Publications by authors named "Li Wu"

1,238 Publications

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Capillary-Mediated Single-Cell Dispenser.

Anal Chem 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, United States.

Single-cell manipulation, sorting, and dispensing into multiwell plates is useful for single-cell multiomics studies. Here, we develop a single-cell dispenser inspired by electrohydrodynamic jet printing that achieves accurate droplet generation and single-cell sorting and dispensing using fused silica capillary tubing as both the optical detection window and nozzle for droplet dispensing. Parameters that affect droplet dispensing performance-capillary inner and outer diameter, flow rate, applied voltage, and solution properties-were optimized systematically with COMSOL simulations and experimentation. Small (5-10 nL) droplets were obtained by using 100-μm inner diameter and 160-μm outer diameter capillary tubing and allowed efficient encapsulation and dispensing of single cells. We demonstrate an application of this easy-to-assemble single-cell dispenser by sorting and dispensing cells into multiwell plates for single-cell PCR analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01879DOI Listing
July 2021

Arsenic trioxide induces expression of BCL-2 expression via NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in BEAS-2B cells during apoptosis.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 21;222:112531. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Inorganic arsenic compounds are environmental toxicants that are widely distributed in air, water, and food. B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) is an oncogene having anti-apoptotic function. In this study, we clarify that BCL-2, as a pro-apoptotic factor, participates in AsO-induced apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. Specifically, AsO stimulated the expression of BCL-2 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner which was highly accumulated in the nucleus of BEAS-2B cell together with chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. Mechanistically, the process described above is mediated through the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, which can be abated by corresponding inhibitors, such as BAY11-7082 and SB203580, respectively. Additionally, BAY11-7082, actinomycin D, and cycloheximide have inhibitory effects on AsO-induced expression of BCL-2 mRNA and protein, and restore the cell viability of BEAS-2B cells. Suppression of BCL-2 protein activation by ABT-199 also restored viability of BEAS-2B cell in AsO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, AsO increased the level of BCL-2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that in BEAS-2B cells, AsO-induced apoptosis is mainly dominated by BCL-2 upregulation, nuclear localization and phosphorylation. The study presented here provides a novel insight into the molecular mechanism of BCL-2-induced apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112531DOI Listing
July 2021

Root cell wall chemistry remodelling enhanced arsenic fixation of a cabbage cultivar.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 20;420:126165. Epub 2021 May 20.

Guangdong Provincial Research Centre for Environment Pollution Control and Remediation Materials, Department of Ecology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

The low- and high-arsenic (As) transferring cultivars (LTC and HTC) of cabbage showed significant differences in As uptake and distribution. We hypothesise that chemistry of root cell wall matrix plays a critical role. LTC and HTC were treated with As and grown for 60 days. As concentration and distribution at subcellular and cell wall component (pectin, hemicellulose and lignin) levels were determined. Remodelling enzymes (PME and PAL) and functional groups of cell wall were analysed. Results showed that shoot biomass of LTC was not affected by As. Less As was accumulated in shoot of LTC than HTC. LTC allocated more As in root and majority of As was deposited in cell wall. LTC had more hemicellulose 1 (HC1) and lignin, PME and PAL activities. The uronic acid contents of pectin, HC1 or HC2 were all positively (P < 0.05) correlated with As concentrations in each component, respectively. Chemistry of LTC root cell wall was remodelled in terms of changes in porosity, HC and lignin contents, and functional groups, which potentially exerted coupling effects on As entering and deposition. The LTC can restrain As in roots through changing characteristics of root cell wall matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126165DOI Listing
May 2021

The anticancer effects of 7-Methoxyheptaphylline against the human retinoblastoma cells are facilitated via S-phase cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial apoptosis and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway.

J BUON 2021 May-Jun;26(3):1182

Department of Ophthalmology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 430060.

The Editors of JBUON issue an Expression of Concern to 'The anticancer effects of 7-Methoxyheptaphylline against the human retinoblastoma cells are facilitated via S-phase cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial apoptosis and inhibition of Wnt/βcatenin signalling pathway', by Bin Chen, Tao He, Li Wu, Ting Cao, Hongmei Zheng; JBUON 2020;25(1):421-426; PMID: 32277664. Following the publication of the above article, readers drew to our attention that part of the data was possibly unreliable. We sent emails to the authors with a request to provide the raw data to prove the originality, but received no reply. Therefore, as we continue to work through the issues raised, we advise readers to interpret the information presented in the article with due caution. We thank the readers for bringing this matter to our attention. We apologize for any inconvenience it may cause.
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July 2021

Development of a Novel Restrictive Medium for Enrichment From Hongqu Based on the Synergistic Stress of Lactic Acid and Ethanol.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:702951. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

College of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China.

Hongqu is a famous fermented food produced by and has been used as food coloring, wine starters and food additives for thousands of years in China. Excellent strain is an important prerequisite for producing high-quality Hongqu. However, the isolation of pure culture from Hongqu samples is time-consuming and laborious because it is easily interfered by other microorganisms (especially filamentous fungi). Therefore, the development of restrictive medium for enrichment from Hongqu is of great significance for the preparation and screening of excellent strains. Results of this study showed that has good tolerance to lactic acid and ethanol. Under the conditions of tolerance limits [7.5% lactic acid (v/v) and 12.0% ethanol (v/v)], could not grow but it still retained the vitality of spore germination, and the spore activity gradually decreased with the increasing concentrations of lactic acid and ethanol. More interestingly, the addition of lactic acid and ethanol significantly changed the microbial community structure in rice milk inoculated with Hongqu. After response surface optimization, could be successfully enriched without the interference of other microorganisms when 3.98% (v/v) lactic acid and 6.24% (v/v) ethanol were added to rice milk simultaneously. The optimal enrichment duration of by the restrictive medium based on the synergistic stress of lactic acid and ethanol is 8∼24 h. The synergistic stress of lactic acid and ethanol had no obvious effects on the accumulation of major metabolites in the progeny of , and was suitable for the enrichment of from different types of Hongqu. Finally, the possible mechanisms on the tolerance of to the synergistic stress of lactic acid and ethanol were preliminarily studied. Under the synergistic stress of lactic acid and ethanol, the cell membrane of defends against lactic acid and ethanol into cells to some extent, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities of were higher than those of other fungi, which significantly reduced the degree of lipid peroxidation of cell membrane, while secreting more amylase to make reducing sugars to provide the cells with enough energy to resist environmental stress. This work has great application value for the construction of strain library and the better development of its germplasm resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.702951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256164PMC
June 2021

MicroRNAs secreted by human embryos could be potential biomarkers for clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technology.

J Adv Res 2021 07 11;31:25-34. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, China.

Introduction: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many biological functions, including embryo implantation and development. Recently, it has been reported that miRNAs in biofluids are predictive for physiological and pathological processes.

Objectives: In this study, we aim to investigate whether the miRNAs secreted by human embryos in culture medium can be used as embryonic biomarkers.

Methods: The culture media were prospectively collected from embryos of patients at reproductive medicine center with informed consent. A high-throughput miRNA sequencing method was applied to detect the miRNA profiles in the human embryo culture media. After bioinformatics analysis and screening of differentially expressed miRNAs, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was subsequently performed to further confirm the sequencing results with mixed samples. Furthermore, we performed droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to verify the target miRNAs at single sample level. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed for differentially expressed miRNAs.

Results: Compared with embryos with failed pregnancy, the embryos with successful pregnancy secreted different miRNA profiles into the culture media, which were predicted to be involved in multiple biological processes. Validated by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), the expression of hsa-miR-26b-5p and hsa-miR-21-5p in the culture media of cleavage embryos with successful pregnancy was significantly lower than that of embryos with failed pregnancy. Moreover, the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that hsa-miR-26b-5p and hsa-miR-21-5p could serve as potential biomarkers for reproductive outcomes.

Conclusion: Together, our findings highlight the important predictive potential of miRNAs secreted by human embryos in culture media, which is meaningful for non-invasive embryo selection in assisted reproductive technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2021.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240345PMC
July 2021

Solidification of volatile D-Limonene by cyclodextrin metal-organic framework for pulmonary delivery via dry powder inhalers: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jun 24;606:120825. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Center for Drug Delivery Systems, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 501, Haike Road, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

D-Limonene (D-Lim), a volatile oil extracted from citrus fruits, has therapeutic effects on lung inflammation and cancer, whilst the deep delivery of D-Lim was challenging due to its physical instability for a long period of time. To prevent the volatilization of D-Lim and achieve efficient pulmonary delivery, herein, D-Lim was loaded into biodegradable γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic framework (γ-CD-MOF) with optimal loading efficiency achieving 13.79 ± 0.01% (molar ratio of D-Lim and γ-CD-MOF was 1.6:1), which possessed cubic shape with controllable particle size (1-5 μm). The experimental results indicated that γ-CD-MOF could improve the stability of D-Lim. A series of characterizations and molecular docking were used to reveal the interaction between D-Lim and γ-CD-MOF. The solidification of D-Lim by γ-CD-MOF played a crucial role in the exploitation of its inhalable dosage form, dry powder inhaler (DPI). Specifically, the aerosolization of [email protected]γ-CD-MOF for inhalation was satisfactory with a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 33.12 ± 1.50% at 65 L/min of flow rate. Furthermore, in vivo study had shown a 2.23-fold increase in bioavailability of D-Lim solidified by γ-CD-MOF for inhalation compared to D-Lim for oral administration. Therefore, it is considered that γ-CD-MOF could be an excellent carrier for pulmonary drug delivery to realize solidification and lung therapeutic effects of volatile oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120825DOI Listing
June 2021

Pregnancy Induces an Immunological Memory Characterized by Maternal Immune Alterations Through Specific Genes Methylation.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:686676. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

During pregnancy, the maternal immune system undergoes major adaptive modifications that are necessary for the acceptance and protection of the fetus. It has been postulated that these modifications are temporary and limited to the time of pregnancy. Growing evidence suggests that pregnancy has a long-term impact on maternal health, especially among women with pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia (PE). In addition, the presence of multiple immunological-associated changes in women that remain long after delivery has been reported. To explain these long-term modifications, we hypothesized that pregnancy induces long-term immunological memory with effects on maternal well-being. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the immunological phenotype of circulating immune cells in women at least 1 year after a normal pregnancy and after pregnancy complicated by PE. Using multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS), we demonstrate that pregnancy has a long-term effect on the maternal immune cell populations and that this effect differs between normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by PE; furthermore, these modifications are due to changes in the maternal methylation status of genes that are associated with T cell and NK cell differentiation and function. We propose the existence of an "immunological memory of pregnancy (IMOP)" as an evolutionary advantage for the success of future pregnancies and the proper adaptation to the microchimeric status established during pregnancy. Our findings demonstrate that the type of immune cell populations modified during pregnancy may have an impact on subsequent pregnancy and future maternal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.686676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215664PMC
June 2021

The cytoprotective role of omentin against oxidative stress-induced PC12 apoptosis.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2021 Dec;49(1):483-492

Medical Research Center, Xi'an No.3 Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

Oxidative stress has been proven to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuronal injury. As a novel adipocytokine, omentin is produced by visceral adipose with insulin sensitizing effects and has been revealed to possess anti-inflammatory effects. However, the possible effect of omentin on oxidative stress remains unknown. The present study aimed to detect the potential protective effect of omentin against hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced cytotoxicity of PC12 cells. The results showed that no cytotoxic effect was shown in PC12 cells co-cultured with omentin alone at a concentration of 50-1000 ng/mL. The CCK8 and TUNEL assays suggested that omentin could remarkably attenuate apoptosis induced by 100 μM HO. The PCR and western blotting showed that the expression levels of Bax was significantly inhibited by omentin the upregulation of miR-128-3p at its 3'-UTR. Taken together, these results indicated that omentin protects PC12 cells against HO-induced apoptosis, and further studies need to be conducted before utilization in the clinic for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2021.1892707DOI Listing
December 2021

Gut Microbiota Composition Affects Procyanidin A2-Attenuated Atherosclerosis in ApoE Mice by Modulating the Bioavailability of Its Microbial Metabolites.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 18;69(25):6989-6999. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Procyanidin A2 (PCA2) has been shown to improve lipid metabolism. However, it remains to know whether it can play a role in preventing atherosclerosis (AS) through gut microbiota. This study examined the effect of PCA2 on high fat diet (HFD)-induced AS in ApoE mice with an intact and antibiotic-depleted microbiota. PCA2 administration for 12 weeks attenuated HFD-induced AS in ApoE mice, evidenced by obviously alleviating the histological abnormalities of the aorta, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which were accompanied by downregulating the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. Moreover, PCA2 treatment reshaped the gut microbiota imbalance caused by HFD, especially reducing the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and increasing the abundance of Verrucomicrobia. However, antibiotic intervention almost offset the alleviation of AS by PCA2 and prevented the biotransformation of PCA2 by gut microbiota, thus resulting in a 2327.21-6.27-fold decrease in its microbial metabolites of plasma. There was a marked correlation among the microbiota composition, the bioavailability of PCA2-derived microbial metabolites, and AS indicators. The findings indicate that the gut microbiota robustly influences the bioavailability of microbial metabolites that may partially drive the AS resilience property of PCA2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00430DOI Listing
June 2021

Fate of chlorpyrifos, omethoate, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin during wheat milling and Chinese steamed bread processing.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 1;9(6):2791-2800. Epub 2021 May 1.

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Cereal Products (Beijing) Institute of Crop Sciences Ministry of Agriculture Beijing China.

To investigate the fractioning of chlorpyrifos, omethoate, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin during wheat milling and the fate of four pesticides during Chinese steamed bread (CSB) processing, wheat samples, which were sprayed twice with chlorpyrifos, omethoate, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin at three levels of concentrations during the grain-filling stage, were milled, and wheat flour was processed to CSB. The residues of four pesticides in the milling products, kneaded dough, fermented dough, and CSB were determined with GC-MS/MS. The concentrations of chlorpyrifos, omethoate, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin in bran were 1.46-1.57, 1.85-2.13, 1.27-1.86, and 1.63-2.33 times higher than those in wheat, respectively, while the residues of the four pesticides in shorts decreased approximately 27.97% to 57.02% for chlorpyrifos, 6.22% to 44.77% for cypermethrin, and 13.13% to 61.15% for deltamethrin compared with the residues in wheat ( < .05); however, omethoate levels approximately doubled in the ten-fold treatment group in shorts compared with those in wheat ( < .05). The residues of the four pesticides in flour were significantly lower than those in wheat, ranging from 38.68% to 98.04%. Chlorpyrifos and omethoate levels showed a slight decrease during the kneading and fermentation process, and further decreases of 2.46%-29.51% for chlorpyrifos and 14.22%-71.11% for omethoate were found in CSB; however, most of the groups of cypermethrin and deltamethrin showed various degrees of increases in kneaded and fermented dough and steamed bread compared with flour. The mechanism of this increase is unknown and needs further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194911PMC
June 2021

Correlation between Thyroid Homeostasis and Obesity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Community-Based Cross-Sectional Research.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 29;2021:6663553. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, Fujian, China.

Objective: It remains unknown whether obesity has an effect on the pituitary-thyroid feedback control axis in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We aimed to investigate the association of thyroid homeostasis with obesity in a SCH population.

Methods: Our study consisted of a community-based and cross-sectional study from the Epidemiological Survey of Thyroid Diseases in Fujian Province, China. A total of 193 subjects with SCH (90 males and 103 females) without a history of treatment of thyroid disease, such as surgery, radiation, and thyroid hormone or antithyroid medication, were included in the present study. Indices of obesity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-height ratio (WHtR) were measured.

Results: Our results showed that the secretory capacity of the thyroid gland (SPINA-GT) and Jostel's thyrotropin index (TSHI) were negatively correlated with BMI, WC, and WHtR, whereas the reciprocal of the thyrotroph thyroid hormone resistance index (TTSI-1) was positively correlated with BMI (all < 0.05). After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, iodine status, and glucolipid metabolism, the associations between TSHI, TTSI (reciprocal transformation), and BMI still persisted (all < 0.05).

Conclusions: These results suggest that low levels of thyroid homeostasis indexes may be associated with overall obesity in SCH, rather than central adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6663553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179776PMC
May 2021

Massive Pontine Hemorrhage by Dual Injection of Autologous Blood.

J Vis Exp 2021 May 29(171). Epub 2021 May 29.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University;

We provide a protocol to establish a massive pontine hemorrhage model in a rat. Rats weighing about 250 grams were used in this study. One hundred microliters of autologous blood was taken from the tail vein and stereotaxically injected into the pons. The injection process was divided into 2 steps: First, 10 µL of blood was injected into a specific location, anteroposterior position (AP) -9.0 mm; lateral (Lat) 0 mm; vertical (Vert) -9.2 mm, followed by a second injection of the residual blood located at AP -9.0 mm; Lat 0 mm; Vert -9.0 mm with a 20-minute interval. The balance beam test, limb placement test, and the modified Voestch neuroscore were used to evaluate neurological function. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to assess the volume of hemorrhage in vivo. The symptoms of this model were in line with patients with massive pontine hemorrhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/62089DOI Listing
May 2021

Dexmedetomidine protects against degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in Parkinson's disease mice model.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 20;28(6):3198-3203. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, Honghui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710054 Shaanxi, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the result of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal death in the substantianigra pars compacta (SNc). Current treatments for PD such as L-dopa are limited in effectiveness and fail to address the cause. Targeted anti-inflammatory therapies, particularly directed at nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in alleviating degeneration of DA-neurons is of evolving interest. In the present study, we hypothesised that dexmedetomidine (DEX), an alpha-2 receptor adrenergic agonist, suppress the inflammatory responses associated with PD and restores dopaminergic levels by alleviating substantia nigral degeneration. Male mice (C57Bl/10, 8-11 months old and of 34-40 g of weight) were divided into: the control, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and MPTP + dexmedetomidine (MPTP + DEX) (n = 26 each group). Dex restored dopamine levels in SNpc of MPTP-induced PD mice model. Results of immunohisto staining revealed that Dex treatment post-MPTP induction restored TH-positive cells, with only 12.37% increase (p < 0.01 vs MPTP) on the third day and a steep 55% increase (p < 0.001 vs MPTP) following the seventh day of Dex treatment. Moreover, the expressions of proinflammatory markers regulated by NF-κB were diminished in Dex + MPTP group. In addition, cylinder test revealed that Dex treatment improved asymmetric limb usage pattern in MPTP induced mice over the course of 7 days. Hence, in this study, we provided insight on the effect of Dex in the inhibition of NF-κB1 regulated proinflammatory mediators to improve dopamine levels and reduce SNpc dopaminergic neuronal degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176059PMC
June 2021

Levels and clinical significance of serum homocysteine (Hcy), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), vaspin, and visfatin in elderly patients with different types of coronary heart disease.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5679-5686

Department of Geriatric ICU, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Background: To investigate the levels and clinical significance of serum homocysteine (Hcy), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin), and visceral fat-specific adipokine (visfatin) in elderly patients with different types of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Methods: A total of 208 elderly patients with CHD admitted to our hospital were selected as the observation group, and 57 healthy volunteers who received physical examinations during the same period were selected as the healthy control group. The patients in the observation group were divided into a stable angina pectoris (SAP) group, an unstable angina pectoris (UAP) group, and an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group according to their clinical diagnosis. The levels of serum Hcy, HDL-C, vaspin, visfatin, and coronary angiography Gensini scores were compared among the CHD subgroups and the healthy control group. Pearson linear correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between levels of serum Hcy, HDL-C, vaspin, and visfatin with Gensini scores in elderly patients with different types of CHD.

Results: The levels of serum Hcy and visfatin in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (P<0.05), while the levels of serum HDL-C and vaspin were significantly lower than those in the healthy control group (P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the levels of serum Hcy, vaspin, and visfatin among the CHD subgroups (P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the Gensini scores and number of stenotic coronary arteries among the CHD subgroups (P<0.05). Pearson linear correlation analysis showed that the levels of serum Hcy, HDL-C, vaspin, and visfatin in the SAP group were not significantly correlated with Gensini scores (P>0.05). However, the levels of serum Hcy and visfatin in the UAP and AMI groups were positively correlated with Gensini scores (P<0.05), the level of serum vaspin was negatively correlated with Gensini scores (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The levels of serum Hcy, vaspin, and visfatin vary according to the different types of CHD and are correlated with the degree of coronary artery stenosis. As such, these serum levels can be used as sensitive indicators for early detection and disease evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1001DOI Listing
May 2021

Dendritic cell fate determination revealed by "SISter" assays.

Authors:
Tao Wu Li Wu

Immunity 2021 Jun;54(6):1104-1106

Institute for Immunology and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Tsinghua-Peking Centre for Life Sciences, Beijing 100084, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Immunological Research on Chronic Diseases, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Establishing the connection between cell fate and fate-related genes in a single progenitor cell is a challenge. In this issue of Immunity, Tian et al. tackled this challenge by designing SIS-seq and SIS-Skew assays and identified Bcor as a negative regulator for dendritic cell differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.05.012DOI Listing
June 2021

Traumatic brain injury induced by exposure to blast overpressure via ear canal.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Jan;17(1):115-121

Departmant of Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery; Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

Exposure to explosive shockwave often leads to blast-induced traumatic brain injury in military and civilian populations. Unprotected ears are most often damaged following exposure to blasts. Although there is an association between tympanic membrane perforation and TBI in blast exposure victims, little is known about how and to what extent blast energy is transmitted to the central nervous system via the external ear canal. The present study investigated whether exposure to blasts directed through the ear canal causes brain injury in Long-Evans rats. Animals were exposed to a single blast (0-30 pounds per square inch (psi)) through the ear canal, and brain injury was evaluated by histological and behavioral outcomes at multiple time-points. Blast exposure not only caused tympanic membrane perforation but also produced substantial neuropathological changes in the brain, including increased expression of c-Fos, induction of a profound chronic neuroinflammatory response, and apoptosis of neurons. The blast-induced injury was not limited only to the brainstem most proximal to the source of the blast, but also affected the forebrain including the hippocampus, amygdala and the habenula, which are all involved in cognitive functions. Indeed, the animals exhibited long-term neurological deficits, including signs of anxiety in open field tests 2 months following blast exposure, and impaired learning and memory in an 8-arm maze 12 months following blast exposure. These results suggest that the unprotected ear canal provides a locus for blast waves to cause TBI. This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (Animal protocol# 0932E, approval date: September 30, 2016 and 0932F, approval date: September 27, 2019).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.314311DOI Listing
January 2022

Construction of a novel mechanoluminescent phosphor LiMgGeO:Mn by defect control.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jun;50(25):8803-8810

Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Lattice defect plays a significant role in the optical properties of elastic mechanoluminescent materials, which could be modulated by cationic non-equivalent replacement. Here, a series of novel mechanoluminescent phosphors Li2-xMgGeO4:xMn2+ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.025) were synthesized via a high-temperature solid-state reaction method in an ambient atmosphere. The defect type and its relationship with optical perfomance were clarified via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, and thermoluminescent spectroscopy. Along with the introduction of Mn ions, the trap levels of oxygen vacancies become shallow, which are beneficial to produce long afterglow and mechanoluminescence. This study offers a feasible approach for developing new functional materials via defect control in self-reduction systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt01125aDOI Listing
June 2021

Adaptive quantile control for stochastic system.

ISA Trans 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Automation and Information Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, China. Electronic address:

Adaptive control has been successfully developed in deriving control law for stochastic systems with unknown parameters. The generation of reasonable control law depends on accurate parameter estimation. Recursive least square is widely used to estimate unknown parameters for stochastic systems; however, this approach only fits systems with Gaussian noises. In this paper, the adaptive quantile control is first proposed to cover the case where stochastic system noise follows sharp and thick tail distribution rather than Gaussian distribution. In the proposed approach, the system noise is modeled by the Asymmetric Laplace Distribution, and the unknown parameter is online estimated by our developed Bayesian quantile sum estimator, which combines recursive quantile estimations weighted by Bayesian posterior probabilities. With the real-time estimated parameter, the adaptive quantile control law is constructed based on the certainty equivalence principle. Our proposed estimator and controller are not computationally consuming and can be easily conducted in the Micro Controller Unit to fit practical applications. The comparison with some dominant controllers for the unknown stochastic system is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the adaptive quantile control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.05.032DOI Listing
May 2021

Phenolic Compounds Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Pitahaya Fruit Peel from Two Red-Skinned Species ( and ).

Foods 2021 May 25;10(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Pitahaya peel is a good source of bioactive polyphenols. However, the bound phenolics and their antioxidant activity remain unclear. The bound phenolics of pitahaya peel from two red-skinned species with red pulp (RP) and white pulp (WP) were released with different methods (acid, base, and composite enzymes hydrolysis). The results revealed that base hydrolysis was the most efficient method for releasing the bound phenolics from RP (11.6 mg GAE/g DW) and WP (10.5 mg GAE/g DW), which was 13.04-fold and 8.18-fold for RP and 75.07-fold and 10.94-fold for WP compared with acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. A total of 37 phenolic compounds were identified by UPLC-TOF/MS with most chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and -coumaric acid in RP, whereas chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin were the main compounds in WP. Regardless of the hydrolysis method, the extracts having the highest phenolic content showed the strongest antioxidant activities. The work shows that hydrolysis methods have a significant effect on the release of phenolics, and the contents of major characteristic bound phenolic compounds are related to the ecological type of pitahaya.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225021PMC
May 2021

Development of unenhanced CT-based imaging signature for BAP1 mutation status prediction in malignant pleural mesothelioma: Consideration of 2D and 3D segmentation.

Lung Cancer 2021 07 29;157:30-39. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Medical Imaging, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650032, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: We aimed to explore the feasibility of 2D and 3D radiomics signature based on the unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images to predict BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) gene mutation status for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients.

Materials And Methods: 74 patients with MPM were retrospectively enrolled (22 mutant BAP1, 52 wild-type BAP1 demonstrated by Sanger sequencing). The radiomic features were extracted respectively from the 2D and 3D segmentation of unenhanced pre-treatment CT images, and the dataset was randomly divided into training (n = 51) and test (n = 23) sets for radiomics model development and internal validation. The synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) was used for data balancing in the training set. 2D or 3D features were sequentially selected by ICC > 0.8, correlation analysis (cut-value 0.7), univariate analysis or univariate logistic regression (LR), which were involved into multivariate LR for LR model construction. Following the comparison of the 2D and 3D models by the ROC analysis and Delong test for AUC, the calibration and clinical utility of 2D and 3D models were evaluated.

Results: 3D radiomic features showed better ICCs compared with 2D in both intra- (P < 0.001) and inter-observer (P <  0.001) analysis. 3D radiomic model based on selected features developed from a balanced training dataset presented a favorable predictive performance with AUC of 0.786 and 0.768 in the training and test sets, respectively. The predictive performance of 3D model was superior to 2D model (1 feature) both in the training (AUC 0.786 vs. 0.683, P = 0.036) and the test (AUC 0.768 vs.0.652, P = 0.441) set. The calibration curve and decision curves also indicate a better BAP1 prediction performance and clinical benefit for 3D model than that of 2D model.

Conclusion: The developed unenhanced CT-based 3D radiomics signature is potential as a noninvasive marker for predicting BAP1 mutation status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.04.023DOI Listing
July 2021

Lifestyle is associated with thyroid function in subclinical hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 May 28;21(1):112. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, 29 Xinquan Road, Fujian, 350001, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Few studies have focused on the association between lifestyle and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between lifestyle and thyroid function in SCH.

Methods: This study was a part of a community-based and cross-sectional study, the Epidemiological Survey of Thyroid Diseases in Fujian Province, China. A total of 159 participants with SCH (81 males and 78 females) and 159 euthyroid (87 males and 72 females) participants without any missing data were included in the analysis. General information and lifestyle information including sleep, exercise, diet and smoking habits of the participants was collected by questionnaire and Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale (PSQI) was collected. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroid globulin antibody (TgAb) and urine iodine concentration (UIC) were tested. Thyroid homeostasis parameter thyroid' s secretory capacity (SPINA-GT), Jostel's TSH index (TSHI), thyrotroph T4 sensitivity index (TTSI) were calculated. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression were performed to assess associations.

Results: Compared with euthyroid subjects, patients with SCH were more likely to have poor overall sleep quality (15.1 vs.25.8 %, P = 0.018) and l less likely to stay up late on weekdays (54.7 vs. 23.9 % P < 0.001). In SCH group, exercise was the influencing factor of TSH (β= -0.224, P = 0.004), thyroid secretory capacity (β = 0.244, P = 0.006) and thyrotropin resistance (β = 0.206, P = 0.009). Iodine excess was the influencing factor of thyroid secretory capacity (β = 0.209, P = 0.001) and pituitary thyroid stimulating function (β = 0.167, P = 0.034). Smoking was the influencing factor of pituitary thyroid stimulating function (β = 0.161, P = 0.040). Staying up late on weekends was the influencing factor of thyroid secretory capacity (β = 0.151, P = 0.047). After adjusting for possible confounders, logistic regression showed that those with poor overall sleep quality assessed by PSQI and iodine excess had an increased risk of SCH (OR 2.159, 95 %CI 1.186-3.928, P = 0.012 and OR 2.119, 95 %CI 1.008-4.456, P = 0.048, respectively).

Conclusions: Lifestyle including sleep, smoking, diet and exercise was closely related to thyroid function especially thyroid homeostasis in SCH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00772-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161919PMC
May 2021

Mechanism of low-frequency and high-frequency ultrasound-induced inactivation of soy trypsin inhibitors.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 11;360:130057. Epub 2021 May 11.

Algal Processing Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

In this study, the effect of ultrasonic frequency and power on the inactivation of soy trypsin inhibitors (TIs) was investigated to explore the ultrasound-induced inactivation mechanism. It was observed that 20 kHz and 355 kHz ultrasound have better inactivation efficiency than 1056 kHz. First-order rate constants for the inactivation process were obtained, which increased with increasing ultrasonic power at both 20 kHz and 355 kHz. For 20 kHz ultrasound, the formation of TI aggregates resulting from the physical effects of acoustic cavitation decreased the interactions between the active sites of TIs and trypsin, thus reducing the TI activity. For 355 kHz ultrasound, most of the methionine in the TIs was oxidised within 5 mins, resulting in a faster reduction of TI activity. Subsequent aggregation of TIs resulted in further TI inactivation. SDS-PAGE showed that neither disulphide bonds nor CC coupling were involved in the formation of aggregates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130057DOI Listing
October 2021

Refracture of the cemented vertebrae after percutaneous vertebroplasty: risk factors and imaging findings.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 19;22(1):459. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Radiology, Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital, Jinan University, 396 Tongfu Road, Guangzhou, 510220, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: To determine the related imaging findings and risk factors to refracture of the cemented vertebrae after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) treatment.

Methods: Patients who were treated with PVP for single vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) and met this study's inclusion criteria were retrospectively reviewed from January 2012 to January 2019. The follow-up period was at least 2 years. Forty-eight patients with refracture of the cemented vertebrae and 45 non-refractured patients were included. The following variates were reviewed: age, sex, fracture location, bone mineral density (BMD), intravertebral cleft (IVC), kyphotic angle (KA), wedge angle, endplate cortical disruption, cement volume, surgical approach, non-PMMA-endplate-contact (NPEC), cement leakage, other vertebral fractures, reduction rate (RR), and reduction angle (RA). Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to identify the independent risk factors of refracture.

Results: Refracture was found in 48 (51.6%) patients. Four risk factors, including IVC (P = 0.005), endplate cortical disruption (P = 0.037), larger RR (P = 0.007), and NPEC (P = 0.006) were found to be significant independent risk factors for refracture.

Conclusions: Patients with IVC or larger RR, NPEC, or endplate cortical disruption have a high risk of refracture in the cemented vertebrae after PVP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04355-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136062PMC
May 2021

Phenolic profiles, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of plum (Prunus Salicina Lindl).

Food Res Int 2021 05 9;143:110300. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Plum (Prunus Salicina Lindl) is a rich source of phenolic compounds. However, the bound phenolics and its bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity remain unclear. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine: 1) phenolic profiles of plum, including both free and bound phenolic fractions, 2) bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds in plum during simulated gastrointestinal digestions, 3) their antioxidant properties. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS with most epicatechin, neochlorogenic acid and procyanidin B2 in the free phenolics fraction, while catechin and epicatechin was the main compounds in the bound phenolics fraction. After the gastrointestinal digestion phase, the most bioaccessible phenolics were quercetin-pentoside (61.64%), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (43.26%), and naringenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (42.04%). The antioxidant capacity of both undigested plum and its digested fractions showed a positive correlation with the total phenolics, and with specific individual phenolic compounds such as neochlorogenic acid, epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in undigested plum whereas catechin, neochlorogenic acid, and epicatechin in digested one. The results confirm that bound fraction of plum contribution to the total phenolic content must be taken into account in the assessment of the improving human health effects of plum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110300DOI Listing
May 2021

Toll-like receptor 3 ablation prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorder.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jun 5;95:108761. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Public Health and Joint China-US Research Center for Environment and Pulmonary Diseases, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues (e.g., liver, visceral adipose tissue [VAT]) plays a major role in obesity and insulin resistance. Recruitment of innate immune cells drives the dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. We aimed to seek the role of Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3), a pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immunity, obesity and the metabolic disorder. TLR3 expression in liver and VAT from diet induced obese mice and in VAT from overweight women was examined. Body weight, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in TLR3 wild-type and knockout (KO) mice on a chow diet (CD) or high-fat diet for 15 weeks. At euthanasia, blood was collected, and plasma biochemical parameters and adipokines were determined with commercial kits. Flow cytometry was used to measure macrophage infiltration and activation in VAT. Standard western blot, immunohistochemistry and quantative PCR were used to assess molecules in pathways about lipid and glucose metabolism, insulin and inflammation in tissues of liver and VAT. Utilizing human and animal samples, we found that expression of TLR3 was upregulated in the liver and VAT in obese mice as well as VAT in overweight women. TLR3-deficiency protected against high-fat diet induced obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and lipid accumulation. Lipolysis was enhanced in VAT and hepatic lipogenesis was inhibited in TLR3 KO animals. Macrophages infiltration into adipose tissue was attenuated in TLR3 KO mice, accompanied with inhibition of NF-κB-dependent AMPK/Akt signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that TLR3 ablation prevented obesity and metabolic disorders, thereby providing new mechanistic links between inflammation and obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities in lipid/glucose metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108761DOI Listing
June 2021

A N-Terminus Domain Determines Amelogenin's Stability to Guide the Development of Mouse Enamel Matrix.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orofacial Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Amelogenins, the principal proteins in the developing enamel microenvironment, self-assemble into supramolecular structures to govern the remodeling of a proteinaceous organic matrix into longitudinally ordered hydroxyapatite nanocrystal arrays. Extensive in vitro studies using purified native or recombinant proteins have revealed the potential of N-terminal amelogenin on protein self-assembly and its ability to guide the mineral deposition. We have previously identified a 14-aa domain (P2) of N-terminal amelogenin that can self-assemble into amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. Here, we investigated how this domain affects the ability of amelogenin self-assembling and stability of enamel matrix protein scaffolding in an in vivo animal model. Mice harboring mutant amelogenin lacking P2 domain had a hypoplastic, hypomineralized, and aprismatic enamel. In vitro, the mutant recombinant amelogenin without P2 had a reduced tendency to self-assemble and was prone to accelerated hydrolysis by MMP20, the prevailing metalloproteinase in early developing enamel matrix. A reduced amount of amelogenins and a lack of elongated fibrous assemblies in the development enamel matrix of mutant mice were evident compared with that in the wild-type mouse enamel matrix. Our study is the first to demonstrate that a subdomain (P2) at the N-terminus of amelogenin controls amelogenin's assembly into a transient protein scaffold that resists rapid proteolysis during enamel development in an animal model. Understanding the building blocks of fibrous scaffold that guides the longitudinal growth of hydroxyapatites in enamel matrix sheds light on protein-mediated enamel bioengineering. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4329DOI Listing
May 2021

Oxygen Promotes the Formation of MoSe at the Interface of CuZnSnSe/Mo.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 6;12(18):4447-4452. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Photoelectronic Thin Film Devices and Technology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.

The contact, and thus the hole collection between CuZnSnSe (CZTSe) and Mo, is a crucial issue to improve the performance of CZTSe solar cells. In this work, a method to improve the back contact is explored by spraying NaPO on the surface of the Mo back contact. With the O provided from NaPO, extra MoO and MoO are formed at the surface of the back contact, and partial MoO is transformed into MoSe under high Se partial pressure during the selenization process. The formation of MoSe progresses from dispersed spots to a continuous layer but not from the reaction between CZTSe and Mo. Although a thick MoSe layer is formed, the CZTSe device performance increases from 7.2% to 8.3% on average. This study affords new insight into the formation of MoSe, thus deeply strengthening the understanding of the back contact of kesterite solar cells and of two-dimensional chalcogenide devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01094DOI Listing
May 2021

Changes in Phenols, Polysaccharides and Volatile Profiles of Noni ( L.) Juice during Fermentation.

Molecules 2021 Apr 29;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Functional Food of Hainan Province, College of Food Science and Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

The change in phenols, polysaccharides and volatile profiles of noni juice from laboratory- and factory-scale fermentation was analyzed during a 63-day fermentation process. The phenol and polysaccharide contents and aroma characteristics clearly changed according to fermentation scale and time conditions. The flavonoid content in noni juice gradually increased with fermentation. Seventy-three volatile compounds were identified by solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Methyl hexanoate, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, octanoic acid, hexanoic acid and 2-heptanone were found to be the main aroma components of fresh and fermented noni juice. A decrease in octanoic acid and hexanoic acid contents resulted in the less pungent aroma in noni juice from factory-scale fermentation. The results of principal component analysis of the electronic nose suggested that the difference in nitrogen oxide, alkanes, alcohols, and aromatic and sulfur compounds, contributed to the discrimination of noni juice from different fermentation times and scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125466PMC
April 2021

Hygroscopic behavior and chemical reactivity of aerosols generated from mixture solutions of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids and NaCl.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 4;23(18):11052-11064. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea.

Ambient sea spray aerosols (SSAs) have been reported to undergo reactions with low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (LMW DCAs). In the present study, the hygroscopic behavior of aerosols generated from NaCl-LMW DCA mixture solutions with different mixing ratios was explained. In situ Raman microspectrometry (RMS) was used to simultaneously monitor the alterations in chemical composition, size, and phase as a function of the relative humidity (RH) for individual aerosols. The observation of individual mixture aerosols revealed chemical reactions on the timescale of one hour in the aqueous phase, mostly during the dehydration process, leading to the formation of sodium salts of DCAs with distinct reactivities among different DCAs and mixing ratios, which in turn exhibited diverse hygroscopic behaviors. The NaCl-DCA mixture aerosols were either in a ternary NaCl-DCA-DCA sodium salt system or a binary NaCl-DCA sodium salt or DCA-DCA sodium salt system, instead of a binary NaCl-DCA system when experiencing the hygroscopic process. The chemical compositional evolution of the NaCl-DCA aerosols during the hygroscopic measurements was examined based on the Raman spectra acquired for aqueous, amorphous, and/or crystalline pure standard aerosols at specific RHs. The different reactivity observed among the DCAs with different mixing ratios suggests that the reactivity driven by the irreversible liberation of HCl is governed mainly by the available aqueous H because Cl is always available in the aqueous NaCl-DCA aerosols until the complete consumption of NaCl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp00590aDOI Listing
May 2021
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