Publications by authors named "Liadhan McAnena"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Associations of atrophic gastritis and proton-pump inhibitor drug use with vitamin B-12 status, and the impact of fortified foods, in older adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

Background: Atrophic gastritis (AG) and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) result in gastric acid suppression that can impair the absorption of vitamin B-12 from foods. The crystalline vitamin B-12 form, found in fortified foods, does not require gastric acid for its absorption and could thus be beneficial for older adults with hypochlorhydria, but evidence is lacking.

Objectives: To investigate associations of AG and PPI use with vitamin B-12 status, and the potential protective role of fortified foods, in older adults.

Methods: Eligible participants (n = 3299) not using vitamin B-12 supplements were drawn from the Trinity-Ulster and Department of Agriculture cohort, a study of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥60 y and recruited in 2008-2012. Vitamin B-12 status was measured using 4 biomarkers, and vitamin B-12 deficiency was defined as a combined indicator value < -0.5. A pepsinogen I:II ratio <3 was considered indicative of AG.

Results: AG was identified in 15% of participants and associated with significantly lower serum total vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001) and plasma holotranscobalamin (holoTC; P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency (38%), compared with PPI users (21%) and controls (without AG and nonusers of PPIs; 15%; P < 0.001). PPI drugs were used (≥6 mo) by 37% of participants and were associated with lower holoTC concentrations, but only in participants taking higher doses (≥30 mg/d). Regular, compared with nonregular, consumption of fortified foods (i.e., ≥5 and 0-4 portions/wk, respectively) was associated with higher vitamin B-12 biomarkers in all participants, but inadequate to restore normal vitamin B-12 status in those with AG.

Conclusions: Older adults who have AG and/or use higher doses of PPIs are more likely to have indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Fortified foods, if consumed regularly, were associated with enhanced vitamin B-12 status, but higher levels of added vitamin B-12 than currently provided could be warranted to optimize status in people with AG.
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June 2021

Riboflavin Is an Important Determinant of Vitamin B-6 Status in Healthy Adults.

J Nutr 2020 10;150(10):2699-2706

Nutrition Innovation Centre for food and Health (NICHE), Ulster University, Coleraine, United Kingdom.

Background: Riboflavin is required to generate the active form of vitamin B-6 (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate; PLP) in tissues, but the relevance of this metabolic interaction for nutritional status of vitamin B-6 is unclear because riboflavin biomarkers are rarely measured in human studies.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of biomarkers of vitamin B-6 and riboflavin status and to examine the relationship between these nutrients in healthy adults.

Methods: Multiple linear regression was performed on observational data in 407 healthy adults aged 18-92 y who did not use B-vitamin supplements. Vitamin B-6 status was assessed by plasma PLP concentrations and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRac) was used as a functional indicator of riboflavin status.

Results: Dietary intakes of vitamin B-6 and riboflavin were below the average requirements in 10% and 29% of participants, respectively. Suboptimal status of vitamin B-6 (PLP ≤30.0 nmol/L) was more prevalent in adults aged ≥60 y than in younger participants (i.e., 14% compared with 5%), whereas a high proportion (i.e., overall 37%) of both age groups had deficient riboflavin status (EGRac ≥1.40). In multiple regression analysis, EGRac (P = 0.019) was a significant determinant of plasma PLP, along with dietary vitamin B-6 intake (P = 0.003), age (P < 0.001), BMI (kg/m2) (P = 0.031), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) genotype (P < 0.001). Significant determinants of EGRac were dietary riboflavin intake (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001) and MTHFR genotype (P = 0.020). Plasma PLP showed a stepwise decrease across riboflavin status categories from optimal (EGRac ≤1.26) to low (EGRac 1.27-1.39) to deficient status (P = 0.001), independent of dietary vitamin B-6 intake.

Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the known metabolic dependency of vitamin B-6 on riboflavin status and indicate that riboflavin may be the limiting nutrient, particularly in older people, for maintaining adequate vitamin B-6 status.
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October 2020

The Homozygous Hemoglobin EE Variant Is Associated with Poorer Riboflavin Status in Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

J Nutr 2020 07;150(7):1943-1950

Department of Food, Nutrition and Health, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Riboflavin is required for erythropoiesis, which is increased in people with hemoglobinopathies due to increased hemolysis and erythrocyte turnover. Dietary intake and status of riboflavin is poor in Cambodia, where hemoglobinopathies are common.

Objective: We assessed the association between genetic hemoglobin disorders and riboflavin status in women of reproductive age in Cambodia.

Methods: Venous blood samples from 515 Cambodian women of reproductive age, 18-45 y, were analyzed for biomarker status of riboflavin [erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRac)], genetic hemoglobin (Hb) disorders, and hematological indices. Linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association between EGRac with Hb, ferritin, and Hb genotypes. EGRac was log transformed in the analyses, and the regression coefficients represent the geometric mean differences.

Results: Genetic Hb disorders were present in 57% of the population, with the homozygous hemoglobin E variant (Hb EE) occurring in ∼10% of women (n = 53). Deficient (EGRac ≥1.40) or marginal riboflavin status (EGRac ≥1.30 and <1.40) was observed in 92% (n = 475) of women. The variant Hb EE genotype was associated with 18% (95% CI: 9%, 28%) higher geometric mean EGRac values than the normal Hb AA genotype (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Although riboflavin biomarker deficiency or marginal status is widely prevalent in Cambodian women, lower riboflavin status was observed more frequently in women with the Hb EE genotype than in women with normal Hb AA. The relation between genetic Hb disorders and riboflavin warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at as NCT01593423 and NCT02481375.
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July 2020

Suboptimal Biochemical Riboflavin Status Is Associated with Lower Hemoglobin and Higher Rates of Anemia in a Sample of Canadian and Malaysian Women of Reproductive Age.

J Nutr 2019 11;149(11):1952-1959

Department of Food, Nutrition, and Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Riboflavin is required for several redox reactions. Clinical riboflavin deficiency occurs mainly in low-income countries, where it is associated with anemia. The functional significance of suboptimal riboflavin status in different populations and its role in anemia is not well understood.

Objectives: We assessed the biomarker status of riboflavin and its association with hemoglobin concentration and anemia in women living in Vancouver, Canada, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Methods: Healthy nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding women (19-45 y) were recruited from Canada ( n = 206) and Malaysia (n = 210) via convenience sampling. Fasting blood was collected to assess riboflavin status [erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRac)], hematological indicators, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), ferritin, vitamin A, folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association of riboflavin status with hemoglobin concentration and anemia.

Results: EGRac (mean ± SD) values were higher, indicating poorer riboflavin status, in Malaysian compared with Canadian women (1.49 ± 0.17 compared with 1.38 ± 0.11). Likewise, riboflavin biomarker deficiency (EGRac ≥1.40) was significantly more prevalent among Malaysians than Canadians (71% compared with 40%). More Malaysian than Canadian women were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L; 18% compared with 7%). With use of linear regression (pooled sample; n = 416), EGRac values were negatively associated with hemoglobin concentration (r = -0.18; P < 0.001). This relation remained significant (P = 0.029) after adjusting for age, parity, ethnicity, vitamin B-12, folate, sTfR, ferritin, and vitamin A. Women with riboflavin deficiency (EGRac ≥1.40) were twice as likely to present with anemia (adjusted OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.08, 5.27) compared with women with EGRac <1.40.

Conclusions: Biochemical riboflavin deficiency was observed in Canadian and Malaysian women, with higher rates of deficiency among Malaysian women. Deficient biomarker status of riboflavin was a weak but significant predictor of hemoglobin and anemia, suggesting that the correction of riboflavin deficiency may potentially play a small protective role in anemia, but this requires further investigation.
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November 2019

Adequate vitamin B and riboflavin status from menus alone in residential care facilities in the Lower Mainland, British Columbia.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 Apr 24;44(4):414-419. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

h Healthy Mothers, Babies and Children Theme, South Australia Health and Medical Research Institute, North Terrace, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia.

Older adults have potential increased risk of nutrient deficiencies because of age-related decreased dietary intake and malabsorption; it is important to ensure nutrient needs are met to avoid adverse health outcomes. B vitamins are of particular interest: vitamin B deficiency can cause irreversible neurodegeneration; there is mandatory folic acid fortification in Canada; and suboptimal riboflavin status has been reported among older adults in the United Kingdom. In this exploratory secondary analysis study we assessed vitamin B and riboflavin biochemical status (via microparticle enzyme immunoassay and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRac), respectively), and the vitamin B, riboflavin, and folate content of menus served to a convenience sample of older adults (≥65 years) from 5 residential care facilities within the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. Diet was assessed from customized 28-day cycle meal plans. Participants (n = 207; 53 men and 154 women) were aged 86 ± 7 years, largely of European descent (92%), and nonsmokers (95%). The menus served had a low prevalence of inadequacy for vitamin B and riboflavin (only 4% and 1% of menus contained less than the estimated average requirement (EAR), respectively), but 93% contained less than the EAR for folate. Mean ± SD serum total vitamin B concentration was 422 ± 209 pmol/L, and EGRac was 1.30 ± 0.19. The majority of older adults in residential care were provided with adequate vitamin B and riboflavin menu amounts, and only 5% were vitamin B deficient (<148 pmol/L). However, 26% were riboflavin deficient (EGRac ≥ 1.4), which may warrant further investigation.
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April 2019

Validation of Folate-Enriched Eggs as a Functional Food for Improving Folate Intake in Consumers.

Nutrients 2016 Nov 30;8(12). Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK.

Functional foods enriched with folate may be beneficial as a means of optimizing folate status in consumers. We recently developed novel eggs enriched with folate through folic acid supplementation of the hen's feed, but their potential to influence consumer folate status is unknown because the natural folate forms incorporated into the eggs may not necessarily be retained during storage and cooking. This study aimed to determine the stability of natural folates in folate-enriched eggs under typical conditions of storage and cooking. Total folate was determined by microbiological assay following tri-enzyme treatment in folate-enriched eggs and un-enriched (barn and free-range) on the day they were laid, after storage (up to 27 days) and after using four typical cooking methods (boiling, poaching, frying, scrambling) for different durations. On the day of laying, the folate content of enriched eggs was found to be significantly higher than that of un-enriched barn or free-range eggs (mean ± SD; 123.2 ± 12.4 vs. 41.2 ± 2.8 vs. 65.6 ± 18.5 µg/100 g; < 0.001). Storage at refrigerator and room temperature for periods up to the Best Before date resulted in no significant losses to the folate content of folate-enriched eggs. Furthermore, folate in enriched eggs remained stable when cooked by four typical methods for periods up to the maximum cooking time (e.g., 135 ± 22.5, 133.9 ± 23.0 and 132.5 ± 35.1; = 0.73, for raw, scrambled for 50 s and scrambled for 2 min, respectively). Thus, natural folates in folate-enriched eggs remain highly stable with little or no losses following storage and cooking. These findings are important because they demonstrate the feasibility of introducing folate-enriched eggs into the diet of consumers as functional foods with enriched folate content. Further studies will confirm their effectiveness in optimizing the biomarker folate status of consumers.
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November 2016

Blood pressure in treated hypertensive individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype is responsive to intervention with riboflavin: findings of a targeted randomized trial.

Hypertension 2013 Jun 22;61(6):1302-8. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, University of Ulster, Cromore Rd, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland.

Intervention with riboflavin was recently shown to produce genotype-specific lowering of blood pressure (BP) in patients with premature cardiovascular disease homozygous for the 677C→T polymorphism (TT genotype) in the gene encoding the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Whether this effect is confined to patients with high-risk cardiovascular disease is unknown. The aim of this randomized trial, therefore, was to investigate the responsiveness of BP to riboflavin supplementation in hypertensive individuals with the TT genotype but without overt cardiovascular disease. From an available sample of 1427 patients with hypertension, we identified 157 with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, 91 of whom agreed to participate in the trial. Participants were stratified by systolic BP and randomized to receive placebo or riboflavin (1.6 mg/d) for 16 weeks. At baseline, despite being prescribed multiple classes of antihypertensive drugs, >60% of participants with this genotype had failed to reach goal BP (≤140/90 mm Hg). A significant improvement in the biomarker status of riboflavin was observed in response to intervention (P<0.001). Correspondingly, an overall treatment effect of 5.6±2.6 mm Hg (P=0.033) in systolic BP was observed, with pre- and postintervention values of 141.8±2.9 and 137.1±3.0 mm Hg (treatment group) and 143.5±3.0 and 144.3±3.1 mm Hg (placebo group), whereas the treatment effect in diastolic BP was not significant (P=0.291). In conclusion, these results show that riboflavin supplementation targeted at hypertensive individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype can decrease BP more effectively than treatment with current antihypertensive drugs only and indicate the potential for a personalized approach to the management of hypertension in this genetically at-risk group. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: Unique identifier: ISRCTN23620802.
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June 2013

Effect of high-dose iron supplements on fractional zinc absorption and status in pregnant women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2007 Jan;85(1):131-6

Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Background: Women have an increased risk of iron deficiency during pregnancy because of the demands of the developing fetus. Iron supplements are commonly advocated as a prophylactic treatment and are generally taken with meals to reduce side effects, but iron can interfere with the absorption of zinc.

Objective: The aim was to determine the effect of consuming an iron supplement (100 mg Fe/d as ferrous gluconate) with meals from 16 wk gestation to term on zinc status and absorption.

Design: Stable-isotope techniques were used to measure zinc status (exchangeable zinc pool, EZP) and fractional zinc absorption (FZA) in early and late pregnancy from a meal consumed at a different time from that of iron supplement or placebo consumption in 6 women given iron supplements and 7 given a placebo.

Results: FZA increased during pregnancy, independent of iron supplementation. FZA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) at week 34 than at weeks 16 and 24, and urinary zinc excretion was higher at week 34 than at week 16 (P = 0.02). The size of the EZP remained unchanged throughout pregnancy and was unaffected by iron supplementation. The iron status of iron-supplemented women was higher than that of the placebo group.

Conclusions: In iron-replete pregnant women who consumed a Western diet, no detectable adverse effects on zinc metabolism were observed after ingestion of 100 mg Fe/d. An increase in the efficiency of zinc absorption was observed during late pregnancy.
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January 2007

Riboflavin lowers homocysteine in individuals homozygous for the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism.

Circulation 2006 Jan 27;113(1):74-80. Epub 2005 Dec 27.

Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland.

Background: Meta-analyses predict that a 25% lowering of plasma homocysteine would reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by 11% to 16% and stroke by 19% to 24%. Individuals homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C-->T polymorphism have reduced MTHFR enzyme activity resulting from the inappropriate loss of the riboflavin cofactor, but it is unknown whether their typically high homocysteine levels are responsive to improved riboflavin status.

Methods And Results: From a register of 680 healthy adults 18 to 65 years of age of known MTHFR 677C-->T genotype, we identified 35 with the homozygous (TT) genotype and age-matched individuals with heterozygous (CT, n=26) or wild-type (CC, n=28) genotypes to participate in an intervention in which participants were randomized by genotype group to receive 1.6 mg/d riboflavin or placebo for a 12-week period. Supplementation increased riboflavin status to the same extent in all genotype groups (8% to 12% response in erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient; P<0.01 in each case). However, homocysteine responded only in the TT group, with levels decreasing by as much as 22% overall (from 16.1+/-1.5 to 12.5+/-0.8 micromol/L; P=0.003; n=32) and markedly so (by 40%) in those with lower riboflavin status at baseline (from 22.0+/-2.9 and 13.2+/-1.0 micromol/L; P=0.010; n=16). No homocysteine response was observed in the CC or CT groups despite being preselected for suboptimal riboflavin status.

Conclusions: Although previously overlooked, homocysteine is highly responsive to riboflavin, specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677 TT genotype. Our findings might explain why this common polymorphism carries an increased risk of coronary heart disease in Europe but not in North America, where riboflavin fortification has existed for >50 years.
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January 2006

Zinc supplementation has no effect on lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and putative indices of copper status in healthy men.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2003 ;93(1-3):75-86

Northern Ireland Centre for Diet and Health (NICHE), University of Ulster at Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland.

Pharmacological doses of zinc can adversely affect body copper status. The resulting copper deficiency can impact directly upon cholesterol metabolism and a suboptimal copper status has been observed to influence markers of hemostasis (specifically fibrinogen and the copper-containing coagulation factors V and VIII). The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of a low level of zinc supplementation, to include dietary intake, at the United States tolerable upper intake level of 40 mg/d upon indicators of lipid metabolism, hemostasis, and copper. Thirty-eight subjects were recruited onto a double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial and randomly selected to one of two groups. Group 1 took zinc supplements (30 mg/d) for 14 wk followed by copper supplements (3 mg/d) for 8 wk (to counteract adverse effects, if any, of zinc supplementation). A second group took placebo supplements for the full duration of the trial. Estimated dietary zinc intake approximated 10 mg/d. The effect of supplement was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (anova). Results indicate that no effect of zinc supplementation on putative indices of copper status, lipoprotein metabolism, and markers of hemostasis. These results indicate that short-term low-level zinc supplementation (total intake 40 mg/d) is not detrimental to health.
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March 2004

Zinc supplementation has no effect on circulating levels of peripheral blood leucocytes and lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult men.

Br J Nutr 2003 May;89(5):695-703

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK.

As a result of evidence documenting harmful effects of Zn supplementation on immune function and Cu status, thirty-eight men were recruited onto a Zn supplementation trial. The aim was to examine the effects of chronic Zn supplementation on circulating levels of peripheral blood leucocytes and lymphocyte subsets. Subjects (n 19) took 30 mg Zn/d for 14 weeks followed by 3 mg Cu/d for 8 weeks to counteract adverse effects, if any, of Zn supplementation on immune status resulting from lowered Cu status. A control group (n 19) took placebo supplements for the duration of the trial. Dietary intakes of Zn approximated 10 mg/d. Blood samples, taken throughout the trial, were assessed for full blood profiles and flow cytometric analyses of lymphocyte subsets. Putative indices of Cu status were also examined. Results indicate that there was no effect of Zn supplementation on circulating levels of peripheral blood leucocytes or on lymphocyte subsets. Cu status was also unaltered. Independent of supplement, there appeared to be seasonal variations in selected lymphocyte subsets in both placebo and supplemented groups. Alterations in circulating levels of B cells (cluster of differentiation (CD) 19), memory T cells (CD45RO) and expression of the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) on T cells were observed. Findings indicated no adverse effects of Zn supplementation on immune status or Cu status and support the US upper level of Zn tolerance of 40 mg/d. The seasonal variations observed in lymphocyte subsets in the group as a whole could have implications for seasonal variability in the incidence of infectious diseases.
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May 2003