Publications by authors named "Li Zhang"

10,258 Publications

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Plasmonic semiconductor photocatalyst: Non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide.

Environ Res 2021 May 8:111259. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Resources Conversion and Pollution Control of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted increasing attention due to its potential application in solving the problems related to energy crisis and environmental pollution. As a typical plasmonic semiconductor, non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide (WO) has invoked significant interest for its unique property and excellent photocatalytic performance. In this review, we briefly introduce the fundamental properties of the WO, and then summarize the synthesis methods such as solvothermal reaction, solid phase reduction and exfoliation treatment, together with the modification strategies such as doping and constructing homo-/hetero-junctions. Additionally, we emphasize the practical applications of WO in hydrogen evolution, nitrogen fixation, carbon dioxide reduction, and pollutant degradation. Finally, comprehensive conclusions and perspectives on the fabrication of WO photocatalyst leading to satisfactory performance are given as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111259DOI Listing
May 2021

Structure-designed synthesis of hollow/porous cobalt sulfide/phosphide based materials for optimizing supercapacitor storage properties and hydrogen evolution reaction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 26;599:577-585. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006, China.

Cobalt-based transition metal phosphides/sulfides have been viewed as promising candidates for supercapacitor (SCs) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) featured with their intrinsic merits. Nevertheless, the sluggish reaction kinetics and drastic volume expansion upon electrochemical process hinder their commercial application. In this work, the hollow/porous cobalt sulfide/phosphide based nanocuboids (C-CoP and CoS HNs) with superior specific surface area are achieved by employing a novel chemical etching-phosphatization/sulfuration strategy. The hollow/porous structure could offer rich active sites and shorten electrons/ions diffusion length. In virtue of their structural advantage, the obtained C-CoP and CoS HNs perform superior specific capacitance, fast charge/discharge rate and beneficial cycling stability. The advanced asymmetrical supercapacitors assembled by C-CoP and CoS HNs deliver exceptional energy density, respectively. Furthermore, when employed as hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalysts, C-CoP and CoS HNs yield favorable electrocatalytic activity. These findings shed fundamental insight on the design of dual-functional transition metal phosphide/sulfide based materials for optimizing hydrogen evolution reaction and supercapacitor storage properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.04.118DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical and pathological analysis of renal biopsies of elderly patients in Northeast China: a single-center study.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):851-859

The Department of Nephropathy, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Purpose: To identify the clinical characteristics, histopathological features, and prognosis of kidney disease in a large cohort of elderly patients from Northeast China.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the renal disease spectrum in 7,122 patients who underwent renal biopsies at the Second Hospital of Jilin University from 2006 to 2020. Patients were grouped according to age: below 60 years (non-elderly group,  = 5923) and at least 60 years (elderly group,  = 1199). The clinical and pathological characteristics of renal biopsy patients in the groups were analyzed using the -test and chi-square test.

Results: Compared with the non-elderly group, the elderly group had significantly fewer patients with primary glomerulonephritis, but more patients with tubulointerstitial disorders ( < .05). The incidence of IgA nephropathy, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, and lupus nephritis was significantly lower in elderly patients than in non-elderly patients. The incidence of membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, systemic vasculitis-associated renal damage, and amyloid nephropathy was significantly higher in elderly patients than in non-elderly patients ( < .05). The incidence of perinephric hematoma (≥4 cm) in elderly patients with renal biopsy was lower than that in non-elderly patients. We noted that 79.9% of primary glomerulonephritis patients who received immunosuppressive therapy showed a remission rate of 83.5%.

Conclusion: The spectrum of kidney disease in the elderly is different from that in the younger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2021.1923527DOI Listing
December 2021

Nitrogen-doped carbon dots for wash-free imaging of nucleolus orientation.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 May 10;188(6):183. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Environmental Science, and Shanxi Laboratory for Yellow River, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006, People's Republic of China.

Carbon dots (CDs) are a rising star in the field of cellular imaging, especially cytoplasmic imaging, attributing to the super-stable optical performance and ultra-low biological toxicity. Nucleolus can accurately reflect the expression state of a cell and is strongly linked to the occurrence and development of many diseases, so exploring bran-new CDs for nucleolus-orientation imaging with no-wash technology has important theoretical value and practical significance. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) with green fluorescence (the relative fluorescence quantum yield of 24.4%) was fabricated by the hydrothermal treatment of m-phenylenediamine and p-aminobenzoic acid. The N-CDs possess small size, bright green fluorescence, abundant surface functional groups, excellent fluorescence stability and good biocompatibility, facilitating that the N-CDs are an excellent imaging reagent for cellular imaging. N-CDs can particularly bind to RNA in nucleoli to enhance their fluorescence, which ensures that the N-CDs can be used in nucleolus-orientation imaging with high specificity and wash-free technique. This study demonstrates that the N-CDs have a significant feasibility to be used for nucleolus-orientation imaging in biomedical analysis and clinical diagnostic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04837-7DOI Listing
May 2021

LncRNA UCA1 elevates the resistance of human leukaemia cells to daunorubicin by the PI3K/AKT pathway via sponging miR-613.

Biosci Rep 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Acute leukemia is a hematological malignant tumor. Long non-coding RNA urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) is involved in the chemo-resistance of diverse cancers, but it is unclear whether UCA1 is associated with the sensitivity of acute leukemia cells to daunorubicin (DNR). DNR (100 nM) was selected for functional analysis. The viability, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and invasion of treated acute leukemia cells (HL-60 and U-937) were evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry assay, or transwell assay. Protein levels were detected with western blot analysis. Expression patterns of UCA1 and miR-613 were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The relationship between UCA1 and microRNA-613 (miR-613) was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. We observed that UCA1 expression was elevated in HL-60 and U-937cells. DNR constrained viability, cell cycle progression, invasion, and facilitated apoptosis of HL-60 and U-937 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but these impacts mediated by DNR were reverted after UCA1 overexpression. MiR-613 was downregulated in HL-60 and U-937 cells, and UCA1 was verified as a miR-613 sponge. MiR-613 inhibitor reversed DNR treatment-mediated effects on viability, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and invasion of HL-60 and U-937 cells, but these impacts mediated by miR-613 inhibitor were counteracted after UCA1 inhibition. The inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway caused by DNR treatment was reversed after miR-613 inhibitor introduction, but this influence mediated by miR-613 inhibitor was offset after UCA1 knockdown. In conclusion, UCA1 upregulation facilitated the resistance of acute leukemia cells to DNR via the PI3K/AKT pathway by sponging miR-613.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20201389DOI Listing
May 2021

First-Phase Ejection Fraction, a Measure of Preclinical Heart Failure, Is Strongly Associated With Increased Mortality in Patients With COVID-19.

Hypertension 2021 Jun 10;77(6):2014-2022. Epub 2021 May 10.

British Heart Foundation Centre, King's College London, United Kingdom (H.G., A.A.N., O.D., K.O., M.M., D.P., M.R., L. Faconti, A. Papachristidis, G.C.-W., A.M.S., P.C.).

Presence of heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to examine whether first-phase ejection fraction (EF1), the ejection fraction measured in early systole up to the time of peak aortic velocity, a sensitive measure of preclinical heart failure, is associated with survival in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. A retrospective outcome study was performed in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who underwent echocardiography (n=380) at the West Branch of the Union Hospital, Wuhan, China and in patients admitted to King's Health Partners in South London, United Kingdom. Association of EF1 with survival was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. EF1 was compared in patients with COVID-19 and in historical controls with similar comorbidities (n=266) who had undergone echocardiography before the COVID-19 pandemic. In patients with COVID-19, EF1 was a strong predictor of survival in each patient group (Wuhan and London). In the combined group, EF1 was a stronger predictor of survival than other clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics including age, comorbidities, and biochemical markers. A cutoff value of 25% for EF1 gave a hazard ratio of 5.23 ([95% CI, 2.85-9.60]; <0.001) unadjusted and 4.83 ([95% CI, 2.35-9.95], <0.001) when adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, hs-cTnI (high-sensitive cardiac troponin), and CRP (C-reactive protein). EF1 was similar in patients with and without COVID-19 (23.2±7.3 versus 22.0±7.6%, =0.092, adjusted for prevalence of risk factors and comorbidities). Impaired EF1 is strongly associated with mortality in COVID-19 and probably reflects preexisting, preclinical heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17099DOI Listing
June 2021

The variation of rainfall runoff after vegetation restoration in upper reaches of the Yellow River by the remote sensing technology.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

College of Forestry, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, People's Republic of China.

In history, the Yellow River has been suffering from endless floods, which has brought great damage or destruction to agriculture, cities, and people's lives and property along the river. In this study, the rainfall and runoff characteristics of the Yellow River upstream (Tangnaihai and Lanzhou) after the vegetation restoration were analyzed. With the government implementation of ecological restoration policy since 1999, the vegetation cover in this area has been greatly improved and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) shows a fluctuating increase, with the maximum value of 0.323 (in 2010) and the minimum value of 0.289 (in 2008). The trend of rainfall from 1948 to 2019 was increased, with an average increase of 1.747mm per 10 years. Before the implementation of ecological policy (1948 to 1999), the rainfall decreased by an average of 0.953mm per 10 years, and then increased by an average of 16.519mm per 10 years (2000 to 2019). From 1998 to 2017, the runoff increased by 11.13×10m per 10 years (Tangnaihai) and 30.517×10 m (Lanzhou) per 10 years, which was due to the increase in rainfall. Annual sediment discharge and annual average sediment concentration decreased by 0.002×10t and 0.103 kg/m per 10 years in Tangnaihai, 0.081×10t and 0.395kg/m per 10 years in Lanzhou respectively. The decreasing intensity of Lanzhou station was greater. The sediment runoff modulus of Tangnaihai and Lanzhou decreased by 1.4875 km·year and 4.9439 km·year respectively. The increase of vegetation has a decreasing effect on sediment discharge. The implementation of ecological restoration policy reduces the amount of sediment into the Yellow River and plays an important role in the protection of ecological environment in the Yellow River Basin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14279-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Electrospun chitosan oligosaccharide/polycaprolactone nanofibers loaded with wound-healing compounds of Rutin and Quercetin as antibacterial dressings.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 211166 Nanjing, China; The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 211166 Nanjing, China; Jiangsu Province Engineering Research Center of Antibody Drug, Key Laboratory of Antibody Technique of National Health Commission, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China. Electronic address:

Burn injury has posed devastating burdens on the public health due to its inevitable damage to the skin structure resulting in the increased risk of infection. Therefore, it is highly demanding to develop efficacious antibacterial wound-healing dressing. Despite the favourable wound-healing activities, the curative efficacy of phytochemical compounds of quercetin (Qe) and its derivatives is limited by their poor water solubility. Here, we have fabricated a novel electrospun nanofiber membrane (ENM) consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL), chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), and Qe/Rutin (Ru) as the potential bioactive dressing for wound healing. The incorporation of chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) in the PCL scaffold at the optimized molar ratio not only contributed to the improved hydrophilicity and water absorption performance of the ENM but effectively increased the specific surface area of the formed nanofibers. In particular, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the Qe/rutin-loaded nanofiber membranes were tested, which revealed that the PCL-COS-Qe membrane exhibited superior performance among all nanofiber membranes. Therefore, the developed PCL-COS-Qe/Ru nanofiber membranes hold enormous potential as healthcare products, such as wound dressings for burn injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.05.031DOI Listing
May 2021

One-pot synthesis of a self-reinforcing cascade bioreactor for combined photodynamic/chemodynamic/starvation therapy.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 2;599:543-555. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Electronic address:

The combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemodynamic therapy (CDT) have attracted a great deal of interest, but tumor hypoxia and glutathione (GSH) overproduction still limit their further applications. Herein, an intelligent reactive oxygen species (ROS) nanogenerator Ce6/GOx@ZIF-8/PDA@MnO (denoted as CGZPM; Ce6, GOx, ZIF-8, PDA, MnO are chlorin e6, glucose oxidase, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8, polydopamine and manganese dioxide respectively) with O-generating and GSH-/glucose-depleting abilities was constructed by a facile and green one-pot method. After intake by tumor cells, the outer MnO was rapidly degraded by the acidic pH, and the overexpression of hydrogen peroxide (HO) and GSH with abundant Mn and O produced would eventually achieve multifunctionality. The Mn acted as an ideal Fenton-like agent and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent, while the O promoted the PDT via hypoxia relief and facilitated the intratumoral glucose oxidation by GOx for starvation therapy (ST). Benefiting from the GOx-based glycolysis process, sufficient HO was generated to improve the CDT efficacy through Mn-mediated Fenton-like reaction. Notably, MnO and PDA could decrease the tumor antioxidant activity by consuming GSH, resulting in remarkably enhanced PDT/CDT. Such a novel cascade bioreactor with tumor microenvironment (TME)-modulating capability opens new opportunities for ROS-based and combinational treatment paradigms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.03.173DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-term exposure to particulate matter and residential greenness in relation to androgen and progesterone levels among rural Chinese adults.

Environ Int 2021 May 4;153:106483. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Population-based studies on the associations of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) with androgen and progesterone are still scant. Residential greenness is benefits health by promoting physical activity, reducing air pollution, and improving mental health, but it remains unclear whether it is related to androgen and progesterone levels among humans.

Aims: This study aimed to explore the individual and interactive effects of PM and residential greenness on serum testosterone and progesterone levels among rural Chinese adults.

Methods: A total of 6017 subjects were recruited from the baseline of the Henan Rural Cohort Study in 2016. Serum testosterone and progesterone were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Particulate matters (PM) (PM, PM, and PM) were assessed by machine learning algorithms. Residential greenness was assessed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within 500-m, 1000-m, and 3000-m buffers around participants' residences. The effects of air pollutants and residential greenness and their interaction on serum testosterone and progesterone levels were assessed using linear mixed-effects models with township as a random intercept.

Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, a 1 μg/m increase in PM or PM was associated with a 0.037 or 0.030 ng/ml increase in serum testosterone, respectively, in females and with a 0.111 or 0.182 ng/ml decrease in serum progesterone, respectively, in males. A 1 μg/m increase in PM, PM or PM was associated with a 0.222, 0.306, or 0.295 ng/ml decrease in serum progesterone, respectively, among females. Moreover, a 0.1-unit increase in NDVI was associated with a 0.310 ng/ml increase in serum testosterone and a 0.170 ng/ml increased in serum progesterone in males, as well as with a 0.143 ng/ml increase in serum progesterone in females. Interaction effects of PM and residential greenness on serum testosterone and progesterone levels were observed, indicating that the effects of residential greenness on serum testosterone and progesterone were modified by high levels of PM. In addition, physical activity significantly mediated 2.92% of the estimated association between greenness and testosterone levels.

Conclusions: Our study suggested that long-term exposure to PM was positively associated with serum testosterone in males but negatively associated with progesterone levels in both genderssin. In addition, positive associations of residential greenness with serum testosterone and progesterone levels were observed, but they were modified by high levels of PM. Furthermore, the estimated effects of residential greenness on testosterone levels were partly mediated by physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106483DOI Listing
May 2021

A two-miRNA signature of upregulated miR-185-5p and miR-362-5p as a blood biomarker for breast cancer.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 29;222:153458. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Breast Surgery, General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 107 West Wenhua Road, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of breast cancer patients may serve as diagnostic biomarkers.

Methods: In this study, miRNA microarray of the blood of breast cancer patients and healthy controls was performed. Candidate differentially expressed miRNAs were further verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 68 breast cancer patients and 13 healthy controls.

Results: Six upregulated blood miRNAs (miR-26b-5p, miR-106b-5p, miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-185-5p, and miR-362-5p) were identified in breast cancer patients. These six miRNAs could discriminate breast cancer patients from healthy controls, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.8891, 0.8158, 0.8529, 0.8507, 0.9050, and 0.9333, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the six miRNAs were potentially involved in numerous cancer-related pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway. Importantly, two miRNAs (miR-185-5p and miR-362-5p) were used to construct a two-miRNA panel by logistic regression. The two-miRNA panel displayed a better diagnostic performance than each of the miRNAs alone, with a higher AUC (0.957), sensitivity (92.65 %), and specificity (92.31 %). Additionally, the high expression of the six miRNAs or the two-miRNA panel was associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer.

Conclusions: We identified six upregulated miRNAs and a two-miRNA panel in the blood as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2021.153458DOI Listing
April 2021

Establishment of a novel double-monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): Tool for human B7-H4 detection in autoimmune diseases.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Jiangsu Institute of Clinical Immunology & Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

B7-H4, one of the immunoregulatory proteins, plays an inhibitory role by inhibiting T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Nevertheless, the significance of soluble B7-H4 (sB7-H4) in autoimmune diseases is unclear. In our study, we developed two novel mouse anti-human B7-H4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (clone 8D4 and 7E1) with utilities for flow cytometry, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. We characterized 7E1 as a functional antibody with antagonistic activity, which could promote T-cell proliferation and regulate cytokine production. Further, based on the different epitope specificities, we established a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which could detect sB7-H4 sensitively and specifically. Using this ELISA kit, sB7-H4 was observed in a high proportion of autoimmune diseases patients. We found that the levels of sB7-H4 were significantly higher in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Graves' disease (GD). Altogether, sB7-H4 in human serum is regarded not only as a regulator of T cell activation but may also be a diagnostic marker of autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13610DOI Listing
May 2021

LncRNA SLCO4A1-AS1 modulates colon cancer stem cell properties by binding to miR-150-3p and positively regulating SLCO4A1.

Lab Invest 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Affiliated Huai'an No.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai'an, 223300, PR China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in a range of different human cancers. However, the role of lncRNA solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1-AS1 (SLCO4A1-AS1) in colon cancer remains enigmatic. Hence, we aimed to explore the specific role of SLCO4A1-AS1 in colon cancer stem cells. Colon cancer-related differentially expressed lncRNA and mRNA were screened using microarray-based analysis, and the expression of SLCO4A1-AS1 and SLCO4A1 in colon cancer tissues was determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The interaction among SLCO4A1-AS1, microRNA-150-3p (miR-150-3p) and SLCO4A1 was verified using dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down. Moreover, SLCO4A1-AS1, miR-150-3p and/or SLCO4A1 were overexpressed or depleted in colon cancer cells to detect their effects on migration, invasion, sphere formation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis abilities of colon cancer stem CD133CD44 cells using both in vitro and in vivo assays. SLCO4A1-AS1 and SLCO4A1 were screened as the differentially expressed lncRNA and mRNA in colon cancer tissues. SLCO4A1-AS1 was confirmed to competitively bind to miR-150-3p to elevate SLCO4A1 expression. Moreover, knockdown of SLCO4A1-AS1 decreased SLCO4A1 expression, thus inhibiting cell migration, invasion, sphere formation, and tumorigenesis abilities and enhancing the apoptosis of CD133CD44 cells. Collectively, these findings provide evidence demonstrating that depleting SLCO4A1-AS1 competitively binds to miR-150-3p, which downregulates SLCO4A1 expression, thus hindering colon cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00577-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Smoothened loss is a characteristic of neuroendocrine prostate cancer.

Prostate 2021 Jun 6;81(9):508-520. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Purpose: Hedgehog (Hh) signaling promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer by supporting androgen-independent prostate cancer cell development and growth; however, its role in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) has not yet been explored. In this study, we assessed the expression of key genes involved in Hh signaling in prostate cancer and investigated the potential role of smoothened (SMO) in the pathogenesis of NEPC.

Methods: Six public datasets, each containing cases of prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPC) and NEPC, were analyzed to compare the differential messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of six classic Hh signaling genes. The SMO, synaptophysin, chromogranin A (CHGA) and androgen receptor (AR) proteins were evaluated in human tissues from 5 cases of NEPC, 2 cases of AdPC mixed with NEPC, 2 cases of AdPC with neuroendocrine differentiation and 22 cases of high-grade AdPC as determined by an immunohistochemistry assay. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to identify relevant genetic signatures associated with SMO expression based on the public datasets. Stable SMO-knockdown LNCaP and C4-2B cells were established with a lentiviral system, and the expression of SMO, Gli1, AR, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and REST was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Secreted PSA in the conditioned medium was assessed by ELISA. Gli1 was ectopically expressed performed by the transfection of Gli1 complementary DNA into SMO-knockdown LNCaP cells, and western blot was used to assess of AR and PSA expression.

Results: The mRNA level of SMO was dramatically downregulated in NEPC samples compared with AdPC samples in all 6 public datasets. SMO protein loss was observed in 100% of NEPC samples but in only 9% (2 of 22) of high-grade AdPC samples. GSEA results showed that SMO loss was closely correlated with AR signaling activity. Stable SMO knockdown significantly attenuated AR signaling activity and suppressed AR expression, while Gli1 overexpression partially reversed the inhibitory effects of SMO knockdown on AR signaling activity and AR expression in LNCaP and C4-2B cells.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that SMO loss is a characteristic of NEPC and that detecting SMO by IHC could aid pathologists in NEPC diagnosis. SMO loss may promote NEPC pathogenesis by modulating AR signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24122DOI Listing
June 2021

Protective effects of calorie restriction on insulin resistance and islet function in STZ-induced type 2 diabetes rats.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 May 5;18(1):48. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, China.

Background: Caloric restriction (CR) has become increasingly attractive in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because of the increasingly common high-calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to evaluate the role of CR in T2DM treatment and further explore its potential molecular mechanisms.

Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The diabetes model was induced by 8 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) followed by a single dose of streptozotocin injection (30 mg/kg). Subsequently, the diabetic rats were fed HFD at 28 g/day (diabetic control) or 20 g/day (30% CR regimen) for 20 weeks. Meanwhile, normal rats fed a free standard chow diet served as the vehicle control. Body mass, plasma glucose levels, and lipid profiles were monitored. After diabetes-related functional tests were performed, the rats were sacrificed at 10 and 20 weeks, and glucose uptake in fresh muscle was determined. In addition, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect alterations in AKT/AS160/GLUT4 signaling.

Results: We found that 30% CR significantly attenuated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, leading to alleviation of glucolipotoxicity and thus protection of islet function. Insulin resistance was also markedly ameliorated, as indicated by notably improved insulin tolerance and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). However, the improvement in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle was not significant. The upregulation of AKT/AS160/GLUT4 signaling in muscle induced by 30% CR also attenuated gradually over time. Interestingly, the consecutive decrease in AKT/AS160/GLUT4 signaling in white adipose tissue was significantly reversed by 30% CR.

Conclusion: CR (30%) could protect islet function from hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, and improve insulin resistance. The mechanism by which these effects occurred is likely related to the upregulation of AKT/AS160/GLUT4 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00575-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097947PMC
May 2021

Cecal microbiota contribute to the development of woody breast myopathy.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 13;100(6):101124. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and Health Promotion, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to characterize the bacterial diversity of cecal microbiota in broilers related to breast phenotype, diet, and genetic strain. Broilers from 2 genetic strains (120 birds/strain) were fed a control diet (15 birds/pen) and an amino acid reduced diet (15 birds/pen, digestible lysine, total sulfur amino acids, and threonine reduced by 20% compared to the control diet). At 8 wk of age, 4 male broilers with normal breast (NB, 1 chick per pen) and 4 male broilers with woody breast (WB, 1 chick per pen) were selected for each treatment (strain × diet). The DNA of cecal samples was extracted and the 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and analyzed. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the alpha diversity of gut microbiota between 2 phenotypes (NB vs. WB), 2 strains, or 2 diets (control vs. reduced). However, principal coordinate analysis plots (beta diversity) revealed that there were composition differences in samples between the 2 phenotypes (P = 0.001) and the 2 diets (P = 0.024). The most abundant phyla in all samples were Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. There were differences (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05) in bacterial relative abundance between phenotypes and between diet treatments, but not (FDR > 0.05) between the 2 genetic strains. Selenomonas bovis (12.6%) and Bacteroides plebeius (12.3%) were the top 2 predominant bacteria in the ceca of WB birds; however, the relative abundances of these 2 bacteria were only 5.1% and 1.2% in NB birds, respectively. Function analysis predicted that the metabolic activities differed (q < 0.05) only between phenotypes. The microbiota of WB birds was characterized as reduced glycolysis and urea cycle but increased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles, sugar degradation, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides biosynthesis. Further studies are needed to investigate if WB incidence could be reduced by regulating gut microbiota and the potential mechanism that leads to decreased WB incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101124DOI Listing
March 2021

Prognostic value of CCR2 as an immune indicator in lung adenocarcinoma: A study based on tumor-infiltrating immune cell analysis.

Cancer Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Prognostic indicators in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) have been seeking under database analysis, and remarkable advance is on the way.

Methods: This study calculated the scores of stromal and immune components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in 551 LUAD samples using the ESTIMATE algorithm on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. R package ''limma'' was used to selected differentially expressed genes (DEG). We have analyzed the DEGs by means of Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichments. The protein-protein network, univariate Cox analysis, and Lasso regression analysis were performed to selected survival-related genes. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) represented the enriched pathway of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). The ratios of immune cells in the TME of each LUAD sample were obtained using the R package "limma" and CIBERSORT algorithm in R 4.0.2.

Results: The ImmuneScore was positively correlated with prognosis regarding survival rate, T classification of TNM stages, and clinicopathological staging characteristics. GO and KEGG enrichments showed DEGs were associated with immune-related activities. Three genes of LUAD were selected from the PPI network and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. CCR2 was the most survival correlated gene by Lasso regression analysis. GSEA results showed that C2 kegg gene sets in the CCR2 high-expression group were mainly enriched in the B cell or T cell receptor signaling pathway and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Correlation of CCR2 expression with prognosis was conducted, implicating a positive correlation with the prognosis of survival rate and M classification, negative correlation with the prognosis of T and N classifications. The correlation between CCR2 and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) was analyzed, and 14 kinds of TICs were found closely correlated with CCR2 expression through difference analysis.

Conclusion: Therefore, CCR2 has prognostic value as an immune indicator in LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3931DOI Listing
May 2021

Severe immune-related hyperthermia followed by immune-related pneumonitis with PD-1 inhibitor (sintilimab) in small cell lung cancer: A case report.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Respiratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have achieved prominent efficacy in the treatment of numerous cancers, which is the most significant breakthrough in cancer therapy in recent years. However, ICIs are associated with a series of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Pneumonitis is an uncommon but potentially fatal irAE. In the case reported here, a patient with advanced small cell lung cancer (SCLC) had rapid progression of disease following chemotherapy and received ICIs. The patient experienced severe immune-related hyperthermia followed by immune-related pneumonitis. Fortunately, a good clinical response was achieved after the patient received corticosteroids and tocilizumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13967DOI Listing
May 2021

Pathogen distribution and risk factors for urinary tract infection in infants and young children with retained double-J catheters.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211012379

Affiliated Foshan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Foshan, China.

Objectives: To investigate the pathogens and potential risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with retained double-J catheters (DJCs).

Methods: In total, 107 infants and young children with DJCs were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were included in the infection group (n = 30) or non-infection group (n = 77), according to UTI presence or absence. The species and characteristics of pathogens were investigated, and the clinical features of the patients were recorded for further analysis.

Results: Gram-negative bacilli were the most common causative pathogens (69.2%), among which was most frequent (38.5%). The second most common causative pathogens were Gram-positive cocci (28.2%), among which was most frequent (10.3%). UTIs among patients in this study were associated with the following factors: catheter retention (long-term) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.514, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.176-5.373), sex (male) (OR = 2.966, 95% CI = 1.032-8.529), DJC retention (long-term) (OR = 1.869, 95% CI = 1.194-2.926), and DJC number (unilateral) (OR = 0.309, 95% CI = 0.103-0.922).

Conclusions: Infants and young children with DJCs were likely to experience UTIs, mainly caused by Gram-negative bacilli. Long-term catheter retention or DJC retention, male sex, and bilateral DJC retention were risk factors for UTI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211012379DOI Listing
May 2021

Chitosan/Silver Nanoparticle/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites with Multi-Drug Release, Antimicrobial, and Photothermal Conversion Functions.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AH, UK.

In this work, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional nanocomposite system that consists of chitosan, raspberry-like silver nanoparticles, and graphene oxide. The room temperature atmospheric pressure microplasma (RT-APM) process provides a rapid, facile, and environmentally-friendly method for introducing silver nanoparticles into the composite system. Our composite can achieve a pH controlled single and/or dual drug release. Under pH 7.4 for methyl blue loaded on chitosan, the drug release profile features a burst release during the first 10 h, followed by a more stabilized release of 70-80% after 40-50 h. For fluorescein sodium loaded on graphene oxide, the drug release only reached 45% towards the end of 240 h. When the composite acted as a dual drug release system, the interaction of fluorescein sodium and methyl blue slowed down the methyl blue release rate. Under pH 4, both single and dual drug systems showed a much higher release rate. In addition, our composite system demonstrated strong antibacterial abilities against and , as well as an excellent photothermal conversion effect under irradiation of near infrared lasers. The photothermal conversion efficiency can be controlled by the laser power. These unique functionalities of our nanocomposite point to its potential application in multiple areas, such as multimodal therapeutics in healthcare, water treatment, and anti-microbials, among others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092351DOI Listing
April 2021

Similarity-constrained task-related component analysis for enhancing SSVEP detection.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University School of Electrical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, CHINA.

Objective: Task-related component analysis (TRCA) is a representative subject-specific training algorithm in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Task-related components (TRCs), extracted by the TRCA-based spatial filtering from EEG signals through maximizing the reproducibility across trials, may contain some task-related inherent noise that is still trial-reproducible.

Approach: To address this problem, this study proposed a similarity-constrained TRCA (scTRCA) algorithm to remove the task-related noise and extract TRCs maximally correlated with SSVEPs for enhancing SSVEP detection. Similarity constraints, which were created by introducing covariance matrices between EEG training data and an artificial SSVEP template, were added to the objective function of TRCA. Therefore, a better spatial filter was obtained by maximizing not only the reproducibility across trials but also the similarity between TRCs and SSVEPs. The proposed scTRCA was compared with TRCA, msTRCA, and TRCA-R based on two public datasets.

Main Results: The performance of TRCA in target identification of SSVEPs is improved by introducing similarity constraints. The proposed scTRCA significantly outperformed the other three methods, and the improvement was more significant especially with insufficient training data.

Significance: The proposed scTRCA algorithm is promising for enhancing SSVEP detection considering its better performance and robustness against insufficient calibration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/abfdfaDOI Listing
May 2021

The influence of emotional face distractors on attentional orienting in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorder.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0250998. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.

The current study examined how emotional faces impact on attentional control at both involuntary and voluntary levels in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A non-face single target was either presented in isolation or synchronously with emotional face distractors namely angry, happy and neutral faces. ASD and typically developing children made more erroneous saccades towards emotional distractors relative to neutral distractors in parafoveal and peripheral conditions. Remote distractor effects were observed on saccade latency in both groups regardless of distractor type, whereby time taken to initiate an eye movement to the target was longest in central distractor conditions, followed by parafoveal and peripheral distractor conditions. The remote distractor effect was greater for angry faces compared to happy faces in the ASD group. Proportions of failed disengagement trials from central distractors, for the first saccade, were higher in the angry distractor condition compared with the other two distractor conditions in ASD, and this effect was absent for the typical group. Eye movement results suggest difficulties in disengaging from fixated angry faces in ASD. Atypical disengagement from angry faces at the voluntary level could have consequences for the development of higher-level socio-communicative skills in ASD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250998PLOS
May 2021

The deacylase SIRT5 supports melanoma viability by influencing chromatin dynamics.

J Clin Invest 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States of America.

Cutaneous melanoma remains the most lethal skin cancer, and ranks third among all malignancies in terms of years of life lost. Despite the advent of immune checkpoint and targeted therapies, only roughly half of patients with advanced melanoma achieves a durable remission. SIRT5 is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacylases that regulate metabolism and other biological processes. Germline Sirt5 deficiency is associated with mild phenotypes in mice. Here we show that SIRT5 is required for proliferation and survival across all cutaneous melanoma genotypes tested, as well as uveal melanoma, a genetically distinct melanoma subtype that arises in the eye and is incurable once metastatic. Likewise, SIRT5 is required for efficient tumor formation by melanoma xenografts and in an autochthonous mouse Braf;Pten-driven melanoma model. Via metabolite and transcriptomic analyses, we find that SIRT5 is required to maintain histone acetylation and methylation levels in melanoma cells, thereby promoting proper gene expression. SIRT5-dependent genes notably include MITF, a key lineage-specific survival oncogene in melanoma, and the c-MYC proto-oncogene. SIRT5 may represent a novel, druggable genotype-independent addiction in melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138926DOI Listing
May 2021

Enhanced degradation of reactive brilliant red X-3B by photocatalysis integrated with micro-electrolysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.

The microwave electrodeless lamp UV photocatalysis (MWUV) integrated with iron carbon micro-electrolysis (ME) was applied to degrade reactive brilliant red X-3B. In the present study, the removal rate of X-3B by MWUV/ME was 95%, which was significantly higher than 56% of MWUV and 62% of ME system. The experiment results demonstrated a synergistic effect in MWUV/ME system, wherein the ME system played an important role in color removal and the formation of ·OH in photocatalysis contributed most for the mineralization of X-3B and its intermediates. The removal efficiency of TOC was 32%, 7.5%, and 59.5% under MWUV, ME, and MWUV/ME processes at the end of the reaction, respectively. The Fe existed in the system was an enhancer of producing ·OH via self-generation of ·OH by UV irradiation or improving the separation of electron-hole in photocatalysis by capturing the electrons. Therefore, the combined treatment of MWUV and ME system has the potential of synergistic effect compared to the separate process. Lowering the initial solution pH and increasing the iron filing dosage and dissolved oxygen were beneficial for the enhancement of degradation efficiency. The inorganic anions showed a diversity influencing the degradation of X-3B. NO, CO, and SO (at higher concentration) promoted the degradation reaction, while Cl had non-significant effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14205-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical validation of an artificial intelligence-enabled wound imaging mobile application in diabetic foot ulcers.

Int Wound J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of General Surgery, Vascular Surgery Service, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore.

There is a lifetime risk of 15% to 25% of development of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. DFUs need to be followed up on and assessed for development of complications and/or resolution, which was traditionally performed using manual measurement. Our study aims to compare the intra- and inter-rater reliability of an artificial intelligence-enabled wound imaging mobile application (CARES4WOUNDS [C4W] system, Tetsuyu, Singapore) with traditional measurement. This is a prospective cross-sectional study on 28 patients with DFUs from June 2020 to January 2021. The main wound parameters assessed were length and width. For traditional manual measurement, area was calculated by overlaying traced wound on graphical paper. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was analysed using intra-class correlation statistics. A value of <0.5, 0.5-0.75, 0.75-0.9, and >0.9 indicates poor, moderate, good, and excellent reliability, respectively. Seventy-five wound episodes from 28 patients were collected and a total of 547 wound images were analysed in this study. The median wound area during the first clinic consultation and all wound episodes was 3.75 cm (interquartile range [IQR] 1.40-16.50) and 3.10 cm (IQR 0.60-14.84), respectively. There is excellent intra-rater reliability of C4W on three different image captures of the same wound (intra-rater reliability ranging 0.933-0.994). There is also excellent inter-rater reliability between three C4W devices for length (0.947), width (0.923), and area (0.965). Good inter-rater reliability for length, width, and area (range 0.825-0.934) was obtained between wound nurse measurement and each of the C4W devices. In conclusion, we obtained good inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of C4W measurements against traditional wound measurement. The C4W is a useful adjunct in monitoring DFU wound progress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13603DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular diagnosis for 55 fetuses with skeletal dysplasias by whole-exome sequencing: a retrospective cohort study.

Clin Genet 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Center for Medical Genetics & Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of life sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Skeletal dysplasias (SDs) are common birth defects, but they are difficult to diagnose accurately according to only the limited phenotypic information available from ultrasound during the pregnancy. To evaluate the application of whole-exome sequencing and expand the data in the prenatal molecular diagnosis of fetuses with SDs, we collected 55 fetuses with SDs based on ultrasonographic features. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of the fetuses or parent-fetus trio were subjected to sequential tests and produced a diagnostic yield of 64% (35/55). 65% (11/17) of families with a history of adverse pregnancies were diagnosed, 16 genes were involved and 37 different pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified, including 14 novel variants which were first reported in this study. De novo variants were identified in 21 cases (60%, 21/35) among the fetuses with a genetic diagnosis. The pathogenicity of two novel splice-site variants was confirmed by constructing minigene in vitro. Our results revealed that WES can provide new evidence for the relationship between the genotype and phenotype of fetuses with SDs, as well as broaden the mutation spectrum of detected genes, which is significant for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counselling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13976DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical laboratory evaluation of COVID-19.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, P.R. China. Electronic address:

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a highly infectious disease, and clinical laboratory detection has played important roles in its diagnosis and in evaluating progression of the disease. Nucleic acid amplification testing or gene sequencing can serve as pathogenic evidence of COVID-19 diagnosing for clinically suspected cases, and dynamic monitoring of specific antibodies (IgM, IgA, and IgG) is an effective complement for false-negative detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. Antigen tests to identify SARS-CoV-2 are recommended in the first week of infection, which is associated with high viral loads. Additionally, many clinical laboratory indicators are abnormal as the disease evolves. For example, from moderate to severe and critical cases, leukocytes, neutrophils, and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio increase; conversely, lymphocytes decrease progressively but are over activated. LDH, AST, ALT, CK, high-sensitivity troponin I, and urea also increase progressively, and increased D-dimer is an indicator of severe disease and an independent risk factor for death. Severe infection leads to aggravation of inflammation. Inflammatory biomarkers and cytokines, such as CRP, SAA, ferritin, IL-6, and TNF-α, increased gradually. High-risk COVID-19 patients with severe disease, such as the elderly and those with underlying diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, hypertension, obesity, and cancer), should be monitored dynamically, which will be helpful as an early warning of serious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.04.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086377PMC
April 2021

Recurrence Patterns After Surgical Resection of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Analysis From the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database.

Pancreas 2021 Apr;50(4):506-512

From the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Objective: Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) recommend complete (R0) surgical resection of the primary tumor and metastases, if feasible. However, large multicenter studies of recurrence patterns of GEPNETs after resection have not been performed.

Methods: Patients 18 years or older who presented to 7 participating National Comprehensive Cancer Network institutions between 2004 and 2008 with a new diagnosis of a small bowel, pancreas, or colon/rectum neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and underwent R0 resection of the primary tumor, and synchronous metastases, if present, were included in this analysis. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate recurrence rates and time-associated end points, respectively.

Results: Of 294 patients with GEPNETs, 50% were male, 88% were White, and 99% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1. The median age was 55 years (range, 20-90). The median follow-up time from R0 resection was 62.1 months. Recurrence rates were 18% in small bowel NETs (n = 110), 26% in pancreatic NETs (n = 141), and 10% in colon/rectum NETs (n = 50). The frequency of surveillance imaging was highly variable.

Conclusions: R0 resection was associated with variable risk of recurrence across subtypes. Further research to inform refinement of guidelines for the appropriate duration of surveillance after R0 resection is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097723PMC
April 2021

Effect of media distraction (audio-visual and music) for pain and anxiety control in patients undergoing shock-wave lithotripsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 14;21(6):623. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Laboratory Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410000, P.R. China.

Audio-visual (AV) or music distraction may be used to reduce pain during several healthcare procedures. The present manuscript is a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of media distraction in reducing pain and anxiety in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) patients. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, BioMed Central, Ovoid and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) databases were screened for studies assessing the role of media distraction (music/AV media) in reducing pain and anxiety of ESWL patients. Data were summarized using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 11 randomized controlled trials were included. Pooled analysis indicated a statistically significant difference in pain outcomes with media distraction [mean difference (MD): -1.18; 95% CI: -2.35, -0.01; I=96.8%)]. Subgroup analysis indicated that both AV media (MD: -2.94; 95% CI: -4.70, -1.17; I=79.2%) and music (MD: -0.86; 95% CI: -1.37, -0.35; I=62.5%), led to significant reduction in pain outcomes. Pooled analysis indicated a statistically significant reduction of anxiety scores with the use of media distraction (MD: -3.91; 95% CI: -6.44, -1.38; I=77.7%). To conclude, the present review suggests that media distraction in the form of AV media or music may be beneficial in reducing the pain and anxiety of patients undergoing ESWL. Evidence is, however, weak considering the small effect size, confidence intervals being close to zero, and instability of the results on sensitivity analysis. In clinical practice, media distraction may be used during ESWL as a nursing intervention, but a clinically important reduction of pain and anxiety may not be expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082642PMC
June 2021

A Multisensory fMRI Investigation of Nociceptive-Preferential Cortical Regions and Responses.

Front Neurosci 2021 14;15:635733. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Health Science Center, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

The existence of nociceptive-specific brain regions has been a controversial issue for decades. Multisensory fMRI studies, which examine fMRI activities in response to various types of sensory stimulation, could help identify nociceptive-specific brain regions, but previous studies are limited by sample size and they did not differentiate nociceptive-specific regions and nociceptive-preferential regions, which have significantly larger responses to nociceptive input. In this study, we conducted a multisensory fMRI experiment on 80 healthy participants, with the aim to determine whether there are certain brain regions that specifically or preferentially respond to nociceptive stimulation. By comparing the evoked fMRI responses across four sensory modalities, we found a series of brain regions specifically or preferentially involved in nociceptive sensory input. Particularly, we found different parts of some cortical regions, such as insula and cingulate gyrus, play different functional roles in the processing of nociceptive stimulation. Hence, this multisensory study improves our understanding of the functional integrations and segregations of the nociceptive-related regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.635733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079658PMC
April 2021