Publications by authors named "Li Wan"

683 Publications

Sulfated glycosaminoglycans and low-density lipoprotein receptor mediate the cellular entry of Clostridium novyi alpha-toxin.

Cell Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Structural Biology of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00510-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107810PMC
May 2021

Identification of genes associated with cancer prognosis in glioma: data analyses of Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

J Bioinform Comput Biol 2021 May 11:2140004. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, P. R. China.

Glioma is one particular type of brain malignancy which is highly complex and usually has a poor prognosis. Despite the limited diagnostic level of glioma, the survival time of affected patients broadly varies. Here, we conducted a detailed analysis, regarding the differences in patient survival time, to discover potential survival-related genes in glioma as well as their putative regulatory mechanisms. To contextualize the acquisition of these potential prognosis markers in large populations, particularly in China, we combined CGGA and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases to properly identify genes that are significantly related to survival. Our workflow combined a series of analytical approaches, including differential analysis, survival time, co-expression, clinical correlation analysis, ROC curve evaluation and prediction ability. Our results indicate that the four particular genes - PLAT, IGFBP2, BCAT1, SERPINH1 could be used as independent prognostic marker genes. These genes have also shown good prognostic ability in distinct populations, reiterating the robustness and value of these prognostic markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219720021400047DOI Listing
May 2021

Individual-level morphological hippocampal networks in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Cogn 2021 May 7;151:105748. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong 264000, China. Electronic address:

In patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), the hippocampal network has been extensively investigated in previous studies; however, little is known about the morphological network associated with the hippocampus in the AD patients. A total of 68 patients with AD and another 68 gender and age matched healthy subjects were studied. Individual-level morphological hippocampal networks were constructed based on volume and texture features extracted from MRI to study the connections between bilateral hippocampus and 11 other subcortical gray matter structures. The relationship between morphological connections and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores was also studied. Connections between bilateral hippocampus and bilateral thalamus, bilateral putamen were significant differences between the AD patients and controls (p < 0.05). There were significantly different in bilateral hippocampal connectivity, and for the left hippocampus, the connection to the right caudate were found to be statistically significant. The morphological connections between left hippocampus and bilateral thalamus (left: R = 0.371, p < 0.001; right: R = 0.411, p < 0.001), bilateral putamen (left: R = 0.383, p < 0.001; right: R = 0.348, p < 0.001), right hippocampus and bilateral thalamus (left: R = 0.370, p < 0.001; right: R = 0.387, p < 0.001), left putamen (R = 0.377, p < 0.001) were significantly positively correlated with the MMSE scores. Similar patterns were observed for left and right hippocampal connectivity and the connections highly associated with MMSE scores were also within the abnormal connections in AD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2021.105748DOI Listing
May 2021

Anaerobic soil disinfestation with incorporation of straw and manure significantly increases greenhouse gases emission and reduces nitrate leaching while increasing leaching of dissolved organic N.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 24;785:147307. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-IFU), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Garmisch-Partenkirchen 82467, Germany; State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

Greenhouse vegetable production in China mostly involves excessive N fertilization and flood irrigation. This causes serious soil degradation and spreading of soil borne diseases. As a countermeasure against soil borne diseases anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is applied during the summer fallow period. Current practices involve the incorporation of organic C sources, covering of the soil with plastic film and flood irrigation. However, farmers not only apply straw but also organic manure in ASD which may result in significant greenhouse gas emissions and N leaching. A field experiment was conducted in a greenhouse during the summer fallow period to test the impact of three ASD practices on soil GHG (NO, CO and CH) emissions and N leaching: 1) control (CK), bare soil, no ASD; 2) ASD without straw incorporation (ASD-S); 3) ASD plus straw incorporation (ASD+S) and 4) ASD plus straw and chicken manure incorporation (ASD+SM). Applying any form of ASD resulted in an increase in NO emissions from approximately 1 kg N ha month to 10.7 (ASD)-47.0 (ASD+SM) kg N ha month. Furthermore, N leaching from treatments of ASD ranged from 24.1-54.2 kg N ha month, with highest values in ASD-S. However, while N leaching in ASD-S was solely in the form of NO, DON leaching was with approximately 12-20% a significant component of total N leaching in ASD+S and ASD+SM. Overall, ASD+SM showed the highest environmental N losses, which were dominated by NO emissions. This highlights the need to advise farmers and policy makers to ban the incorporation of chicken manure instead of straw only during the ASD period and to optimize irrigation schemes instead of flood irrigation to reduce environmental N losses. Putting in more environmental sound ASD practices will certainly help to improve the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147307DOI Listing
April 2021

Permeant fluorescent probes visualize the activation of SARM1 and uncover an anti-neurodegenerative drug candidate.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Life and Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Shenzhen), Shenzhen, China.

SARM1 regulates axonal degeneration through its NAD-metabolizing activity and is a drug target for neurodegenerative disorders. We designed and synthesized fluorescent conjugates of styryl derivative with pyridine to serve as substrates of SARM1, which exhibited large red-shifts after conversion. With the conjugates, SARM1 activation was visualized in live cells following elevation of endogenous NMN or treatment with a cell-permeant NMN-analog. In neurons, imaging documented mouse SARM1 activation preceded vincristine-induced axonal degeneration by hours. Library screening identified a derivative of nisoldipine as a covalent inhibitor of SARM1 that reacted with the cysteines, especially Cys311 in its ARM domain and blocked its NMN-activation, protecting axons from degeneration. The Cryo-EM structure showed that SARM1 was locked into an inactive conformation by the inhibitor, uncovering a potential neuroprotective mechanism of dihydropyridines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.67381DOI Listing
May 2021

Recent advances on 2'-fucosyllactose: physiological properties, applications, and production approaches.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Dec 1:1-10. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

The trisaccharide, 2'-fucosyllactose (Fucα1-2Galβ1-4Glc; 2'-FL), is the most abundant oligosaccharide in human milk. It has numerous significant biological properties including prebiotics, antibacterial, antiviral, and immunomodulating effects, and has been approved as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and as a novel food (NF) by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2'-FL not only serves as a food ingredient added in infant formula, but also as a dietary supplement and medical food material in food bioprocesses. There is considerable commercial interest in 2'-FL for its irreplaceable nutritional applications. This review aims at systematically elaborating key functional properties of 2'-FL as well as its applications. In addition, several approaches for 2'-FL production are described in this review, including chemical, chemo-enzymatical, and cell factory approaches, and the pivotal research results also have been summarized. With the rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies, using the engineered cell factory for 2'-FL large-scale production might be a promising approach. From an economic and safety point of view, microbial selection for cell factory engineering in 2'-FL bioprocess also should be taken into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1850413DOI Listing
December 2020

Vertebrate cells differentially interpret ciliary and extraciliary cAMP.

Cell 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Hedgehog pathway components and select G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) localize to the primary cilium, an organelle specialized for signal transduction. We investigated whether cells distinguish between ciliary and extraciliary GPCR signaling. To test whether ciliary and extraciliary cyclic AMP (cAMP) convey different information, we engineered optogenetic and chemogenetic tools to control the subcellular site of cAMP generation. Generating equal amounts of ciliary and cytoplasmic cAMP in zebrafish and mammalian cells revealed that ciliary cAMP, but not cytoplasmic cAMP, inhibited Hedgehog signaling. Modeling suggested that the distinct geometries of the cilium and cell body differentially activate local effectors. The search for effectors identified a ciliary pool of protein kinase A (PKA). Blocking the function of ciliary PKA, but not extraciliary PKA, activated Hedgehog signal transduction and reversed the effects of ciliary cAMP. Therefore, cells distinguish ciliary and extraciliary cAMP using functionally and spatially distinct pools of PKA, and different subcellular pools of cAMP convey different information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

A prospective cohort study of rituximab in the treatment of refractory nephrotic syndrome.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Nephrology, Peking University International Hospital, Beijing, 102206, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) in the treatment of autoimmune nephropathy manifested as refractory nephrotic syndrome (RNS).

Methods: A single-center prospective cohort study was conducted on RNS patients treated with RTX between March 2017 and December 2019. The subjects were divided into the primary nephropathy (PN) group and the secondary nephropathy (SN) group. Based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before RTX treatment, the SN group was then divided into the SN-1 group (eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min) and the SN-2 group (eGFR < 30 ml/min). Biochemical parameters and clinical data were recorded during follow-up.

Results: Fifty-four patients were followed up for at least 6 months. The overall remission rates were 65%, 66.7%, 27.3% in the PN, SN-1, and SN-2 groups, respectively (P = 0.022). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference of the renal survival among the three subgroups (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that eGFR value before treatment was an independent predictor (HR 0.919, 95%CI 0.863-0.979) for renal survival. In terms of adverse events, infection accounted for 56.6%. The incidence of severe infection was 10%, 25% and 50% in PN group, SN-1 group and SN-2 group, respectively.

Conclusions: RTX may be a promising option in RNS patients with eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min/1.73m. However, it has little effect on prognosis in patients with secondary RNS with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m, but with a high risk of severe infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02860-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Investigating the relation between instantaneous driving decisions and safety critical events in naturalistic driving environment.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 18;156:106086. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, 37830, TN, United States.

The availability of large-scale naturalistic driving data provides enormous opportunities for studying relationships between instantaneous driving decisions prior to involvement in safety critical events (SCEs). This study investigates the role of driving instability prior to involvement in SCEs. While past research has studied crash types and their contributing factors, the role of pre-crash behavior in such events has not been explored as extensively. The research demonstrates how measures and analysis of driving volatility can be leading indicators of crashes and contribute to enhancing safety. Highly detailed microscopic data from naturalistic driving are used to provide the analytic framework to rigorously analyze the behavioral dimensions and driving instability that can lead to different types of SCEs such as roadway departures, rear end collisions, and sideswipes. Modeling results reveal a positive association between volatility and involvement in SCEs. Specifically, increases in both lateral and longitudinal volatilities represented by Bollinger bands and vehicular jerk lead to higher likelihoods of involvement in SCEs. Further, driver behavior related factors such as aggressive driving and lane changing also increases the likelihood of involvement in SCEs. Driver distraction, as represented by the duration of secondary tasks, also increases the risk of SCEs. Likewise, traffic flow parameters play a critical role in safety risk. The risk of involvement in SCEs decreases under free flow traffic conditions and increases under unstable traffic flow. Further, the model shows prediction accuracy of 88.1 % and 85.7 % for training and validation data. These results have implications for proactive safety and providing in-vehicle warnings and alerts to prevent the occurrence of such SCEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106086DOI Listing
April 2021

Simultaneous SERS detection of illegal food additives rhodamine B and basic orange II based on Au nanorod-incorporated melamine foam.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 3;357:129741. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Testing Innovation Research Center, Centre Testing International Group Co Ltd, Shenzhen 518000, China.

In food safety assessment, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a novel detection method with the advantages of being fast, easy, and of high sensitivity. However, many SERS substrate synthesis methods are complex, and there are only a few studies on the simultaneous detection of multiple substances. In this study, a new, simple, low-cost SERS substrate was synthesised for the first time to simultaneously detect illegal food additives rhodamine B and basic orange II in chilli products. A lightweight, porous, and low-cost material of melamine foam (MF) was employed as the SERS synthesis template. The substrate's SERS effect on, and sensitivity to, rhodamine B and basic orange II were demonstrated. The molecular vibration and SERS enhancement mechanisms of the two target molecules were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results reveal that this fabricated substrate has great application potential for the supervision and testing industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129741DOI Listing
April 2021

Laparoscopic or open treatment for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis: A single-institution experience.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment of High Incidence Diseases in Central Asia, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830054, PR China; Hepatobiliary & Hydatid Department, Digestive and Vascular Surgery Centre, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830054, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of laparoscopy in the treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (AE).

Methods: Between January 2018 and December 2019, 213 hepatic AE patients were admitted to the authors' department. Among them, 165 patients (77.46%, 165/213) underwent surgery. Of 13 patients who underwent laparoscopic treatment, 2 required conversion to open surgery. The remaining 11 patients (group 1) were analyzed. During the same period, 154 patients underwent open surgery, but only 14 records were compatible with the criteria for the laparoscopic approach and were retrospectively reviewed (group 2).

Results: Conversion to open surgery occurred in two cases. Both groups were basically consistent in terms of detailed demographic data, lesion characteristics, and surgical strategy (p > 0.05). Laparoscopic group not only achieved the same R0 resection as open group, but also was significantly superior to open group in terms of postoperative complications, postoperative catheterization time and postoperative hospital stay (p = 0.042/p = 0.046/p = 0.045). No recurrences were observed in either group during this period.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery provides a safe and efficacious approach for hepatic AE in selected patients. Large, prospective, randomized trials are needed to confirm its superiority.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.017DOI Listing
April 2021

3D Collagen Vascular Tumor-on-a-Chip Mimetics for Dynamic Combinatorial Drug Screening.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Cancer Institute, Magee Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Disease models, including cell culture and animal models, have contributed significantly to developing diagnostics and treatments over the past several decades. The successes of traditional drug screening methods were generally hampered by not adequately mimicking critical features, such as a 3D microenvironment and dynamic drug diffusion through the extracellular matrix (ECM). To address these issues, we developed a 3D dynamic drug delivery system for cancer drug screening that mimicks drug dissemination through the tumor vasculature and the ECM by creating collagen-embedded microfluidic channels. Using this novel 3D ECM microsystem, we compared viability of tumor pieces with traditionally used 2D methods in response to three different drug combinations. Drug diffusion profiles were evaluated by simulation methods and tested in the 3D ECM microsystem and a 2D 96-well setup. Compared with the 2D control, the 3D ECM microsystem produced reliable data on viability, drug ratios, and combination indeces. This novel approach enables higher throughput and sets the stage for future applications utilizing drug sensitivity predicting algorithms based on dynamic diffusion profiles requiring only minimal patient tissue. Our findings moved drug sensitivity screening closer to clinical implications with a focus on testing combinatorial drug effects, an option often limited by the amount of available patient tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0880DOI Listing
March 2021

Metabolic Engineering of for Lacto--triose II Production with High Productivity.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 23;69(12):3702-3711. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Lacto--triose II (LNT II), a core structural unit of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), has attracted substantial attention for its nutraceutical potentials and applications in the production of complex HMOs. In this study, was metabolically engineered to efficiently produce LNT II using glycerol as a carbon source and lactose as a substrate. The UDP--acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) biosynthesis pathway was strengthened, and β-1,3--acetylglucosaminyltransferase (LgtA) was introduced to construct an LNT II-producing base strain. To increase the titer and yield of LNT II, combinatorial optimization of the copy number and the ribosomal binding site sequence was performed to tune the gene expression strength and translation rates of the pathway enzymes. Next, multipoint mutations were introduced to glucosamine-6-phosphatesynthase (GlmS) to relieve the feedback inhibition. Then, a series of engineered strains were constructed by blocking the futile pathways by the deletion of the relevant genes. Finally, the culture conditions were optimized. LNT II titer was improved step-by-step from 0.53 to 5.52 g/L in shake-flask cultivations. Fed-batch culture of the final engineered strain produced 46.2 g/L of LNT II, with an LNT II productivity and content of 0.77 g/(L·h) and 0.95 g/g dry cell weight, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00246DOI Listing
March 2021

A network-based analysis and experimental validation of traditional Chinese medicine Yuanhu Zhitong Formula in treating neuropathic pain.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 19;274:114037. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Yuanhu Zhitong Formula (YZF) consists of traditional Chinese herbs Corydalis Rhizoma (Corydalis yanhusuo (Y.H.Chou & Chun C.Hsu) W.T.Wang ex Z.Y.Su & C.Y.Wu; Chinese name, Yanhusuo) and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav.; Chinese name, Baizhi), which is usually administrated for painful conditions. It is well acknowledged that YZF has pharmacological effects on pain relief; nevertheless, limited data are available on its mechanism.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to explore the potential mechanism underlying YZF on nociception of rats. Also, the comprehensive mechanism of YZF was preliminarily determined based on network pharmacology on neuropathic pain.

Materials And Methods: A spared nerve injury (SNI) model was established to reveal the effects of YZF administration on nociceptive behavior in rats. Von-Frey tests were used to evaluate the paw withdrawal mechanical thresholds in rats administrated with YZF or vehicle. The "drug-ingredients" and "disease-drug-target" networks were established with a network pharmacology approach. The analyses of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) profiles were performed based on the common targets between the herbs and neuropathic pain. Hub genes, identified with CytoHubba, were validated by Western blotting analysis.

Results: SNI rats developed significant nociceptive behavior as soon as 3 days after nerve injury, which was reversed by consecutive treatment with 300 mg/kg YZF for 7 days. Besides, 50 potential bioactive components in YZF with 1074 targets were identified. Then, 217 putative common genes related to YZF and neuropathic pain were identified for further study. After established a protein-protein interaction network, 12 subnetworks with CytoHubba and 10 predictive hub genes were obtained based on the maximal clique centrality model. Western blotting analysis indicated that SNI rats exhibited increased APP (Amyloid-beta precursor protein), SRC (Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src), and phosphorylation of JNK1 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8, JNK) and ERK1/2 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1). Obviously, continuous administration of YZF robustly reversed such changes.

Conclusions: This study revealed that YZF modulates the nociceptive behavior in SNI rats. Moreover, the drug may be useful in the treatment of neuropathic pain through multi-components, multi-targets, and multi-pathways. Nevertheless, more attention should be paid to discriminating the potential ingredients in YZF contributing to its analgesic effects in the treatment of neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114037DOI Listing
June 2021

ATM controls the extent of DNA end resection by eliciting sequential posttranslational modifications of CtIP.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(12)

The MOE Key Laboratory of Biosystems Homeostasis & Protection, Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;

DNA end resection is a critical step in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via homologous recombination (HR). However, the mechanisms governing the extent of resection at DSB sites undergoing homology-directed repair remain unclear. Here, we show that, upon DSB induction, the key resection factor CtIP is modified by the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO at lysine 578 in a PIAS4-dependent manner. CtIP SUMOylation occurs on damaged chromatin and requires prior hyperphosphorylation by the ATM protein kinase. SUMO-modified hyperphosphorylated CtIP is targeted by the SUMO-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF4 for polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Consequently, disruption of CtIP SUMOylation results in aberrant accumulation of CtIP at DSBs, which, in turn, causes uncontrolled excessive resection, defective HR, and increased cellular sensitivity to DSB-inducing agents. These findings reveal a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism that regulates CtIP activity at DSBs and thus the extent of end resection via ATM-dependent sequential posttranslational modification of CtIP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022600118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000100PMC
March 2021

The role of serum β-trophin and endostatin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: Are they correlated?

BMC Womens Health 2021 Mar 11;21(1):104. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Gynecology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, No. 116 Huanghe Road, Urumqi, 214000, Xinjiang, China.

Background: It's necessary to investigate the serum β-trophin and endostatin (ES) level and its influencing factors in patients with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: Newly diagnosed PCOS patients treated in our hospital were selected, and healthy women who took physical examination during the same period as healthy controls. We detected and compared the related serum indicators between two groups, Pearson correlation were conducted to identify the factors associated with β-trophin and ES, and the influencing factors of β-trophin and ES were analyzed by logistic regression.

Results: A total of 62 PCOS patients and 65 healthy controls were included. The BMI, WHI, LH, FSH, TT, FAI, FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, LDL, ES in PCOS patients were significantly higher than that of healthy controls, while the SHBG and HDL in PCOS patients were significantly lower than that of healthy controls (all p < 0.05). β-trophin was closely associated with BMI (r = 0.427), WHR (r = 0.504), FBG (r = 0.385), TG (r = 0.405) and LDL (r = 0.302, all p < 0.05), and ES was closely associated with BMI (r = 0.358), WHR (r = 0.421), FBG (r = 0.343), TC (r = 0.319), TG (r = 0.404, all p < 0.05). TG, BMI, WHR and FBG were the main factors affecting the serum β-trophin levels (all p < 0.05). FBG, TC and BMI were the main factors affecting the serum ES levels (all p < 0.05). The TG, β-trophin, ES level in PCOS patients with insulin resistance (IR) were significantly higher than that of those without IR (all p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Increased β-trophin is closely associated with increased ES in patients with PCOS, which may be the useful indicators for the management of PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01198-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953644PMC
March 2021

Therapeutic potential of functional MRI in the squamous cell cancer of head and neck.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Radiology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250013. China.

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently employed for the assessment of therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Nonetheless, this technique has its limitations, the most apparent being the inability to differentiate between after therapy effects and the reoccurrence of tumor cells.

Objective: This review was carried out to demonstrate the role of operative MRI in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients, as well the analysis of various methods like diffusion, perfusion, and spectroscopy when used in conjugation.

Main Findings: Techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging can augment the reliability of the detection of the main tumor site and local lymphatic nodes post-treatment. It was observed that diffusion is the most facile of the methods in question and can be easily implemented in follow-up sessions after therapy, though the evidential information is sometimes insufficient to validate. Perfusion factors may become elevated in the proliferation of tumors or their reoccurrence, but they are not employed for their accuracy in clinical settings. Spectroscopy methods pose some potential but the case is the same as diffusion; insufficient data cannot be deemed enough to validate its application.

Conclusion: These operative MRI methods can significantly help in the initial discernment of disease, thereby resulting in an improved therapeutic approach in patients. Prospective studies are necessary to layout standard specifications for using operative MRI in routine clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210308112222DOI Listing
March 2021

Epidural analgesia during labor and its optimal initiation time-points: A real-world study on 400 Chinese nulliparas.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(9):e24923

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Abstract: Recent research has suggested that 6 cm of cervical dilation should be the threshold for the active labor phase, and it has confirmed that epidural analgesia (EA) is a safe method of pain relief during labor. However, the evidence provided for these findings comes mainly from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs), which suffer from the limitation of real-world generalizability.To test the generalizability of the conclusions from these previous RCTs, we conducted a prospective cohort, real-world study (RWS) on 400 Chinese term nulliparas. A total of 200 of the participants (the EA group) received EA upon request. The participants in the EA group were further subdivided as follows according to their cervical dilation when the EA administration was initiated (CDE): [EA1 group (CDE < 3 cm), EA2 group (3 cm ≤ CDE < 6 cm), and EA3 group (CDE ≥ 6 cm)]. We compared the labor duration of the EA group versus the non-EA (NEA) group, and the NEA group versus the 3 EA subgroups. We also compared delivery outcomes between the EA and NEA groups.The median total labor duration for the EA group [676 (511-923) minutes] was significantly longer than that of the NEA group [514 (373-721) minutes] (P < 0.001). The median durations of both the first- and second-stages of labor for the EA group [600 (405-855) minutes, 68 (49-97) minutes] were longer than those of the NEA group [420 (300-630) minutes, 50 (32-85) minutes] (P < .001, P < .001)]. In addition, the median total labor durations in both the EA1 [720 (548-958) minutes] and EA2 groups [688 (534-926) minutes] were longer than in the NEA group (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively), and the first- and second-stage labor durations of these subgroups were similar to their total labor durations. A Cox regression analysis showed that EA was associated with longer first-stage labor [hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.71, P < .001] and longer second-stage labor (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.85, P = .001). The delivery modes and neonatal outcomes between the EA and NEA groups were not statistically different, however.Our findings suggest that EA administered before a cervical dilation of 6 cm may be associated with longer total, first-, and second-stage labor durations compared with no EA, while later EA administration is not. In addition, though EA prolongs labor duration, it does not impact delivery outcomes. These results confirm the significance of a 6 cm cervical dilation threshold in real-world labor settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939169PMC
March 2021

Denitrifying bacterial communities in surface-flow constructed wetlands during different seasons: characteristics and relationships with environment factors.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 1;11(1):4918. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Beijing Construction Engineering Group Environmental Remediation Co. Ltd, Beijing, 100051, China.

Denitrification is an important part of the nitrogen cycle and the key step to removal of nitrogen in surface-flow wetlands. In this study, we explored space-time analysis with high-throughput sequencing to elucidate the relationships between denitrifying bacteria community structures and environmental factors during different seasons. Our results showed that along the flow direction of different processing units, there were dynamic changes in physical and chemical indicators. The bacterial abundance indexes (ACEs) in May, August, and October were 686.8, 686.8, and 996.2, respectively, whereas the Shannon-Weiner indexes were 3.718, 4.303, and 4.432, respectively. Along the flow direction, the denitrifying bacterial abundance initially increased and then decreased subsequently during the same months, although diversity tended to increase. The abundance showed similar changes during the different months. Surface flow wetlands mainly contained the following denitrifying bacteria genus: unclassified Bacteria (37.12%), unclassified Proteobacteria (18.16%), Dechloromonas (16.21%), unranked environmental samples (12.51%), unclassified Betaproteobacteria (9.73%), unclassified Rhodocyclaceae (2.14%), and Rhodanobacter (1.51%). During different seasons, the same unit showed alternating changes, and during the same season, bacterial community structures were influenced by the second genus proportion in different processing units. ACEs were strongly correlated with temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Bacterial diversity was strongly correlated with temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential. Denitrifying bacteria are greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature and pH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82438-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921683PMC
March 2021

A novel method to simultaneously record spinal cord electrophysiology and electroencephalography signals.

Neuroimage 2021 05 19;232:117892. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Pain Management, The State Key Clinical Specialty in Pain Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The brain and the spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS). The functions of the human brain have been the focus of neuroscience research for a long time. However, the spinal cord is largely ignored, and the functional interaction of these two parts of the CNS is only partly understood. This study developed a novel method to simultaneously record spinal cord electrophysiology (SCE) and electroencephalography (EEG) signals and validated its performance using a classical resting-state study design with two experimental conditions: eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO). We recruited nine postherpetic neuralgia patients implanted with a spinal cord stimulator, which was modified to record SCE signals simultaneously with EEG signals. For both EEG and SCE, similar differences were found in delta- and alpha-band oscillations between the EC and EO conditions, and the spectral power of these frequency bands was able to predict EC/EO behaviors. Moreover, causal connectivity analysis suggested a top-down regulation in delta-band oscillations from the brain to the spinal cord. Altogether, this study demonstrates the validity of simultaneous SCE-EEG recording and shows that the novel method is a valuable tool to investigate the brain-spinal interaction. With this method, we can better unite knowledge about the brain and the spinal cord for a deeper understanding of the functions of the whole CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.117892DOI Listing
May 2021

Aspirin Use on Incident Dementia and Mild Cognitive Decline: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 4;12:578071. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

More people with cognitive dysfunction and dementia also fall into the category of high vascular risk, for which aspirin is one of the most frequently used drugs. However, previous studies reporting that aspirin buffers against mild cognitive decline (MCI) and dementia remain controversial. We thus conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of aspirin use with the risk of MCI and dementia in older adults. Data sources from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database for randomized controlled trails (RCTs) and cohort studies (published between January 1, 2000 and April 11, 2020). Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to pool data on the occurrence of dementia and MCI with random-effects models. Of 3,193 identified articles, 15 studies (12 cohort studies and three RCTs) were eligible and were included in our analysis, which involved a total of 100,909 participants without cognitive dysfunctions or dementia at baseline. In pooled cohort studies, aspirin use did not reduce the incidence of MCI and dementia (the pooled RR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.85-1.11; = 65%) compared with non-users. However, low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/day) was associated with a decreased likelihood of developing dementia or MCI (the pooled RR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.63-0.9; = 50.5%). This association existed in studies including all-cause dementia (the pooled RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.71-0.96) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (the pooled RR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.33-0.89), but not in MCI (the pooled RR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.31-1.08). In RCTs, low-dose aspirin use was not significantly associated with less prevalence of dementia or MCI (RR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.84-1.05; = 0.0%). In cohort studies, we found that low-dose aspirin use had a higher likelihood of reducing the incidence of dementia, which was not supported by RCTs. The evidence was insufficient to fully evaluate the effect of aspirin on cognitive function and dementia. Well-designed studies and innovative approaches are therefore needed to clarify whether the use of aspirin improves cognitive function and reduces the risk of dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.578071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890199PMC
February 2021

Mental health status among Chinese healthcare-associated infection control professionals during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019: A national cross-sectional survey.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(5):e24503

Infection Control Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.

Abstract: Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has greatly threatened global public health. The responsibility of healthcare-associated infection control professionals (ICPs) is to prevent and control the nosocomial infections. The mental health status of ICPs deserves more attention, however, the correlational research is still lacking. This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors of mental health status among ICPs in China during the outbreak of COVID-19.A national cross-sectional survey was performed. The online questionnaire was completed by 9228 ICPs from 3776 hospitals throughout China. Data collection tools were used, including demographics data questionnaire, the Chinese version of the 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Chinese version of the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ) for medical staff. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted.The total score of mental health of Chinese ICPs was 3.45 ± 2.57. 5608 (60.77%) ICPs might have mental health problems. The psychological capital was in the upper-middle level with an average score of 3.72 ± 0.38. An increased mental health problem risk was associated with the greater self-efficacy and working in the public hospital; a significantly lower risk was obtained by working in the second-class hospital rather than in the third-class hospitals. Besides, mental health problem risk of ICPs working in hospitals of the western economic region or northeast economic region was more significant than that in hospitals of the central economic region. However, a lower risk was caused by the unmarried than married, and working years in department ≤1 year contributed to the lower risk than that >20 years. Moreover, fewer working hours per week, higher values of hope, and optimism each were contributed to a lower risk.Chinese healthcare-associated ICPs were under different levels of mental health problems in fighting against COVID-19. More importantly, we should actively deal with the mental health problem of ICPs and help them get rid of psychological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870200PMC
February 2021

Five Circular RNAs in Metabolism Pathways Related to Prostate Cancer.

Front Genet 2021 26;12:636419. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Urology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, National Health Commission, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant tumor in men, and its incidence increases with age. Serum prostate-specific antigen and tissue biopsy remain the standard for diagnosis of suspected PCa. However, these clinical indicators may lead to aggressive overtreatment in patients who have been treated sufficiently with active surveillance. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently recognized as a new type of regulatory RNA that is not easily degraded by RNases and other exonucleases because of their covalent closed cyclic structure. Thus, we utilized high-throughput sequencing data and bioinformatics analysis to identify specifically expressed circRNAs in PCa and filtered out five specific circRNAs for further analysis-hsa_circ_0006410, hsa_circ_0003970, hsa_circ_0006754, hsa_circ_0005848, and a novel circRNA, hsa_circ_AKAP7. We constructed a circRNA-miRNA regulatory network and used miRNA and differentially expressed mRNA interactions to predict the function of the selected circRNAs. Furthermore, survival analysis of their cognate genes and PCR verification of these five circRNAs revealed that they are closely related to well-known PCa pathways such as the MAPK signaling pathway, P53 pathway, androgen receptor signaling pathway, cell cycle, hormone-mediated signaling pathway, and cellular lipid metabolic process. By understanding the related metabolism of circRNAs, these circRNAs could act as metabolic biomarkers, and monitoring their levels could help diagnose PCa. Meanwhile, the exact regulatory mechanism for AR-related regulation in PCa is still unclear. The circRNAs we found can provide new solutions for research in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.636419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870709PMC
January 2021

Drip fertigation with straw incorporation significantly reduces NO emission and N leaching while maintaining high vegetable yields in solar greenhouse production.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 18;273:116521. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-IFU), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 82467, Germany; State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China.

Approximately 1/3 of vegetables in China are produced in solar greenhouses. Most farmers use conventional irrigation with over fertilisation (CIF), thereby applying approximately 2000 kg N ha fertiliser over two cropping seasons per year. Here, we tested the effect of drip irrigation with reduced fertilisation (DIF) combined with straw incorporation on reducing NO emissions and nitrogen leaching from solar greenhouse vegetable production systems. Over three consecutive tomato cropping seasons, NO emissions and nitrogen leaching were monitored in high temporal resolution, thereby producing a unique dataset. Compared to CIF, the realised drip fertigation scheme reduces NO emission and nitrogen leaching of nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen by approximately a factor of 5-10 (NO-DIF: 10.3, CIF: 47.5 kg N ha yr; N leaching-DIF: 83.6, CIF: 863 kg N ha yr). Straw incorporation in CIF, though advantageous for soil health, resulted in pollution swapping as soil NO emissions increased while NO leaching losses decreased. On the contrary, no significant negative environmental N effects of straw incorporation were found for DIF. As crop productivity was not affected by straw incorporation, neither for CIF nor for DIF, our study provides a sound basis for policy advice to recommend farmers to adopt drip fertigation combined with straw application. Wide scale adoption of this technique will result in reductions of environment N losses, alleviate major soil degradation signs, including soil acidity, nutrient imbalance and deterioration of soil microbial community structure, while allowing to maintaining high yields of vegetables in solar greenhouse production systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116521DOI Listing
January 2021

Connexin43 gap junction drives fascia mobilization and repair of deep skin wounds.

Matrix Biol 2021 03 27;97:58-71. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Munich, Germany; Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Regenerative Biology and Medicine, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Deep and voluminous skin wounds are repaired with scars, by mobilization of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix from fascia, deep below the skin. The molecular trigger of this novel repair mechanism is incompletely understood. Here we reveal that the gap junction alpha-1 protein (Connexin43, Cx43) is the key to patch repair of deep wounds. By combining full-thickness wound models with fibroblast lineage specific transgenic lines, we show Cx43 expression is substantially upregulated in specialized fibroblasts of the fascia deep beneath the skin that are responsible for scar formation. Using live imaging of fascia fibroblasts and fate tracing of the fascia extracellular matrix we show that Cx43 inhibition disrupts calcium oscillations in cultured fibroblasts and that this inhibits collective migration of fascia EPFs necessary to mobilize fascia matrix into open wounds. Cell-cell communication through Cx43 thus mediates matrix movement and scar formation, and is necessary for patch repair of voluminous wounds. These mechanistic findings have broad clinical implications toward treating fibrosis, aggravated scarring and impaired wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2021.01.005DOI Listing
March 2021

The Video-Urodynamic and Electrophysiological Characteristics in Patients With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

Int Neurourol J 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Urology, China Rehabilitation Research Centre, Rehabilitation School of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To investigate the video-urodynamic and pelvic floor electrophysiological characteristics in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury.

Methods: This retrospective reviewed the clinical records, urodynamic and pelvic floor electrophysiological data of 647 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and out of spinal shock. Patients were classified based on American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale and urodynamic findings.

Results: Of the 647 patients, detrusor overactivity (DO) with or without detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) was found in 79.5%, 61%, 35.2%, 35%, and 19.2% of patients with cervical, thoracic (T1-9), thoracic (T10-12), lumbar, and conical cauda injury, respectively. Other patients manifested detrusor areflexia (DA). Patients with DO and/or DSD had a longer duration of SCI at each injury level than patients with DA. In suprasacral injury patients with DA, 63.0% (58/92) had a normal bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) response. Compared with patients without bladder sensation, bladder capacity during urine leakage was far higher in those with bladder sensation. The manifestation of BCR and somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) was associated with the level of injury.

Conclusions: This study showed a significant correlation between the level of SCI and video-urodynamic findings, but clinical examination cannot by predict bladder function; urodynamic testing is also necessary. In addition, the role of BCR and SEP for guiding bladder management is limited. Moreover, bladder sensation is important for urinary control in patients with traumatic SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5213/inj.2040376.188DOI Listing
January 2021

Pathway Optimization of 2'-Fucosyllactose Production in Engineered .

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Feb 26;69(5):1567-1577. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL), one of the most valuable oligosaccharides in human milk, is used as an emerging food ingredient in the nutraceutical and food industries due to its numerous health benefits. Herein, the and salvage pathways for GDP-fucose synthesis were engineered and optimized in BL21 (DE3) to improve the production of 2'-FL. The pathway genes encoding phosphomannomutase (ManB), mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase (ManC), GDP-d-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (Gmd), and GDP-l-fucose synthase (WcaG) combined with the gene from the salvage pathway encoding fucose kinase/fucose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (Fkp) were reconstructed in two vectors to evaluate the GDP-fucose biosynthesis. Then, the gene, encoding α1,2-fucosyltransferase, was introduced into the GDP-fucose-overproducing strains to realize 2'-FL biosynthesis. Furthermore, the genes in bypass pathways, including , , , and , were inactivated to improve 2'-FL production. In addition, the two GDP-fucose synthesis pathways, along with , were transcriptionally fine-tuned to efficiently increase 2'-FL production. The final metabolically engineered produced 2.62 and 14.1 g/L in shake-flask and fed-batch cultivations, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07224DOI Listing
February 2021

Four cases of heterotopia of an intrauterine device embedded in the bladder muscular layer causing cystolithiasis: case report and review of the literature.

J Int Med Res 2021 Jan;49(1):300060520979444

Department of Urology, Pangang Group General Hospital, Pan Zhihua, China.

Family planning is a basic national policy in China. An intrauterine device (IUD) is an important method of achieving family planning owing to its high safety, low cost, and convenient use. The indwelling birth control ring has no obvious adverse effects on the sexual life of women after the operation, and the process is reversible. This ring can be removed for women who want to have children again. There are approximately 100 million women with IUDs worldwide, with approximately 80 million in China. This finding accounts for approximately 40% of women of childbearing age in China. Although an IUD is safe, the invasive operation inevitably leads to complications, such as pelvic infection, abnormal menstruation, and damage to adjacent organs. Among them, ectopic bladder stone formation is a rare complication, but several related cases have been reported. We report four cases of heterotopia of an IUD and cystolithiasis, with diagnosis based on the medical history, clinical manifestations, imaging, and cystoscopic findings. The four patients with ectopic IUDs were treated with cystoscopy combined with laparoscopy (or hysteroscopy). We describe the process of diagnosis and treatment of our patients, and the related literature on an ectopic IUD is reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520979444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829606PMC
January 2021

Excitations of atomic vibrations in amorphous solids.

Authors:
Li Wan

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Physics, Wenzhou Unviersity, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, P. R. China, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325035, CHINA.

We study excitations of atomic vibrations in the reciprocal space for amorphous solids. There are two kinds of excitations we obtained, collective excitation and local excitation. The collective excitation is the collective vibration of atoms in the amorphous solids while the local excitation is stimulated locally by a single atom vibrating in the solids. We introduce a continuous wave vector for the study and transform the equations of atomic vibrations from the real space to the reciprocal space. We take the amorphous silicon as an example and calculate the structures of the excitations in the reciprocal space. Results show that an excitation is a wave packet composed of a collection of plane waves. We also find a periodical structure in the reciprocal space for the collective excitation with longitudinal vibrations, which is originated from the local order of the structure in the real space of the amorphous solid.For the local excitation, the wave vector is complex. The imaginary part of the wave vector is inversed to evaluate the decaying length of the local excitation. It is found that the decaying length is larger for the local excitation with a higher vibration frequency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abdd61DOI Listing
January 2021

Dynamic changes in lymphocyte subsets and parallel cytokine levels in patients with severe and critical COVID-19.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jan 18;21(1):79. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Pulmonary Diseases, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, Province Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: The lack of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis and host immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection has limited the development of effective treatments. Thus, we longitudinally investigated the dynamic changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and parallel changes in cytokine levels in COVID-19 patients with different disease severities to further address disease pathogenesis.

Methods: A total of 67 patients (10 moderate, 38 severe and 19 critical cases) with COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Wuhan from February 8th to April 6th, 2020 were retrospectively studied. Dynamic data of lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory cytokines were collected.

Results: On admission, compared with moderate cases, severe and critical cases showed significantly decreased levels of total lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells and NK cells. IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the critical group. During the following hospitalization period, most of the lymphocyte subsets in the critical group began to recover to levels comparable to those in the severe group from the fourth week after illness onset, except for NK cells, which recovered after the sixth week. A sustained decrease in the lymphocyte subsets and an increase in IL-6 and IL-10 were observed in the nonsurvivors until death. There was a strong negative correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 and total lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells and NK cells.

Conclusions: A sustained decrease in lymphocyte subsets, especially CD4 T cells and NK cells, interacting with proinflammatory cytokine storms was associated with severe disease and poor prognosis in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-05792-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812569PMC
January 2021