic bacteria.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Sep 19;267:118219. Epub 2021 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China. Electronic address:

Polygonatum cyrtonema is a known tonic herb in Chinese Materia Medica, extensively consumed in China, but the structure and activity of its polysaccharide components remain to be clarified. Herein, two new polysaccharides (a fructan and a galactan) were purified from the dried and the processed P. cyrtonema rhizome, respectively. Structural analysis suggested that the fructan consisted of a (2 → 6) linked β-d-Fruf residues backbone with an internal α-d-Glcp residue and two (2 → 1) linked β-d-Fruf residues branches, and that the galactan was a (1 → 4)-β-d-galactan branched with a single β-d-galactose at C-6 at about every nine residues in its main chain. The bioactive assay showed that the fructan and the galactan remarkably promoted growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains, indicating that they possess prebiotic activity. These findings may help expand the application of the polysaccharides from the tonic herb P. cyrtonema as functional ingredients in food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118219DOI Listing
September 2021

Characteristics of mental health implications and plasma metabolomics in patients recently recovered from COVID-19.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 05 21;11(1):307. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, NHC Key Laboratory of Pulmonary Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430022, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

This study aimed to explore the associations between cerebral white matter (WM) alterations, mental health status, and metabolism in recovered COVID-19 patients. We included 28 recovered COVID-19 patients and 27 healthy controls between April 2020 and June 2020. Demographic data, the mental health scores, diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) data, and plasma metabolomics were collected and compared between the two groups. Tract-based spatial statistics and graph theory approaches were used for DTI data analysis. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of the plasma was performed. Correlation analyses were performed between these characteristics. Recovered COVID-19 patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy, increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity values in widespread brain regions, and significantly lower global efficiency, longer shortest path length, and less nodal local efficiency in superior occipital gyrus (all, P < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). Our results also demonstrated significantly different plasma metabolic profiling in recovered COVID-19 patients even at 3 months after their hospital discharge, which was mainly related to purine pathways, amino acids, lipids, and amine metabolism. Certain regions with cerebral WM alterations in the recovered patients showed significant correlations with different metabolites and the mental health scores. We observed multiple alterations in both WM integrity and plasma metabolomics that may explain the deteriorated mental health of recovered COVID-19 patients. These findings may provide potential biomarkers for the mental health evaluation for the recovered COVID-19 patients and potential targets for novel therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01426-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138845PMC
May 2021

Radiomics Signature: A potential biomarker for the prediction of survival in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Med Sci 2021 30;18(11):2276-2284. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

To develop and validate radiomics nomograms for the pretreatment predictions of overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) in the patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with apatinib plus transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and to assess the incremental value of the clinical-radiomics nomograms for estimating individual OS and TTP. A total of 60 patients with advanced HCC (BCLC stage C) treated with apatinib plus TACE were divided into a training set (n=48) and a validation set (n=12). The predictors identified from the clinical variables and the radiomics signature constructed from the computed tomography images, such as ɑ-fetoprotein level (AFP), formfactor, the grey level co-occurrence matrix, the gray level size zone matrix, and the gray level run-length matrix, were used to build the clinical-radiomics nomograms and the radiomics nomograms for the prediction of OS and TTP. Apatinib plus TACE benefited the patients with advanced HCC, with a 579-day median OS and a 270-day median TTP. The nomograms were built with the radiomics signature and AFP, and achieved favorable prediction efficacy with acceptable calibration curves. Decision curve analyses demonstrated that the clinical-radiomics nomograms outperformed the radiomics nomograms for the predictions of OS and TTP. Apatinib plus TACE may improve OS and prolonged TTP in the patients with advanced HCC. The clinical-radiomics nomograms, a noninvasive pretreatment prediction tool that incorporate radiomics signature and AFP, demonstrated good prediction accuracy for OS and TTP in these patients. These results indicate that the clinical-radiomics nomograms may provide novel insight for precise personalized medicine approaches in the patients with advanced HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.55510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100633PMC
March 2021

Risk Compounds, Preclinical Toxicity Evaluation, and Potential Mechanisms of Chinese Materia Medica-Induced Cardiotoxicity.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:578796. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Chinese materia medica (CMM) has been applied for the prevention and treatment of diseases for thousands of years. However, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and other cardiac adverse reactions during CMM application were gradually reported. CMM-induced cardiotoxicity has aroused widespread attention. Our review aimed to summarize the risk compounds, preclinical toxicity evaluation, and potential mechanisms of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity. All relevant articles published on the PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases for the latest twenty years were searched and manually extracted. The risk substances of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity are relatively complex. A single CMM usually contains various risk compounds, and the same risk substance may exist in various CMM. The active and risk substances in CMM may be transformed into each other under different conditions, such as drug dosage, medication methods, and body status. Generally, the risk compounds of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity can be classified into alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, heavy metals, organic acids, toxic proteins, and peptides. Traditional evaluation methods of chemical drug-induced cardiotoxicity primarily include cardiac function monitoring, endomyocardial biopsy, myocardial zymogram, and biomarker determination. In the preclinical stage, CMM-induced cardiotoxicity should be systematically evaluated at the overall, tissue, cellular, and molecular levels, including cardiac function, histopathology, cytology, myocardial zymogram, and biomarkers. Thanks to the development of systematic biology, the higher specificity and sensitivity of biomarkers, such as genes, proteins, and metabolic small molecules, are gradually applied for evaluating CMM-induced cardiotoxicity. Previous studies on the mechanisms of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity focused on a single drug, monomer or components of CMM. The interaction among ion homeostasis (sodium, potassium, and calcium ions), oxidative damage, mitochondrial injury, apoptosis and autophagy, and metabolic disturbance is involved in CMM-induced cardiotoxicity. Clarification on the risk compounds, preclinical toxicity evaluation, and potential mechanisms of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity must be beneficial to guide new CMM development and post-marketed CMM reevaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.578796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044783PMC
March 2021

Compensatory Transition of Bile Acid Metabolism from Fecal Disposition of Secondary Bile Acids to Urinary Excretion of Primary Bile Acids Underlies Rifampicin-Induced Cholestasis in Beagle Dogs.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 22;4(2):1001-1013. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System, Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, No. 17 People's South Road, Chengdu 610041, China.

Drug induced cholestasis (DIC) is complexly associated with dysbiosis of the host-gut microbial cometabolism of bile acids (BAs). Murine animals are not suitable for transitional studies because the murine BA metabolism is quite different from human metabolism. In this work, the rifampicin (RFP) induced cholestasis was established in beagle dogs that have a humanlike BA profile to disclose how RFP affects the host-gut microbial cometabolism of BAs. The daily excretion of BA metabolites in urine and feces was extensively analyzed during cholestasis by quantitative BA profiling along the primary-secondary-tertiary axis. Oral midazolam clearance was also acquired to monitor the RFP-induced enterohepatic CYP3A activities because CYP3A is exclusively responsible for the tertiary oxidation of hydrophobic secondary BAs. RFP treatments caused a compensatory transition of the BA metabolism from the fecal disposition of secondary BAs to the urinary excretion of primary BAs in dogs, resulting in an infantile BA metabolism pattern recently disclosed in newborns. However, the tertiary BAs consistently constituted limitedly in the daily BA excretion, indicating that the detoxification role of the CYP3A catalyzed tertiary BA metabolism was not as strong as expected in this model. Multiple host-gut microbial factors might have contributed to the transition of the BA metabolism, such as inhibition of BA transporters, induction of liver-kidney interplaying detoxification mechanisms, and elimination of gut bacteria responsible for secondary BA production. Transitional studies involving more cholestatic drugs in preclinical animals with a humanlike BA profile and DIC patients may pave the way for understanding the complex mechanism of DIC in the era of metagenomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.1c00052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033783PMC
April 2021

Protective Efficacy of Inactivated Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Mice and Non-Human Primates.

Virol Sin 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused more than 96 million infections and over 2 million deaths worldwide so far. However, there is no approved vaccine available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the disease causative agent. Vaccine is the most effective approach to eradicate a pathogen. The tests of safety and efficacy in animals are pivotal for developing a vaccine and before the vaccine is applied to human populations. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated vaccine based on the whole viral particles in human ACE2 transgenic mouse and in non-human primates. Our data showed that the inactivated vaccine successfully induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice and non-human primates, and subsequently provided partial (in low dose) or full (in high dose) protection of challenge in the tested animals. In addition, passive serum transferred from vaccine-immunized mice could also provide full protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. These results warranted positive outcomes in future clinical trials in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-021-00376-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034048PMC
April 2021

Analysis of Mono-ADP-Ribosylation Levels in Human Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 12;13:2401-2409. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Pathology, Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China.

Background: Colorectal cancer remains a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality rates. In the search for the mechanisms of colorectal cancer occurrence and development, increasing attention has been focused on epigenetics. The overall level of Mono-ADP-ribosylation, an epigenetic, has not been investigated now. The aim of our study was to analysis of the overall level of mono-ADP-ribosylation in colorectal cancer.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the level of mono-ADP-ribosylation in colorectal cancer and normal colorectal adjacent tissue from 64 CRC patients. The data of patient demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics were acquired and analyzed.

Results: Mono-ADP-ribosylation was present in both colorectal adenocarcinoma and normal colorectal tissue. The overall level of mono-ADP-ribosylation in colorectal cancer was significantly higher than that in normal colorectal adjacent tissue. In the nucleus, the majority of samples in the high-level group were colorectal adenocarcinoma (55/64), but the opposite was true for normal colorectal tissues (7/32). In particular, increases in the level of mono-ADP-ribosylation in the cytoplasm of colorectal cancer cells was associated with a greater invasion depth of the tumor.

Conclusion: The increased level of mono-ADP-ribosylation in colorectal cancer enhances tumor invasion, which suggests that mono-ADP-ribosylation is involved in the development of colorectal cancer and may become a new direction to solve the problem of colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S303064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7965690PMC
March 2021

Tertiary Oxidation of Deoxycholate Is Predictive of CYP3A Activity in Dogs.

Drug Metab Dispos 2021 May 5;49(5):369-378. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System, Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China (W.Z., L.G., X.T., P.Z., Y.H., Q.W., K.L.); Chengdu Health-Balance Medical Technology Co., Ltd., Chengdu, China (X.L., L.Y., K.L.); WestChina-Frontier PharmaTech Co., Ltd., Chengdu, China (L.Y.); School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China (W.J.); and State Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Pharmacokinetics, Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, Tianjin, China (C.L.)

Deoxycholic acid (DCA, 3, 12-dihydroxy-5-cholan-24-oic acid) is the major circulating secondary bile acid, which is synthesized by gut flora in the lower gut and selectively oxidized by CYP3A into tertiary metabolites, including 1,3,12-trihydroxy-5-cholan-24-oic acid (DCA-1-ol) and 3,5,12-trihydroxy-5-cholan-24-oic acid (DCA-5-ol) in humans. Since DCA has the similar exogenous nature and disposition mechanisms as xenobiotics, this work aimed to investigate whether the tertiary oxidations of DCA are predictive of in vivo CYP3A activities in beagle dogs. In vitro metabolism of midazolam (MDZ) and DCA in recombinant canine CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B11, 2C21, 2C41, 2D15, 3A12, and 3A26 enzymes clarified that CYP3A12 was primarily responsible for either the oxidation elimination of MDZ or the regioselective oxidation metabolism of DCA into DCA-1-ol and DCA-5-ol in dog liver microsomes. Six male dogs completed the CYP3A intervention studies including phases of baseline, inhibition (ketoconazole treatments), recovery, and induction (rifampicin treatments). The oral MDZ clearance after a single dose was determined on the last day of the baseline, inhibition, and induction phases, and subjected to correlation analysis with the tertiary oxidation ratios of DCA detected in serum and urine samples. The results confirmed that the predosing serum ratios of DCA oxidation, DCA-5-ol/DCA, and DCA-1-ol/DCA were significantly and positively correlated both intraindividually and interindividually with oral MDZ clearance. It was therefore concluded that the tertiary oxidation of DCA is predictive of CYP3A activity in beagle dogs. Clinical transitional studies following the preclinical evidence are promising to provide novel biomarkers of the enterohepatic CYP3A activities. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Drug development, clinical pharmacology, and therapeutics are under insistent demands of endogenous CYP3A biomarkers that avoid unnecessary drug exposure and invasive sampling. This work has provided the first proof-of-concept preclinical evidence that the CYP3A catalyzed tertiary oxidation of deoxycholate, the major circulating secondary bile acid synthesized in the lower gut by bacteria, may be developed as novel in vivo biomarkers of the enterohepatic CYP3A activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.121.000385DOI Listing
May 2021

Oligosaccharides from fucosylated glycosaminoglycan prevent breast cancer metastasis in mice by inhibiting heparanase activity and angiogenesis.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Apr 2;166:105527. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China. Electronic address:

The invasion and metastasis of tumor cells are the hallmarks of malignant diseases and the greatest obstacle to overcome. Heparanase-mediated degradation of heparan sulfate (HS) is the critical process for tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, therefore, heparanase become an attractive target for cancer research. Herein, we reported a native fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (nHG) extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria fuscopunctata and a depolymerized nHG (dHG) and its contained oligosaccharides (hs17, hs14, hs11, hs8 and hs5), acting as heparanase inhibitors. nHG and its derivatives have the ability to bind with heparanase directly, leading to significant inhibition of heparanase activity. Moreover, their apparent binding affinity to heparanase was comparable to their inhibitory effect, which was elevated along with the increase of chain length, similar to the effect of heparins. In addition, oligosaccharides inhibited the migration and invasion of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and also suppressed tube formation in Matrigel matrix and angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In the metastatic mouse model, oligosaccharides exhibited practical antimetastatic effects on 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. According to the reported anticoagulant activity and the low bleeding tendency of dHG and its oligosaccharides, the use of the oligosaccharides may lead to better effects on tumor patients with thrombosis tendency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105527DOI Listing
April 2021

The impact of smoking on annual healthcare cost: an econometric model analysis in China, 2015.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Feb 28;21(1):187. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

School of Public Health, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No.1166, Liu Cheng Da Dao, Wenjiang District, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Smoking exerts substantial medical burdens on society. Precise estimation of the smoking-attributable medical expenditures (SAME) helps to inform tobacco control policy makers. Based on the epidemiological approach, prior studies in China only focused on a few smoking-related diseases to estimate SAME. In contrast, this study used the econometric approach, which is capable of capturing all of the potential costs.

Methods: Three waves of panel data from the 2011-2015 national China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were used. A total of 34,503 observations aged 45 and above were identified. Estimates from econometric models were combined to predict the smoking-attributable fraction (SAF) and medical expenditures attributable to smoking by sex, registered residency and healthcare service categories. All monetary amounts were adjusted to 2015 dollars.

Results: In 2015, the overall smoking-attributable fraction (SAF) of China was 10.97%, ranging from 5.77% for self-medication to 16.87% for inpatient visits. The smoking-attributable medical expenditure (SAME) was about $45.28 billion, accounting for 7.24% of the total health expenditure. The SAME was $226.77 per smoker aged 45 and above. The regression results suggest that being a former smoker has the greatest impact, which decreases over time after quitting however, on the value of medical expenditures.

Conclusions: Smoking-attributable medical expenditures was substantial and placed a heavy burden on Chinese society. Comprehensive tobacco control policies and regulations are still needed to promote progress toward curbing the tobacco related losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06199-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916274PMC
February 2021

The Role of Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Tractography in the Assessment of Acute Traumatic Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 6;150:e23-e30. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background: This study explored diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) to assess the prognosis of thoracolumbar spinal cord injury (SCI).

Methods: Twenty patients with acute traumatic thoracolumbar complete SCI (T1-L1, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] grade A) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging and DTI examinations. DTI measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient adjacent to the lesion epicenter. DTT was used to detect the white matter fiber morphology and measure the imaginary white matter fiber volume and connection rates of fiber tractography (CRFT). The patients' neurological functions were evaluated by the AIS grades.

Results: At the final-follow-up, among the 20 patients with AIS grade A, 15 maintained the AIS grade (group A), and 5 patients showed improvement of AIS grade (group B). Group A's mean FA value was significantly lower than that of group B, whereas the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value among the 2 groups showed no significant difference. The white matter fibers of most patients in group A were completely ruptured (11/15), but the white matter fibers of all patients in group B were retained in different number (5/5). The mean CRFT of group B was significantly higher than that of group A (P < 0.05). The improvement of AIS grade was slightly positively correlated with FA values and highly positively correlated with CRFT.

Conclusions: The prognosis of complete thoracolumbar SCI may be related to the FA value and the CRFT. The application of DTI and DTT may optimize the diagnosis of thoracolumbar SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.01.146DOI Listing
June 2021

A novel deep learning-based quantification of serial chest computed tomography in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Sci Rep 2021 01 11;11(1):417. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Avenue #1277, Wuhan, 430022, China.

This study aims to explore and compare a novel deep learning-based quantification with the conventional semi-quantitative computed tomography (CT) scoring for the serial chest CT scans of COVID-19. 95 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and a total of 465 serial chest CT scans were involved, including 61 moderate patients (moderate group, 319 chest CT scans) and 34 severe patients (severe group, 146 chest CT scans). Conventional CT scoring and deep learning-based quantification were performed for all chest CT scans for two study goals: (1) Correlation between these two estimations; (2) Exploring the dynamic patterns using these two estimations between moderate and severe groups. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between these two estimation methods was 0.920 (p < 0.001). predicted pulmonary involvement (CT score and percent of pulmonary lesions calculated using deep learning-based quantification) increased more rapidly and reached a higher peak on 23rd days from symptom onset in severe group, which reached a peak on 18th days in moderate group with faster absorption of the lesions. The deep learning-based quantification for COVID-19 showed a good correlation with the conventional CT scoring and demonstrated a potential benefit in the estimation of disease severities of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80261-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801482PMC
January 2021

Glycemic status affects the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes mellitus: an observational study of CT radiological manifestations using an artificial intelligence algorithm.

Acta Diabetol 2021 May 8;58(5):575-586. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Avenue #1277, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Aims: Increasing evidence suggests that poor glycemic control in diabetic individuals is associated with poor coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia outcomes and influences chest computed tomography (CT) manifestations. This study aimed to explore the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) and glycemic control on chest CT manifestations, acquired using an artificial intelligence (AI)-based quantitative evaluation system, and COVID-19 disease severity and to investigate the association between CT lesions and clinical outcome.

Methods: A total of 126 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this retrospective study. According to their clinical history of DM and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, the patients were divided into 3 groups: the non-DM group (Group 1); the well-controlled blood glucose (BG) group, with HbA1c < 7% (Group 2); and the poorly controlled BG group, with HbA1c ≥ 7% (Group 3). The chest CT images were analyzed with an AI-based quantitative evaluation system. Three main quantitative CT features representing the percentage of total lung lesion volume (PLV), percentage of ground-glass opacity volume (PGV) and percentage of consolidation volume (PCV) in bilateral lung fields were used to evaluate the severity of pneumonia lesions.

Results: Patients in Group 3 had the highest percentage of severe or critical illness, with 12 (32%) cases, followed by 6 (11%) and 7 (23%) cases in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.042). The composite endpoints, including death or using mechanical ventilation or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), were 3 (5%), 5 (16%) and 10 (26%) in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.013). The PLV, PGV and PCV in bilateral lung fields were significantly different among the three groups (all p < 0.001): the median PLVs were 12.5% (Group 3), 3.8% (Group 2) and 2.4% (Group 1); the median PGVs were 10.2% (Group 3), 3.6% (Group 2) and 1.9% (Group 1); and the median PCVs were 1.8% (Group 3), 0.3% (Group 2) and 0.1% (Group 1). In the linear regression analyses, which were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and comorbidities, HbA1c remained positively associated with PLV (β = 0.401, p < 0.001), PGV (β = 0.364, p = 0.001) and PCV (β = 0.472, p < 0.001); this relationship was also observed between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and the three CT quantitative parameters. In the logistic regression analyses, PLV [OR 1.067 (1.032, 1.103)], PGV [OR 1.076 (1.034, 1.120)] and PCV [OR 1.280 (1.110, 1.476)] levels were independent predictors of the composite endpoints, as well as the areas under the ROC (AUCs) for PLV [AUC 0.796 (0.691, 0.900)], PGV [AUC 0.783 (0.678, 0.889)] and PCV [AUC 0.816 (0.722, 0.911)]; the ORs were still significant for CT lesions after adjusting for age, sex and poorly controlled diabetes.

Conclusions: Increased blood glucose level was correlated with the severity of lung involvement, as evidenced by certain chest CT parameters, and clinical prognosis in diabetic COVID-19 patients. There was a positive correlation between blood glucose level (both HbA1c and FBG) on admission and lung lesions. Moreover, the CT lesion severity by AI quantitative analysis was correlated with clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-020-01654-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792916PMC
May 2021

Surfer Myelopathy in Children: A Case Series Study.

World Neurosurg 2021 04 5;148:e227-e241. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Wuhan Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The cause of surfer myelopathy remains enigmatic and long-term follow-up outcomes are not well documented. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying surfer myelopathy in children are analyzed and the long-term follow-up outcomes are reported.

Methods: Clinical data from 3 institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) on admission and at follow-up. The mechanisms were studied by analyzing patients' medical history, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance angiography. The prognosis of long-term follow-up was summarized.

Results: Thirty-one children were diagnosed with surfer myelopathy. Intramedullary high-intensity T2 signal from mid to lower thoracic level to conus was found during the acute stage. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging in the subacute stage showed cranial progression of the T2 hyperintensity up to 1-10 vertebral segments, and no neurologic deterioration was found. Intramedullary lesion length between the complete and incomplete injury was significantly different (P < 0.01) in the subacute phase. Flow voids around nerve roots and in the epidural space were detected in 18 patients and 15 patients, respectively, on axial T2-weighted imaging. Enlarged tortuous veins were found in 3 of 6 patients who underwent spinal magnetic resonance angiography, which were discontinuous around nerve root. During long-term follow-up, no patients with AIS grade A recovered, and atrophic cord was observed in the later stage in 14 patients. Patients with incomplete injury had different recoveries.

Conclusions: Surfer myelopathy in children is caused by spinal venous hypertension. The AIS grade on admission is a predictor of prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.12.135DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluating the Severity and Prognosis of Acute Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Novel Classification Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 05;46(10):687-694

Department of Orthopedics, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Study Design: Retrospective observational cohort study.

Objective: We explored the relationship between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters and prognosis in patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (ATCSCI).

Summary Of Background Data: DTI has been used to diagnose spinal cord injury; nevertheless, its role remains controversial.

Methods: We analyzed retrospectively 24 patients with ATCSCI who were examined using conventional T2-weighted imaging and DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were recorded at the injured site. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) was used to measure the spinal cord white matter fiber volume (MWFV). American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grades were recorded. Correlations between DTI parameters and ASIA scores were evaluated using Spearman correlation coefficients.

Results: FA values at injured sites were significantly lower than those of the control group, whereas ADC values in injured and control groups were not significantly different. DTT revealed that ATCSCI could be divided into four types: Type A1-complete rupture of spinal cord white matter fiber (MWF); Type A2-partial rupture of MWF; Type B-most MWF retained with severe compression or abnormal fiber conduction direction; and Type C-MWF basically complete with slight compression. Preoperative physical examinations revealed complete injury (ASIA A) in patients with A1 (n = 4) and A2 (n = 4). The ASIA grades or scores of A2 were improved to varying degrees, whereas there was no significant improvement in A1. FA values and MWFV of ASIA B, C, and D were significantly higher than those of ASIA A. FA and MWFV were correlated with ASIA motor score preoperatively and at final follow-up.

Conclusion: We propose a classification for the severity of ATCSCI based on DTI and DTT that may explain why some patients with ASIA A recover, whereas others do not.Level of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003923DOI Listing
May 2021

Preliminary Study on the Identification of BRAF Mutation in Colorectal Cancer by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 22;13:13077-13085. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Pathology, Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), the B-type Raf kinase (BRAF) mutation is a molecular biomarker of poor prognosis and is of great importance to drug target. Currently, the commonly used methods for detecting BRAF mutation include immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene sequencing, but both present certain limitations. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a spectroscopy technology that takes advantage of the electromagnetic wavelength between visible light and mid-infrared light.

Methods: IHC was used to detect the expression of BRAF protein with the BRAF (VE1) antibody in 42 cases of paraffin-embedded (FFPE) mCRC tissue sections. The NIR-discriminant analysis model (NIRS-DA) was established using 6 cases of wild-type and 6 cases of mutant-type BRAF specimens.

Results: IHC detection results revealed 13 cases of weakly positive (+), 1 case of moderately positive (++), and 28 cases of negative (-) CRC. Compared with the next-generation sequencing (NGS) results, the positive rate was 66.7%. The classification accuracy of calibration (CAC) was 100% compared with the results of NGS, demonstrating that the BRAF mutant NIRS-DA model, verified by 2 cases of wild-type and 2 cases of mutant-type CRC samples was established. The NIRS-DA model was used to predict gene mutation in the CRC samples, 7 cases were positive (+), and 35 cases were negative (-), and the classification accuracy of prediction (CAP) was 83.3% (35/42).

Discussion: The NIRS-DA model-predicted results were in high agreement with the detection results of NGS, and the difference in IHC is not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, this study is a preliminary discussion on a methodology due to its small sample size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S287814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764696PMC
December 2020

Corrigendum to "Cell Cycle Genes Are Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma".

Biomed Res Int 2020 21;2020:8679532. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2020/6206157.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8679532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735822PMC
November 2020

Dalbavancin binds ACE2 to block its interaction with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in animal models.

Cell Res 2021 01 1;31(1):17-24. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, National Resource Center for Non-Human Primates, Kunming Primate Research Center, and National Research Facility for Phenotypic & Genetic Analysis of Model Animals (Primate Facility), Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650107, China.

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic worldwide. Currently, however, no effective drug or vaccine is available to treat or prevent the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report our discovery of a promising anti-COVID-19 drug candidate, the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic dalbavancin, based on virtual screening of the FDA-approved peptide drug library combined with in vitro and in vivo functional antiviral assays. Our results showed that dalbavancin directly binds to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with high affinity, thereby blocking its interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Furthermore, dalbavancin effectively prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells with an EC of ~12 nM. In both mouse and rhesus macaque models, viral replication and histopathological injuries caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are significantly inhibited by dalbavancin administration. Given its high safety and long plasma half-life (8-10 days) shown in previous clinical trials, our data indicate that dalbavancin is a promising anti-COVID-19 drug candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-00450-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705431PMC
January 2021

Temporal changes of CT findings between non-severe and severe cases of COVID-19 pneumonia: a multi-center, retrospective, longitudinal Study.

Int J Med Sci 2020 21;17(17):2653-2662. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

To perform a longitudinal analysis of serial CT findings over time in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. From February 5 to March 8, 2020, 73 patients (male to female, ratio of 43:30; mean age, 51 years) with COVID-19 pneumonia were retrospectively enrolled and followed up until discharge from three institutions in China. The patients were divided into the severe and non-severe groups according to treatment option. The patterns and distribution of lung abnormalities, total CT scores, single ground-glass opacity (GGO) CT scores, single consolidation CT scores, single reticular CT scores and the amounts of zones involved were reviewed by 2 radiologists. These features were analyzed for temporal changes. In non-severe group, total CT scores (median, 9.5) and the amounts of zones involved were slowly increased and peaked in disease week 2. In the severe group, the increase was faster, with scores also peaking at 2 weeks (median, 20). In both groups, the later parameters began to decrease in week 4 (median values of 9 and 19 in the non-severe and severe groups, respectively). In the severe group, the dominant residual lung lesions were reticular (median single reticular CT score, 10) and consolidation (median single consolidation CT score, 7). In the non-severe group, the dominant residual lung lesions were GGO (median single GGO CT score, 7) and reticular (median single reticular CT score, 4). In both non-severe and severe groups, the GGO pattern was dominant in week 1, with a higher proportion in the severe group compared with the non-severe group (72% vs. 65%). The consolidation pattern peaked in week 2, with 9 (32%) and 19 (73%) in the non-severe and severe groups, respectively; the reticular pattern became dominant from week 4 (both group >40%). The extent of CT abnormalities in the severe and non-severe groups peaked in disease week 2. The temporal changes of CT manifestations followed a specific pattern, which might indicate disease progression and recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.51159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645333PMC
November 2020

A Comprehensive Review of Natural Products against Liver Fibrosis: Flavonoids, Quinones, Lignans, Phenols, and Acids.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 5;2020:7171498. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China.

Liver fibrosis resulting from continuous long-term hepatic damage represents a heavy burden worldwide. Liver fibrosis is recognized as a complicated pathogenic mechanism with extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. A series of drugs demonstrate significant antifibrotic activity in vitro and in vivo. No specific agents with ideally clinical efficacy for liver fibrosis treatment have been developed. In this review, we summarized the antifibrotic effects and molecular mechanisms of 29 kinds of common natural products. The mechanism of these compounds is correlated with anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antifibrotic activities. Moreover, parenchymal hepatic cell survival, HSC deactivation, and ECM degradation by interfering with multiple targets and signaling pathways are also involved in the antifibrotic effects of these compounds. However, there remain two bottlenecks for clinical breakthroughs. The low bioavailability of natural products should be improved, and the combined application of two or more compounds should be investigated for more prominent pharmacological effects. In summary, exploration on natural products against liver fibrosis is becoming increasingly extensive. Therefore, natural products are potential resources for the development of agents to treat liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7171498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556091PMC
October 2020

High-molecular-weight fucosylated glycosaminoglycan induces human platelet aggregation depending on αβ and platelet secretion.

Platelets 2020 Sep 24:1-9. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China.

Fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) from sea cucumbers has been reported to have anticoagulant effects via targeting intrinsic tenase. However, FG from natural source also potentially poses risks due to its FXIIa activation and platelet aggregating effects. Here, we found that the effect of FG on human platelet aggregation depended on both the sulfation pattern and chain length. FGs with higher content of Fuc and larger molecular weight (≥14 kD) had stronger activity. Both platelet aggregation and P-selectin expression induced by TaFG (an FG from ) were decreased as the molecular weight reduced. Ticagrelor, aspirin and wortmannin completely blocked the secretion (ADP) but only partially blocked the aggregation induced by TaFG. Tirofiban an αβ antagonist however potently inhibited both the secretion and aggregation, with IC of 6.01 ± 1.1.97 nM. Furthermore, TaFG could bind to human αβ with high affinity, and the affinities of two FGs were paralleled with their activity in platelet aggregation or activation. These results indicated that αβ played an important role in TaFG-induced platelet aggregation which was mediated by PI3K, and that platelet secretion was required for the amplification of aggregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2020.1820976DOI Listing
September 2020

Spontaneous pneumothorax and subpleural bullae in a patient with COVID-19: a 92-day observation.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 Oct;58(4):858-860

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

This report describes a patient with COVID-19 who developed spontaneous pneumothorax and subpleural bullae during the course of the infection. Consecutive chest computed tomography images indicated that COVID-19-associated pneumonia had damaged the subpleural alveoli and distal bronchus. Coughing might have induced a sudden increase in intra-alveolar pressure, leading to the rupture of the subpleural alveoli and distal bronchus and resulting in spontaneous pneumothorax and subpleural bullae. At the 92-day follow-up, the pneumothorax and subpleural bullae had completely resolved, which indicated that these complications had self-limiting features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezaa305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543338PMC
October 2020

Impaired effective functional connectivity of the sensorimotor network in interictal episodic migraineurs without aura.

J Headache Pain 2020 Sep 14;21(1):111. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Jiangning Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211100, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) has confirmed sensorimotor network (SMN) dysfunction in migraine without aura (MwoA). However, the underlying mechanisms of SMN effective functional connectivity in MwoA remain unclear. We aimed to explore the association between clinical characteristics and effective functional connectivity in SMN, in interictal patients who have MwoA.

Methods: We used Rs-fMRI to acquire imaging data in 40 episodic patients with MwoA in the interictal phase and 34 healthy controls (HCs). Independent component analysis was used to profile the distribution of SMN and calculate the different SMN activity between the two groups. Subsequently, Granger causality analysis was used to analyze the effective functional connectivity between the SMN and other brain regions.

Results: Compared to the HCs, MwoA patients showed higher activity in the bilateral postcentral gyri (PoCG), but lower activity in the left midcingulate cortex (MCC). Moreover, MwoA patients showed decreased effective functional connectivity from the SMN to left middle temporal gyrus, right putamen, left insula and bilateral precuneus, but increased effective functional connectivity to the right paracentral lobule. There was also significant effective functional connectivity from the primary visual cortex, right cuneus and right putamen to the SMN. In the interictal period, there was positive correlation between the activity of the right PoCG and the frequency of headache. The disease duration was positively correlated with abnormal effective functional connectivity from the left PoCG to right precuneus. In addition, the headache impact scores were negatively correlated with abnormal effective functional connectivity from the left MCC to right paracentral lobule, as well as from the right precuneus to left PoCG.

Conclusions: These differential, resting-state functional activities of the SMN in episodic MwoA may contribute to the understanding of migraine-related intra- and internetwork imbalances associated with nociceptive regulation and chronification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-020-01176-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489040PMC
September 2020

Fangcang Shelter Hospital in Wuhan: A radiographic report on a cohort of 98 COVID-19 patients.

Int J Med Sci 2020 30;17(14):2125-2132. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

To present the temporal changes of CT manifestations in COVID-19 patients from a single fangcang shelter hospital and to facilitate the understanding of the disease course. This retrospective study included 98 patients (males: females, 43:55, mean year, 49±12 years) with confirmed COVID-19 at Jianghan fangcang shelter hospital admitted between Feb 05, 2020, and Feb 09, 2020, who had initial chest CTs at our hospital. Radiographic features and CT scores were analyzed. A total of 267 CT scans of 98 patients were evaluated. Our study showed a high median total CT score of 7 within the first week from symptom onset, peaked in the 2 week at 10, followed by persistently high levels of CT score with 9.5, 7 and 7 for the week 3, 4, and >4, respectively, and a prolonged median disease course (30 days, the median interval between the onset of initial symptoms and discharge). Ground-glass opacity (GGO) (58%, 41/71) was the earliest and most frequent finding in week 1. Consolidation (26%, 14/53) and mixed pattern (40%, 21/53) were predominant patterns in 2 week. GGO and reticular were the main patterns of later phase CT scans in patients with relatively advanced diseases who had longer illness duration (≥4 weeks). Among the 94 CT abnormalities obtained within 3 days from the twice RT-PCR test turned negative, the mixed pattern was mainly presented in patients with disease duration of 2-3 weeks, for GGO and reticular were common during the whole course. Discharged patients from fangcang shelter hospital demonstrated a high extent of lung abnormalities on CT within the first week from symptom onset, peaked at 2 week, followed by persistence of high levels and a prolonged median disease course. GGO was the predominant pattern in week 1, consolidation and mixed pattern in 2 week, whereas GGO and reticular patterns in later stages (≥4 weeks).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.48074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484669PMC
September 2020

Impact of smoking on the income level of Chinese urban residents: a two-wave follow-up of the China Family Panel Study.

BMJ Open 2020 08 23;10(8):e036939. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Huaxi School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Objectives: This study attempts to analyse the impact of smoking on the income level of Chinese urban residents to provide a reference for creating informed regulations on cigarette smoking.

Design: A population-based cohort study.

Method: Two waves of panel data in 2014 and 2016 from the China Family Panel Study were used. A total of 8025 urban adults were identified. The Hausman-Taylor model was used to analyse the theoretical relationship between smoking and income.

Results: The percentage of current smokers decreased from 27.39% (2014) to 26.24% (2016), while the percentage of former smokers rose from 9.78% to 11.78%. The results from the Hausman-Taylor model showed that current smokers and former smokers are associated with statistically significant decrease in the income of urban residents of 37.70% and 44.00%, respectively, compared with that of non-smokers. After eliminating the impact of smoking on income, the poverty rate among urban residents decreased from 15.33% to 13.63%.

Conclusions: Smoking can significantly reduce the income of Chinese urban residents, resulting in immense negative impacts on Chinese society. Therefore, the government should raise the tax rate on tobacco, include smoking cessation treatment in medical insurance coverage, promote publicity campaigns on the awareness of tobacco hazards and encourage smokers to quit smoking early.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445347PMC
August 2020

A non-anticoagulant heparin-like snail glycosaminoglycan promotes healing of diabetic wound.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Nov 26;247:116682. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China. Electronic address:

Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a common high-risk complication in patients with diabetes mellitus, but current drugs and therapies in management of this disease cannot meet the urgent clinical needs. In this study, a snail glycosaminoglycan (SGAG) from the cultured China white jade snail was purified and structurally clarified. This snail glycosaminoglycan is a regular sulfated polysaccharide, composed of iduronic acid (IdoA) and N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) with the repeating sequence of →4)-α-GlcNAc (1→4)-α-IdoA2S (1→. The biological assays showed that SGAG had no anticoagulant activity for lacking specific heparin pentasaccharide sequence. The pharmacological experiments suggested that SGAG markedly accelerated the healing of full-thickness wounds in diabetic mice skin. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SGAG treatment alleviated the inflammation and dermal edema, and promoted angiogenesis. This is the first report applying the snail glycosaminoglycan to favor diabetic wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116682DOI Listing
November 2020

Different computed tomography patterns of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) between survivors and non-survivors.

Sci Rep 2020 07 9;10(1):11336. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Avenue 1277#, Wuhan, 430022, China.

This study aimed to compare the chest computed tomography (CT) findings between survivors and non-survivors with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Between 12 January 2020 and 20 February 2020, the records of 124 consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed and divided into survivor (83/124) and non-survivor (41/124) groups. Chest CT findings were qualitatively compared on admission and serial chest CT scans were semi-quantitively evaluated between two groups using curve estimations. On admission, significantly more bilateral (97.6% vs. 73.5%, p = 0.001) and diffuse lesions (39.0% vs. 8.4%, p < 0.001) with higher total CT score (median 10 vs. 4, p < 0.001) were observed in non-survivor group compared with survivor group. Besides, crazy-paving pattern was more predominant in non-survivor group than survivor group (39.0% vs. 12.0%, p < 0.001). From the prediction of curve estimation, in survivor group total CT score increased in the first 20 days reaching a peak of 6 points and then gradually decreased for more than other 40 days (R = 0.545, p < 0.001). In non-survivor group, total CT score rapidly increased over 10 points in the first 10 days and gradually increased afterwards until ARDS occurred with following death events (R = 0.711, p < 0.001). In conclusion, persistent progression with predominant crazy-paving pattern was the major manifestation of COVID-19 in non-survivors. Understanding this CT feature could help the clinical physician to predict the prognosis of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68057-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347874PMC
July 2020

Infection with novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causes pneumonia in Rhesus macaques.

Cell Res 2020 08 7;30(8):670-677. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, China.

The 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak is a major challenge for public health. SARS-CoV-2 infection in human has a broad clinical spectrum ranging from mild to severe cases, with a mortality rate of ~6.4% worldwide (based on World Health Organization daily situation report). However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here, we show that Rhesus macaques are susceptible to the infection by SARS-CoV-2. After intratracheal inoculation, the first peak of viral RNA was observed in oropharyngeal swabs one day post infection (1 d.p.i.), mainly from the input of the inoculation, while the second peak occurred at 5 d.p.i., which reflected on-site replication in the respiratory tract. Histopathological observation shows that SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause interstitial pneumonia in animals, characterized by hyperemia and edema, and infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes in alveoli. We also identified SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory tract tissues, including trachea, bronchus and lung; and viruses were also re-isolated from oropharyngeal swabs, bronchus and lung, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies generated from the primary infection could protect the Rhesus macaques from a second-round challenge by SARS-CoV-2. The non-human primate model that we established here provides a valuable platform to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and to evaluate candidate vaccines and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0364-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364749PMC
August 2020
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