Publications by authors named "Li Xue"

2,100 Publications

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A large copper-niobate cluster with the pagoda-shaped subunit {NbO}.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr;57(33):3999-4002

Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, P. R. China.

A 72-nuclearity niobium cluster was synthesized, in which two {CuNb26O76} clusters and one {Nb20O59} cluster are fused in a triangular fashion, resulting in a {Nb12} cavity. Further, the simple nature of the species allowed its investigation by ESI-MS analysis, yielding two subunits with time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00758kDOI Listing
April 2021

A DNA-binding, albumin-targeting fusion protein promotes the cellular uptake and bioavailability of framework DNA nanostructures.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar 19;13(12):6038-6042. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Nucleic Acid Chemistry and Nanomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, China.

Framework DNA nanostructures exhibit unique characteristics such as precisely controllable physicochemical properties (i.e. size, shape, and surface functionality) and have been used as carriers for the delivery of a variety of therapeutics. Nevertheless, pristine DNA nanostructures encounter challenges such as low cellular uptake efficiency and short in vivo retention time that largely hinder their biomedical applications. Here in this report, a fusion protein is designed to complex with a tetrahedral DNA nanostructure (TDN) to circumvent these challenges by recruiting serum albumins. This bi-functional fusion protein (ABS) is composed of an albumin-binding domain (ABD) and a DNA-binding domain (Sso-7d), which can serve as a linker to bridge the TDN with albumin. It was revealed that ABS-tethered TDN can readily recruit serum albumins to achieve significantly enhanced uptake in cancer cells and longer retention time in mice, suggesting that ABS may serve as a potent agent to facilitate the biological applications of DNA nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr07967gDOI Listing
March 2021

Cocktail Therapy of Fosthiazate and Cupric-Ammoniun Complex for Citrus Huanglongbing.

Front Plant Sci 2021 31;12:643971. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science, Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive citrus bacterial disease caused by Liberibacter asiaticus (.Las) and cannot be cured by current pesticides. Root lesion and juveniles were observed in HLB-affected citrus tree roots. We hypothesize that root treatment with fosthiazate (FOS) and Cupric-Ammonium Complex (CAC) will improve the root growth and inhibit HLB. CAC is a broad spectrum fungicide and can promote growth of crops. FOS kills and protects roots from damage by harmful bacteria such as .Las. After 90 days of combination treatment of FOS and CAC through root drenches, the citrus grew new roots and its leaves changed their color to green. The inhibition rate of .Las reached more than 90%. During treatment process, the chlorophyll content and the root vitality increased 396 and 151%, respectively, and starch accumulation decreased by 88%. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and plant tissue dyeing experiments showed that more irregular swollen starch granules existed in the chloroplast thylakoid system of the HLB-infected leaves. This is due to the blocking of their secretory tissue by starch. TEM and flow cytometry experiments showed the synergistic effects of FOS and CAC. A transcriptome analysis revealed that the treatment induced the differential expression of the genes which involved 103 metabolic pathways. These results suggested that the cocktail treatment of FOS and CAC may effectively kill various pathogens including .Las on citrus root and thus effectively control HLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.643971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044827PMC
March 2021

MiR-22 Inhibition Alleviates Cardiac Dysfunction in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Targeting the sirt1/PGC-1α Pathway.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:646903. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Doxorubicin (DOX) cardiotoxicity is a life-threatening side effect that leads to a poor prognosis in patients receiving chemotherapy. We investigated the role of miR-22 in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and the underlying mechanism and . Specifically, we designed loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments to identify the role of miR-22 in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Our data suggested that inhibiting miR-22 alleviated cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction induced by doxorubicin. In addition, inhibiting miR-22 mitigated mitochondrial dysfunction through the sirt1/PGC-1α pathway. Knocking out miR-22 enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by increased PGC-1α, TFAM, and NRF-1 expression . Furthermore, knocking out miR-22 rescued mitophagy, which was confirmed by increased expression of PINK1 and parkin and by the colocalization of LC3 and mitochondria. These protective effects were abolished by overexpressing miR-22. In conclusion, miR-22 may represent a new target to alleviate cardiac dysfunction in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and improve prognosis in patients receiving chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.646903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047466PMC
April 2021

3,3'-Diindolylmethane induces gastric cancer cells death via STIM1 mediated store-operated calcium entry.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 19;17(5):1217-1233. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Health Care, Zhenjiang Fourth Peoples Hospital, Zhenjiang, China.

3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural phytochemicals isolated from cruciferous vegetables, has been reported to inhibit human gastric cancer cells proliferation and induce cells apoptosis as well as autophagy, but its mechanisms are still unclear. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a main Ca influx pathway in various of cancers, which is activated by the depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca store. Stromal interaction molecular 1 (STIM1) is the necessary component of SOCE. In this study, we focus on to examine the regulatory mechanism of SOCE on DIM-induced death in gastric cancer. After treating the human BGC-823 and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells with DIM, cellular proliferation was determined by MTT, apoptosis and autophagy were detected by flow cytometry or Hoechst 33342 staining. The expression levels of related proteins were evaluated by Western blotting. Free cytosolilc Ca level was assessed by fluorescence monitoring under a laser scanning confocal microscope. The data have shown that DIM could significantly inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis as well as autophagy in two gastric cancer cell lines. After DIM treatment, the STIM1-mediated SOCE was activated by upregulating STIM1 and decreasing ER Ca level. Knockdown STIM1 with siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of SOCE attenuated DIM induced apoptosis and autophagy by inhibiting p-AMPK mediated ER stress pathway. Our data highlighted that the potential of SOCE as a promising target for treating cancers. Developing effective and selective activators targeting STIM1-mediated SOCE pathway will facilitate better therapeutic sensitivity of phytochemicals acting on SOCE in gastric cancer. Moreover, more research should be performed to validate the efficacy of combination chemotherapy of anti-cancer drugs targeting SOCE for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.56833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040462PMC
March 2021

Role and mechanisms of autophagy in lung metabolism and repair.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Basic Medicine, Haihe Hospital, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Mammalian lungs are metabolically active organs that frequently encounter environmental insults. Stress responses elicit protective autophagy in epithelial barrier cells and the supportive niche. Autophagy promotes the recycling of damaged intracellular organelles, denatured proteins, and other biological macromolecules for reuse as components required for lung cell survival. Autophagy, usually induced by metabolic defects, regulates cellular metabolism. Autophagy is a major adaptive response that protects cells and organisms from injury. Endogenous region-specific stem/progenitor cell populations are found in lung tissue, which are responsible for epithelial repair after lung damage. Additionally, glucose and fatty acid metabolism is altered in lung stem/progenitor cells in response to injury-related lung fibrosis. Autophagy deregulation has been observed to be involved in the development and progression of other respiratory diseases. This review explores the role and mechanisms of autophagy in regulating lung metabolism and epithelial repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-021-03841-7DOI Listing
April 2021

The impact of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunisation on all-cause pneumonia admissions in Hong Kong: A 14-year population-based interrupted time series analysis.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Nine years after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the United States, Hong Kong (HK) introduced the vaccine to its universal childhood immunisation programme in 2009. We aimed to assess the impact of childhood PCV immunisation on all-cause pneumonia (ACP) admissions among the overall population of HK.

Methods: In this population-based interrupted time series analysis, we used territory-wide population-representative electronic health records in HK to evaluate the vaccine impact. We identified hospitalised patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia from any cause between 2004 and 2017. We applied segmented Poisson regression to assess the gradual change in the monthly incidence of ACP admissions between pre- and post-vaccination periods. Negative outcome control, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were used to test the robustness of the main analysis.

Findings: Over the 14-year study period, a total of 587,607 ACP episodes were identified among 357,950 patients. The monthly age-standardised incidence of ACP fluctuated between 33.42 and 87.44 per 100,000-persons. There was a marginal decreasing trend in pneumonia admissions after PCV introduction among overall population (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0·9965, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0·9932-0·9998), and older adults (≥65 years, IRR: 0·9928, 95% CI: 0·9904-0·9953) but not in younger age groups.

Interpretation: There was a marginally declining trend of overall ACP admissions in HK up to eight years after childhood PCV introduction. The significance disappeared when fitting sensitivity analyses. The results indicate the complexities of using non-specific endpoints for measuring vaccine effect and the necessity of enhancing serotype surveillance systems for replacement monitoring.

Funding: Health and Medical Research Fund, Food and Health Bureau of the Government of Hong Kong (Reference number: 18171272).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.03.090DOI Listing
April 2021

COVID-19 Quarantine Reveals Behavioral Changes Effect on Myopia Progression.

Ophthalmology 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Ophthalmology & Optometry and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, China; Institute of Biomedical Big Data, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, China.

COVID-19 quarantine provides the largest intervention data of myopia progression in schoolchildren. We found grade is an important risk factor, and COVID-19-induced modifications of student's online time and outdoor activity time sufficiently change myopia progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.04.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of linker length on photo-cross-linking position mediated by click chemistry via [2 + 2] photocycloaddition†.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2020 Jun 27;19(6):776-782. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

School of advanced Science and Technology, Japan Advanced Institute Science and Technology, Asahidai 1-1, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1292, Japan.

Ultrafast reversible DNA/RNA photo-cross-linking is a powerful tool for regulating the target strand in living cells. In particular, 3-cyanovinylcarbazole (K) and 3-cyanovinylcarbazole modified by D-threoninol (D) can photo-cross-link to pyrimidine bases within a few seconds of photoirradiation. However, these photo-cross-linkers can only cross-link to the counter base if it is adjacent to the 5'-side (-1 position). In this study, we synthesized novel photo-cross-linkers with varying linker lengths capable of photo-cross-linking with pyrimidine bases at locations other than the -1 position via click chemistry. The photo-cross-linking site was dependent on linker length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0pp00098aDOI Listing
June 2020

PTH/PTHrP in controlled release hydrogel enhances orthodontic tooth movement by regulating periodontal bone remodaling.

J Periodontal Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Orthodontics, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of local application of parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) on osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM).

Background: Periodontal bone remodeling is the crucial biological process in the OTM that involves both bone resorption and formation, with the former more important as the initiator. PTH or PTHrP both play dual roles in bone remodeling regulation, and the balance may shift to the bone resorption side when they are given continuously, suggesting them as potential candidate medicine for OTM acceleration.

Methods: A total of 40 rats underwent orthodontic mesialization of the maxillary first molars and received no micro-perforation (MOP), or MOP followed by injection of temperature-sensitive hydrogel containing PTH, PTHrP, or normal saline. The rats were sacrificed after 2-week OTM, except for the relapse groups, which had one more week of observation after removal of the force appliances. The amount of tooth movement, rate of relapse after OTM, and effects on the bone remodeling were assessed through micro-computed tomography (μCT) analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, alizarin red staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, Western blot (WB), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The effects of PTHrP on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) were explored in vitro.

Results: The cumulative release of PTH or PTHrP from PECE hydrogels was beyond 75% at 14 days in a sustained manner. After the intervention in vivo, the distance of OTM in the PTH (0.78 ± 0.06 mm) or PTHrP (0.81 ± 0.04 mm) group was significantly larger than that of the MOP only (0.51 ± 0.04 mm) or the no MOP (0.46 ± 0.05 mm) group. Moreover, PTH injection significantly reduced the rate of relapse after OTM (25.7 ± 4.3%) compared to the control (69.6 ± 6.1%). μCT analysis showed decreased BV/TV, BS/BV, and Tb.N, while increased Tb.Sp of alveolar bone in the PTH or PTHrP group. There were also more TRAP-positive osteoclasts in the PTH or PTHrP group with a significantly enhanced ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG). The protein expressions of PTH/PTHrP type 1 receptor (PTHR1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and β-catenin were significantly increased in the PTH or PTHrP group, as well as the gene expressions of Pth1r, Bglap, and Alpl. There was no significant difference between the effects of PTH and PTHrP. Nevertheless, inhibition of PTHrP on the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs was detected in vitro with decreased expression of OCN, RUNX2, COL-1, and ALP.

Conclusion: Local injection of either PTH or PTHrP carried by controlled release PECE hydrogel similarly enhances OTM in rats through regulating periodontal bone remodeling, which deserves further study for potential clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jre.12885DOI Listing
April 2021

A Qualitative Exploration of Chinese Self-Love.

Front Psychol 2021 29;12:585719. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Although self-love is an important topic, it has not been viewed as appropriate for psychological research, especially in China. We conducted two studies to understand how Chinese people view self-love. In the first study, we surveyed 109 Chinese people about the dimensions of self-love using an open-ended questionnaire. In the second study, 18 participants were selected by means of intensity sampling and interviewed about the connotations and structure of Chinese self-love. The two studies revealed three important aspects of the Chinese understanding of self-love: (1) self-love has four dimensions: self, family, others, and society; (2) it comprises five components: self-cherishing, self-acceptance, self-restraint, self-responsibility, and self-persistence; and (3) the five components of self-love are linked together to form a stable personality structure. The reliability and validity of the two studies were strong. Finally, the results showed that Chinese self-love is dominated by Confucian culture, which provides guiding principles for how to be human. At the same time, it shows that there are differences in the understanding of self-love between Chinese and Western cultures, which provides an empirical basis for further research based on cross-cultural psychology and self-love psychology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.585719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040951PMC
March 2021

Anisotropic Conductive Reduced Graphene Oxide/Silk Matrices Promote Post-Infarction Myocardial Function by Restoring Electrical Integrity.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, International Joint Laboratory for Micro/Nano Manufacturing and Measurement Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shannxi, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of death globally, often leading to impaired cardiac function and pathological myocardial microenvironment. Electrical conduction abnormalities of the infarcted myocardium not only induce adverse myocardial remodeling but also prevent tissue repair. Restoring the myocardial electrical integrity, particularly the anisotropic electrical signal propagation within the injured area after infarction is crucial for an effective function recovery. Herein, optimized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) functionalized electrospun silk fibroin (rGO/silk) biomaterials presenting anisotropic conductivity and enhanced suturablity were developed and investigated as cardiac patches for their potential in improving the post-MI myocardial function of rat models. The results show that the anisotropic conductive rGO/silk patches exhibit remarkable therapeutic effect on repairing the infarcted myocardium compared to the nonconductive silk and isotropic conductive rGO/silk patches as determined by the enhanced pumping function, reduced susceptibility to arrhythmias, thickened left ventricular walls and improved survival of functional cardiomyocytes. Their notable effect on promoting the angiogenesis of capillaries in the infarcted myocardium has also been demonstrated. This study highlights an effective and biomimetic reconstruction of the electrical myocardial microenvironment based on the anisotropic conductive rGO/silk biomaterials as a promising option for promoting the repair of infarcted myocardium. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: : The dysfunctional electrical microenvironment in the infarcted myocardium not only aggravates the adverse myocardial remodeling but also limits the effect of cardiac regenerative medicine. Although various conductive biomaterials have been employed to restore the electrical network in the infarcted myocardium in vivo, the anisotropic nature of the myocardial electrical microenvironment which enables directional electrical signal propagation were neglected. In this study, an anisotropic conductive rGO/silk biomaterial system is developed to improve the myocardial function post infarction by restoring the anisotropic electrical microenvironment in the infarcted myocardium. The promoted effects of anisotropic conductive grafts on repairing infarcted hearts are demonstrated with improved pumping function, cardiomyocyte survival, resistance to ventricular fibrillation, and angiogenesis of capillary network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.03.073DOI Listing
April 2021

Multiomics Analysis of Genetics and Epigenetics Reveals Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Targets for Atrial Fibrillation.

Biomed Res Int 2021 25;2021:6644827. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, 533000 Guangxi, China.

Objective: This study is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms and exploring potential therapeutic targets for atrial fibrillation (AF) by multiomics analysis.

Methods: Transcriptomics and methylation data of AF patients were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated sites between AF and normal samples were screened. Then, highly expressed and hypomethylated and lowly expressed and hypermethylated genes were identified for AF. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was presented to construct AF-related coexpression networks. 52 AF blood samples were used for whole exome sequence. The mutation was visualized by the maftools package in R. Key genes were validated in AF using independent datasets.

Results: DEGs were identified between AF and controls, which were enriched in neutrophil activation and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. RHOA, CCR2, CASP8, and SYNPO2L exhibited abnormal expression and methylation, which have been confirmed to be related to AF. PCDHA family genes had high methylation and low expression in AF. We constructed two AF-related coexpression modules. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was the most common mutation type in AF, especially T > C. MUC4 was the most frequent mutation gene, followed by PHLDA1, AHNAK2, and MAML3. There was no statistical difference in expression of AHNAK2 and MAML3, for AF. PHLDA1 and MUC4 were confirmed to be abnormally expressed in AF.

Conclusion: Our findings identified DEGs related to DNA methylation and mutation for AF, which may offer possible therapeutic targets and a new insight into the pathogenesis of AF from a multiomics perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6644827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018871PMC
March 2021

A randomized single-center controlled trial of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with heliox in newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neonatology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) with heliox in newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS).

Methods: Seventy-one newborn infants with MAS in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Daping Hospital of Army Medical University were enrolled in the trial. Infants treated with SIMV were randomized and divided into the heliox group (n = 35) and control group (n = 36). The heliox group received heliox for 6 h followed by air-oxygen mixed gas, and the control group received air-oxygen mixed gas. The primary outcome measures were PaO /FiO (P/F) and the extubation time. The secondary outcome measures were the incidence of mechanical ventilation complications, hospital length of stay in the NICU, blood gas analysis, and inflammation markers.

Results: The P/F in the heliox group was significantly better than that in the control group (p < .001). The extubation time and hospital length of stay in the NICU in the heliox group were shorter than those in the control group (p < .001). The inflammation markers at 6 h and myocardial injury markers at 24 h were decreased compared with those at 0 h, and those in the heliox group were more significantly decreased than those in the control group ([interleukin {IL}-6/IL-8/tumor necrosis factor α] p < .001, [C-reaction protein] p = .012; [creatine kinase] p < .001, [CK-MB] p = .041).

Conclusion: Heliox appears to be more effective in reducing the length of ventilation and increasing carbon dioxide eliminations than an air-oxygen mixture in infants with MAS under the support of SIMV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25390DOI Listing
April 2021

Posttranslational regulation of FOXA1 by Polycomb and BUB3/USP7 deubiquitin complex in prostate cancer.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 7;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) is essential for androgen-dependent prostate cancer (PCa) growth. However, how FOXA1 levels are regulated remains elusive and its therapeutic targeting proven challenging. Here, we report FOXA1 as a nonhistone substrate of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), which methylates FOXA1 at lysine-295. This methylation is recognized by WD40 repeat protein BUB3, which subsequently recruits ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) to remove ubiquitination and enhance FOXA1 protein stability. They functionally converge in regulating cell cycle genes and promoting PCa growth. FOXA1 is a major therapeutic target of the inhibitors of EZH2 methyltransferase activities in PCa. FOXA1-driven PCa growth can be effectively mitigated by EZH2 enzymatic inhibitors, either alone or in combination with USP7 inhibitors. Together, our study reports EZH2-catalyzed methylation as a key mechanism to FOXA1 protein stability, which may be leveraged to enhance therapeutic targeting of PCa using enzymatic EZH2 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe2261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026124PMC
April 2021

Ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block versus thoracic paravertebral block on postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: study protocol of a randomized, double-blinded, non-inferiority design trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 6;22(1):249. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8, Xishiku Street, Beijing, 100034, China.

Introduction: Erector spinae plane block (ESPB) is a novel inter-fascial plane block, which is applied more and more in postoperative pain control, especially in chest surgery. Regional block is advocated in order to decrease opioid consumption and improve analgesia in urological surgery. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether ESPB would have similar analgesia compared with thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) in laparoscopic nephroureterectomy.

Methods And Analysis: This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, non-inferiority trial will enroll 166 patients undergoing laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. Participants will be randomly assigned 1:1 into receiving ESPB or TPVB before surgery. Both ultrasound-guided ESPB and TPVB will be performed with an injection of 0.375% ropivacaine 0.4 ml/kg before anesthesia induction. Standardized patients controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) will be applied for each patient. The primary endpoint is the joint of cumulative 24 h opioid (sufentanil) consumption and average pain score via numeric rating scale (NRS) at 24 h after surgery. Secondary endpoints include rescued analgesic demand, cumulative opioid consumption, and pain NRS scores at different preset timepoints within 48 h after surgery. Other predefined outcomes include clinical features of blockage, quality of recovery, subjective sleep quality, time to ambulation and diet, and adverse events, as well as length of stay in hospital and anesthesia cost.

Discussion: Previous studies investigating the analgesic efficacy of ESPB only concentrated on a single endpoint for postoperative pain evaluation, while studies focusing on the direct comparison between ESPB and TPVB in urological surgery are still lacking. Our study is the first trial in non-inferiority design of comparing ESPB and TPVB in patient undergoing laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, and the primary outcome is the joint endpoint of opioid consumption and pain NRS score.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR 2000031916 . Registered on 14 April 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05173-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022408PMC
April 2021

AOAR: an automatic ocular artifact removal approach for multi-channel electroencephalogram data based on non-negative matrix factorization and empirical mode decomposition.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 6;18(5):056012. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Ministry of Education), School of Computer Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, People's Republic of China. Engineering Research Center of Learning-Based Intelligent system, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals suffer inevitable interference from artifacts during the acquisition process. These artifacts make the analysis and interpretation of EEG data difficult. A major source of artifacts in EEGs is ocular activity. Therefore, it is important to remove ocular artifacts before further processing the EEG data.

Approach: In this study, an automatic ocular artifact removal (AOAR) method for EEG signals is proposed based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD). First, the amplitude of EEG data was normalized in order to ensure its non-negativity. Then, the normalized EEG data were decomposed into a set of components using NMF. The components containing ocular artifacts were extracted automatically through the fractal dimension. Subsequently, the temporal activities of these components were adaptively decomposed into some intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD. The IMFs corresponding to ocular artifacts were removed. Finally, the de-noised EEG data were reconstructed.

Main Results: The proposed method was tested against seven other methods. In order to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the AOAR method in processing EEG data, experiments on ocular artifact removal were performed using simulated EEG data. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method was superior to the other methods in terms of root mean square error, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and correlation coefficient, especially in cases with a lower SNR. To further evaluate the potential applications of the proposed method in real life, the proposed method and others were applied to preprocess real EEG data recorded from children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). After artifact rejection, the event-related potential feature was extracted for classification. The AOAR method was best at distinguishing the children with ADHD from the others.

Significance: These results indicate that the proposed AOAR method has excellent prospects for removing ocular artifacts from EEG data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/abede0DOI Listing
April 2021

One-year myopia control efficacy of spectacle lenses with aspherical lenslets.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Eye Hospital and School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

Aims: To evaluate the 1-year efficacy of two new myopia control spectacle lenses with lenslets of different asphericity.

Methods: One hundred seventy schoolchildren aged 8-13 years with myopia of -0.75 D to -4.75 D were randomised to receive spectacle lenses with highly aspherical lenslets (HAL), spectacle lenses with slightly aspherical lenslets (SAL), or single-vision spectacle lenses (SVL). Cycloplegic autorefraction (spherical equivalent refraction (SER)), axial length (AL) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were measured at baseline and 6-month intervals. Adaptation and compliance questionnaires were administered during all visits.

Results: After 1 year, the mean changes in the SER (±SE) and AL (±SE) in the SVL group were -0.81±0.06 D and 0.36±0.02 mm. Compared with SVL, the myopia control efficacy measured using SER was 67% (difference of 0.53 D) for HAL and 41% (difference of 0.33 D) for SAL, and the efficacy measured using AL was 64% (difference of 0.23 mm) for HAL and 31% (difference of 0.11 mm) for SAL (all p<0.01). HAL resulted in significantly greater myopia control than SAL for SER (difference of 0.21 D, p<0.001) and AL (difference of 0.12 mm, p<0.001). The mean BCVA (-0.01±0.1 logMAR, p=0.22) and mean daily wearing time (13.2±2.6 hours, p=0.26) were similar among the three groups. All groups adapted to their lenses with no reported adverse events, complaints or discomfort.

Conclusions: Spectacle lenses with aspherical lenslets effectively slow myopia progression and axial elongation compared with SVL. Myopia control efficacy increased with lenslet asphericity.

Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR1800017683.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-318367DOI Listing
April 2021

Degradation Mechanism of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks by In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Institute of Molecular Sciences, UMR CNRS 8214, Université Paris Saclay, 91400 Orsay, France.

In recent years, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have attracted a growing interest for biomedical applications. The design of MOFs should take into consideration the subtle balance between stability and biodegradability. However, only few studies have focused on the MOFs' stability in physiological media and their degradation mechanism. Here, we investigate the degradation of mesoporous iron (III) carboxylate MOFs, which are among the most employed MOFs for drug delivery, by a set of complementary methods. In situ AFM allowed monitoring with nanoscale resolution the morphological, dimensional, and mechanical properties of a series of MOFs in phosphate buffer saline and in real time. Depending on the synthetic route, the external surface presented either well-defined crystalline planes or initial defects, which influenced the degradation mechanism of the particles. Moreover, MOF stability was investigated under different pH conditions, from acidic to neutral. Interestingly, despite pronounced erosion, especially at neutral pH, the dimensions of the crystals were unchanged. It was revealed that the external surfaces of MOF crystals rapidly respond to in situ changes of the composition of the media they are in contact with. These observations are of a crucial importance for the design of nanosized MOFs for drug delivery applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001454PMC
March 2021

Research Progress toward Room Temperature Sodium Sulfur Batteries: A Review.

Molecules 2021 Mar 11;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Lithium-Ion Batteries and Materials Preparation Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Battery Materials of Yunnan Province, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China.

Lithium metal batteries have achieved large-scale application, but still have limitations such as poor safety performance and high cost, and limited lithium resources limit the production of lithium batteries. The construction of these devices is also hampered by limited lithium supplies. Therefore, it is particularly important to find alternative metals for lithium replacement. Sodium has the properties of rich in content, low cost and ability to provide high voltage, which makes it an ideal substitute for lithium. Sulfur-based materials have attributes of high energy density, high theoretical specific capacity and are easily oxidized. They may be used as cathodes matched with sodium anodes to form a sodium-sulfur battery. Traditional sodium-sulfur batteries are used at a temperature of about 300 °C. In order to solve problems associated with flammability, explosiveness and energy loss caused by high-temperature use conditions, most research is now focused on the development of room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries. Regardless of safety performance or energy storage performance, room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries have great potential as next-generation secondary batteries. This article summarizes the working principle and existing problems for room temperature sodium-sulfur battery, and summarizes the methods necessary to solve key scientific problems to improve the comprehensive energy storage performance of sodium-sulfur battery from four aspects: cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999928PMC
March 2021

Physcion-8-O-β-d-glucoside interferes with the nuclear factor-κB pathway and downregulates P-glycoprotein expression to reduce paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Mar;73(4):545-552

Weihai Municipal Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Weihai, China.

Objective: This study assessed whether physcion-8-O-beta-D-monoglucoside (PG) sensitises paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant ovarian cancer cells and explored the underlying mechanism.

Methods: Ovarian cancer SK-OV-3 cells were used to establish PTX-resistant SK-OV-3 (SK-OV-3/PTX) cells. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and crystal violet staining were used to determine cell viability. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression and cell distributions were detected using immunofluorescence. Cell apoptosis and protein expression changes were detected using flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. Effect of PG in vivo was evaluated using a xenograft tumour model. P-gp expression in tumour tissues was detected using immunohistochemical staining.

Key Findings: PG (1-10 μm) did not significantly affect SK-OV-3/PTX cell proliferation but significantly downregulated P-gp expression. PG pretreatment (1-10 μm) enhanced PTX cytotoxicity. PG treatment decreased the quantity of phosphorylated-NF-κB p65 in SK-OV-3/PTX cell total proteins and upregulated IKBα expression. Simultaneously, it decreased NF-κB p65 levels in nuclear proteins. PG (1-10 μm) inhibited NF-κB p65 entry into the nucleus. PTX plus PG significantly inhibited SK-OV-3/PTX xenograft tumour growth. PG (1-10 μm) reduced P-gp expression in transplanted tumour tissue.

Conclusions: PG can enhance the sensitivity of PTX-resistant ovarian cancer cells SK-OV-3/PTX to PTX, and this effect is related to inhibiting NF-κB from entering the nucleus and down-regulating the expression of P-gp protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgaa025DOI Listing
March 2021

Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis Uncovers Critical Genes and Pathways for Multiple Brain Regions in Parkinson's Disease.

Biomed Res Int 2021 13;2021:6616434. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Electrophysiology, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, 533000 Guangxi, China.

Objective: In this study, we aimed to identify critical genes and pathways for multiple brain regions in Parkinson's disease (PD) by weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA).

Methods: From the GEO database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were separately identified between the substantia nigra, putamen, prefrontal cortex area, and cingulate gyrus of PD and normal samples with the screening criteria of value < 0.05 and ∣logfold change (FC) | >0.585. Then, a coexpression network was presented by the WGCNA package. Gene modules related to PD were constructed. Then, PD-related DEGs were used for construction of PPI networks. Hub genes were determined by the cytoHubba plug-in. Functional enrichment analysis was then performed.

Results: DEGs were identified for the substantia nigra (17 upregulated and 52 downregulated genes), putamen (317 upregulated and 317 downregulated genes), prefrontal cortex area (39 upregulated and 72 downregulated genes), and cingulate gyrus (116 upregulated and 292 downregulated genes) of PD compared to normal samples. Gene modules were separately built for the four brain regions of PD. PPI networks revealed hub genes for the substantia nigra (SLC6A3, SLC18A2, and TH), putamen (BMP4 and SNAP25), prefrontal cortex area (SNAP25), and cingulate gyrus (CTGF, CDH1, and COL5A1) of PD. These DEGs in multiple brain regions were involved in distinct biological functions and pathways. GSEA showed that these DEGs were all significantly enriched in electron transport chain, proteasome degradation, and synaptic vesicle pathway.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed critical genes and pathways for multiple brain regions in PD, which deepened the understanding of PD-related molecular mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6616434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984900PMC
March 2021

The Predictive Efficacy of Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) on Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Treated by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 13;2021:1780860. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

School of Medical Laboratory, Tianjin Medical University, China.

Background: Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, and the majority of NSCLC patients are diagnosed at the advanced stage. Chemotherapy is still the main treatment at present, and the overall prognosis is poor. In recent years, immunotherapy has developed rapidly. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as the representative have been extensively applied for treating various types of cancers. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) as a potential biomarker is used to screen appropriate patients for treatment of ICIs. To verify the predictive efficacy of TMB, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to explore the association between TMB and ICIs.

Method: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and son on were systematically searched from inception to April 2020. Objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were estimated.

Results: A total of 11 studies consisting of 1525 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were included. Comparison of high and low TMB: pooled HRs for OS, 0.57 (95% CI 0.32 to 0.99; = 0.046); PFS, 0.48 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.69; < 0.001); ORR, 3.15 (95% CI 2.29 to 4.33; < 0.001). Subgroup analysis values: pooled HRs for OS, 0.75 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.92, = 0.548) for blood TMB (bTMB), 0.44 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.75, = 0.003) for tissue TMB (tTMB); for PFS, 0.54 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.98, = 0.044) and 0.43 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.71, = 0.001), respectively.

Conclusions: These findings imply that NSCLC patients with high TMB possess significant clinical benefits from ICIs compared to those with low TMB. As opposed to bTMB, tTMB was thought more appropriate for stratifying NSCLC patients for ICI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1780860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984892PMC
March 2021

De novo assembly of a new Olea europaea genome accession using nanopore sequencing.

Hortic Res 2021 Apr 1;8(1):64. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, 100091, China.

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is internationally renowned for its high-end product, extra virgin olive oil. An incomplete genome of O. europaea was previously obtained using shotgun sequencing in 2016. To further explore the genetic and breeding utilization of olive, an updated draft genome of olive was obtained using Oxford Nanopore third-generation sequencing and Hi-C technology. Seven different assembly strategies were used to assemble the final genome of 1.30 Gb, with contig and scaffold N50 sizes of 4.67 Mb and 42.60 Mb, respectively. This greatly increased the quality of the olive genome. We assembled 1.1 Gb of sequences of the total olive genome to 23 pseudochromosomes by Hi-C, and 53,518 protein-coding genes were predicted in the current assembly. Comparative genomics analyses, including gene family expansion and contraction, whole-genome replication, phylogenetic analysis, and positive selection, were performed. Based on the obtained high-quality olive genome, a total of nine gene families with 202 genes were identified in the oleuropein biosynthesis pathway, which is twice the number of genes identified from the previous data. This new accession of the olive genome is of sufficient quality for genome-wide studies on gene function in olive and has provided a foundation for the molecular breeding of olive species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00498-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012569PMC
April 2021

[Effect of acupuncture on pain and cerebral hemodynamics in patients with migraine: a randomized controlled trial].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Feb;41(2):115-20

Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of CM, Nanning 530011.

Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect between acupuncture combined with medication and simple medication on migraine and cerebral hemodynamics.

Methods: A total of 120 patients with migraine were randomized into an acupuncture plus medication group (60 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a medication group (60 cases, 6 cases dropped off). In the medication group, flunarizine hydrochloride capsule was given orally before sleep, 10 mg a day. On the basis of the treatment in the medication group, acupuncture was applied at Sizhukong (TE 23), Shuaigu (GB 8), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Fengchi (GB 20) and etc. in the acupuncture plus medication group, 30 min each time, once a day. Treatment for 4 weeks was required in both groups. Before and after treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, indexes of cerebral hemodynamic [blood flow velocity of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), vertebral artery (VA) and basilar artery (BA)] and total TCM syndrome score were observed, and the clinical therapeutic effect and the incidence of the adverse events were evaluated in both groups.

Results: Compared before treatment, the VAS scores, the blood flow velocity of ACA, MCA, PCA, VA, BA and the total TCM syndrome scores were decreased in both groups (<0.05). After treatment, the VAS score, the blood flow velocity of ACA, MCA, PCA, VA, BA and the total TCM syndrome score in the acupuncture plus medication group were lower than those in the medication group (<0.05). The total effective rate was 96.5% (55/57) in the acupuncture plus medication group, which was superior to 90.7% (49/54) in the medication group (<0.05). There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups (>0.05).

Conclusion: Acupuncture combined with flunarizine hydrochloride capsule can effectively relieve the pain in patients with migraine, reduce the cerebral blood flow velocity, the efficacy is superior to simple flunarizine hydrochloride capsule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20200223-0007DOI Listing
February 2021

The CREB/KMT5A complex regulates PTP1B to modulate high glucose-induced endothelial inflammatory factor levels in diabetic nephropathy.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Mar 29;12(4):333. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the primary microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and may result in end-stage renal disease. The overproduction of various inflammatory factors is involved in the pathogenesis of DN. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) modulates the expression of a series of cytokines and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and lysine methyltransferase 5A (KMT5A) have been reported to participate in the maintenance of a healthy endothelium. In the present study, we hypothesise that CREB associates with KMT5A to modulate PTP1B expression, thus contributing to high glucose-mediated glomerular endothelial inflammation. Our analyses revealed that plasma inflammatory factor levels, glomerular endothelial p65 phosphorylation and PTP1B expression were increased in DN patients and rats. In vitro, high glucose increased endothelial inflammatory factor levels and p65 phosphorylation by augmenting PTP1B expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, high glucose decreased CREB and KMT5A expression. CREB overexpression and KMT5A overexpression both inhibited high glucose-induced PTP1B expression, p65 phosphorylation and endothelial inflammatory factor levels. si-CREB- and sh-KMT5A-induced p65 phosphorylation and endothelial inflammatory factor levels were reversed by si-PTP1B. Furthermore, CREB was associated with KMT5A. Mechanistic research indicated that CREB and histone H4 lysine 20 methylation (H4K20me1, a downstream target of KMT5A) occupy the PTP1B promoter region. sh-KMT5A augmented PTP1B promoter activity and activated the positive effect of si-CREB on PTP1B promoter activity. Our in vivo study demonstrated that CREB and KMT5A were downregulated in glomerular endothelial cells of DN patients and rats. In conclusion, CREB associates with KMT5A to promote PTP1B expression in vascular endothelial cells, thus contributing to hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory factor levels in DN patients and rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03629-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005662PMC
March 2021

Rotenone-induced necrosis in insect cells via the cytoplasmic membrane damage and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Mar 11;173:104801. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Key Laboratory of Crop Integrated Pest Management in South China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Key Laboratory of Natural Pesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Rotenone, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, has been extensively studied on kinds of neuron and neuroblast in Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the potential mechanism of this promising botanical insecticide upon insect cells. In the article, cell proliferation of two Lepidoptera cell lines, Spodoptera litura SL-1 cells and Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells, were all inhibited by rotenone in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Typical necrotic characteristics of cell morphology and ultrastructure, such as plasma membrane collapses and organelle lyses, were all observed by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. Moreover, irregular DNA degradation was also detected by DNA gel electrophoresis and Hoechst 33258 staining, while the typical apoptotic feature, DNA ladder, hadn't been observed. Flow cytometric analysis showed that rotenone-induced cell death of Sf9 and SL-1 cells accompanied with the plasma membrane potential depolarization and mitochondrial membrane potential reduction. Furthermore, the activity of Na-K-ATPase was detected in our study. In conclusion, rotenone could cause necrosis but not apoptosis in insect cells through a mitochondrial- and plasmic membrane-dependent pattern, which shed a light on the rotenone-induced cytotoxicity on insects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2021.104801DOI Listing
March 2021

The Role of Calcium/Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases Signal Pathway in Pollen Tube Growth.

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:633293. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Wheat & Maize Crop Science, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

Pollen tube (PT) growth as a key step for successful fertilization is essential for angiosperm survival and especially vital for grain yield in cereals. The process of PT growth is regulated by many complex and delicate signaling pathways. Among them, the calcium/calcium-dependent protein kinases (Ca/CPKs) signal pathway has become one research focus, as Ca ion is a well-known essential signal molecule for PT growth, which can be instantly sensed and transduced by CPKs to control myriad biological processes. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the Ca/CPKs signal pathway governing PT growth. We also discuss how this pathway regulates PT growth and how reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclic nucleotide are integrated by Ca signaling networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.633293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985351PMC
March 2021

Understanding the message passing in graph neural networks via power iteration clustering.

Neural Netw 2021 Mar 10;140:130-135. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001, China. Electronic address:

The mechanism of message passing in graph neural networks (GNNs) is still mysterious. Apart from convolutional neural networks, no theoretical origin for GNNs has been proposed. To our surprise, message passing can be best understood in terms of power iteration. By fully or partly removing activation functions and layer weights of GNNs, we propose subspace power iteration clustering (SPIC) models that iteratively learn with only one aggregator. Experiments show that our models extend GNNs and enhance their capability to process random featured networks. Moreover, we demonstrate the redundancy of some state-of-the-art GNNs in design and define a lower limit for model evaluation by a random aggregator of message passing. Our findings push the boundaries of the theoretical understanding of neural networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.02.025DOI Listing
March 2021

cDNA cloning, expression and bioinformatical analysis of Tssk genes in tree shrews.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 Mar 10;92:107474. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Faculty of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, China. Electronic address:

Tree shrews are more closely related to primate animals than rodents in many aspects. In addition, they also possess several advantageous characteristics including small body size, high brain-to-body mass ratio, low cost of feeding and maintenance, short reproductive cycle and life span, which make them promising novel laboratory animals to replace more precious larger primate animals. Testis-specific serine/threonine kinase (Tssk) plays important roles in spermatogenesis and/or the regulation of sperm function. However, studies on Tssk in tree shrews have not been reported yet. In the present study, the full-length sequences of five members of the Tssk family in tree shrews were cloned and their CDS region sequences were analyzed by basic bioinformatics. The phylogenetic tree and prokaryotic protein expression system of Tssk gene of tree shrews were constructed. The mRNA expressions of Tssk genes in 11 tissues/organs from tree shrews were studied. The results showed that: 1. the length of the CDS region of tree shrew Tssk gene for Tssk1B, Tssk2, Tssk3 (variant X1 / X2), Tssk4 (variant X1 / X2) and Tssk6 is 1080bp, 1077bp, 867 / 807bp, 1014 / 984bp, 822bp, respectively, encoding 359, 358, 288/268, 337/327 and 273 amino acids, respectively; the cloned sequences of Tssk genes have been submitted to GenBank with the following accession numbers: KX091161(Tssk1B), KX091162(Tssk2), KX091163(Tssk3 variant X1)/KX091164(Tssk3 variant X2), KX091165(Tssk4variant X1)/KX091166(Tssk4variant X2), KX091160(Tssk6). 2. All tree shrew Tssk proteins distribute in cytoplasm, indicating that they are hydrophilic and non-secretory proteins, with multiple phosphorylation sites of serine and/or threonine. In addition, they are all mixed proteins with similar tertiary structures sharing a highly conserved functional domain of S_TKc (Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain). 3.The molecular phylogenetic tree of five Tssk genes in tree shrews indicates that they are neither rodent nor primate animal, but are closely related to primate animals. 4. Five members of the Tssk recombinant proteins in tree shrews were successfully obtained using the constructed prokaryotic protein expression system. 5. Five Tssk genes are specifically expressed in the testis and/or sperm of tree shrews. Additionally, small amount of Tssk1B was expressed in several tissues other than testis and sperm. Limited mRNA levels of Tssk2 and Tssk4 were expressed in the brain, while mRNA of Tssk3 or Tssk6 could only be detected in the testis and sperm. This study will provide fundamental data on reproductive biology of tree shrews, which paves a way for further studying Tssk's biological function in this novel model animal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2021.107474DOI Listing
March 2021