Publications by authors named "Li Xing"

1,478 Publications

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Morphometric measurement of lower lumbar intervertebral foramina based on digital three-dimensional simulation.

Turk Neurosurg 2020 Jul 21. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

The Affiliated Hospital of Putian University, Southern Medical University.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the morphology of the lower lumbar intervertebral foramina through use of a digital three-dimensional (3D) simulation model to guide the endoscope through the intervertebral foramina.

Material And Methods: Individuals without disease affecting the lumbar vertebrae underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning in the supine position. The CT images obtained were imported to medical software to reconstruct a 3D model of the lumbar vertebrae. The stereoscopic longitudinal and transverse diameters of the lumbar intervertebral foramina were measured directly on the established simulation model. Comparisons in terms of sex and age were performed using t-test or analysis of variance.

Results: In total, 100 individuals were included in the study. Average longitudinal and transverse diameters of the lower lumbar intervertebral foramen decreased moving inferiorly. The longitudinal and transverse diameters of the lower lumbar intervertebral foramina were similar between sexes and between age groups. However, longitudinal diameter decreased with age (P 0.05).

Conclusion: The reconstructed lumbar vertebrae simulation model presented in this study has high fidelity to the structure of the human lumbar spine. This approach provides individualized, accurate, standardized, and detailed guidance for endoscopic surgery through the lumbar intervertebral foramen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.29654-20.2DOI Listing
July 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Sea Salt-Derived Physiological Saline Nasal Spray as Add-On Therapy in Patients with Acute Upper Respiratory Infection: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 11;27:e929714. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of seawater on nasal congestion and runny nose symptoms in adults with an acute upper respiratory infection (URI). MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a multicenter retrospective cohort trial of patients with acute URI and symptoms of nasal congestion and runny nose. The patients were assigned to 2 groups and were administered regular non-drug supportive treatment or supportive treatment with nasal irrigation with sea salt-derived physiological saline. The primary efficacy endpoint was the effective rate (percentage of patients with ≥30% symptom score reduction from baseline for nasal congestion and runny nose). RESULTS In total, 144 patients were enrolled, including 72 in each group, and 143 patients completed the study. Both groups had similar demographics and vital signs. The effective rates for nasal congestion and runny nose were significantly increased in the seawater group compared with patients in the control group (87.3% vs 59.7% for nasal congestion; 85.9% vs 61.1% for runny nose; both P<0.001). In addition, the 2 groups showed markedly different degrees of patient symptom score improvement in sleep quality and appetite (both P<0.01), but not in cough and fatigue (both P>0.05). There were no adverse events in either group. CONCLUSIONS The sea salt-derived physiological saline nasal spray device satisfactorily improved nasal congestion, runny nose, sleep quality, and appetite in adults with URI, with no adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929714DOI Listing
May 2021

Genetic drift of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia during 2012-2019.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is caused by MERS-CoV that infects both human and camel. Camel is supposed to be the natural reservoir for human infection while the sources for most of the primary human infection cases are still not known. We identified two conserved pyrimidine nucleotides that flank UAAU element in MERS-CoV 5'-UTR. These conserved pyrimidine nucleotides distinguish MERS-CoVs into 3 types, that is, UUAAUU, CUAAUU and CUAAUC (referred to as U----U, C----U, and C----C types, respectively). Human MERS-CoV displays a genetic drift from U----U, C----U, to C----C from 2012 to 2019. Camel virus displays a genetic drift from U----U to C----U with a time lag when compared with human virus. The discrepancy in genetic drift seems not to support the notion that camel serves as the only natural reservoir for human infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12843DOI Listing
May 2021

Long-term exposure to particulate matter and residential greenness in relation to androgen and progesterone levels among rural Chinese adults.

Environ Int 2021 May 4;153:106483. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Population-based studies on the associations of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) with androgen and progesterone are still scant. Residential greenness is benefits health by promoting physical activity, reducing air pollution, and improving mental health, but it remains unclear whether it is related to androgen and progesterone levels among humans.

Aims: This study aimed to explore the individual and interactive effects of PM and residential greenness on serum testosterone and progesterone levels among rural Chinese adults.

Methods: A total of 6017 subjects were recruited from the baseline of the Henan Rural Cohort Study in 2016. Serum testosterone and progesterone were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Particulate matters (PM) (PM, PM, and PM) were assessed by machine learning algorithms. Residential greenness was assessed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within 500-m, 1000-m, and 3000-m buffers around participants' residences. The effects of air pollutants and residential greenness and their interaction on serum testosterone and progesterone levels were assessed using linear mixed-effects models with township as a random intercept.

Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, a 1 μg/m increase in PM or PM was associated with a 0.037 or 0.030 ng/ml increase in serum testosterone, respectively, in females and with a 0.111 or 0.182 ng/ml decrease in serum progesterone, respectively, in males. A 1 μg/m increase in PM, PM or PM was associated with a 0.222, 0.306, or 0.295 ng/ml decrease in serum progesterone, respectively, among females. Moreover, a 0.1-unit increase in NDVI was associated with a 0.310 ng/ml increase in serum testosterone and a 0.170 ng/ml increased in serum progesterone in males, as well as with a 0.143 ng/ml increase in serum progesterone in females. Interaction effects of PM and residential greenness on serum testosterone and progesterone levels were observed, indicating that the effects of residential greenness on serum testosterone and progesterone were modified by high levels of PM. In addition, physical activity significantly mediated 2.92% of the estimated association between greenness and testosterone levels.

Conclusions: Our study suggested that long-term exposure to PM was positively associated with serum testosterone in males but negatively associated with progesterone levels in both genderssin. In addition, positive associations of residential greenness with serum testosterone and progesterone levels were observed, but they were modified by high levels of PM. Furthermore, the estimated effects of residential greenness on testosterone levels were partly mediated by physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106483DOI Listing
May 2021

The association of compound hot extreme with mortality risk and vulnerability assessment at fine-spatial scale.

Environ Res 2021 May 3;198:111213. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510630, China; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, 511430, China. Electronic address:

The frequency and intensity of compound hot extremes will be likely to increase in the context of global warming. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse effect of simple hot extreme events on mortality, but little is known about the effects of compound hot extremes on mortality. Daily meteorological, demographic, and mortality data during 2011-2017 were collected from 160 streets in Guangzhou City, China. We used distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) to analyze the associations of different hot extremes with mortality risk in each street. Street-specific associations were then combined using a meta-analysis approach. To assess the spatial distribution of vulnerability to compound hot extremes, vulnerable characteristics at street level were selected using random forest model, and then we calculated and mapped spatial vulnerability index (SVI) at each street in Guangzhou. At street level, compared with normal day, compound hot extreme significantly increased mortality risk (relative risk(RR)=1.43, 95%CI:1.28-1.59) with higher risk for female (RR=1.54 [1.35-1.76]) and the elderly(RR for aged 65-74=1.41 [1.14-1.74]; RR for ≥75years=1.63 [1.45-1.84]) than male (RR=1.32 [1.15-1.52]) and population <65 years (RR=1.01 [0.83-1.22]). Areas with high vulnerability were in the urban center and the edge of suburban. High proportion of population over 64 years old in urban center, and high proportions of outdoor workers and population with illiteracy in suburban areas were the determinants of spatial vulnerability. We found that compound hot extreme significantly increased mortality risk at street level, which is modified by socio-economic and demographic factors. Our findings help allocate resources targeting vulnerable areas at fine-spatial scale.°.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111213DOI Listing
May 2021

Subclinical hypothyroidism contributes to poor glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and ellagic acid attenuates methimazole-induced abnormal glucose metabolism in mice model.

J Food Biochem 2021 May 5:e13753. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Endocrinology, ShanXi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) as mild thyroid disorder or comorbidity in patients with endocrine disorders is closely related with insulin resistance (IR) and poor glycemic control. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of SCH on IR and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, the effects of ellagic acid (EA) on SCH C57BL/6J and db/db mice were also investigated to explore potential therapeutic drug against SCH-induced abnormal glucose metabolism. T2DM patients were recruited in our study and categorized into two groups according to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) value: T2DM without SCH group (TSH ≤4 μIU/ml; n = 30) and T2DM with SCH group (TSH >4μIU/ml; n = 60). Methimazole (MMI; 0.08 mg kg  day ) was intragastrically administrated for 12 weeks to establish SCH in C57BL/6J and db/db mice. Compared with T2DM patients without SCH, poor glycemic and cholesterol control were emerged in T2DM patients with SCH and that were prominent in patients with TSH more than 10 μIU/ml. In addition, a significant positive correlation between serum TSH and fasting plasma-glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was observed in T2DM patients with SCH. Moreover, abnormal glucose metabolism in C57BL/6J and db/db mice with SCH has been attenuated by EA administration. Our findings provided data regarding the positive correlation between high TSH level with poor glycemic control in T2DM patients with SCH. EA might be a supportive strategy for preventing SCH-induced abnormal glucose metabolism. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a potential risk factor associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A clinical theory of a positive correlation between high TSH level and poor glycemic control was validated in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and mouse models. Ellagic acid (EA) might be a supportive strategy for preventing SCH-induced abnormal glucose metabolism that provided a treatment option in T2DM patients with subclinical hypothyroidism in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13753DOI Listing
May 2021

mGPDH Deficiency leads to melanoma metastasis via induced NRF2.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Translational Research Key Laboratory for Diabetes, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Oxidative stress critically influences carcinogenesis and the progression of melanoma, and aggressive malignant melanoma activity is due to its high metastatic ability. Some findings in several cancer cell lines have indicated that mGPDH, a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, also modulates oxidative stress. However, the role of mGPDH in melanoma remains elusive. Here, we report that the mGPDH protein level is decreased in human skin melanoma compared to normal skin and decreased in metastatic melanoma compared to primary melanoma. Our in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that mGPDH depletion accelerated melanoma migration and invasion without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Mechanistically, we found elevated NRF2 protein levels in human skin melanoma and mGPDH-knockout (ko) metastatic xenografts in the lungs of nude mice. Moreover, in A375 melanoma cells, the loss of mGPDH-induced NRF2 expression but did not affect NRF2 protein degradation. Additionally, melanoma metastasis induced by the loss of mGPDH was rescued by the further down-regulation of NRF2 in vivo and in vitro. Consistently, mGPDH overexpression (oe) depressed NRF2 expression and attenuated the malignant properties of melanoma cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mGPDH suppresses melanoma metastasis by inhibiting NRF2 and downstream oxidative signals, highlighting the therapeutic potential of mGPDH for melanoma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16542DOI Listing
May 2021

Novel GLP-1/anti-apolipoprotein B bifunctional fusion protein alleviates diabetes and diabetic complications in combination with low-intensity ultrasound.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 29;278:119549. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Ultrasound Department of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To engineer and screen a novel GLP-1/anti-apolipoprotein B (apoB) bifunctional fusion protein with therapeutic potential on alleviating diabetes and diabetic complication in combination with low-intensity ultrasound.

Main Methods: Anti-apoB antibodies were screened by phage display technology and further fused to mutated GLP-1 (7-37) via light or heavy fusion to generate bifunctional fusion protein (termed aBG). The optimal design of aBG fusion protein was further confirmed by in vitro epitope competition assay and cAMP accumulation assay. Subsequently, chronic study in DIO mice were subjected to assess the long-term efficacy of screened fusion protein.

Key Findings: The selected GLP-1/anti-apoB fusion protein, aBG-8, exerted either the highest binding affinities for GLP-1R and apoB, or the greatest LDL-C uptake capacity and GLP-1R activation activity. After 60-day treatment in DIO mice, aBG-8 was proved to exert the promising improvement on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and obesity in DIO mice. Furthermore, combined therapy of aBG-8 and low-intensity ultrasound could accelerate skin wound closure in diabetic mice.

Significance: A novel long-lasting bifunctional fusion molecule, aBG-8, was designed with the enormous potential on alleviating diabetes and diabetic complications in combination with low-intensity ultrasound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119549DOI Listing
April 2021

Genetic analysis of the "head top shape" quality trait of Chinese cabbage and its association with rosette leaf variation.

Hortic Res 2021 May 1;8(1):106. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Innovation and Utilization of Hebei, Collaborative Innovation Center of Vegetable Industry in Hebei, College of Horticulture, Hebei Agricultural University, 071000, Baoding, China.

The agricultural and consumer quality of Chinese cabbage is determined by its shape. The shape is defined by the folding of the heading leaves, which defines the head top shape (HTS). The overlapping HTS, in which the heading leaves curve inward and overlap at the top, is the shape preferred by consumers. To understand the genetic regulation of HTS, we generated a large segregating F population from a cross between pak choi and Chinese cabbage, with phenotypes ranging from nonheading to heading with either outward curving or inward curving overlapping heading leaves. HTS was correlated with plant height, outer/rosette leaf length, and petiole length. A high-density genetic map was constructed. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis resulted in the identification of 22 QTLs for leafy head-related traits, which included five HTS QTLs. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to confirm HTS QTLs and identify candidate genes based on informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Interestingly, the HTS QTLs colocalized with QTLs for plant height, outer/rosette leaf, and petiole length, consistent with the observed phenotypic correlations. Combined QTL analysis and BSA laid a foundation for molecular marker-assisted breeding of Chinese cabbage HTS and directions for further research on the genetic regulation of this trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00541-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087666PMC
May 2021

Utilization of Ogura CMS germplasm with the clubroot resistance gene by fertility restoration and cytoplasm replacement in Brassica oleracea L.

Hortic Res 2020 May 1;7(1):61. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, #12 Zhong Guan Cun Nandajie Street, Beijing, 100081, China.

Clubroot disease, a major plant root disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, has become one of the most destructive diseases among cultivated cruciferous vegetables. However, clubroot-resistant Brassica oleracea materials are rare. A few clubroot-resistant cabbage varieties are available on the market, but all are Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) types. Therefore, in this study, to reutilize the clubroot-resistant Ogura CMS germplasm of cabbage, a new fertility-restored Ogura CMS material, 16Q2-11, was used as a bridge to transfer the clubroot resistance (CR) gene from the Ogura CMS cytoplasm to the normal cytoplasm by a two-step method (a fertility restoration and cytoplasm replacement method). In the first cross for fertility restoration of Ogura CMS clubroot-resistant cabbage (FRCRC), 16Q2-11 was used as a restorer to cross with Ogura CMS materials containing the CR gene CRb2. Eleven Rfo-positive progenies were generated, of which four contained CRb2: F8-514, F8-620, F8-732 and F8-839. After inoculation with race 4 of P. brassicae, these four CRb2-positive individuals showed resistance. Furthermore, F8-514 and F8-839 were then used as male parents in the second cross of FRCRC to cross with cabbage inbred lines, resulting in the successful introgression of the CRb2 gene into the inbred lines. All offspring produced from this step of cross, which had a normal cytoplasm, showed a high resistance to race 4 of P. brassicae and could be utilized for the breeding of clubroot-resistant cabbage varieties in the future. This is the first time that the Ogura CMS restorer has been used to restore the fertility of Ogura CMS clubroot-resistant cabbages, which could improve germplasm diversity in cabbage and provide a reference method for using CMS germplasm in Brassica crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0282-8DOI Listing
May 2020

Inhibitors of coronavirus 3CL proteases protect cells from protease-mediated cytotoxicity.

J Virol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, 10032, USA

We describe a mammalian cell-based assay to identify coronavirus 3CL protease (3CLpro) inhibitors. This assay is based on rescuing protease-mediated cytotoxicity and does not require live virus. By enabling the facile testing of compounds across a range of 15 distantly related coronavirus 3CLpro enzymes, we identify compounds with broad 3CLpro inhibitory activity. We also adapt the assay for use in compound screening and in doing so uncover additional SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors. We observe strong concordance between data emerging from this assay and those obtained from live virus testing. The reported approach democratizes the testing of 3CLpro inhibitors by developing a simplified method for identifying coronavirus 3CLpro inhibitors that can be used by the majority of laboratories, rather than the few with extensive biosafety infrastructure. We identify two lead compounds, GC376 and compound 4, with broad activity against all 3CL proteases tested including 3CLpro enzymes from understudied zoonotic coronaviruses.Multiple coronavirus pandemics have occurred over the last two decades. This has highlighted a need to be proactive in the development of therapeutics that can be readily deployed in the case of future coronavirus pandemics. We develop and validate a simplified cell-based assay for the identification of chemical inhibitors of 3CL proteases encoded by a wide range of coronaviruses. This assay is reporter-free, does not require specialized biocontainment, and is optimized for performance in high-throughput screening. By testing reported 3CL protease inhibitors against a large collection of 3CL proteases with variable sequence similarity, we identify compounds with broad activity against 3CL proteases and uncover structural insights that contribute to their broad activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate this assay is suitable for identifying chemical inhibitors of proteases from families other than 3CL proteases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02374-20DOI Listing
April 2021

The influence of VDR polymorphisms on the type 2 diabetes susceptibility in Chinese: an interaction with hypertriglyceridemia.

Mol Genet Genomics 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 100 Kexue Avenue, Zhengzhou, 450001, Henan, China.

Evidence shows that mutations in vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been linked with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the interaction effect between VDR variants and environmental factors on the T2D susceptibility remained unclear. Therefore, the current study was conducted to explore the joint effect of VDR polymorphisms and serum triglyceride level on T2D. A total of 2017 participants were included in the cross-sectional study. Taqman probe assays were applied to rs3847987 and rs739837 genotyping. Multiple logistic regression and general linear model were used to examine the effect of interaction between VDR variants and TG on T2D susceptibility and fasting serum glucose, respectively. The results showed that rs739837 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of T2D under the dominant model (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.66), after adjusting for potential risk factors. Meanwhile, there was a significant additive interaction between rs3847987 and hypertriglyceridemia (synergy index [SI]: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.23-7.23) and between rs739837 and hypertriglyceridemia (SI: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.05-5.31) on T2D susceptibility. Additionally, a significant linear association between fasting glucose and rs3847987 had been found at high triglyceride level (> 1.90 mmol/L) with an inversely concentration-dependent manner. The study provided further evidence that rs739837 and high level of triglyceride were both associated with higher T2D susceptibility in Chinese population. Additionally, the detrimental effect of VDR variants on T2D could be modified by hypertriglyceridemia status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-021-01784-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Identification and Characterization of a Cryptic Genomic Deletion-Insertion in Associated with Branchio-Otic Syndrome.

Neural Plast 2021 5;2021:5524381. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Taizhou People's Hospital, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University & Clinical Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Taizhou, Jiangsu, China.

Branchio-oto-renal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by hearing loss accompanied by ear malformations, branchial cysts, and fistulae, with (branchio-oto-renal syndrome (BORS)) or without renal abnormalities (BOS (branchio-otic syndrome)). As the most common causative gene for BORSD, dominant mutations in are responsible for approximately 40% of the cases. In a sporadic deaf patient diagnosed as BOS, we identified an apparent heterozygous genomic deletion spanning the first four coding exons and one 5' noncoding exon of by targeted next-generation sequencing of 406 known deafness genes. Real-time PCR at multiple regions of confirmed the existence of this genomic deletion and extended its 5' boundary beyond the 5'-UTR. Whole genome sequencing subsequently located the 5' and 3' breakpoints to 19268 bp upstream to the ATG initiation codon and 3180 bp downstream to exon 5. PCR amplification across the breakpoints in both the patient and his parents showed that the genomic alteration occurred . Sanger sequencing of this PCR product revealed that it is in fact a GRCh38/hg38:chr8:g.71318554_71374171delinsTGCC genomic deletion-insertion. Our results showed that the genomic variant is responsible for the hearing loss associated with BOS and provided an example for deciphering such cryptic genomic alterations following pipelines of comprehensive exome/genome sequencing and designed verification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5524381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046558PMC
April 2021

Balancing the influenza neuraminidase and hemagglutinin responses by exchanging the vaccine virus backbone.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 19;17(4):e1009171. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America.

Virions are a common antigen source for many viral vaccines. One limitation to using virions is that the antigen abundance is determined by the content of each protein in the virus. This caveat especially applies to viral-based influenza vaccines where the low abundance of the neuraminidase (NA) surface antigen remains a bottleneck for improving the NA antibody response. Our systematic analysis using recent H1N1 vaccine antigens demonstrates that the NA to hemagglutinin (HA) ratio in virions can be improved by exchanging the viral backbone internal genes, especially the segment encoding the polymerase PB1 subunit. The purified inactivated virions with higher NA content show a more spherical morphology, a shift in the balance between the HA receptor binding and NA receptor release functions, and induce a better NA inhibitory antibody response in mice. These results indicate that influenza viruses support a range of ratios for a given NA and HA pair which can be used to produce viral-based influenza vaccines with higher NA content that can elicit more balanced neutralizing antibody responses to NA and HA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084346PMC
April 2021

Increased tumor-infiltrating plasmacytoid dendritic cells promote cancer cell proliferation and invasion via TNF-α/NF-κB/CXCR-4 pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

J Cancer 2021 19;12(10):3045-3056. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Oral Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China.

Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are closely associated with tumor occurrence and progression. The present study explored the potential mechanism of tumor-infiltrating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) mediating the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). pDC distribution was detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. chemotaxis cytokine receptor-4/7 (CXCR-4/7) expression was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Cell proliferation and migration were measured by CCK-8, colony formation, wound healing and transwell assay. ELISA and western blotting were used to investigate cytokines secretion and NF-κB pathway activity. Tumor-infiltrating pDC in OSCC was significantly increased and associated with tumor size, lymph node (LN) metastasis ( <0.05). Tumor-infiltrating-pDC-conditioned medium from OSCC patients significantly promoted tumor cell proliferation and invasion, which was at least partly mediated via enhancing the CXCR-4 expression of tumor cell. In addition, the activation of NF-κB pathway played a decisive role in the overexpression of CXCR-4, which was further regulated by pDC-derived TNF-α secretion. Tumor-infiltrating pDC promoted oral cancer proliferation and invasion via activating the TNF-α/NF-κB/CXCR-4 pathway, which may serve as a potential immunological target for the treatment of OSCC in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.55580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040884PMC
March 2021

Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell-Sheets Sandwiched, Book-Shaped Acellular Dermal Matrix Capable of Sustained Release of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promote Diabetic Wound Healing.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:646967. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

The First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The management of diabetic wounds is a therapeutic challenge in clinical settings. Current tissue engineering strategies for diabetic wound healing are insufficient, owing to the lack of an appropriate scaffold that can load a large number of stem cells and induce the interaction of stem cells to form granulation tissue. Herein we fabricated a book-shaped decellularized dermal matrix (BDDM), which shows a high resemblance to native dermal tissue in terms of its histology, microstructure, and ingredients, is non-cytotoxic and low-immunogenic, and allows adipose-derived stromal cell (ASC) attachment and proliferation. Then, a collagen-binding domain (CBD) capable of binding collagen was fused into basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to synthetize a recombinant growth factor (termed as CBD-bFGF). After that, CBD-bFGF was tethered onto the collagen fibers of BDDM to improve its endothelial inducibility. Finally, a functional scaffold (CBD-bFGF/BDDM) was fabricated. and experiments demonstrated that CBD-bFGF/BDDM can release tethered bFGF with a sustained release profile, steadily inducing the interaction of stem cells down to endothelial differentiation. ASCs were cultured to form a cell sheet and then sandwiched by CBD-bFGF/BDDM, thus enlarging the number of stem cells loaded into the scaffold. Using a rat model, the ASC sheets sandwiched with CBD-bFGF/BDDM (ASCs/CBD-bFGF/BDDM) were capable of enhancing the formation of granulation tissue, promoting angiogenesis, and facilitating collagen deposition and remodeling. Therefore, the findings of this study demonstrate that ASCs/CBD-bFGF/BDDM could be applicable for diabetic wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.646967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027315PMC
March 2021

Decreased CSTA expression promotes lymphatic metastasis and predicts poor survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Arch Oral Biol 2021 Mar 31;126:105116. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial-Head & Neck Oncology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China; College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200011, China; National Center for Stomatology, Shanghai, 200011, China; National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shanghai, 200011, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai, 200011, China.

Objective: Herein, we aimed to identify biomarkers that affect lymphatic metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) through bioinformatic analysis, and clinicopathological and in vitro verifications.

Design: The OSCC-related gene expression dataset was retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were subjected to pathway analysis. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis were performed to identify hub genes. Expression of potential biomarkers was examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between biomarker expression and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with OSCC. Effects of selected biomarkers on proliferation, migration, and invasion were evaluated using in vitro assays.

Results: For DEGs, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed potential lymphatic metastasis-related biological processes and signaling pathways. Eight hub genes - ALOXE3, CSTA, PLA2G4E, PPL, SPRR1A, SPRR2A, SPRR2D, and SPRR2E, were identified via WGCNA and PPI analyses. CSTA expression was markedly downregulated in primary OSCC tissues, and low CSTA expression significantly correlated with high tumor grade (P =  0.001), nodal metastasis (P =  0.028), and poor overall survival (P <  0.001). CTSA overexpression inhibited OSCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, with little effect on OSCC cell proliferation.

Conclusions: Our study revealed that CSTA is a promising biomarker and therapeutic target with prognostic implications in patients with OSCC. CSTA may play an essential role in OSCC lymphatic metastasis and tumor differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2021.105116DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical importance of the distribution of pulmonary artery embolism in acute pulmonary embolism.

J Int Med Res 2021 Apr;49(4):3000605211004769

Department of Geriatrics, Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi, China.

Objective: To explore the clinical importance of the distribution of pulmonary artery embolism in acute pulmonary embolism (APE).

Methods: Sixty-four patients with APE were classified into mixed-type and distal-type pulmonary embolism groups. Their right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and disease duration were recorded, and the diameter of their right ventricles was measured by ultrasound. The computed tomography angiographic clot load was determined as a Mastora score.

Results: Patients with distal-type pulmonary embolisms had significantly lower RVSPs (44.92 ± 17.04 vs 55.69 ± 17.66 mmHg), and significantly smaller right ventricular diameters (21.08 ± 3.06 vs 23.37 ± 3.48 mm) than those with mixed-type pulmonary embolisms. Additionally, disease duration was significantly longer in patients with distal-type pulmonary embolisms (14.33 ± 11.57 vs 8.10 ± 7.10 days), and they had significantly lower Mastora scores (20.91% ± 18.92% vs 43.96% ± 18.30%) than patients with mixed-type pulmonary embolisms. After treatment, RVSPs decreased significantly in patients with both distal-type and mixed-type pulmonary embolisms. Right ventricle diameters also decreased significantly in patients with mixed-type pulmonary embolisms after treatment.

Conclusion: Patients with mixed-type pulmonary embolisms are significantly more susceptible to pulmonary hypertension, enlarged right ventricular diameters, and shorter durations of disease than those with distal-type pulmonary embolisms. The distribution of pulmonary artery embolism in APE can provide a clinical reference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211004769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033481PMC
April 2021

Effects of Different Ambient Temperatures on Caecal Microbial Composition in Broilers.

Pol J Microbiol 2021 Mar 9;70(1):33-43. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, The People's Republic of China.

Short-term or acute temperature stress affect the immune responses and alters the gut microbiota of broilers, but the influences of long-term temperature stress on stress biomarkers and the intestinal microbiota remains largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the effect of three long-term ambient temperatures (high (HC), medium (MC), and low (LC) temperature groups) on the gene expression of broilers' heat shock proteins (Hsps) and inflammation - related genes, as well as the caecal microbial composition. The results revealed that Hsp70 and Hsp90 levels in HC group significantly increased, and levels of Hsp70, Hsp90, IL-6, TNF-α, and NFKB1 in LC group were significantly higher than in MC group ( < 0.05). In comparison with the MC group, the proportion of Firmicutes increased in HC and LC groups, while that of Bacteroidetes decreased in LC group at phylum level ( < 0.05). At genus level, the proportion of /,and increased in HC group; the fraction of was higher in LC group; and the percentage of and decreased in both HC and LC groups ( < 0.05). Functional analysis based on communities' phylogenetic investigation revealed that the pathways involved in environmental information processing and metabolism were enriched in the HC group. Those involved in cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and gene regulation were enriched in LC group. Hence, we conclude that the long-term temperature stress can greatly alter the intestinal microbial communities in broilers and may further affect the host's immunity and health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33073/pjm-2021-001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008768PMC
March 2021

Research Progress on Antibacterial Activities and Mechanisms of Natural Alkaloids: A Review.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pharmacy, Baotou Medical College, Baotou 014040, China.

Alkaloids are nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds typically isolated from plants. They represent one of the most important types of natural products because of their large number and structural diversity and complexity. Based on their chemical core structures, alkaloids are classified as isoquinolines, quinolines, indoles, piperidine alkaloids, etc. In-depth analyses of alkaloids have revealed their antibacterial activities. To date, due to the widespread use of antibiotics, the problem of drug-resistant bacterial infections has been gradually increasing, which severely affects the clinical efficacy of antibacterial therapies and patient safety. Therefore, significant research efforts are focused on alkaloids because they represent a potentially new type of natural antibiotic with a wide antibacterial spectrum, rare adverse reactions, and a low tendency to produce drug resistance. Their main antibacterial mechanisms include inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis, change in cell membrane permeability, inhibition of bacterial metabolism, and inhibition of nucleic acid and protein synthesis. This article reviews recent reports about the chemical structures and the antibacterial activities and mechanisms of alkaloids. The purpose is to solve the problem of bacterial resistance and to provide a certain theoretical basis and research ideas for the development of new antibacterial drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10030318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003525PMC
March 2021

Lead compounds for the development of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors.

Nat Commun 2021 04 1;12(1):2016. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

We report the identification of three structurally diverse compounds - compound 4, GC376, and MAC-5576 - as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease. Structures of each of these compounds in complex with the protease revealed strategies for further development, as well as general principles for designing SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors. These compounds may therefore serve as leads for the basis of building effective SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22362-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016852PMC
April 2021

Expression of N-Terminal Cysteine Aβ and Conjugation to Generate Fluorescent and Biotinylated Aβ.

Biochemistry 2021 Apr 1;60(15):1191-1200. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-2025, United States.

Fluorescent derivatives of the β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) are valuable tools for studying the interactions of Aβ with cells. Facile access to labeled expressed Aβ offers the promise of Aβ with greater sequence and stereochemical integrity, without impurities from amino acid deletion and epimerization. Here, we report methods for the expression of Aβ with an N-terminal cysteine residue, Aβ, and its conjugation to generate Aβ bearing fluorophores or biotin. The methods rely on the hitherto unrecognized observation that expression of the Aβ gene yields the Aβ peptide, because the N-terminal methionine is endogenously excised by . Conjugation of Aβ with maleimide-functionalized fluorophores or biotin affords the N-terminally labeled Aβ. The expression affords ∼14 mg of N-terminal cysteine Aβ from 1 L of bacterial culture. Subsequent conjugation affords ∼3 mg of labeled Aβ from 1 L of bacterial culture with minimal cost for labeling reagents. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicates the N-terminal cysteine Aβ to be >97% pure and labeled Aβ peptides to be 94-97% pure. Biophysical studies show that the labeled Aβ peptides behave like unlabeled Aβ and suggest that labeling of the N-terminus does not substantially alter the properties of the Aβ. We further demonstrate applications of the fluorophore-labeled Aβ peptides by using fluorescence microscopy to visualize their interactions with mammalian cells and bacteria. We anticipate that these methods will provide researchers convenient access to useful N-terminally labeled Aβ, as well as Aβ with an N-terminal cysteine that enables further functionalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.1c00105DOI Listing
April 2021

Cause-Specific Mortality Among Survivors From T1N0M0 Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Registry-Based Cohort Study.

Front Oncol 2021 10;11:604724. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Objective: More T1N0M0 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is detected and the prognosis has improved, but, the current focus on non-RCC-related mortality is superficial. We investigated cause-specific mortality and its temporal patterns after an RCC diagnosis.

Methods: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 database, patients with T1N0M0 RCC treated with partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) during 2000-15 were identified. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cause of death were calculated. Risk predictors for each cause-specific mortality were investigated using the Fine and Gray sub-distribution model.

Results: In all, 68,612 eligible patients were pooled. A total of 14,047 (20.5%) patients had died (cardiovascular disease [CVD], 28.3%; other non-cancer-related diseases, 20.3%; RCC, 18.7%; other cancer types, 16.3%; non-disease events, 16.1%) during follow-up. Heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular disease were the primary causes of non-RCC-related mortality within 1 year after the diagnosis. The greatest proportion of death (39.0%) occurred within 1-5 years after the diagnosis, mostly due to RCC itself, followed by heart disease. However, >5 years after the diagnosis, heart disease became the leading cause of death. Compared with the general US population, a 21% (SMR, 1.21; 95%CI 1.19-1.23) increased risk of all-mortality was observed; RCC patients had a higher risk of heart disease-related death within 5-10 years (SMR, 1.10; 95%CI 1.04-1.17) and >10 years (1.12; 1.02-1.22) after the diagnosis. Older age and RN increased the death risk of CVD and RCC-specific mortality. Although a larger tumor diameter increased the risk of RCC-specific death, this was not a significant predictor for CVD. Moreover, for T1N0M0 RCC tumors of diameter >4 cm, there was no significant difference in CVD incidence for RN PN.

Conclusions: RCC-specific mortality is a common challenge for the prognosis. Importantly, a large proportion and higher SMRs of other non-RCC-related diseases (especially CVD) should not be disregarded for the better holistic management of survivors of local RCC. Targeted prevention strategies for non-RCC-related death could lead to significant reductions in mortality for RCC survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.604724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988093PMC
March 2021

Lineage tracing reveals the origin of Nestin-positive cells are heterogeneous and rarely from ependymal cells after spinal cord injury.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Nestin is expressed extensively in neural stem/progenitor cells during neural development, but its expression is mainly restricted to the ependymal cells in the adult spinal cord. After spinal cord injury (SCI), Nestin expression is reactivated and Nestin-positive (Nestin) cells aggregate at the injury site. However, the derivation of Nestin cells is not clearly defined. Here, we found that Nestin expression was substantially increased in the lesion edge and lesion core after SCI. Using a tamoxifen inducible CreER(T2)-loxP system, we verified that ependymal cells contribute few Nestin cells either to the lesion core or the lesion edge after SCI. In the lesion edge, GFAP astrocytes were the main cell type that expressed Nestin; they then formed an astrocyte scar. In the lesion core, Nestin cells expressed αSMA or Desmin, indicating that they might be derived from pericytes. Our results reveal that Nestin cells in the lesion core and edge came from various cell types and rarely from ependymal cells after complete transected SCI, which may provide new insights into SCI repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1901-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Generation of watt-level supercontinuum covering 2-6.5 µm in an all-fiber structured infrared nonlinear transmission system.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(3):4048-4057

We demonstrate a watt-level mid-infrared supercontinuum source, with the spectrum covering the infrared region from 2 to 6.5 µm, in an all-fiber structured laser transmission system. To further improve the SC spectral bandwidth, power and system compactness in the follow-up AsS fiber, we theoretically and experimentally explored some knotty problems that would potentially result in the AsS fiber end-facet failure and low SC output power during the high-power butt-coupling process and proposed an optimal coupling distance on the premise of the safety of AsS fiber end face. In addition, we also built a multi-pulse pumping model for the first time to more precisely estimate the SC spectral evolution in AsS fiber. This work will give an important reference to someone who is working on the all-fiber structured, high-power mid- and far-infrared supercontinuum source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.415534DOI Listing
February 2021

α Promoter Methylation May Modify the Association Between Lipid Metabolism and Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Farmers.

Front Public Health 2021 4;9:578134. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Environment Health & Environment and Health Innovation Team, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

This study is aimed to explore the potential association among the estrogen receptor alpha (α) promoter methylation, lipid metabolism and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 1143 rural residents were recruited randomly from Henan Province, China. The circulating methylation levels in α promoter region were determined by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and fasting plasma-glucose (FPG) were measured. The α promoter methylation levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels whether gender stratification was performed ( < 0.05) and positively correlated with LDL-C in men ( < 0.05). Each unit standard deviation (SD) increment in TG was associated with a 43% increase (95% CI: 1.25, 1.64) in the risks of T2DM in all participants, a 36% increase (95% : 1.13, 1.64) in the risks of T2DM in men and a 49% increase (95% CI: 1.21, 1.83) in the risks of T2DM in women. Furthermore, each SD increment in HDL-C was associated with a reduction of 25% (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.97) in the risks of T2DM in men, and the risk of T2DM in men may be more susceptible to HDL-C than that in women ( for interaction < 0.05). Additionally, we found that the risk of T2DM in participants with lower methylation levels (≤4.07%) were more susceptible to HDL-C ( for interaction < 0.05). These findings suggested that lipid metabolism was associated with α promoter methylation levels and the risk of T2DM. Besides, the levels of α promoter methylation and gender can modify the association of HDL-C and T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.578134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969800PMC
March 2021

Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 2;2021:6668990. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 6111137, China.

Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens (ZRR, the fresh rhizoma of Roscoe) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is also a traditional spice, widely used around the world. The present paper reviews advances in research relating to the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens. In addition, this review also discusses some significant issues and the potential direction of future research on Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, including gingerols, essential oils, diarylheptanoids, and other compounds. Modern studies have confirmed that Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens has pharmacological effects on the nervous system and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, as well as antiemetic, antibacterial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. However, the modern studies of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens are still not complete and more bioactive components and potential pharmacological effects need to be explored in the future. There is no unified standard to evaluate the quality and clinical efficacy of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens. Therefore, we should establish reasonable, accurate, and reliable quality control standards to make better use of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6668990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943299PMC
March 2021

[Distribution Characteristics of Microplastics in Ice Sheets and Its Response to Salinity and Chlorophyll a in the Lake Wuliangsuhai].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Feb;42(2):673-680

Inner Mongolia Water Saving Agricultural Engineering Research Center, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022, China.

There are sparse reports on the distribution of microplastics in the ice sheets of freshwater lakes. In this study, the abundance, color, shape, and species of microplastics in the ice sheet of Lake Wuliangsuhai were characterized using field sampling and microscope observations. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and correlation analysis were used to examine the distribution of microplastics contained in the lake and its relationships with salinity and chlorophyll a. The results show that the average abundance of microplastics in the Lake Wuliangsuhai ice sheet is 56.75-141 n·L, which is approximately 10-100 times higher than in the surface water of the Lake Wuliangsuhai. Fibers were the most common type of microplastics followed by fragments. Overall abundance showed a decreasing trend in the downstream horizontal direction and was positively correlated with salinity in the vertical direction. The abundance of microplastic in the surface ice and bottom ice was greater than in the middle of the ice and near bottom of the ice. There was no correlation between the abundance of microplastic and the concentration of chlorophyll a. In addition, due to the capturing effect of the ice, microplastic particles are temporarily stored in the ice sheet in winter, which are released into water in spring. This study provides baseline information to inform microplastic pollution control measures in Lake Wuliangsuhai.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202007042DOI Listing
February 2021