Publications by authors named "Li Zhang"

11,739 Publications

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Metagenomics illuminated the mechanism of enhanced nitrogen removal and vivianite recovery induced by zero-valent iron in partial-denitrification/anammox process.

Bioresour Technol 2022 May 17:127317. Epub 2022 May 17.

Shuifa Shandong Water Development Group Co. Ltd. Shandong, 274200, China.

In this study, a novel strategy of zero-valent iron (ZVI) combined with acetic acid was proposed to optimize partial-denitrification/anammox (PD/A) process, and enhanced nitrogen removal mechanism was elucidated through metagenomics. Results showed that the optimal nitrogen and phosphorus removal were as high as 99.50% and 98.37%, respectively, with vivianite being precipitated as the main byproduct. The occurrence of Feammox was a crucial link for enhanced ammonia removal and vivianite recovery. Metagenomic analysis further certified that long-term acclimation of optimization strategy triggered DNRA-based nitrate reducing genes (narY/Z and nrfA) assigned to Candidatus Brocadia, which allow direct uptake of nitrate by the anammox. Additionally, ZVI might act as a new electron donor to decrease organics dependence of PD by reducing the abundance of genes for electron production involved in carbon metabolism. However, FA addition enhanced the relative abundances of genes involved in anammox including nitrogen reduction and oxidation, thereby accelerating nitrogen removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127317DOI Listing
May 2022

Tumor-induced erythroid precursor-differentiated myeloid cells mediate immunosuppression and curtail anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment efficacy.

Cancer Cell 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Institute of Cancer, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Immunotherapy, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Despite the unprecedented success of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as anti-cancer therapy, it remains a prevailing clinical need to identify additional mechanisms underlying ICI therapeutic efficacy and potential drug resistance. Here, using lineage tracking in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice, we demonstrate that erythroid progenitor cells lose their developmental potential and switch to the myeloid lineage. Single-cell transcriptome analyses reveal that, notwithstanding quantitative differences in erythroid gene expression, erythroid differentiated myeloid cells (EDMCs) are transcriptionally indistinguishable from their myeloid-originated counterparts. EDMCs possess multifaceted machinery to curtail T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. Consequently, EDMC content within tumor tissues is negatively associated with T cell inflammation for the majority of solid cancers; moreover, EDMC enrichment, in accordance with anemia manifestation, is predictive of poor prognosis in various cohorts of patients undergoing ICI therapy. Together, our findings reveal a feedforward mechanism by which tumors exploit anemia-triggered erythropoiesis for myeloid transdifferentiation and immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2022.04.018DOI Listing
May 2022

Fabrication and Characterization of Superhydrophobic Al-Based Surface Used for Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Apr 22;15(9). Epub 2022 Apr 22.

School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Enhancing the heat transfer performance of heat exchangers is one of the main methods to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems. Wettability modified surfaces developed gradually may help. This study aims to improve the performance of heat exchangers from the perspective of component materials. The facile and cost-effective fabrication method of superhydrophobic Al-based finned-tube heat exchangers with acid etching and stearic acid self-assembly was proposed and optimized in this study, so that the modified Al fins could achieve stronger wettability and durability. The effect of process parameters on the wettability of the Al fins was by response surface methodology (RSM) and variance analysis. Then, the modified fins were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), 3D topography profiler, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The durability of the superhydrophobic fins was investigated by air exposure, corrosion resistance, and mechanical robustness experiments. The RSM and variance analysis demonstrated that a water contact angle (WCA) of 166.9° can be obtained with the etching time in 2 mol/L HCl solution of 10.5 min, the self-assembly time in the stearic acid ethanol solution of 48 h, and drying under 73.0 °C. The surface morphology showed suitable micro-nano structures with a mean roughness (Ra) of 467.58 nm and a maximum peak-to-valley vertical distance (Rt) of 4.095 μm. The chemical component demonstrated the self-assembly of an alkyl chain. The WCAs declined slightly in durability experiments, which showed the feasibility of the superhydrophobic heat exchangers under actual conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15093060DOI Listing
April 2022

Pon1 Deficiency Promotes Trem2 Pathway-Mediated Microglial Phagocytosis and Inhibits Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Release In Vitro and In Vivo.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, National Health Commission of China (NHC), Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Peking Union Medicine College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100021, China.

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) plays an anti-inflammatory role in the cardiovascular system. Levels of serum PON1 and polymorphisms in this gene were linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD), but its function in the neuroimmune system and AD is not clear. To address this issue, we used Pon1 knockout rats previously generated by our lab to investigate the role of Pon1 in microglia. Knockout of Pon1 in rat brain tissues protected against LPS-induced microglia activation. Pon1 deficiency in rat primary microglia increased Trem2 (triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2) expression, phagocytosis, and IL-10 (M2-phenotype marker) release, but decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 especially TNF-α (M1-phenotype markers) induced by LPS. Pon1 deficiency in rat primary microglia activated Trem2 pathway but decreased LPS-induced ERK activation. The phagocytosis-promoting effect of Pon1 knockout could be reversed by administration of recombinant PON1 protein. The interaction between PON1 and TREM2 was verified by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) using rat brain tissues or over-expressed BV2 cell lysates, which might be involved in lysosomal localization of TREM2. Furthermore, Pon1 knockout also enhanced microglial phagocytosis and clearance of exogenous Aβ by an intrahippocampal injection and decrease the transcription of cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in vivo. These results suggest that Pon1 knockout facilitates microglial phagocytosis and inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines both in vivo and in vitro, in which the interaction between Pon1 and Trem2 may be involved. These findings provide novel insights into the role of PON1 in neuroinflammation and highlight TREM2 as a potential target for Alzheimer's disease therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-022-02827-1DOI Listing
May 2022

Phylogenetic and protein prediction analysis reveals the taxonomically diverse distribution of virulence factors in Bacillus cereus strains.

PLoS One 2022 19;17(5):e0262974. Epub 2022 May 19.

School of Life Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with widely varying enterotoxic potential due to its virulence proteins. In this article, phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences from the whole-genomes of 41 strains, evolutionary distance calculation of the amino acid sequences of the virulence genes, and functional and structural predictions of the virulence proteins were performed to reveal the taxonomically diverse distribution of virulence factors. The genome evolution of the strains showed a clustering trend based on the protein-coding virulence genes. The strains of B. cereus have evolved into non-toxic risk and toxic risk clusters with medium-high- and medium-low-risk subclusters. The evolutionary transfer distances of incomplete virulence genes relative to housekeeping genes were greater than those of complete virulence genes, and the distance values of HblACD were higher than those of nheABC and CytK among the complete virulence genes. Cytoplasmic localization was impossible for all the virulence proteins, and NheB, NheC, Hbl-B, and Hbl-L1 were predicted to be extracellular. Nhe and Hbl proteins except CytK had similar spatial structures. The predicted structures of Nhe and Hbl mainly showed 'head' and 'tail' domains. The 'head' of NheA and Hbl-B, including two α-helices separated by β-tongue strands, might play a special role in the formation of Nhe trimers and Hbl trimers, respectively. The 'cap' of CytK, which includes two 'latches' with many β-sheets, formed a β-barrel structure with pores, and a 'rim' balanced the structure. The evolution of B. cereus strains showed a clustering tendency based on the protein-coding virulence genes, and the complete virulence-gene operon combination had higher relative genetic stability. The beta-tongue or latch associated with β-sheet folding might play an important role in the binding of virulence structures and pore-forming toxins in B. cereus.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0262974PLOS
May 2022

Synergy of a STING agonist and an IL-2 superkine in cancer immunotherapy against MHC I-deficient and MHC I tumors.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 19;119(22):e2200568119. Epub 2022 May 19.

Division of Immunology and Molecular Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

SignificanceImmunotherapy provides long-term remissions in numerous types of cancer but is ineffective in most tumors with poor immune cell infiltrates or lacking T cell epitopes or MHC I molecules. Agents that activate the STING protein showed promise in several MHC I and MHC-deficient tumor models in mice, where they induced powerful antitumor CD8 T cell and natural killer (NK) cell responses, respectively. They were less effective in numerous other tumor models and yielded mixed results in the clinic in human patients. This report demonstrates strong synergy between a STING agonist and an IL-2 superkine in effectively curing difficult-to-treat MHC-deficient and MHC-positive tumor models in mice by mobilizing T cells and NK cells. This combination therapy shows considerable promise for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2200568119DOI Listing
May 2022

Integrin-linked kinase affects the sensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells to chemotherapy with cisplatin via the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.

Bioengineered 2022 May;13(5):12532-12547

Department of Internal Medicine 1, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

Recent studies have shown that the expression of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) was related to the occurrence, development, and malignant progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, research on the relationship between ILK and the chemosensitivity of ESCC has to date not been reported. The present study found that ILK was highly expressed in ESCC cell lines, and the overexpression of ILK in ESCC cells reduced the incidence of cell apoptosis and alleviated the cytotoxicity on cells induced by cisplatin (CDDP). Inversely, ILK knockdown increased CDDP-induced apoptosis and had an inhibitive effect on the malignant phenotype of ESCC, including cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. In addition, ILK knockdown in ESCC cells inhibited the expression of beta (β)-catenin and activated the wingless/integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway. Furthermore, cellular MYC (c-MYC) and Cylin D1 were the target genes of the Wnt signaling pathway. Rescue experiments showed that the overexpression of β-catenin reversed a tumor's inhibition and apoptosis abilities induced by ILK knockdown. In conclusion, ILK potentially reduced the CDDP sensitivity of ESCC cells by influencing the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2022.2076497DOI Listing
May 2022

Association Between Habitual Night Sleep Duration and Predicted 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk by Sex Among Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

Nat Sci Sleep 2022 11;14:911-926. Epub 2022 May 11.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: We hypothesize the association between sleep duration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk varies with age category; however, evidence for the relationship between sleep duration and CVD risk among young and middle-aged adults remains scarce. This research aims to assess the association between night sleep duration and cardiovascular risk by sex among young and middle-aged Chinese adults.

Patients And Methods: We used the baseline data of a cohort of adults for physical examination by stratified cluster sampling. The Framingham risk score and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to measure CVD risk and sleep duration, respectively. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, height, weight, total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were collected. We performed multiple logistic regressions to examine the association between night sleep duration and the predicted cardiovascular risk.

Results: We included 27,547 participants aged 18-64 years free of CVD, cerebral stroke, and not taking lipid-lowering agents. Overall, 12.7%, and 20.4% were at medium and high predicted CVD risk, respectively; 11.9% and 12.3% reported short and long sleep, respectively. Short sleep was independently associated with 23% (95% CI: 1.08-1.40) increased odds of medium-to-high CVD risk and 26% (95% CI: 1.11-1.45) increased odds of high CVD risk among females. Whereas long sleep was independently associated with 17% (95% CI: 0.71-0.98) decreased odds of medium-to-high CVD risk among males.

Conclusion: Among young and middle-aged adults, long sleep was associated with decreased odds of CVD risk in males, whereas short sleep was associated with increased odds of cardiovascular risk in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S359611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9109730PMC
May 2022

Status and correlates of home smoking bans after the implementation of the smoke-free legislation in public places: A survey in Chongqing.

Tob Induc Dis 2022 3;20:41. Epub 2022 May 3.

College of Nursing, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Secondhand smoke exposure in many countries decreased dramatically after the implementation of smoke-free legislation in public places, but the exposure at home did not change to the same degree. The aim of this study was to describe the status and correlates of a home smoking ban in Chongqing, China.

Methods: From June to August 2021, we selected two healthcare centers in the East, West, North, South and Middle regions of Chongqing. We investigated the family smoke-free situation in the selected region using a stratified random sampling method. A chi-squared test was performed to compare the totally and partially smoke-free homes, and a binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the correlates of smoke-free rules at home.

Results: The study investigated 2121 families, among which 884 (41.7%) implemented a total ban on smoking at home. The covariates included age (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.18-2.01), living with children aged <14 years (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.20-1.90), no smokers in the family (OR=2.37; 95% CI: 1.78-3.17), awareness of the hazards of secondhand smoke (OR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.07-1.59), worrying about the impact of smoking in the presence of children on health (OR=1.92; 95% CI: 1.25-2.95), no difficulty (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.07-1.67) and confidence (OR=1.73; 95% CI: 1.41-2.13) in stopping others from smoking, no smoking rules in cars (OR=3.67; 95% CI: 2.58-5.22), and frequency of entertaining guests with cigarettes (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.59).

Conclusions: It is common for households in Chongqing to have smoking bans, especially those with children. If a family has members that are smokers, education researchers should pay more attention to the hazards of secondhand smoke on the health of family members, and to adopt more tobacco control measures and enhance the self-efficacy of implementing a home smoking ban. Helping smokers to quit is a vital way to decrease the hazards of cigarettes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/146588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9059264PMC
May 2022

COVID-19 Worry and Mental Health Among the Economically Active Population in Guangdong, China.

Authors:
Xin Yong Li Zhang

Front Public Health 2022 2;10:882177. Epub 2022 May 2.

School of Economics and Trade, Hunan University, Changsha, China.

Background: The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused people to worry, which has affected their mental health. This study aimed to access the impact of COVID-19 worry on the mental health of the economically active population (EAP) in a province of China.

Methods: An online cross-sectional survey study was conducted during an outbreak of COVID-19 in Guangdong, China. The survey used the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to evaluate participants' mental health status and was completed by 1,584 of the 1,708 participants (a response rate of 92.74%). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were used to identify the correlation between COVID-19 worry and mental health.

Results: Approximately 42.05% of participants reported that they were very worried or extremely worried about the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 worry was negatively correlated with mental health ( < 0.01) and exhibited a stronger influence on the mental health of participants who were male, younger (aged 16-45), or unemployed than on the mental health of participants who were women, older (aged over 45), or employed.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that COVID-19 worry has generated new inequalities in mental health among the EAP of China. The government should provide more public reassurance and psychological support to the EAP to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 worry and prevent mental health disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.882177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9108278PMC
May 2022

Mobile Clinical Trial Matching Technology in Medical Oncology Clinic: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2022 May;6:e2100182

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Purpose: The internet is a common source of health information for patients and can be leveraged to provide patient-facing clinical trial information. This pilot study integrated an online prostate cancer clinical trial matching technology, called Trial Library (TL), in an academic medical oncology clinic from February 2019 to April 2021.

Patients And Methods: This is a single-arm interventional pilot study among patients with a known prostate cancer diagnosis. Participants were given access to TL before seeing a provider. The primary and secondary study end points were the overall satisfaction with TL and the proportion of participant-initiated clinical trial discussion with providers after exposure to TL, respectively. The null hypothesis or true satisfaction rate (acceptability) was tested against a one-sided alternative and was rejected if 29 or more satisfactions were observed.

Results: Among 272 patients approached, 66 provided informed consent to participate in the study. The mean age was 70.8 years (standard deviation = 7.9). The majority of participants were White (82%) and had metastases present at the time of enrollment (65%). The baseline clinical trial discussion rate ascertained via electronic medical record review was 28%. After accessing TL, a significantly larger proportion of participants (48.5%) discussed clinical trials during the clinic visit ( = .007), half of which were patient-initiated. The majority of participants indicated that TL increased their interest in clinical trials (68.2%); however, satisfaction/extreme satisfaction with the technology was 38%.

Conclusion: Access to TL resulted in a significant increase in patient-initiated discussions regarding clinical trials and an increase in interest in clinical trial participation although these data do not address if this resulted in increased accrual to clinical trials. The satisfaction rate did not meet the target to reject the null hypothesis, suggesting the need for iterative design of patient-facing health information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.21.00182DOI Listing
May 2022

An ultrasensitive luteolin electrochemical sensor based on a glass carbon electrode modified using multi-walled carbon nanotube-supported hollow cobalt sulfide (CoSx) polyhedron/graphene quantum dot composites.

Analyst 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, People's Republic of China.

Luteolin (LU), belonging to the group of flavonoids with rich biological activities, has attracted considerable attention. Herein, a novel ultrasensitive LU electrochemical sensor based on hollow cobalt sulfide polyhedron-multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites (CoSx-MWCNTs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was proposed. The hollow CoSx polyhedrons derived from ZIF-67 showed excellent electrochemical sensing performance, which was attributed to the abundant surface active sites endowed by the special hollow structure. When detecting LU using the DPV model, the CoSx-MWCNTs/GQDs/GCE showed a linear range of 5 nM-2000 nM under optimal conditions, and the corresponding detection limit (LOD) was 1.2 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor exhibited satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy for detecting LU in real samples from Chrysanthemum extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2an00345gDOI Listing
May 2022

Impact of Coronary Artery Anatomy in Arterial Switch Operation: In-hospital and Post-discharge Outcomes.

Curr Med Sci 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Ultrasound, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Objective: The influence of the coronary artery anatomy on the prognosis of patients receiving an arterial switch operation (ASO) is currently controversial, and the risk factors for this operation may change in more complicated patients. This study aimed to investigate the influence of coronary artery anomalies on the in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes of ASO in patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and Taussig-Bing anomaly (TBA).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 206 patients who underwent ASO from January 2007 to December 2019. The median age at operation was 33 [interquartile range (IQR): 20-71] days. Median follow-up time was 7.2 years (IQR: 4.0-10.3 years).

Results: Coronary anomalies were present in 86 patients (41.7%), with 9 (4.4%) of them having a single coronary artery. Additional coronary features included intramural courses in 5 (2.4%) patients, ostial stenosis in 1 (0.5%) patient, and accessory coronary artery orifices in 5 (2.4%) patients. There were 32 (15.5%) in-hospital deaths and 8 (4.6%) post-discharge deaths, yielding an overall survival of 81.3%, 80.7% and 79.9% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Mortality due to ASO has been drastically decreased since 2013. Patients with a single coronary artery had higher rate of in-hospital mortality, but this finding was not statistically significant. The earlier surgical era (OR: 2.756) and a longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR: 2.336) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality, while coronary patterns were not. An intramural coronary artery (HR: 10.034) and a patient age of older than 1 year at the time of ASO (HR: 9.706) were independent predictors of post-discharge mortality.

Conclusion: ASO remains the procedure of choice for TGA with coronary anomalies with acceptable in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes in terms of overall survival and freedom of reoperation. However, intramural coronary artery is an independent risk factor for post-discharge mortality. Timely surgery within the 1st year of life helps improve overall midterm survival of ASO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-022-2591-7DOI Listing
May 2022

F-Box Protein 11 Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Aerobic Glycolysis in Glioblastomas by Mediating the Ubiquitin Degradation of Cdc25A.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Glioblastoma is a malignant CNS tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. F-box protein 11 (FBXO11) has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and participates in the pathogenesis of multiple tumors but the role and mechanism of FBXO11 activity in glioblastoma remain unknown. In this study, FBXO11 was first observed to be downregulated in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines. 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) and colony formation assays and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated that overexpression of FBXO11 suppressed proliferation and aerobic glycolysis and induced cell cycle arrest in U251-MG and A172 cells. FBXO1 decreased cell division cycle 25 A (Cdc25A) expression through ubiquitin degradation in a coprecipitation assay. A Western blot assay validated FBXO11 suppression of PKM2 dephosphorylation and c-Myc-mediated aerobic glycolysis via reduction of Cdc25A. In addition, a rescue experiment revealed that FBXO11 suppressed proliferation and aerobic glycolysis, both of which were reversed by overexpression of Cdc25A. FBXO11 overexpression also inhibited tumorigenesis via suppressing Cdc25A expression in vivo. These findings indicate that FBXO11 suppresses cell proliferation and aerobic glycolysis in glioblastomas by mediating the ubiquitin degradation of Cdc25A thereby providing insight into mechanisms of glioblastoma tumorigenesis and identifying a new potential therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlac033DOI Listing
May 2022

Mechanically enhanced composite hydrogel scaffold for in situ bone repairs.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2022 Feb 7:112700. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

The School of Life Sciences, Bengbu Medical College, 2600 Donghai Road, Bengbu 233030, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Tissue Transplantation, Bengbu Medical College, 2600 Donghai Road, Bengbu 233030, China. Electronic address:

High-efficiency repair of critical bone defects is a pressing problem in clinical practice. However, most biological replacement materials do not simultaneously satisfy the dual requirements of mechanical strength and cell compatibility. In this study, chitosan methacryloyl (CSMA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were subjected to photo-crosslinking to form the CSMA/β-TCP composite hydrogel, which has strong mechanical properties contributing to bone regeneration. In addition, its scaffold can alter the morphology of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), promote their proliferation, enhance the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and augment the nodular deposition of calcium. Meanwhile, the expressions of osteogenic proteins (ALP, osteocalcin, and osteopontin) were upregulated and the regulatory mechanism of the Hippo signaling pathway was verified. Moreover, animal experiments have confirmed that CSMA/β-TCP has adequate biocompatibility and bone regeneration. These results demonstrate the immense potential of the CSMA/β-TCP composite hydrogel in bone regeneration therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2022.112700DOI Listing
February 2022

Impacts of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on juvenile Lates calcarifer: Bioaccumulation, antioxidant response, microbiome, and proteome alteration.

Mar Pollut Bull 2022 May 14;179:113744. Epub 2022 May 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China. Electronic address:

Discarded plastic bag is a main component of marine debris, posing potential threats to marine biota. This study was conducted to assess the potential effects of microplastics on juvenile Lates calcarifer. Fish were exposed via diet to two microplastic types from conventional polyethylene (PE) and biodegradable (Bio) plastic bags for 21 days. Antioxidative enzymes activity, intestinal microbiome and proteome were determined. PE and Bio microplastics were found to accumulate in gastrointestinal tracts, and no mortality was observed. Microplastics exposure did not induce significant antioxidant response except for the glutathione reductase (GR) modulation. Intestinal microbiome diversity decreased significantly in PE group based on Simpson index. Both types of microplastics induced proteome modulation by down-regulating proteins associated with immune homeostasis. Bio microplastics maintained higher intestinal microbial diversity and induced more proteins alteration than PE microplastics. This study provides toxicological insights into the impacts of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on juvenile L. calcarifer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113744DOI Listing
May 2022

Removal of Size-Dependent Submicron Particles Using Metal-Organic Framework-Based Nanofiber Air Filters.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. 999077, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Particulate matter poses a serious threat to human health. In particular, exposure to submicron particles can result in more severe health effects as they can deposit more deeply into human tissues. Metal-organic framework (MOF)-based nanofiber filters are regarded as promising candidates for efficient particle control. In this study, [email protected] nanofiber filters that were developed via an in situ growth strategy were selected for the filtration of submicron particles. The addition of ZIF-8 more effectively enhanced the filtration of particles with smaller sizes. For the most penetrating particle size of around 0.3 μm, the MOF-based nanofiber filter exhibited an 8.9% increase in filtration efficiency compared with that of the pure nanofiber filter. Meanwhile, for particles with large aerodynamic diameters (in the range of 0.7-1 μm, for example), the role of ZIF-8 was negligible. This work provides important insights into the filtration performance of MOF-based nanofiber filters in capturing submicron particles and may aid in designing nanofiber filters for efficient control of particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c04970DOI Listing
May 2022

Enhanced adsorption of copper ions from aqueous solution by two-step DTPA-modified magnetic cellulose hydrogel beads.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 May 13;211:689-699. Epub 2022 May 13.

Tianjin Huanke Environmental Consulting Co., Ltd, Tianjin 300191, China.

Copper contamination of water is one of the most pressing environmental problems which has attracted extensive concern in recent decades. In this study, a series of magnetic adsorbents were synthesized by two-step modified cellulose with N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (KH-792) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) using for removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption performance of Cu(II) was systematically investigated under various treatment conditions as the effect of solution pH, contact time, initial concentration and temperature. The adsorption process was found to match better with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described by Langmuir model, which meant predominant governance of monolayer chemical adsorption. The analysis of FTIR and XPS confirmed the possible adsorption mechanism between Cu(II) and the synthesized adsorbents was electrostatic attraction and the chemical coordination. Compared with MCCs and APMC, DPMC showed higher adsorption capacity of Cu(II), reaching maximum adsorption capacity of 298.62 mg·g at pH 6. Given this, ease of preparation, low cost and excellent reusability, DPMC will be promising adsorbent for application in Cu(II) removal from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.05.073DOI Listing
May 2022

Association of mental health with clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19.

J Affect Disord 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Medical College, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430065, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the association of depression and anxiety with clinical outcomes and laboratory markers among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: A prospective cohort study in Wuhan, China was conducted in 205 adult hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of moderate coronavirus disease from admission through discharge or death. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The primary outcome was the incidence of severe or critical COVID-19, and the secondary outcomes were increased length of hospital stay and altered laboratory markers during follow up.

Results: Among the 205 hospitalized patients (mean age 58 years; 51.7% male), 25 (12.2%) developed severe or critical COVID-19. According to the HADS scores, 51 (24.9%) and 92 (44.9%) of participants presented with clinically significant anxiety and depression, respectively. Using multi-variable adjusted Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio of developing severe or critical COVID-19 associated with anxiety and depression was 1.55 (95% CI: 0.63, 3.80) and 4.28 (95% CI: 1.20, 15.30), respectively. The risk of developing severe or critical COVID-19 with both anxiety and depression was more than four times higher than in patients without anxiety or depression (HR, 4.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 16.00). In addition, both the trends of depression and anxiety were positively associated with a prolonged duration of hospitalization, and immune response was significantly decreased in patients with depression than those without.

Conclusions: In patients having coronavirus disease, depression was associated with worse clinical outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of prevention and management of mental health problems in confronting the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.05.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9098941PMC
May 2022

A novel catechin electrochemical sensor based on a two-dimensional MOFs material derivative Zn doped carbon nanosheets and multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite film.

Talanta 2022 May 4;246:123520. Epub 2022 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory for Green Organic Synthesis and Application of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

In this paper, the precursor ZIF-8/NaCl composite material was successfully synthesized by the in-situ synthesis method, and the two-dimensional zinc doped carbon nanosheets (Zn CNs) were obtained after heat treatment of the precursor. Zn CNs were electrodeposited on carboxylated carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) to construct an electrochemical sensor for catechins. The materials are characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm. Zn CNs/MWCNTs-COOH composite provide the sensor with excellent electrochemical and electrocatalytic performance. Therefore, the sensor has a wide detection range (30.0-738 nM) and a low detection limit (LOD = 10.0 nM) for catechins. The effectiveness of the sensor was also verified in actual sample detection with good stability and accuracy. This study may provide a feasible solution for the detection of catechin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2022.123520DOI Listing
May 2022

Sam's Net: A Self-Augmented Multi-Stage Deep-Learning Network for End-to-End Reconstruction of Limited Angle CT.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2022 May 16;PP. Epub 2022 May 16.

Limited angle reconstruction is a typical ill-posed problem in computed tomography (CT). Given incomplete projection data, images reconstructed by conventional analytical algorithms and iterative methods suffer from severe structural distortions and artifacts. In this paper, we proposed a self-augmented multi-stage deep-learning network (Sam's Net) for end-to-end reconstruction of limited angle CT. With the merit of the alternating minimization technique, Sam's Net integrates multi-stage self-constraints into cross-domain optimization to provide additional constraints on the manifold of neural networks. In practice, a sinogram completion network (SCNet) and artifact suppression network (ASNet), together with domain transformation layers constitute the backbone for cross-domain optimization. An online self-augmentation module was designed following the manner defined by alternating minimization, which enables a self-augmented learning procedure and multi-stage inference manner. Besides, a substitution operation was applied as a hard constraint for the solution space based on the data fidelity and a learnable weighting layer was constructed for data consistency refinement. Sam's Net forms a new framework for ill-posed reconstruction problems. In the training phase, the self-augmented procedure guides the optimization into a tightened solution space with enriched diverse data distribution and enhanced data consistency. In the inference phase, multi-stage prediction can improve performance progressively. Extensive experiments with both simulated and practical projections under 90-degree and 120-degree fan-beam configurations validate that Sam's Net can significantly improve the reconstruction quality with high stability and robustness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2022.3175529DOI Listing
May 2022

Association of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak on the Diabetes Self-Management in Chinese Patients: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2022 6;15:1413-1422. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Endocrinology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has seriously affected people's lives, especially those with chronic diseases. Diabetes self-management, which plays an important role in glycaemic control and reducing the risk of acute and long-term complications, may be discouraged by social distancing.

Purpose: To evaluate the level of self-management activities in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Patients And Methods: A survey of with 872 patients with T2DM in the inpatient and outpatient departments through face-to-face interviews was conducted from 1 July, 2020 to 30 September, 2020. The main outcome measures were glycaemic control status and level of self-management activities during the pandemic.

Results: In terms of glycaemic control, the data showed that patients with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) < 7.0 mmol/L (36.4%), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) < 10.0 mmol/L (26.3%), or glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) < 7.0% (18.6%) in our investigation has well-controlled blood glucose level, and 11.9% of patients experienced blood glucose <3.9 mmol/L during the outbreak. The diabetes self-management of Chinese patients decreased and the final diabetes self-management score of the Chinese patients was 3.4 ± 1.45. Patients with higher education, diabetes education, comorbidities, and online consultations had higher diabetes self-management scores ( <0.05). Adherence to diabetes self-management in the normal glycaemic control group was higher than that in the substandard glycaemic control group (<0.05). Among all participants, 72.1% of the patients reduced the frequency of hospital visits, and 44.8% considered that they had diabetes-related stress during the pandemic. The mean anxiety level score rated by 286 patients was 5.3±2.8.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected diabetes self-management, including substandard glycemic control, increased diabetes-related stress, limited exercise range and medical visits. Therefore, future interventions should focus on the online management of chronic diseases and support online consultation' development and promotion, which can overcome physical distance and provide personalized services conveniently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S351823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9094639PMC
May 2022

Virally Mediated Connexin 26 Expression in Postnatal Scala Media Significantly and Transiently Preserves Hearing in Connexin 30 Null Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 27;10:900416. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Otolaryngology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Non-sensory cells in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea are connected extensively by gap junctions. Functionally null mutations in (encoding Cx30) cause hearing loss in humans. In this study, we injected AAV1-CB7- into the scala media between P0-2 in the cochlea of mice. The injection increased Cx26 expression and significantly preserved auditory functions. However, the hearing preservation gradually declined and essentially disappeared 3 months after the injections. In contrast, the morphological preservation was still significant at 3 months post-injection. We found that the expression of Cx26, at both the mRNA and protein levels, showed substantial decreases during the 3-month period. Curiously, treatments by injecting AAV1-CB7- with the identical approach failed to yield any hearing preservation. Our results demonstrated the first successful cochlear gene therapy treatment in mouse models by virally expressing a companion gene of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.900416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091169PMC
April 2022

Extent and complexity of RNA processing in honey bee queen and worker caste development.

iScience 2022 May 25;25(5):104301. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Honeybee Research Institute, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330045, P. R. of China.

The distinct honeybee () worker and queen castes have become a model for the study of genomic mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. Here we performed a nanopore-based direct RNA sequencing with exceptionally long reads to compare the mRNA transcripts between queen and workers at three points during their larval development. We found thousands of significantly differentially expressed transcript isoforms (DEIs) between queen and worker larvae. These DEIs were formatted by a flexible splicing system. We showed that poly(A) tails participated in this caste differentiation by negatively regulating the expression of DEIs. Hundreds of isoforms uniquely expressed in either queens or workers during their larval development, and isoforms were expressed at different points in queen and worker larval development demonstrating a dynamic relationship between isoform expression and developmental mechanisms. These findings show the full complexity of RNA processing and transcript expression in honey bee phenotypic plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097701PMC
May 2022

Effects of the Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation of the Cerebellar Vermis on Balance Recovery After Stroke: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 29;14:881311. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Rehabilitation, Wuxi Tongren Rehabilitation Hospital, Wuxi, China.

Background: The recovery of balance function is a critical segment in the rehabilitation treatment of stroke. The cerebellum is considered as the key structure involved in balance and motor control. The cerebellar vermis plays an important role in integrating vision, proprioception, and sensory skin input and may be a candidate stimulation target for regulating the motor network related with balance. However, evidence that the intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of cerebellar vermis can promote the recovery of balance function after stroke remains insufficient. Therefore, this study aims to explore the efficacy of the cerebellar vermis iTBS for the treatment of balance function in patients with stroke.

Methods And Analysis: Forty patients with stroke will be recruited in this prospective, randomized, sham-controlled trial. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 15 sessions of cerebellar vermis iTBS (600 pulses) or sham stimulation. Additionally, a routine rehabilitation therapy follows the intervention. The primary outcome is the Berg Balance Scale, and the secondary outcomes are the Fugl-Meyer assessment of the lower extremity and modified Barthel index. The above outcomes will be assessed before intervention and at the end of each week. Pre- and post-iTBS resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) will be acquired, and the regional homogeneity, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and functional connectivity will be calculated and analyzed.

Discussion: This protocol holds promise as a potential method to improve balance function in patients with stroke. If the outcomes of patients improve after the intervention, the study will provide new insights into improving balance function.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study has been approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee of Wuxi Mental Health Center (Wuxi Tongren Rehabilitation Hospital). Results will be disseminated through (open-access) peer-reviewed publications, networks of scientists, professionals, and the public and presented at conferences.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: www.chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR2100052590.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.881311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9099377PMC
April 2022

Apatinib enhances the antitumor effects of radiation in HeLa cell line mouse model of invasive cervical cancer.

Ann Transl Med 2022 Apr;10(8):459

Department of Oncology, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Background: There is the lack of reports on apatinib (APA) combined with radiation in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect of APA combined with radiation using an model of cervical cancer.

Methods: The mouse models, established using Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) cells, were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, radiotherapy (RT) alone group, cisplatin (DDPs) combination RT group (DDPs + RT), and APA combination RT group (APA + RT). The expressions of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki-67), and histone H2AX family member (γ-H2AX) were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC), the extent of apoptosis was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated (dUTP) nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and tumor metabolism was determined using micro18F-fluorodexyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The length of survival was observed and recorded.

Results: The positive expressions of VEGFR-2, CD31, and Ki-67 in the APA + RT group were obviously reduced compared with the control, RT, and DDPs + RT groups (P<0.05). The positive expression of γ-H2AX was obviously increased compared with the control and RT groups (P<0.05), whereas the apoptosis rate in the APA + RT group was obviously increased compared with the control, RT, and DDPs + RT groups (P<0.05). The tumor metabolism and volume in the APA + RT group were obviously reduced compared with the control, RT, and DDPs + RT groups. The length of survival was prolonged by 22 and 11 days in the APA + RT group compared with the RT and DDPs + RT groups, respectively (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The combination of APA and RT could significantly enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of RT and prolong the median survival in a mouse model of cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-22-1442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9096373PMC
April 2022

Efficacy and safety of drug-coated balloons in the treatment of coronary lesions in very small vessels: a prospective, multicenter, single-arm trial.

Ann Transl Med 2022 Apr;10(8):445

Department of Cardiology, the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, China.

Background: Evidence of the use of drug-coated balloons (DCB) in large or small coronary lesions and in-stent restenosis has accumulated over the past years. Due to their anatomical peculiarity, the treatment of very small vessels (VSV) (lumen diameter <2 mm) is still a controversial issue. Studies that examine the use of DCB in VSV are limited. We investigated the efficacy and safety of using DCBs for the coronary lesions in VSV undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: In this prospective, single-arm study, we enrolled adult patients with coronary artery disease from six centers in China. A total of 29 patients had VSV with a target lesion stenosis ≥70% were included. All patients were treated with DCB. The primary endpoint was late lumen loss (LLL) at 9 months of follow-up. The secondary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events including target lesion revascularization, death, or myocardial infarction at 9 months of follow-up.

Results: Twenty-nine eligible patients with VSV were enrolled between November 2019 to May 2020. Angiographic and clinical follow-up were completed at 9 months in 18 (56.25%) patients (7 patients refused to final angiography; 2 failed to finish DCB angioplasty; 1 patient request; 1 other causes of death). The mean diameter of the reference vessel of the target lesion was 1.71±0.27 mm, the minimum lumen diameter (MLD) of the target lesion before operation was 0.31±0.24 mm, the average LLL of the target lesion was 0.13±0.28 mm, and the MLD of the target vessel immediately after operation was (1.19±0.20 mm) and at the 9-month follow-up (1.06±0.31 mm) were significantly higher than those before operation (P=0.043). One patient (5.56%) underwent revascularization. No myocardial infarction or death occurred during follow-up after treatment with DCBs.

Conclusions: DCB can be a safe and effective alternative in the treatment of coronary lesions in VSV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-22-1266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9096399PMC
April 2022

Left Heart Chamber Volumetric Assessment by Automated Three-Dimensional Echocardiography in Heart Transplant Recipients.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 27;9:877051. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Ultrasound Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Recently, a new automated software (Heart Model) was developed to obtain three-dimensional (3D) left heart chamber volumes. The aim of this study was to verify the feasibility and accuracy of the automated 3D echocardiographic algorithm in heart transplant (HTx) patients. Conventional manual 3D transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) tracings and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images were used as a reference for comparison.

Methods: This study enrolled 103 healthy HTx patients prospectively. In protocol 1, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), left atrial max volume (LAVmax), LA minimum volume (LAVmin) and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) were obtained using the automated 3D echocardiography (3DE) and compared with corresponding values obtained through the manual 3DE. In protocol 2, 28 patients' automated 3DE measurements were compared with CMR reference values. The impacts of contour edit and surgical technique were also tested.

Results: Heart Model was feasible in 97.1% of the data sets. In protocol 1, there was strong correlation between 3DE and manual 3DE for all the parameters ( = 0.77 to 0.96, p<0.01). Compared to values obtained through manual measurements, LV volumes and LVEF were overestimated by the automated algorithm and LA volumes were underestimated. All the biases were small except for that of LAVmin. After contour adjustment, the biases reduced and all the limits of agreement were clinically acceptable. In protocol 2, the correlations for LV and LA volumes were strong between automated 3DE with contour edit and CMR ( = 0.74 to 0.93, p<0.01) but correlation for LVEF remained moderate ( = 0.65, < 0.01). Automated 3DE overestimated LV volumes but underestimated LVEF and LA volumes compared with CMR. The limits of agreement were clinically acceptable only for LVEDV and LAVmax.

Conclusion: Simultaneous quantification of left heart volumes and LVEF with the automated Heart Model program is rapid, feasible and to a great degree it is accurate in HTx recipients. Nevertheless, only LVEDV and LAVmax measured by automated 3DE with contour edit seem applicable for clinical practice when compared with CMR. Automated 3DE for HTx recipients is a worthy attempt, though further verification and optimization are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.877051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091562PMC
April 2022

Exploiting Wavelength Orthogonality in Photoinitiated RAFT Dispersion Polymerization and Photografting for Monodisperse Surface-Functional Polymeric Microspheres.

ACS Macro Lett 2022 May 10:716-722. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Polymeric Materials and Engineering, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

We report a strategy toward surface-functional polymeric microspheres using a wavelength orthogonality technique that employs photoinitiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion polymerization and the subsequent photografting under different wavelengths of light. Initial screening of reaction conditions indicated photoreactive polymeric microsphere with uniform sizes could be prepared by using photoinitiator-functionalized macro-RAFT agents under purple light irradiation. Photoreactive polymeric microspheres allowed photografting polymerizations under UV light irradiation, and we further demonstrated the broad scope of this method by photografting acrylamide, acrylic, and methacrylic monomers. Finally, carboxyl-functionalized polymeric microspheres with an exceptional high number of carboxyl groups were successfully prepared by this technique, which permitted extensive surface bioconjugation of model proteins (e.g., streptavidin). This method should expand the capabilities of RAFT dispersion polymerization to afford diverse surface-functional polymeric microspheres for some specific applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.2c00228DOI Listing
May 2022
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