Publications by authors named "Li-Hong Ding"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Emerging role of air pollution in chronic kidney disease.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, 230032, Anhui, China.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a global disease burden related to high rates of incidence and mortality, manifests as progressive and irretrievable nephron loss and decreased kidney regeneration capacity. Emerging studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution is closely relevant to increased risk of CKD, CKD progression and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Inhaled airborne particles may cause vascular injury, intraglomerular hypertension, or glomerulosclerosis through non-hemodynamic and hemodynamic factors with multiple complex interactions. The mechanisms linking air pollutants exposure to CKD include elevated blood pressure, worsening oxidative stress and inflammatory response, DNA damage and abnormal metabolic changes to aggravate kidney damage. In the present review, we will discuss the epidemiologic observations linking air pollutants exposure to the incidence and progression of CKD. Then, we elaborate the potential roles of several air pollutants including particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants, environmental tobacco smoke, and gaseous heavy metals in its pathogenesis. Finally, this review outlines the latent effect of air pollution in ESKD patients undergoing dialysis or renal transplant, kidney cancer and other kidney diseases. The information obtained may be beneficial for further elucidating the pathogenesis of CKD and making proper preventive strategies for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16031-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Circadian clock genes as promising therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Aug 10;20(8):102866. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Circadian rhythm is a natural, endogenous process whose physiological functions are controlled by a set of clock genes. Disturbance of the clock genes have detrimental effects on both innate and adaptive immunity, which significantly enhance pro-inflammatory responses and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases via strictly controlling the individual cellular components of the immune system that initiate and perpetuate the inflammation pathways. Autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA), often exhibit substantial circadian oscillations, and circadian rhythm is involved in the onset and progression of autoimmune diseases. Mounting evidence indicate that the synthetic ligands of circadian clock genes have the property of reducing the susceptibility and clinical severity of subjects. This review supplies an overview of the roles of circadian clock genes in the pathology of autoimmune diseases, including BMAL1, CLOCK, PER, CRY, REV-ERBα, and ROR. Furthermore, summarized some circadian clock genes as candidate genes for autoimmune diseases and current advancement on therapy of autoimmune diseases with synthetic ligands of circadian clock genes. The existing body of knowledge demonstrates that circadian clock genes are inextricably linked to autoimmune diseases. Future research should pay attention to improve the quality of life of patients with autoimmune diseases and reduce the effects of drug preparation on the normal circadian rhythms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2021.102866DOI Listing
August 2021

Structural Diversity in Oxadiazole-Containing Silver Complexes Dependent on the Anions.

Acta Chim Slov 2020 Sep;67(3):822-829

Two coordination polymers, namely [Ag2(L)(SO3CF3)(H2O)](SO3CF3)•CH2Cl2 (1) and [Ag5(L)4(H2O)2](SbF6)5•5THF (2), were obtained by reacting oxadiazole-containing tri-armed ligand 1,3,5-tri(2-methylthio-1,3,4-oxadiazole-5yl) ben-zene (L) and silver salts in CH2Cl2/THF medium. The two complexes crystallized in the tetragonal space group I41/a and orthorhombic space group Fdd2, respectively. The Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that the two complexes ex-hibit strikingly different 3D polymeric structures, which can be ascribed to the different counter anions. L in compound 1 acted as a hexa-dentate ligand, binding to two types of Ag+ atoms to form a 3D polymeric structure. L in compound 2acted as a hexa- and penta-dentate ligand, binding to three types of Ag+ atoms to form the 3D polymeric structure. The antibacterial activity of the complexes was also investigated.
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September 2020

Epigenetic alterations contribute to promoter activity of imprinting gene IGF2.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2018 Feb 3;1861(2):117-124. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Xiamen University, Chengzhi building 110, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen 361102, PR China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, Xiamen University, Chengzhi building 110, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen 361102, PR China. Electronic address:

The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), a classical imprinting gene, didn't completely correlate with its imprinting profiles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanistic importance of promoter activity in regulation of IGF2 has not been fully clarified. Here we show that histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) modified by menin-MLL complex of IGF2 promoter contributes to promoter activity of IGF2. The strong binding of menin and abundant H3K4me3 at the DNA demethylated P3/4 promoters were observed in Hep3B cells with the robust expression of IGF2. In IGF2-low-expressing HepG2 cells, menin didn't bind to DNA hypermethylated P3/4 regions; however, menin overexpression inhibited DNA methylation and promoted H3K4me3 at the P3/4 as well as IGF2 expression in HepG2. In addition, the H3K4me3 at P3/4 locus was activated in primary HCC specimens with high IGF2 expression. Furthermore, inhibition of the menin/MLL interaction via MI-2/3 reduced IGF2 expression, inhibited the IGF1R-AKT pathway, and significantly repressed HCC with robust expression of IGF2. Taken together, we conclude that H3K4me3 of P3/4 locus mediated by the menin-MLL complex is a novel epigenetic mechanism for releasing IGF2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2017.12.007DOI Listing
February 2018

A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

PLoS One 2016 4;11(2):e0148422. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth plant trait in cucumber breeding and provide for future cloning of csgl3.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148422PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4741392PMC
July 2016

TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB pathway is involved in tubulointerstitial inflammation caused by proteinuria.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2015 Dec 17;69:114-20. Epub 2015 Oct 17.

Institute of Nephrology, Zhong Da Hospital, Southeast University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Proteinuria is an important risk factor for chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Several studies have suggested that proteinuria initiates tubulointerstitial inflammation, while the mechanisms have not been fully understood. In this study, we hypothesized whether the activation of the TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB pathway is involved in tubulointerstitial inflammation induced by proteinuria. We observed expression of TLR2, MyD88, NF-κB, as well as TNF-α and IL-6 detected by immunohistostaining, Western blotting and real-time PCR in albumin-overloaded (AO) nephropathy rats. In vitro, we observed these markers in HK-2 cells stimulated by albumin. We used TLR2 siRNA or the NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 to observe the influence of TNF-α and IL-6 expression caused by albumin overload. Finally, we studied these markers in non-IgA mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) patients with different levels of proteinuria. It was demonstrated that expression of TLR2, MyD88 and NF-κB were significantly increased in AO rats and in non-IgA MsPGN patients with high levels of proteinuria, and TNF-α and IL-6 expressions were increased after NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TNF-α and IL-6 expression was positively correlated with the level of proteinuria. Albumin-overload induced TNF-α and IL-6 secretions by the TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB pathway activation, which could be attenuated by the TLR2 siRNA or BAY 11-7082 in HK-2 cells. In summary, we demonstrated that proteinuria may exhibit an endogenous danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that induces tubulointerstitial inflammation via the TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB pathway activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2015.10.014DOI Listing
December 2015

Urinary vimentin mRNA as a potential novel biomarker of renal fibrosis.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2015 Sep 22;309(6):F514-22. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

Institute of Nephrology, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China;

Renal fibrosis is a histological outcome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. However, the noninvasive detection of renal fibrosis remains a challenge. Here we constructed a renal fibrosis target mRNA array and used it to detect urinary mRNAs of CKD patients for investigating potential noninvasive biomarkers of renal fibrosis. We collected urine samples from 39 biopsy-proven CKD patients and 11 healthy controls in the training set. Urinary mRNA profiles of 86 genes showed a total of 21 mRNAs that were differentially expressed between CKD patients and controls (P < 0.05), and vimentin (VIM) mRNA demonstrated the highest change fold of 9.99 in CKD vs. controls with robust correlations with decline of renal function and severity of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Additionally, VIM mRNA further differentiated patients with moderate-to-severe fibrosis from none-to-mild fibrosis group with an area of the curve of 0.796 (P = 0.008). A verification of VIM mRNA in the urine of an additional 96 patients and 20 controls showed that VIM is not only well correlated with renal function parameters but also correlated with proteinuria and renal fibrosis scores. Multiple logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristics analysis further showed that urine VIM mRNA is the best predictive parameter of renal fibrosis compared with estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. In addition, there is no improved predictive performance for the composite biomarkers to predict renal fibrosis severity compared with a single gene of VIM. Overall, urinary VIM mRNA might serve as a novel independent noninvasive biomarker to monitor the progression of kidney fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00449.2014DOI Listing
September 2015

Genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair pathways influence the response to chemotherapy and overall survival of gastric cancer.

Tumour Biol 2015 Apr 28;36(4):3017-23. Epub 2014 Dec 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medicine College, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China,

We aimed to evaluate the clinical response to platinum-based chemotherapy and treatment outcome of gastric cancer patients in the present of ERCC1, ERCC2, NBN, RAD51, and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms. A number of 415 patients of gastric cancer that received platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled in the present study. The presence of ERCC1 rs11615 and rs2298881, ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181, NBN rs1805794, rs709816, and RAD51 rs1801321 and XRCC3 rs1799794 were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Conditional regression analysis identified that CC genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 and AA genotype of ERCC2 rs1799793 was associated with a better response to chemotherapy in gastric cancer patients, and the odds ratio (ORs)(95% confidence interval (CI)) were 2.70(1.33-5.70) and 3.12(1.52-6.84), respectively. By the Cox analysis, the CC genotype of ERCC1 rs11615, AA genotype of ERCC2 rs1799793, and CC genotype of NBN rs1805794 were significantly associated with a longer overall survival (OS) of gastric cancer. In conclusion, our results suggest that ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs1799793, and NBN rs1805794 polymorphisms in the DNA repair pathways may influence the response to chemotherapy and OS of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-014-2936-3DOI Listing
April 2015

FTY720 inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats via the Sphk1 pathway.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2014 Dec 17;35(12):1537-45. Epub 2014 Nov 17.

Institute of Nephrology, Division of Nephrology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.

Aim: FTY720, a new immunomodulatory drug with low cytotoxicity, is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of FTY720 on inflammatory cell infiltration in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to right-side nephrectomy and divided into 3 groups. One week after the surgery, albumin overload (AO) group was treated with BSA (5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 9 weeks; AO+FTY720 group was given BSA (5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) plus FTY720 (0.5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 9 weeks; and control group received daily ip injection of equivalent volume of saline. All rats were killed 9 weeks after nephrectomy.

Results: AO rats exhibited gradually increased urinary protein excretion accompanied by elevated urinary N-acetyl-β-O-glucosaminidase activity, and both reached their peak values at week 7. Furthermore, AO significantly increased lymphocytes and monocytes in circulation and the inflammatory cells recruited to tubulointerstitium, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6, as well as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1pr1 and S1pr3, and S1P-synthesizing enzyme sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) in the kidney. Concomitant administration of FTY720 significantly attenuated all the AO-induced pathological changes.

Conclusion: FTY720 alleviates tubulointerstitium inflammation in an AO rat model of nephropathy via down-regulation of the Sphk1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/aps.2014.100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4261119PMC
December 2014

Activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: a novel mechanism of albumin-induced tubulointerstitial inflammation.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2014 Dec 2;57:7-19. Epub 2014 Oct 2.

Institute of Nephrology, Zhong Da Hospital, Southeast University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Albuminuria is not only an important marker of chronic kidney disease but also a crucial contributor to tubulointerstitial inflammation (TIF). In this study, we determined whether activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome is involved in albuminuria induced-TIF and the underlying mechanisms of inflammasome activation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS). We established an albumin-overload induced rat nephropathy model characterised by albuminuria, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, tubular dilation and atrophy. The renal expression levels of the Nlrp3 inflammasome, IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly increased in this animal model. In vitro, albumin time- and dose-dependently increased the expression levels of the Nlrp3 inflammasome, IL-1β and IL18. Moreover, the silencing of the Nlrp3 gene or the use of the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the albumin-induced increase in IL-1β and IL-18 expression in HK2 cells. In addition, mROS generation was elevated by albumin stimulation, whereas the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) inhibited Nlrp3 expression and the release of IL-1β and IL-18. In kidney biopsy specimens obtained from patients with IgA nephropathy, Nlrp3 expression was localised to the proximal tubular epithelial cells, and this result is closely correlated with the extent of proteinuria and TIF. In summary, this study demonstrates that albuminuria may serve as an endogenous danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that stimulates TIF via the mROS-mediated activation of the cytoplasmic Nlrp3 inflammasome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2014.09.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4414121PMC
December 2014

Enalapril inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome expression in BSA-overload nephropathy of rats.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2014 Oct 25;35(10):1293-301. Epub 2014 Aug 25.

Institute of Nephrology, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University School of Medicine, Nanjing 210009, China.

Aim: Proteinuria is not only a common marker of renal disease, but also involved in renal tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of enalapril, an ACEI, against nephropathy in rats.

Methods: Wistar rats underwent unilateral right nephrectomy, and then were treated with BSA (5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip), or BSA plus enalapril (0.5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 9 weeks. The renal lesions were evaluated using histology and immunohistochemistry. The expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot.

Results: BSA-overload resulted in severe proteinuria, which peaked at week 7, and interstitial inflammation with prominent infiltration of CD68(+) cells (macrophages) and CD3(+) cells (T lymphocytes), particularly of CD20(+) cells (B lymphocytes). BSA-overload markedly increased the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 in the proximal tubular epithelial cells, and in inflammatory cells as well. Furthermore, the expression of IL-1β or IL-18 was significantly correlated with proteinuria (IL-1β: r=0.757; IL-18: r=0.834). These abnormalities in BSA-overload rats were significantly attenuated by concurrent administration of enalapril.

Conclusion: Enalapril exerts protective effects against BSA-overload nephropathy in rats via suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome expression and tubulointerstitial inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/aps.2014.66DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4186985PMC
October 2014

The functional and mechanistic relatedness of EZH2 and menin in hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Hepatol 2014 Oct 15;61(4):832-9. Epub 2014 May 15.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Xiamen University, Chengzhi Building 110, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen 361102, PR China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Xiamen University, Chengzhi Building 110, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen 361102, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Xiamen University, Chengzhi Building 110, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen 361102, PR China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The alterations of histone modification may serve as a promising diagnostic biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the clinical and mechanistic relatedness of the histone H3 lysine 27 and 4 trimethylation (H3K27me3 and H3K4me3) in HCC remains poorly understood. Here we propose that the combination of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 is a more precise predictive/prognostic value for outcome of HCC patients.

Methods: We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and a ChIP-on-chip screen to analyse HCC.

Results: We found that the EZH2 occupancy coincides with the H3K27me3 at promoters and directly silences the transcription of target genes in HCC. The H3K27me3-related gene network of EZH2 contains well-established genes, such as CDKN2A, as well as previously unappreciated genes, including FOXO3, E2F1, and NOTCH2, among others. We further observed independently increasing profiles of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 at the promoters of certain target genes in HCC specimens. Importantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis reveals that 3-year overall and tumour-free survival rates are dramatically reduced in patients that simultaneously express EZH2 and menin, compared to rates in the EZH2 or menin under expressing patients. Furthermore, an inhibitor of H3K27me3 alone, or in combination with an H3K4me3 inhibitor, effectively blocked the aggressive phenotype of HCC cells.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that a combined analysis of both H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 may serve as powerful diagnostic biomarkers of HCC, and targeting both might benefit anti-HCC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2014.05.015DOI Listing
October 2014

Menin promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis and epigenetically up-regulates Yap1 transcription.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Oct 7;110(43):17480-5. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences of Medical College, State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, People's Republic of China.

Menin is a scaffold protein encoded by the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in humans, and it interacts with a variety of transcriptional proteins to control active or repressive cellular processes. Here, we show that heterozygous ablation of Men1 in female mice reduces chemical carcinogen-induced liver carcinogenesis and represses the activation of the inflammation pathway. Using ChIP-on-chip screens and ChIP assays, we find that menin occupancy frequently coincides with H3K4me3 at the promoter of many liver cancer-related genes, such as Yes-associated protein (Yap1). Increased menin and Yap1 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma specimens was associated with poor prognosis. Our findings reveal that menin plays an important epigenetic role in promoting liver tumorigenesis, and support the notion that H3K4me3, which is regulated by the menin-mixed-lineage leukemia complex, is a potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1312022110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3808599PMC
October 2013

Diet folate, DNA methylation and polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in association with the susceptibility to gastric cancer.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013 ;14(1):299-302

Department of Anthropotomy, School of Basic Medicine, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China.

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been reported to be associated with DNA methylation, an epigenetic feature frequently found in gastric cancer. We conducted a case-control study to explore the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk and its relation with the DNA methylation of COX-2, MGMT, and hMLH1 genes. Genotyping of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 was determined by methylation-specific PCR after sodium bisulfate modification of DNA, and genotyping of MTHFR C677T was conducted by TaqMan assays using the ABI Prism 7911HT Sequence Detection System. Folate intake was calculated with the aid of a questionnaire. Compared with the MTHFR 677CC genotype, the TT genotype was significantly associated with 2.08 fold risk of gastric cancer when adjusting for potential risk factors. Individuals who had an intake of folate above 310 μg/day showed protective effects against gastric cancer risk. The effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on the risk of gastric cancer was modified by folate intake and methylation status of MGMT (P for interaction <0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.1.299DOI Listing
December 2013
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