Publications by authors named "Li Zhao"

2,600 Publications

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Rich Embedding Features for One-Shot Semantic Segmentation.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 23;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

One-shot semantic segmentation poses the challenging task of segmenting object regions from unseen categories with only one annotated example as guidance. Thus, how to effectively construct robust feature representations from the guidance image is crucial to the success of one-shot semantic segmentation. To this end, we propose in this article a simple, yet effective approach named rich embedding features (REFs). Given a reference image accompanied with its annotated mask, our REF constructs rich embedding features of the support object from three perspectives: 1) global embedding to capture the general characteristics; 2) peak embedding to capture the most discriminative information; 3) adaptive embedding to capture the internal long-range dependencies. By combining these informative features, we can easily harvest sufficient and rich guidance even from a single reference image. In addition to REF, we further propose a simple depth-priority context module to obtain useful contextual cues from the query image. This successfully raises the performance of one-shot semantic segmentation to a new level. We conduct experiments on pattern analysis, statical modeling and computational learning (Pascal) visual object classes (VOC) 2012 and common object in context (COCO) to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3081693DOI Listing
June 2021

Serum albumin guided plasmonic nanoassemblies with opposite chiralities.

Soft Matter 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.

Chiral assemblies by combining natural biomolecules with plasmonic nanostructures hold great promise for plasmonic enhanced sensing, imaging, and catalytic applications. Herein, we demonstrate that human serum albumin (HSA) and porcine serum albumin (PSA) can guide the chiral assembly of gold nanorods (GNRs) with left-handed chiroptical responses opposite to those by a series of other homologous animal serum albumins (SAs) due to the difference of their surface charge distributions. Under physiological pH conditions, the assembly of HSA or PSA with GNRs yielded left-handed twisted aggregates, while bovine serum albumin (BSA), sheep serum albumin, and equine serum albumin behaved on the contrary. The driving force for the chiral assembly is mainly attributed to electrostatic interaction. The opposite chiroptical signals acquired are correlated with the chiral surface charge distributions of the tertiary structures of SAs. Moreover, the chirality of the assembly induced by both HSA and BSA can be enhanced or reversed by adjusting the pH values. This work provides new insights into the modulation of protein-induced chiral assemblies and promotes their applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sm00784jDOI Listing
June 2021

Single-molecule long-read sequencing reveals extensive genomic and transcriptomic variation between maize and its wild relative teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis).

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the wild progenitor of maize (Zea mays L.), is an important germplasm resource for improvement of modern maize lines. However, we have limited genetic and genomic information about teosinte and lack state-of-the-art tools to annotate transcriptomes assembled by single-molecule long-read sequencing without a reference genome. Here, we employed single-molecule long-read sequencing of cDNA libraries from five tissues of the teosinte inbred line TIL11 and identified 70,044 non-redundant transcript isoforms. We devised a state-of-the-art, machine learning-based bioinformatics pipeline DenovoAS_Finder to annotate the TIL11 transcriptome without a complete reference genome with an accuracy of up to 91%, providing a robust gene classifier of complex genomes. Additionally, we constructed a draft TIL11 genome with 16,633 high-quality contigs and a N50 of 112 kb by Nanopore sequencing. Genes from families that expanded from teosinte to maize were significantly enriched in the Gene Ontology term 'RNA modification pathway' and had more transcript isoforms in TIL11 than in the maize inbred line B73. Genes showed collinearity between TIL11 and B73, and intergenic regions were extensively altered by transposable elements. Our study furthers the understanding of maize domestication and provides a resource for the utilization of wild germplasm in maize breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13454DOI Listing
June 2021

Msi1 promotes breast cancer metastasis by regulating invadopodia-mediated extracellular matrix degradation via the Timp3-Mmp9 pathway.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, Ministry of Education, Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. The initial step of metastasis is invadopodia-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, which enables local breast tumor cells to invade surrounding tissues. However, the molecular mechanism underlying invadopodia-mediated metastasis remains largely unknown. Here we found that the RNA-binding protein Musashi1 (Msi1) exhibited elevated expression in invasive breast tumors and promoted lung metastasis of mammary cancer cells. Suppression of Msi1 reduced invadopodia formation in mammary cancer cells. Furthermore, Msi1 deficiency decreased the expression and activity of Mmp9, an important enzyme in ECM degradation. Mechanistically, Msi1 directly suppressed Timp3, an endogenous inhibitor of Mmp9. In clinical breast cancer specimens, TIMP3 and MSI1 levels were significantly inversely correlated both in normal breast tissue and breast cancer tissues and associated with overall survival in breast cancer patients. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the MSI1-TIMP3-MMP9 cascade is critical for invadopodia-mediated onset of metastasis in breast cancer, providing novel insights into a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01873-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Retroperitoneal versus transperitoneal approach for elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jun 21;6:CD010373. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Evidence-Based Medicine Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou City, China.

Background: There has been extensive debate in the surgical literature regarding the optimum surgical access approach to the infrarenal abdominal aorta during an operation to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The published trials comparing retroperitoneal (RP) and transperitoneal (TP) aortic surgery show conflicting results. This is an update of the review first published in 2016.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of the retroperitoneal versus transperitoneal approach for elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair on mortality, complications, hospital stay and blood loss.

Search Methods: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 30 November 2020. The review authors searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and handsearched reference lists of relevant articles to identify additional trials.

Selection Criteria: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the RP approach versus the TP approach for elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. There were no restrictions on language or publication status.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data from the included trials. We resolved any disagreements through discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias in included trials with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous data, we calculated a pooled estimate of treatment effect by calculating the mean difference (MD) and standard deviation (SD) with corresponding 95% CIs. We pooled data using a fixed-effect model, unless we identified heterogeneity, in which case we used a random-effects model. We used GRADE to assess the overall certainty of the evidence. We evaluated the outcomes of mortality, complications, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, hospital stay, blood loss, aortic cross-clamp time and operating time.

Main Results: We identified no new studies from the updated searches. After reassessment, we included one study which had previously been excluded. Five RCTs with a combined total of 152 participants are included. The overall certainty of the evidence ranged from low to very low because of the low methodological quality of the included trials (unclear random sequence generation method and allocation concealment, and no blinding of outcome assessors), small sample sizes, small number of events, high heterogeneity and inconsistency between the included trials, no power calculations and relatively short follow-up. There was no evidence of a difference between the RP approach and the TP approach regarding mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.32, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.25; 3 studies, 110 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Similarly, there was no evidence of a difference in complications such as hematoma (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.13 to 6.48; 2 studies, 75 participants; very low-certainty evidence), abdominal wall hernia (OR 10.76, 95% CI 0.55 to 211.78; 1 study, 48 participants; very low-certainty evidence), or chronic wound pain (OR 2.20, 95% CI 0.36 to 13.34; 1 study, 48 participants; very low-certainty evidence) between the RP and TP approaches in participants undergoing elective open AAA repair. The RP approach may reduce ICU stay (mean difference (MD) -19.02 hours, 95% CI -30.83 to -7.21; 3 studies, 106 participants; low-certainty evidence); hospital stay (MD -3.30 days, 95% CI -4.85 to-1.75; 5 studies, 152 participants; low-certainty evidence); and blood loss (MD -504.87 mL, 95% CI -779.19 to -230.56; 4 studies, 129 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference between the RP approach and the TP approach regarding aortic cross-clamp time (MD 0.69 min, 95% CI -7.23 to 8.60; 4 studies, 129 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or operating time (MD -15.94 min, 95% CI -34.76 to 2.88; 4 studies, 129 participants; very low-certainty evidence).

Authors' Conclusions: Very low-certainty evidence from five small RCTs showed no clear evidence of a difference between the RP approach and the TP approach for elective open AAA repair in terms of mortality, or for rates of complications including hematoma (very low-certainty evidence), abdominal wall hernia (very low-certainty evidence), or chronic wound pain (very low-certainty evidence). However, a shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay and shorter hospital stay was probably indicated following the RP approach compared to the TP approach (both low-certainty evidence). A possible reduction in blood loss was also shown after the RP approach (very low-certainty evidence). There is no clear difference between the RP approach and TP approach in aortic cross-clamp time or operating time. Further well-designed, large-scale RCTs assessing the RP approach versus TP approach for elective open AAA repair are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010373.pub3DOI Listing
June 2021

Cyclooxygenase-2 expressed hepatocellular carcinoma induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes exhaustion through M2 macrophage polarization.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):4360-4375. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Liver Cirrhosis and Cancer, UMHS-PUHSC Joint Institute for Translational and Clinical Research Beijing, China.

Objective: Due to the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) complexity and cancer heterogeneity, the clinical outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are barely elicited from the conventional treatment options, even from the promising anti-cancer immunotherapy. As a suppressive TIME-related marker, the role played by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in HCC TIME, and its potential effects on anti-cancer T cell immune response remains unknown. In our study, to investigate the COX-2-dependent immune regulation pathway, we verified that the macrophages phenotypes were correlated to COX-2/PGE2 expressions among HCC patients. A multi-cellular co-culture platform containing HCC cells, macrophages, and T cells were established to mimic HCC TIME in vitro and in animal model. M2 macrophage polarization and activated CD8 T cells exhaustion were observed under high COX-2 levels in HCC cells, with further evaluation using CRISPR/Cas9-based PTGS2 knocking out and COX-2 blockade (celecoxib) treatment controls. PGE2, TGF-β, Granzyme B, and IFN-γ levels were testified by flow cytometry and ELISA to fully understand the mechanism of COX-2 suppressive effects on T cell-based anti-HCC responses. The activation of the TGF-β pathway evaluated by auto-western blot in T cells was confirmed which increased the level of phosphorylated Smad3, phosphorylated Samd2, and FoxP1, leading to T cell de-lymphotoxin. In conclusion, high COX-2-expressing HCC cell lines can induce anti-tumor abilities exhaustion in activated CD8 T cell through M2 TAMs polarization and TGF beta pathway. COX-2 inhibitors may reduce the inhibitory effect on CD8 T cells through regulating TAMs in TIME, thus enhance the T cell-based cytotoxicity and improve the prognosis of HCC patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205841PMC
May 2021

Mesenteric Panniculitis Can Be Diagnosed by Examination and Cured by Comprehensive Therapy.

Authors:
Li Zhao Dajiang Xie

Gastroenterol Nurs 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Li Zhao, MD, is Doctor-in-charge, Department of Gastroenterology, Hangzhou Red Cross Hospital/Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China. Dajiang Xie, MD, is Doctor-in-charge, Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare, slowly progressive, benign, and chronic fibrous inflammatory disease that affects the adipose tissue of the mesentery. In the present study, we aim to investigate its clinical presentations, computed tomography/sonography scan features, effectiveness of the treatment, and overall prognosis. We investigated various presentations, etiologies, diagnostic approaches, potential treatment modalities, and overall prognosis of mesenteric panniculitis. We present one case of mesenteric panniculitis with abdominal pain, which underwent steroid treatment regimens subsequently and gained weight moderately. An abdomen and pelvis cavity computed tomography scan showed misty mesentery, an ill-defined increase in the density of the peritoneal fat at the base of the mesentery with few small associated lymph nodes. The appearance is that of a panniculitis. His symptoms gradually decreased in intensity and disappeared totally within 1 month after oral prednisone 40 mg per day and moderate gain weight. Computed tomography scan features of the disease have recently been delineated clearly. Standard treatment strategy does not exist, and the current ways mainly consist of immunosuppressor or anti-inflammation agents. Overall prognosis is usually good and recurrence seems to be rare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SGA.0000000000000596DOI Listing
June 2021

Vpr counteracts the restriction of LAPTM5 to promote HIV-1 infection in macrophages.

Nat Commun 2021 06 17;12(1):3691. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology of Ministry of Health, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

The HIV-1 accessory proteins Vif, Vpu, and Nef can promote infection by overcoming the inhibitory effects of the host cell restriction factors APOBEC3G, Tetherin, and SERINC5, respectively. However, how the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr enhances infection in macrophages but not in CD4 T cells remains elusive. Here, we report that Vpr counteracts lysosomal-associated transmembrane protein 5 (LAPTM5), a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 particle infectivity, to enhance HIV-1 infection in macrophages. LAPTM5 transports HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins to lysosomes for degradation, thereby inhibiting virion infectivity. Vpr counteracts the restrictive effects of LAPTM5 by triggering its degradation via DCAF1. In the absence of Vpr, the silencing of LAPTM5 precisely phenocopied the effect of Vpr on HIV-1 infection. In contrast, Vpr did not enhance HIV-1 infection in the absence of LAPTM5. Moreover, LAPTM5 was highly expressed in macrophages but not in CD4 T lymphocytes. Re-expressing LAPTM5 reconstituted the Vpr-dependent promotion of HIV-1 infection in primary CD4 T cells, as observed in macrophages. Herein, we demonstrate the molecular mechanism used by Vpr to overcome LAPTM5 restriction in macrophages, providing a potential strategy for anti-HIV/AIDS therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24087-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Atypical Pathogen Distribution in Chinese Hospitalized AECOPD Patients: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 9;16:1699-1708. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Institute of Respiratory Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The proportion of atypical pathogens in patient with AECOPD within mainland China is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of atypical pathogens among Chinese patients with AECOPD, to evaluate the clinical characteristics of different atypical pathogen infections, and to compare different detection methods for atypical pathogens.

Patients And Methods: Specimens were collected from patients with AECOPD from March 2016 to November 2018 at eleven medical institutions in eight cities in China. Double serum, sputum, and urine samples were obtained from 145 patients. Serological and nucleic acid tests were used to assess for and ; serological, urinary antigen, and nucleic acid tests were applied to detect . The clinical characteristics of atypical pathogen-positive and -negative groups were also compared.

Results: The overall positivity rate for was 20.69% (30/145), with the highest rate being 20.00% (29/145) when determined by passive agglutination.The overall positive rates for and were 29.66% (43/145) and 10.34% (15/145), respectively. The most common serotype of was type 6. The maximum hospitalized body temperature, ratio of eosinophils, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and procalcitonin (PCT) level of the -positive group were significantly higher than those of the -negative group. Patients in the -positive group smoked more, had higher proportions of comorbidities and frequent aggravations in the previous two years than those in the -negative group. Furthermore, the forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV/FVC) ratio assessment of lung function was higher, and the concentration of arterial blood bicarbonate (HCO) was lower in the -positive group than in the -negative group.

Conclusion: Overall, atypical pathogens play an important role in AECOPD. Regarding the testing method, serological testing is a superior method to nucleic acid testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S300779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200156PMC
June 2021

[Clinical features of preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1 500 g undergoing different intensities of resuscitation: a multicenter retrospective analysis].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;23(6):593-598

Department of Neonatology, Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University/Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Nanjing 210004, China.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical features of preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1 500 g undergoing different intensities of resuscitation.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1 500 g and a gestational age less than 32 weeks who were treated in the neonatal intensive care unit of 20 hospitals in Jiangsu, China from January 2018 to December 2019. According to the intensity of resuscitation in the delivery room, the infants were divided into three groups:non-tracheal intubation (=1 184), tracheal intubation (=166), and extensive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR; =116). The three groups were compared in terms of general information and clinical outcomes.

Results: Compared with the non-tracheal intubation group, the tracheal intubation and ECPR groups had significantly lower rates of cesarean section and use of antenatal corticosteroid ( < 0.05). As the intensity of resuscitation increased, the Apgar scores at 1 minute and 5 minutes gradually decreased ( < 0.05), and the proportion of infants with Apgar scores of 0 to 3 at 1 minute and 5 minutes gradually increased ( < 0.05). Compared with the non-tracheal intubation group, the tracheal intubation and ECPR groups had significantly higher mortality rate and incidence rates of moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and serious complications ( < 0.05). The incidence rates of grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ intracranial hemorrhage and retinopathy of prematurity (stage Ⅲ or above) in the tracheal intubation group were significantly higher than those in the non-tracheal intubation group ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: For preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1 500 g, the higher intensity of resuscitation in the delivery room is related to lower rate of antenatal corticosteroid therapy, lower gestational age, and lower birth weight. The infants undergoing tracheal intubation or ECRP in the delivery room have an increased incidence rate of adverse clinical outcomes. This suggests that it is important to improve the quality of perinatal management and delivery room resuscitation to improve the prognosis of the infants.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214002PMC
June 2021

Value of multiple models of diffusion-weighted imaging for improving the nodal staging of preoperatively node-negative rectal cancer.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No.17, Panjiayuan Nanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100021, China.

Objective: To investigate the parameters of multiple diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) models for improving nodal staging of preoperatively node-negative rectal cancer.

Materials And Methods: A total of 74 rectal cancer patients without suspected metastatic lymph nodes on conventional MRI who underwent direct surgical resection between November 2018 and January 2020 were enrolled in this prospective study. DWI parameters of mono-exponential model (ADC), intravoxel incoherent motion (D, D* and f), stretched exponential model (DDC and α), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (MD and MK) within the whole tumor were measured to predict the nodal staging in rectal cancer patients.

Results: The D*, DDC, and MK values were significantly different in patients with pN0 and pN1-2 (all P < 0.001). The D*, DDC, and MK showed good diagnostic performance with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) of 0.788, 0.827 and 0.799. Multivariate analysis indicated D* (odds ratio, OR = 1.163, P = 0.003) and DDC (OR = 0.007, P = 0.019) as significant predictors of nodal staging. The combination of DDC and D* demonstrated superior diagnostic performance with the AUC, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.872, 0.800, 0.932 and 0.878, respectively.

Conclusion: Multiple functional DWI parameters were potential to identify the rectal cancer patients with micro-nodal involvement for accurate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03125-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Intelligent "Internet Plus" services in the first case of home hemodialysis in mainland China.

Hemodial Int 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Administration Department, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Many studies have shown that compared with those who use other dialysis modalities, patients using home hemodialysis (HHD) have an increased rate of survival and better quality of life. It was noted in 2006 that there was opportunity for significant expansion of the use of HHD in many countries. China covers a vast area and has a large amount of end-stage renal failure patients. But in mainland China, all dialysis treatments are in-center, and the number of HHD patients is zero. In 2018, our hospital received the permission of the Shanghai government to carry out HHD.

Case Presentation: We initiated four incident hemodialysis patients on an HHD regimen, one patient has been dialyzed in the home safely for 8 months. The biochemical parameters of the first patient remained stable on the regimen and he achieved standard Kt/V urea targets. Treatment-related adverse events were not reported during the follow-up. We combined HHD with intelligent "Internet Plus" real-time remote monitoring and introduced the Internet, especially visualization software, to replace traditional telephone and home visit methods. It is more intuitive and quicker to assist patients in performing home hemodialysis and improve the safety of treatment.

Conclusions: HHD can be performed by selected trained patients in mainland China. Combined with the internet, visualization software, and traditional telephone and home visits, it is intuitive and quick to assist patients in carrying out HHD and improve the safety of treatment. HHD broadens the choices for uremia patients in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12942DOI Listing
June 2021

Association between telomere length in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes and the propofol dose in anesthesia induction: an observational study.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The Affiliated Lianyungang No. 2 People's Hospital of Jiangsu University, Department of Anesthesiology, Lianyungang, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Propofol is a widely used anesthetic and its dose is closely related to aging. Telomere length (TL) is a unique heritable trait, and emerging as a biomarker of aging, health and disease. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) plays an important role in maintaining TL. We proposed a hypothesis that propofol dose in general anesthesia can be predicted by measuring TL before operation, which greatly reduced the risk of anesthesia, especially the elderly.

Methods: The association between the propofol dose in anesthesia induction and: TL in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes; body weight; sex; difference of the Bispectral Index (BIS) before and after anesthesia induction in patients was evaluated by multivariable linear regression analyses. The mutation at the 5'end or 3'end of TERC was detected. We recruited 100 patients of elective surgery.

Results: We found that propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated significantly with TL (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p= 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p = 0.004), and difference of BIS before and after anesthesia induction (r = 0.85, p = 0.029). By comparing the absolute values of standardized regression coefficients (0.58, 0.21, 0.19, and 0.12) of the four variables, it can be seen that TL contributes the most to the propofol dose in anesthesia induction. However, the mutation at the 5' end or 3' end of TERC was not found.

Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that the propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated with genetically determined TL. TL may be a promising predictor of the propofol dose, which is beneficial to improve the safety of anesthesia and reduce perioperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2021.05.014DOI Listing
June 2021

Author Correction: Wogonin reversed resistant human myelogenous leukemia cells via inhibiting Nrf2 signaling by Stat3/ NF-κB inactivation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12746. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91964-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196212PMC
June 2021

Acute effects of 2.856 GHz and 1.5 GHz microwaves on spatial memory abilities and CREB-related pathways.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12348. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Experimental Pathology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

This study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of 2.856 GHz and 1.5 GHz microwaves on spatial memory and cAMP response element binding (CREB)-related pathways. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group (C); 2.856 GHz microwave exposure group (S group); 1.5 GHz microwave exposure group (L group); and 2.856 and 1.5 GHz cumulative exposure group (SL group). Decreases in spatial memory abilities, changes in EEG, structural injuries, and the downregulation of phosphorylated-Ak strain transforming (p-AKT), phosphorylated-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (p-CaMKII), phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (p-ERK) and p-CREB was observed 6 h after microwave exposure. Significant differences in the expression of p-CaMKII were found between the S and L groups. The power amplitudes of the EEG waves (θ, δ), levels of structural injuries and the expression of p-AKT, p-CaMK II, p-CREB, and p-ERK1/2 were significantly different in the S and L groups compared to the SL group. Interaction effects between the 2.856 and 1.5 GHz microwaves were found in the EEG and p-CREB changes. Our findings indicated that 2.856 GHz and 1.5 GHz microwave exposure induced a decline in spatial memory, which might be related to p-AKT, p-CaMK II, p-CREB and p-ERK1/2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91622-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196025PMC
June 2021

Renoprotective effects of levosimendan on acute kidney injury following cardiac arrest via anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and ERK activation.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Emergency, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATPs) have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion-induced injuries and can be activated by levosimendan. This study investigated the effects of levosimendan on renal injury, inflammation, apoptosis and survival in a rat model of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Rats underwent a 5-minute asphyxia-based CA and resuscitation. The rats were treated with levosimendan after successful resuscitation. Renal functions, histological changes, inflammatory responses and apoptosis were examined. NRK-52E cells treated by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) were used to establish an in vitro CA- CPR model. Rats in the CA-induced AKI group had a low survival rate and increased levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and proinflammatory cytokines, as well as increased tubular injury. These results were significantly reversed after treatment with levosimendan. Levosimendan downregulated the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, as well as upregulated Bcl-2 and p-ERK expression in vivo and in vitro. Thus, our data suggest that levosimendan reduces mortality and AKI following CA and CPR via suppression of inflammation and apoptosis, and activation of ERK signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13227DOI Listing
June 2021

Search for Light Dark Matter-Electron Scattering in the PandaX-II Experiment.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(21):211803

Research Center for Particle Science and Technology, Institute of Frontier and Interdisciplinary Science, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, Shandong, China.

We report constraints on light dark matter through its interactions with shell electrons in the PandaX-II liquid xenon detector with a total 46.9  tonnes/day exposure. To effectively search for these very low energy electron recoils, ionization-only signals are selected from the data. 1821 candidates are identified within an ionization signal range between 50 and 75 photoelectrons, corresponding to a mean electronic recoil energy from 0.08 to 0.15 keV. The 90% C.L. exclusion limit on the scattering cross section between the dark matter and electron is calculated with systematic uncertainties properly taken into account. Under the assumption of point interaction, we provide the world's most stringent limit within the dark matter mass range from 15 to 30  MeV/c^{2}, with the corresponding cross section from 2.5×10^{-37} to 3.1×10^{-38}  cm^{2}.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.211803DOI Listing
May 2021

Comprehensive analysis of the anti-glycation effect of peanut skin extract.

Food Chem 2021 May 21;362:130169. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Wuhan Engineering Research Center of Bee Products on Quality and Safety Control, Wuhan 430070, China; Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology (Huazhong Agricultural University), Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070, China; Laboratory of Urban Agriculture in Central China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are produced during protein glycation and associated with diabetic complications. Peanut skin is rich in procyanidins, which may be used as an inhibitor of glycation. This study evaluated the potential anti-glycation effect of peanut skin extract (PSE) and dissected the underlying mechanism. PSE could effectively inhibit the formation of AGEs in BSA-Glc and BSA-MGO/GO models, with 44%, 37% and 82% lower IC values than the positive control (AG), respectively. The inhibitory effect of PSE on BSA glycation might be ascribed to its binding interaction with BSA, attenuated formation of early glycation products and trapping of reactive dicarbonyl compounds. Notably, PSE showed a remarkably stronger inhibitory effect on Amadori products than AG. Furthermore, three new types of PSE-MGO adducts were formed as identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These findings suggest that PSE may serve as an inhibitor of glycation and provide new insights into its application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130169DOI Listing
May 2021

Health policy and public health implications of obesity in China.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jul 4;9(7):446-461. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Health Administration and Policy, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.

China has experienced many drastic social and economic changes and shifts in people's lifestyles since the 1990s, in parallel with the fast rising prevalence of obesity. About half of adults and a fifth of children have overweight or obesity according to the Chinese criteria, making China the country with the highest number of people with overweight or obesity in the world. Assuming that observed time trends would continue in the future, we projected the prevalence of and the number of people affected by overweight and obesity by 2030, and the associated medical costs. The rising incidence of obesity and number of people affected, as well as the related health and economic consequences, place a huge burden on China's health-care system. China has made many efforts to tackle obesity, including the implementation of relevant national policies and programmes. However, these measures are inadequate for controlling the obesity epidemic. In the past decade, China has attached great importance to public health, and the Healthy China 2030 national strategy initiated in 2016 provides a historical opportunity to establish comprehensive national strategies for tackling obesity. China is well positioned to explore an effective model to overcome the obesity epidemic; however, strong commitment and leadership from central and local governments are needed, as well as active participation of all related society sectors and individual citizens. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the paper see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00118-2DOI Listing
July 2021

The prognostic and diagnostic value of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases gene family and potential function in gastric cancer.

J Cancer 2021 13;12(13):4086-4098. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Guangxi Medical University Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Clinical Research Center for Colorectal Cancer, Nanning 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) gene family, including , , and , was found to be correlated with serval cancers. Still the diagnostic and prognostic study of it in gastric cancer (GC) have few reports. In this study, the gene expression and clinical data were acquired from the Cancer Gene Atlas (TCGA), function enrichment was used by several databases for verifying known function. Operating characteristic (ROC) curves with area under the curve (AUC) used to assess diagnostic value. Survival analysis and joint-effects survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier curve. The results were adjusted by cox-regression model. Nomogram is used to directly predict the survival rate for individual GC patient. The potential mechanism for diagnostic and prognostic value was assessed by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Further functions of gene were verified by cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays in human gastric cancer cell line. was expressed in GC tissue was higher than normal gastric tissue. and have expressed in normal gastric tissue were higher than GC tissue. , and have potential diagnostic value (AUC=0.842, 0.729, 0.786 respectively; all P<0.01). Low expression of and associated with favorable overall survival (all P<0.05). and , which had significantly affection of prognosis were found having some function such as tRNA processing, cell cycle pathway ncRNA processing. The silencing of TIMP3 could inhibit the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cell. We analyzed the TIMP gene family in GC, and the prognostic and diagnostic value. and could be used as diagnostic biomarkers in GC. and could be used as potential biomarkers for GC's prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.57808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176236PMC
May 2021

Restoring VTA DA neurons excitability accelerates emergence from sevoflurane general anesthesia of anxiety state.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Aug 2;565:21-28. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Life Science and Technology, Shanghai Tech University, Shanghai, 201210, China. Electronic address:

Preoperative anxiety is common and often comes with a higher probability of worse recovery. However, the neurological mechanism of the effect of preoperative anxiety on general anesthesia and subsequent awakening remains unknown. In this study, we report an anxious state results in delayed awakening in anxiety model mice from sevoflurane general anesthesia. More profound inhibition of DA neurons in the VTA contributes to delayed awakening. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA DA neurons can reverse the delay. The results indicate that VTA DA neurons may be involved in the delay in awakening from general anesthesia caused by anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.079DOI Listing
August 2021

Sizes and ligands tuned gold nanocluster acting as a new type of monoamine oxidase B inhibitor.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Oct 29;189:113377. Epub 2021 May 29.

College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, PR China; First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, PR China. Electronic address:

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that can be used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, clinical depression, and anxiety by targeting monoamine oxidase B (MAO). However, the side effects of MAOIs drive the requirement of a new framework of enzyme inhibitors development. In this context, a new type of MAOI has been built on the framework of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), realizing the transformation from no function of small molecules to MAOI function of ligand-modified AuNCs. The MAOI activity of fabricated AuNCs can be achieved by size control and specific ligands modification. In this work, AuNCs modified with cysteamine or 4-aminothiophenol, about 1-3 nm in size, were found to have MAOI activity (MAOI-like AuNCs) and their characterization has been extensively described. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism behind this MAOI activity has been explored and it is believed that the proper size of AuNCs with ligands containing amino groups can bind tightly with the entrance to active sites of MAO, blocking the enzyme interacting with its substrates, thereby realizing the function of MAOI. Last, the antimicrobial activity and the performance of the MAOI-like AuNCs in the human blood sample were explored and suggested that MAOI-like AuNCs do not possess strong antimicrobial activity and have no visualized side effect on blood cells, although the by-product peroxide of MAO reaction may reshape the white blood cells. The research in this work may shed some light on the development of a new type of enzyme inhibitor based on the framework of nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113377DOI Listing
October 2021

A dansyl-based fluorescent probe for sensing Cu in aqueous solution.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 May 26;261:120009. Epub 2021 May 26.

School of Light Industry, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China.

A fluorescent probe based on a glycyl-L-tyrosine-modified dansyl derivative (D-GT) is designed and synthesized. D-GT demonstrated great detection performance toward Cu in an aqueous solution. Fluorescence quenching occurred due to the coordination of Cu with D-GT. The sensitive detection of D-GT to Cu was applied in aqueous solution within a wide pH span (6-12). A 1:1 coordinate stoichiometric way and an association constant of 6.47 × 10 M between D-GT and Cu were determined. The measured detection limit for Cu in HEPES buffer solution (10 mM, pH 7.4) was 0.69 μM. The probe displayed an appropriate sensitivity toward Cu in real drinking water samples and living cells, which reveals the potential applications of D-GT in complicated environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120009DOI Listing
May 2021

Mechanism exploration of the enhancement of thermal energy storage in molten salt nanofluid.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jun;23(23):13181-13189

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China.

Enhancement of the specific heat capacity of a molten salt-based nanofluid is investigated via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results show that the addition of nanoparticles indeed enhances the specific heat capacity of the base fluid. Combining the analysis of potential energy and system configurations, the main reasons responsible for the enhancement of the specific heat capacity of the nanofluid are revealed. Different from previous reports on nanofluids, there is no correlation between the specific heat capacity and the potential energy magnitude of the nanofluid system. It is noticed that the trend of change in the potential energy with nanoparticle loading is only related to the relative magnitude of the nanoparticle and the base fluid potential energy. Moreover, the introduction of nanoparticles introduces an extra force into the system and causes the formation of a compressed layer around the nanoparticle. This structure is tighter than the pure base fluid and requires more energy to be broken. The extra energy used to break this structure can act to enhance the specific heat capacity of the nanofluid. Our research reveals the mechanism behind the specific heat capacity enhancement and guides the prediction of thermal properties and material selection of the nanofluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp00125fDOI Listing
June 2021

Bioactive nanoparticle reinforced alginate/gelatin bioink for the maintenance of stem cell stemness.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 19;126:112193. Epub 2021 May 19.

Research Center for Tissue Repair and Regeneration affiliated to the Medical Innovation Research Department, PLA General Hospital, 51 Fu Cheng Road, Beijing 100048, PR China. Electronic address:

Mesenchymal cells (MSCs) are an attractive option as seed cells for bioprinting. However, loss of stemness and undesired differentiation reduces their effectiveness. In this study, 12 nm bioactive nanoparticles (BNPs) which could release silicon (Si) ions were used to enhance the properties of alginate/gelatin hydrogel bioink to maintain MSC stemness. By specifically leveraging biochemical signals of BNPs, bioink with defined stiffness towards osteogenic and adipogenic potential, independent of pore structure, were designed by incorporating with different concentration of BNPs. These bioink were characterized by printability, mechanical and rheological properties as well as osteogenic and adipogenic potentials. Notably, the effect of 2% BNPs addition in alginate/gelatin hydrogel on MSC stemness maintenance was confirmed by the expression of stemness markers. At higher concentrations of BNPs (5%), printability was impacted by the gelling process. We further confirmed the enhanced stemness maintenance by sweat gland lineage commitment of bioprinted MSCs in vitro. Overall, our study proved that alginate/gelatin hydrogel bioink reinforced by BNPs in the optimal concentrations could retain MSC stemness as well as support MSC growth and prolong the desired differentiation. These findings may provide a new approach to achieve the ideal therapeutic potential of MSCs in 3D bioprinting application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112193DOI Listing
July 2021

miR-1258 Attenuates Tumorigenesis Through Targeting E2F1 to Inhibit and Transcription in Glioblastoma.

Front Oncol 2021 17;11:671144. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

MicroRNAs are a group of endogenous small non-coding RNAs commonly dysregulated in tumorigenesis, including glioblastoma (GBM), the most malignant brain tumor with rapid proliferation, diffuse invasion, and therapeutic resistance. Accumulating evidence has manifested that miR-1258 exerts an inhibitory role in many human cancers. However, the expression pattern of miR-1258 and its potential function in GBM tumorigenesis remain unclear. In this study, we reported that miR-1258 expression decreased with the ascending pathological grade of glioma, which indicated an unfavorable prognosis of patients. Functional assays revealed an inhibitory effect of miR-1258 on malignant proliferation, therapeutic resistance, migration, and invasion of GBM . Moreover, xenograft models also suggested a repression effect of miR-1258 on gliomagenesis. Mechanistically, miR-1258 directly targeted E2F1 in 3'-untranslated regions and attenuated E2F1-mediated downstream gene and transcriptions. Furthermore, restoration of E2F1 expression in GBM cells effectively rescued the tumor-suppressive effect of miR-1258. Our studies illustrated that miR-1258 functioned as a tumor suppressor in GBM by directly targeting E2F1, subsequently inhibiting and transcriptions, which contributed to new potential targets for GBM therapy and other E2F1-driven cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.671144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166228PMC
May 2021

Nuclear scaffold protein p54/NONO facilitates the hypoxia-enhanced progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 2;40(24):4167-4183. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Hypoxia and related oxidative stress are closely related to the development and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism mediated by hypoxia in HCC has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found multifunction scaffold protein p54/NONO exerted pleiotropic effects to regulate hypoxia transcription signals, thereby enhancing the progression of liver cancer. Extensive analysis of clinical data demonstrated that NONO was significantly upregulated and represented as a poor prognostic indicator of HCC. The crucial role of NONO in driving angiogenesis and glycolysis, two well-known cancer phenotypes mediated by hypoxia, was examined in vitro an in vivo. Mechanistically, NONO interacted with and stabilized both HIF-1 and HIF-2 complexes thus activating the transcription of hypoxia-induced genes. Besides, NONO bound pre-mRNA and subsequent mRNA of these genes to facilitate them splicing and mRNA stability, respectively. Thus, NONO knockout seriously disrupted the expression of a cluster of HIF-1/2 targets and impeded hypoxia-enhanced progression in HCC. In conclusion, NONO functioned as a multipurpose scaffold that interacted with HIF-1/2 complex and their downstream transcripts to facilitate the expression of hypoxia-induced genes, allowing malignant proliferation, indicating that NONO might be a potential therapeutic target for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01848-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Monte Carlo framework for commissioning a synchrotron-based discrete spot scanning proton beam system and treatment plan verification.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Jun 10;7(4). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105-2794, United States of America.

This study aimed to develop a Monte Carlo (MC) framework for commissioning the narrow proton beams (spot size sigma, 5.2 mm 2 mm at isocenter for 69.4 MeV-221.3 MeV for the main beam option and 4.1 mm 1.3 mm for the minibeam option respectively) of a synchrotron-based proton therapy system and design an independent absolute dose calculation engine for intensity-modulated proton treatments. A proton therapy system (Hitachi PROBEAT-V) was simulated using divergent and convergent beam models at the nozzle entrance. The innovative source weighting scheme for the MC simulation with TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulations) was implemented using dose output data for the absolute dose calculations. The results of the MC simulation were compared to the experimental data, analyzed and used to commission the treatment planning system. Two MC models, divergent and convergent beams were implemented. The convergent beam model produced a high level of agreement when MC and measurements were analyzed. The beam ellipticity did not result in significant differences between MC simulated and treatment planning system calculated doses. A model of a synchrotron-based spot scanning proton therapy system has been developed and implemented in the TOPAS MC transport code framework. The dose computation engine is useful for treatment plan verification with primary and minibeam beam option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2057-1976/ac077aDOI Listing
June 2021

Phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus 4 in Henan Province of China: A retrospective study from 2011 to 2021.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Zhengzhou Major Pig Disease Prevention and Control Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China.

Porcine circovirus 4 (PCV4), a novel circovirus, was first discovered in April 2019 in Hunan Province of China. At present, PCV4 infection has been detected in China and South Korea. However, until 2019, there was little information about its circulating status and genetic characteristics. To further clarify the origin and prevalence of PCV4, a total of 152 clinical samples collected from 49 different swine farms of 15 cities in Henan Province of China from 2011 to 2021 were tested for the presence of PCV4 by qPCR, and the complete genome of PCV4 strains was amplified from the positive samples and sequenced. Among these samples, 45.39% (69/152) were positive for PCV4 and 86.67% (13/15) of the cities and 67.35% (33/49) of the swine farms were positive for PCV4. The genome sequences of 15 PCV4 strains were obtained, of which two PCV4 strains (HN-ZMD-201212 and HN-XX-201212) were achieved from archival samples in 2012, indicating that PCV4 has been circulating for at least 10 years in Henan Province of China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 15 PCV4 strains in our study together with PCV4 strain HNU-AHG1-2019 were clustered into an identical but separate evolutionary branch, with genomic identity ranging from 98.2% to 98.8%. Our research further provides significant epidemiological information on PCV4 in China, which will help understand the origin and genetic characteristics of this new virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14172DOI Listing
June 2021

N, P, and COD conveyed by urban runoff: a comparative research between a city and a town in the Taihu Basin, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.

Stormwater runoff containing various pollutants exerts adverse effects on receiving water bodies and deteriorates the urban aquatic environment. Although numerous studies have been conducted on runoff pollution, research comparing its characteristics in cities with those in towns is rare in the literature. To close this gap, the present study was conducted. The instantaneous concentrations of ammonia-N, TN, TP, and COD during the rainfall events in the town were higher than those in the city in most conditions. The outfall concentrations increased with the increase of rainfall intensity. EMCs (the average value of EMC) and CV (coefficient of variation) of TN and DTN in the town were higher than those in the city, which may lie in the differences of urban environment planning and management, road cleaning methods, garbage disposal methods, industrial enterprise, etc. On the one hand, EMCs and CV of TP in the city's industrial areas were lowest among three functional areas, while on the other hand, in the town it was in the commercial areas rather than the industrial areas that EMCs and CV were the lowest, which may be caused by the low level of economic development of small towns in China. The concentrations of COD in the town were generally higher than that in the city. Compared with the city, the correlation among COD and various forms of N was stronger in the town, which may illustrate a stronger similarity of pollutant sources in the town. According to the results, road runoff in the town contributed more to urban aquatic pollution; thus, further research should concentrate on this particular type of runoff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14565-3DOI Listing
June 2021