Publications by authors named "Li Ma"

2,446 Publications

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Ingestion of Faecalibaculum rodentium causes depression-like phenotypes in resilient Ephx2 knock-out mice: A role of brain-gut-microbiota axis via the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 11;292:565-573. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The brain-gut-microbiota axis plays a crucial role in the bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gut. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (coded by the Ephx2 gene) plays an important role in inflammation, which has been implicated in stress-related depression. Ephx2 knock-out (KO) mice exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) did not show depression-like behaviors, indicating stress resilience. Here we examined whether the brain-gut-microbiota axis influences the resilience in Ephx2 KO mice.

Methods: Effects of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from CSDS-susceptible (or control) mice in wild-type (WT) mice and Ephx2 KO mice treated with an antibiotic cocktail (ABX) were investigated. Behavioral, biochemical tests and 16S ribosome RNA analysis were performed.

Results: FMT from CSDS-susceptible mice produced anhedonia-like behavior in ABX-treated WT and Ephx2 KO mice. The 16S ribosome RNA analysis showed that Faecalibaculum rodentium (F. rodentium) may be responsible for the observed anhedonia-like behavior following FMT from CSDS-susceptible mice. Ingestion of F. rodentium for 14 days produced depression- and anhedonia-like behaviors, higher blood levels of interleukin-6, and reduced expression of synaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex of ABX-treated Ephx2 KO mice. Furthermore, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy blocked the development of these behavioral abnormalities after ingestion of F. rodentium.

Limitations: Detailed mechanisms are unclear.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that F. rodentium might contribute to the conversion of resilient Ephx2 KO mice into KO mice with depression-like phenotypes. The brain-gut-microbiota axis via the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve plays a crucial role in susceptibility and resilience to stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Affinity ultrafiltration and UPLC-HR-Orbitrap-MS based screening of thrombin-targeted small molecules with anticoagulation activity from Poecilobdella manillensis.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jun 8;1178:122822. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China. Electronic address:

This study aims to screen potential anticoagulant components from leeches, a representative animal-sourced traditional Chinese medicine using thrombin (THR)-targeted ultrafiltration combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-Orbitrap-MS). As a result, five small molecules in leech extract were discovered to interact with THR for the first time. Among them, two new compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by IR, HR-MS and NMR data. Furthermore, their THR inhibitory activity was confirmed with IC values of 4.74 and 8.31 μM, respectively. In addition, molecular docking analysis showed that the active (catalytic) site of THR might be the possible binding site of the two hits. Finally, reverse screening analysis indicated that LTA4-H, ACE and ALOX5AP were potential anticoagulant targets of the two new compounds. This study will broaden our understanding of the medicinal substance basis in leeches and further contribute to the discovery and development of clinical anticoagulant drugs from leeches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122822DOI Listing
June 2021

Facile and effective repair of Pt/Nafion IPMC actuator by dip-coating of [email protected]

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, State Laboratory of Surface & Interface, State Laboratory of Surface & Interface, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, zhengzhou, 450001, CHINA.

Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) always takes big risks of electrode cracking and peeling, which lead to energy wasting, waterloss, and uneven electric field distribution, thus hamper its commercial applications. To address this issue, we propose a facile and effective technique to repair the electrode fatigue by coating polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) encapsulated Ag nanoparticles ([email protected]) on the long-term used IPMC surface. To improve the electrochemical stability, the silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with a diameter of ~34 nm are encapsulated by a 1.3 nm thick PVP film, thus forming a shell-core structure to resist corrosion from the electrolyte solution. Physiochemical investigations reveal that, [email protected] closely attach to the interior and exterior surfaces of the original Pt nanograin electrode, thus refreshing its electronic conductivity; the repaired IPMC actuator exhibits better electromechanical properties compared to its precursor actuator: 7.62 folds in displacement output, 9.38 folds in force output, and 9.73 folds in stable working time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac0caeDOI Listing
June 2021

DNA methylation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Epigenomics 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a complex disease with polygenetic tendency, is one of the most important health problems in the world. Recently, in the study of the pathogenesis of the COPD, epigenetic changes caused by environmental factors, such as DNA methylation, started to attract more attention than genetic factors. In this review, we discuss the main features of DNA methylation, such as DNA methyltransferases and the methylation sites that modulate the DNA methylation level, and their roles in COPD progression. Finally, to promote new ideas for the prevention and treatment of COPD, we focus on the potential of DNA methylation as a COPD therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2021-0111DOI Listing
June 2021

Correlation between Thyroid Homeostasis and Obesity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Community-Based Cross-Sectional Research.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 29;2021:6663553. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, Fujian, China.

Objective: It remains unknown whether obesity has an effect on the pituitary-thyroid feedback control axis in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We aimed to investigate the association of thyroid homeostasis with obesity in a SCH population.

Methods: Our study consisted of a community-based and cross-sectional study from the Epidemiological Survey of Thyroid Diseases in Fujian Province, China. A total of 193 subjects with SCH (90 males and 103 females) without a history of treatment of thyroid disease, such as surgery, radiation, and thyroid hormone or antithyroid medication, were included in the present study. Indices of obesity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-height ratio (WHtR) were measured.

Results: Our results showed that the secretory capacity of the thyroid gland (SPINA-GT) and Jostel's thyrotropin index (TSHI) were negatively correlated with BMI, WC, and WHtR, whereas the reciprocal of the thyrotroph thyroid hormone resistance index (TTSI-1) was positively correlated with BMI (all < 0.05). After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, iodine status, and glucolipid metabolism, the associations between TSHI, TTSI (reciprocal transformation), and BMI still persisted (all < 0.05).

Conclusions: These results suggest that low levels of thyroid homeostasis indexes may be associated with overall obesity in SCH, rather than central adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6663553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179776PMC
May 2021

Publisher Correction: Maternal control of visceral asymmetry evolution in Astyanax cavefish.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 15;11(1):12934. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92148-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Directing Group Enables Electrochemical Selectively -Bromination of Pyridines under Mild Conditions.

J Org Chem 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, People's Republic of China.

Without the use of catalysts and oxidants, a facile and sustainable electrochemical bromination protocol was developed. By introducing the directing groups, the regioselectivity of pyridine derivatives could be controlled at the -position utilizing the inexpensive and safe bromine salts at room temperature. A variety of brominated pyridine derivatives were obtained in 28-95% yields, and the reaction could be readily performed at a gram scale. By combining the installation and removing the directing group, the concept of -bromination of pyridines could be verified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c00923DOI Listing
June 2021

The impact of fluid resuscitation via colon on patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12488. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Emergency, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Ruijin er Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a life-threatening disease. Fluid Resuscitation Via Colon (FRVC) may be a complementary therapy for early controlled fluid resuscitation. But its clinical application has not been reported. This study aims to explore the impact of FRVC on SAP. All SAP patients with the first onset within 72 h admitted to the hospital were included from January 2014 to December 2018 through electronic databases of Ruijin hospital and were divided into FRVC group (n = 103) and non-FRVC group (n = 78). The clinical differences before and after the therapy between the two groups were analyzed. Of the 181 patients included in the analysis, the FRVC group received more fluid volume and reached the endpoint of blood volume expansion ahead of the non-FRVC group. After the early fluid resuscitation, the inflammation indicators in the FRVC group were lower. The rate of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of hypernatremia also decreased significantly. Using pure water for FRVC was more helpful to reduce hypernatremia. However, Kaplan-Meier 90-day survival between the two groups showed no difference. These results suggest that the combination of FRVC might benefit SAP patients in the early stage of fluid resuscitation, but there is no difference between the prognosis of SAP patients and that of conventional fluid resuscitation. Further prospective study is needed to evaluate the effect of FRVC on SAP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92065-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203607PMC
June 2021

A highly X-ray sensitive iridium prodrug for visualized tumor radiochemotherapy.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 1;11(15):3780-3789. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Chemistry, Jinan University Guangzhou 510632 China

Concomitant treatment of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is widely used in cancer therapy. The search for highly efficient radiochemotherapy drugs for tumor targeting therapy under image-guiding is of considerable interest. Herein we report an Ir-based prodrug with high sensitization efficiency for tumor microenvironment responsive cancer-targeted bioimaging radiochemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, the sensitivity enhancement ratio (SER) of the prodrug is the highest among those reported for radiotherapy metal complex drugs. From detailed action mechanism study, we provide evidence that the prodrug is effectively suppresses the tumor growth through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, and eventually amplifies the apoptotic signal pathway. This study provides an approach for the development of cancer theranostic agents for tumor radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc00862aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152633PMC
April 2020

Establishment of a modified percutaneous CT-guided paraspinal intramuscular VX-2 squamous cell carcinoma dual tumor model in rabbits.

PeerJ 2021 28;9:e11536. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Radiology, the First Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The rabbit VX-2 tumor model is a commonly used transplanted tumor model and is widely used in surgical, radiological, and interventional studies. Most of the known tumor models for each site are single solid tumors. This study aimed to establish an accurate and stable intramuscular dual tumor model guided by computed tomography (CT).

Methods: In this study, we compared three different inoculation methods to select the most appropriate dual tumor model. Six New Zealand White rabbits were used as tumor-carrying rabbits for tumor harvesting. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups as experimental rabbits. Group A applied the tumor cell suspension method, in which the suspension was injected into the designated location with a syringe under CT guidance. Groups B and C used tumor tissue strips obtained in vivo or under direct in vitro vision. The tumor tissue strips were implanted into the designated locations using a guide needle under CT guidance. The differences in tumorigenic rate, the size difference between bilateral tumors, and metastasis between the three methods were compared.

Results: It was found that group A obtained a 100% tumor survival rate, but the size of the tumor was more variable, and needle tract implantation metastasis occurred in 5 cases. In group B, tumor tissue strips were taken in vivo for implantation, in which one case failed to survive. Tumor tissue strips in group C were obtained in vitro under direct vision. The tumor tissue strips obtained in vitro by puncture using a biopsy needle in group C had a 100% tumorigenicity rate and stable tumor size. No significant needle tract implantation metastases were found in either group B or C. The variance of tumor size obtained in group A was significantly higher than in groups B and C. The variance of tumor size in group C was the smallest. Group C had high tumorigenicity and a more stable size and morphology of the formed tumors.

Conclusion: The results showed that the method of obtaining tumor tissue strips using in vitro direct vision puncture and implanting them into the muscle with CT guidance and guide needles can establish an accurate and stable dual tumor model. This dual tumor model can provide substantial support for relevant preclinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166237PMC
May 2021

Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts derived exosomes modulate breast cancer cell stemness through exonic circHIF1A by miR-580-5p in hypoxic stress.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 12;7(1):141. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital Qingpu Branch, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in solid tumors. The roles of exosomes from hypoxic breast cancer stroma are less studied. So, the study was aimed to investigate the role of exosomes from hypoxic cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) cells in breast cancer. The circRNA array analysis was performed to screen differential expressed circRNAs between hypoxic and normoxic CAFs exosomes. Candidate circHIF1A (circ_0032138) was screened out and it was confirmed that circHIF1A was up-regulated in the exosomes from hypoxic CAFs and their exosomes. Through investigating cellular functions including cell proliferation and stem cell features, it was demonstrated that hypoxic CAFs exosomes transferred circHIF1A into breast cancer cells, which played an important role in cancer stem cell properties sponging miR-580-5p by regulating CD44 expression. In a summary, circHIF1A from hypoxic CAFs exosomes played an important role in stem cell properties of breast cancer. CircHIF1A may act as a target molecule of breast cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00506-zDOI Listing
June 2021

MiR-124 protects against cognitive dysfunction induced by sevoflurane anesthesia in vivo and in vitro through targeting calpain small subunit 1 via NF-κB signaling pathway.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an impairment of cognition that affects post-surgery patients. Sevoflurane anesthesia is linked to cognitive dysfunction correlated to the expression of miRNA levels.

Objectives: In the current study, we investigated if miR-124 can offer protection against cognitive deficits induced by sevoflurane in a spatial learning paradigm, and examined the molecular mechanisms through cell cultures.

Material And Methods: Escape latency, platform crossings in probe trials and swimming speed in the Morris water maze in sevoflurane-treated mice were utilized as a measure of cognitive function. The relative miR-124 expression, and mRNA expressions of Bax, caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in sevoflurane-treated hippocampal cultures were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Moreover, the changes in interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The binding between miR-124 and calpain small subunit 1 (Capn4) was verified with site-directed mutagenesis. The involvement of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway was examined using western blot analysis.

Results: Our findings indicated that the miR-124 expression was inhibited by sevoflurane treatment in live rats and mouse hippocampal neurons to prevent apoptosis and inflammatory responses. We confirmed Capn4 as a target of miR-124. Treatment with sevoflurane enhanced the expression of Capn4, while overexpression of miR124 suppressed the enhanced expression of Capn4. Also, miR-124 inhibited apoptosis in murine hippocampal neurons induced by sevoflurane via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that miR-124 exerted its neuroprotective role against sevoflurane via targeting Capn4 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our work may provide a novel and efficacious treatment for sevoflurane anesthesia-related cognitive dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/134740DOI Listing
June 2021

Traditional Chinese Medicine Qingre Huoxue Treatment vs. the Combination of Methotrexate and Hydroxychloroquine for Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Pharmacol 2021 25;12:679588. Epub 2021 May 25.

Guang'anmen Hospital China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used successfully to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Qingre Huoxue treatment (Qingre Huoxue decoction (QRHXD)/Qingre Huoxue external preparation (QRHXEP)) is a therapeutic scheme of TCM for RA. To date, there have been few studies comparing the efficacy and safety of QRHXD and conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) for the treatment of active RA. This was investigated in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial involving 468 Chinese patients with active RA [disease activity score (DAS)-28 > 3.2] treated with QRHXD/QRHXEP (TCM group), methotrexate plus hydroxychloroquine [Western medicine (WM) group], or both [integrative medicine (IM) group]. Patients were followed up for 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in DAS-28 from baseline to 24 weeks. The secondary outcome measures were treatment response rate according to American College of Rheumatology 20, 50, and 70% improvement criteria (ACR-20/50/70) and the rate of treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02551575). DAS-28 decreased in all three groups after treatment ( < 0.0001); the score was lowest in the TCM group ( < 0.05), while no difference was observed between the WM and IM groups ( > 0.05). At week 24, ACR-20 response was 73.04% with TCM, 80.17% with WM, and 73.95% with IM (based on the full analysis set [FAS], > 0.05); ACR-50 responses were 40.87, 47.93, and 51.26%, respectively, (FAS, > 0.05); and ACR-70 responses were 20.87, 22.31, and 25.21%, respectively, (FAS, > 0.05). Thus, treatment efficacy was similar across groups based on ACR criteria. On the other hand, the rate of TRAEs was significantly lower in the TCM group compared to the other groups ( < 0.05). Thus, QRHXD/QRHXEP was effective in alleviating the symptoms of active RA-albeit to a lesser degree than csDMARDs-with fewer side effects. Importantly, combination with QRHXD enhanced the efficacy of csDMARDs. These results provide evidence that QRHXD can be used as an adjunct to csDMARDs for the management of RA, especially in patients who experience TRAEs with standard drugs. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCTNCT025515.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.679588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186316PMC
May 2021

Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor expression functions as a prognostic biomarker in uterine carcinosarcoma based on bioinformatics analysis.

J Int Med Res 2021 Jun;49(6):3000605211021043

Department of Gynaecologic Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Objective: Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) is a rare, aggressive tumour with a high metastasis rate and poor prognosis. This study aimed to explore potential key genes associated with the prognosis of UCS.

Methods: Transcriptional expression data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis database and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses using Metascape. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed using the STRING website and Cytoscape software, and the top 30 genes obtained through the Maximal Clique Centrality algorithm were selected as hub genes. These hub genes were validated by clinicopathological and sequencing data for 56 patients with UCS from The Cancer Genome Atlas database.

Results: A total of 1894 DEGs were identified, and the top 30 genes were considered as hub genes. Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR) expression was significantly higher in UCS tissues compared with normal tissues, and elevated expression of HMMR was identified as an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival in patients with UCS.

Conclusions: These results suggest that HMMR may be a potential biomarker for predicting the prognosis of patients with UCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211021043DOI Listing
June 2021

A Chlamydial Plasmid-Dependent Secretion System for the Delivery of Virulence Factors to the Host Cytosol.

mBio 2021 Jun 8:e0117921. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Chlamydial Diseases Section, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Chlamydia are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria distinguished by a unique developmental biology confined within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The chlamydial plasmid is a central virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infection. Plasmid gene protein 4 (Pgp4) regulates the expression of plasmid gene protein 3 (Pgp3) and chromosomal glycogen synthase (GlgA), virulence factors secreted from the inclusion to the host cytosol by an unknown mechanism. Here, we identified a plasmid-dependent secretion system for the cytosolic delivery of Pgp3 and GlgA. The secretion system consisted of a segregated population of globular structures originating from midcycle reticulate bodies. Globular structures contained the Pgp4-regulated proteins CT143, CT144, and CT050 in addition to Pgp3 and GlgA. Genetic replacement of Pgp4 with Pgp3 or GlgA negated the formation of globular structures, resulting in retention of Pgp3 and GlgA in chlamydial organisms. The generation of globular structures and secretion of virulence factors occurred independently of type 2 and type 3 secretion systems. Globular structures were enriched with lipopolysaccharide but lacked detectable major outer membrane protein and heat shock protein 60, implicating them as outer membrane vesicles. Thus, we have discovered a novel chlamydial plasmid-dependent secretion system that transports virulence factor cargo from the chlamydial inclusion to the host cytosol. The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid regulates the expression and secretion of immune evasion virulence factors to the host cytosol by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we identified a novel plasmid gene protein 4 (Pgp4)-dependent secretion system. The system consists of globular structures distinct from typical chlamydial developmental forms that export Pgp3 and GlgA to the host cytosol. Globular structures emerged at mid-chlamydial growth cycle from distinct populations of reticulate bodies. The formation of globular structures occurred independently of known chlamydial secretion systems. These results identify a Pgp4-dependent secretory system required for exporting plasmid regulated virulence factors to the host cytosol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01179-21DOI Listing
June 2021

Elevated Hb A is Not Always Indicative of β-Thalassemia.

Hemoglobin 2021 Jun 8:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Medical Genetics, Ganzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Ganzhou, Jiangxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Hb A levels are usually high in carriers of β-thalassemia (β-thal). These levels also provide a sensitive marker for the identification of hemoglobin (Hb) variants. In this study, we aimed to examine two patients from two Chinese families who showed elevated Hb A levels but did not show any signs of β-thal. The variants were analyzed using direct sequencing of and prediction analysis. Moreover, the family's genetic history was investigated. We examined two probands from different Chinese families with elevated Hb A levels who were not afflicted with β-thal, although several nucleotide changes were found at codon 81 (CT>CT) (: c.246C>A) in Family 1 and a compound heterozygosity for codon 40 (AG>AG) (: c.122G>A) and IVS-II-478 (C>A) (: c.316-373C>A) in Family 2. After investigating the genetic history of both families including the β-thal aspect, we found that these mutations were not responsible for the elevated Hb A levels. It is rarely reported that high Hb A level is not indicative of β-thal. In contrast, low or normal Hb A level is always found with β-thal due to other molecular defects that mask their β-thal genotype. Our results highlight the importance of considering the genetic factors related and unrelated to β-thal to improve the accuracy of future genetic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630269.2021.1936008DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Anaerobic Fermentation on Black Garlic Extract by : Changes in Flavor and Functional Components.

Front Nutr 2021 21;8:645416. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential application of probiotics in the development of novel functional foods based on black garlic. The single-factor analysis (extraction temperatures, solid-to-liquid ratios, and extraction times) and the response surface methodology were firstly used to optimize hot water extraction of soluble solids from black garlic. The optimal extraction conditions were temperature 99.96°C, solid-to-liquid ratio 1:4.38 g/ml, and extracting 2.72 h. The effects of (, and co-culture of them) fermentation on the physicochemical properties of black garlic extract broth were studied for the first time. Artificial and electronic sensory evaluations demonstrated that fermentation significantly influenced the sensory characteristics. The variations of metabolites in different broth samples (S1, unfermented; S2, 1-day fermentation by ; S3, 2-day fermentation by ; and S4, 1-day fermentation by co-cultured ) were further investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. As a result, fermentation significantly reduced the pH; increased the contents of the total acid, amino nitrogen, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid; and reduced the content of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (a carcinogenic component) by 25.10-40.81% in the black garlic extract. The contents of several components with unpleasant baking flavors (e.g., furfural, 2-acetylfuran, and 5-methyl furfural) were reduced, whereas the contents of components with green grass, floral, and fruit aromas were increased. More importantly, the contents of several functional components including lactic acid, Gly-Pro-Glu, sorbose, and α-CEHC (3,4-dihydro-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-propanoic acid) were increased after fermentation. The results demonstrated the potential of probiotic fermentation to improve the quality of black garlic. This work will provide an insight into the strategic design of novel black garlic products and facilitate the application of black garlic in functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.645416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175794PMC
May 2021

Preparation, Biocompatibility and Antitumor Activity of Nanodelivery System Targeting Breast Cancer Base on a Silica Nanoparticle.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 25;14:3429-3442. Epub 2021 May 25.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, 233004, People's Republic of China.

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide, and about 30% of males will have recurrent disease.

Methods: In order to treat recurrent BC, we designed a type of silica nanodelivery system loaded with epirubicin and curcumin (composite nanoparticles, CNPs). To promote CNPs clinical application, the stability, the blood, immune and cell compatibility, skin stimulation experiments, anti-tumor activity in vivo and in vitro were studied.

Results: In our study, the CNPs had a particle size of 73.9 nm and a uniform size and morphology; moreover, they maintained physical and chemical stability in the blood protein environment. Additionally, results showed that nanoparticles had good blood and immune compatibility, and they did not affect intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) and intracellular catalase (CAT). Skin stimulation experiments showed that CNPs did not cause any obvious irritative damage to the intact skin of rabbits. In the cytotoxicity study, CNPs showed strongest antitumor activity. The results of cell cycle and apoptosis studies showed that CNPs could mainly induce apoptosis of S and G2/M phase cells. In vivo, CNPs showed strongest aggregation in the tumor after 6 h of tail vein administration, and a large amount of CNPs continued to accumulate in the blood after 12 h of administration, indicating that CNPs had long circulation ability. The in vivo antitumor activities showed that CNPs had the strongest antitumor activity and tumor targeting ability, and hematoxylin-eosin staining of internal organs showed no obvious difference between treatment groups and negative control.

Conclusion: CNPs have an ideal biosafety and therapeutic effect for recurrent BC, and they have potential clinical application value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S291142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164725PMC
May 2021

Electrical Conductivity of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Bundles Contacting with Metal Electrodes by Nano Manipulators inside SEM.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 13;11(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Robotics and Microsystems Centre, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021, China.

Determining the metallicity and semiconductivity of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundle plays a particularly vital role in its interconnection with the metal electrode of an integrated circuit. In this paper, an effective method is proposed to determine the electrical transport properties of an MWCNT bundle using a current-voltage characteristic curve during its electrical breakdown. We established the reliable electrical nanoscale contact between the MWCNT bundle and metal electrode using a robotic manipulation system under scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum conditions. The experimental results show that the current-voltage curve appears as saw-tooth-like current changes including up and down steps, which signify the conductance and breakdown of carbon shells in the MWCNT bundle, respectively. Additionally, the power law nonlinear behavior of the current-voltage curve indicates that the MWCNT bundle is semiconducting. The molecular dynamics simulation explains that the electron transport between the inner carbon shells, between the outermost carbon shells and gold metal electrode and between the outermost carbons shells of two adjacent individual three-walled carbon nanotubes (TWCNTs) is through their radial deformation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations elucidate the electron transport mechanism between the gold surface and double-wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT) and between the inner and outermost carbon shells of DWCNT using the charge density difference, electrostatic potential and partial density of states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11051290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153315PMC
May 2021

Theoretical Derivation of a Prediction Model for CO Adsorption by Coal.

ACS Omega 2021 May 17;6(20):13275-13283. Epub 2021 May 17.

College of Safety Science and Engineering, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054, China.

Adsorption characteristics of CO by coal are an important reservoir parameter to determine the CO storage capacity of the coal seam. The Langmuir isotherm adsorption model is commonly used to describe the isothermal adsorption line of coal. However, we cannot predict the CO adsorption capacity at other temperatures by using the Langmuir model based on the experimental data at a fixed temperature. This paper analyzes the ε- adsorption characteristic curves of three coal samples over a range of temperatures and pressures. The study demonstrates that the adsorption characteristic curves of CO gas are independent of temperature and depend mainly on the dispersion force between coal and the CO molecules. In addition, the adsorption potential of CO gas has a negative correlation with the volume of the adsorbed phase. Hence, the CO adsorption characteristic curve of coal conforms to the logarithmic function. Based on the adsorption potential theory, the prediction model of CO adsorption by coal is derived. The deviation analysis from measured data shows that the average relative deviation of the three coal samples is ∼5%, and the prediction results are accurate and reliable. Under different temperature and pressure conditions of the three coal samples, the results from the prediction model of CO adsorption by coal and the Langmuir model have a strong correlation with the experimental results. In comparison with the Langmuir model, the prediction model of CO adsorption by coal can predict the adsorption capacity under different temperature and pressure conditions. Hence, it has a wide range of applications when compared to that of the Langmuir model. In practical applications, better results are achieved with a significant reduction in experimental time and labor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158826PMC
May 2021

Lifestyle is associated with thyroid function in subclinical hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 May 28;21(1):112. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, 29 Xinquan Road, Fujian, 350001, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Few studies have focused on the association between lifestyle and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between lifestyle and thyroid function in SCH.

Methods: This study was a part of a community-based and cross-sectional study, the Epidemiological Survey of Thyroid Diseases in Fujian Province, China. A total of 159 participants with SCH (81 males and 78 females) and 159 euthyroid (87 males and 72 females) participants without any missing data were included in the analysis. General information and lifestyle information including sleep, exercise, diet and smoking habits of the participants was collected by questionnaire and Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale (PSQI) was collected. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroid globulin antibody (TgAb) and urine iodine concentration (UIC) were tested. Thyroid homeostasis parameter thyroid' s secretory capacity (SPINA-GT), Jostel's TSH index (TSHI), thyrotroph T4 sensitivity index (TTSI) were calculated. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression were performed to assess associations.

Results: Compared with euthyroid subjects, patients with SCH were more likely to have poor overall sleep quality (15.1 vs.25.8 %, P = 0.018) and l less likely to stay up late on weekdays (54.7 vs. 23.9 % P < 0.001). In SCH group, exercise was the influencing factor of TSH (β= -0.224, P = 0.004), thyroid secretory capacity (β = 0.244, P = 0.006) and thyrotropin resistance (β = 0.206, P = 0.009). Iodine excess was the influencing factor of thyroid secretory capacity (β = 0.209, P = 0.001) and pituitary thyroid stimulating function (β = 0.167, P = 0.034). Smoking was the influencing factor of pituitary thyroid stimulating function (β = 0.161, P = 0.040). Staying up late on weekends was the influencing factor of thyroid secretory capacity (β = 0.151, P = 0.047). After adjusting for possible confounders, logistic regression showed that those with poor overall sleep quality assessed by PSQI and iodine excess had an increased risk of SCH (OR 2.159, 95 %CI 1.186-3.928, P = 0.012 and OR 2.119, 95 %CI 1.008-4.456, P = 0.048, respectively).

Conclusions: Lifestyle including sleep, smoking, diet and exercise was closely related to thyroid function especially thyroid homeostasis in SCH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00772-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161919PMC
May 2021

sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from wormcast of .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 May;71(5)

Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Science, Guiyang, 550081, PR China.

A novel Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, yellowish bacterium, designated strain 1.3611, was isolated from the wormcast of . The strain grew optimally at 30-37 ℃, at pH 7.0 and with 0-1.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analyses, strain 1.3611 showed the highest degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to HAL-9 (97.0 %), followed by Y3L14 (95.8 %). The respiratory quinone of strain 1.3611 was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and its major cellular fatty acids were iso-C (41.3 %), summed feature 3 (C7 and/or C6, 22.1 %) and iso-C 3-OH (16.2 %). The major polar lipids were sphingophospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and five unidentified polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 39.0 mol%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between the genomes of strain 1.3611 and HAL-9 were 37.9 and 88.9 %, respectively. According to the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic phylogenetic results, strain 1.3611 should represent a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 1.3611 (=KCTC 62980=CCTCC AB 2018349) as the type strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004823DOI Listing
May 2021

Corrigendum: Chinese species of Tsuneki (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae), including three new species and a new record to China. ZooKeys 987: 115-134. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.987.55317.

Zookeys 2021 10;1036:173-174. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650201, China Yunnan Agricultural University Kunming China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.987.55317.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1036.67684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128868PMC
May 2021

[Analysis of the Efficacy of Immunotherapy on the Posterior Lines 
of Advanced EGFR Mutant Patients with Non-small cell Lung Cancer].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2021 May;24(5):338-344

Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University/Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute, Beijing 101149, China.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy is reported to have little effect in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with driver oncogenes. However, recent studies have shown that some patients with driver genes are still benefit from combination immunotherapy after tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of posterior line immunotherapy in NSCLC patients with epidermal growth factor (EGFR) sensitive mutation, and to evaluate the value of immunotherapy in posterior line therapy in patients with advanced EGFR mutation.

Methods: A total of 27 patients with EGFR mutation diagnosed in Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University from June 2018 to November 2020 were collected. After the progress of targeted therapy, they had received programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor combined with chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drug therapy.

Results: Of the 27 advanced NSCLC patients, 19 cases (70.4%) did not have T790M mutation. There were 8 cases (29.6%) with T790M point mutation. The total objective response rate (ORR) was 40.7%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference among different EGFR mutations (χ²=4.15, P=0.230). But progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer in patients without T790M mutation than in patients with T790M mutation (9.2 mon vs 3.3 mon, χ²=2.808, P=0.041), and the same trend was observed in patients with overall survival treated with the PD-1 inhibitor (12.2 mon vs 7.3 mon, χ²=3.22, P=0.062). ORR of patients without T790M was significantly better than that with T790M (52.63% vs 12.5%, P=0.045).

Conclusions: Patients with EGFR mutation can benefit from later-line combined immunotherapy. The patients with T790M mutation in the population of EGFR mutation had the worst effect of immunotherapy in the later line. Therefore, the follow-up treatment and whole-course management of these patients need to explore better treatment strategies to improve the benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2021.104.06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174113PMC
May 2021

Abnormalities in the composition of the gut microbiota in mice after repeated administration of DREADD ligands.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Aug 15;173:66-73. Epub 2021 May 15.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan. Electronic address:

Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are known as genetically modified G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which can be activated by synthetic ligands such as clozapine N-oxide (CNO) and DREADD agonist 21 (compound 21: C21). The brain-gut-microbiota axis has a crucial role in bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gastrointestinal microbiota. In this study, we investigated whether repeated administration of CNO or C21 could influence the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces of adult mice. Repeated administration of CNO or C21 as drinking water did not alter the α- and β-diversity of gut microbiota in mice compared with control mice. However, we found significant changes in relative abundance for several bacteria in the CNO (or C21) group at the taxonomic level compared to the control group. The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm distinguished the family Prevotellaceae, the genus Anaerocolumna, the genus Prevotella, and the genus Frisingicoccus, these four specific microbial markers for the CNO group relative to the control group. In addition, the LEfSe algorithm identified the family Clostridiaceae, the genus Faecalicatena and the genus Marinisporobacter, these three bacteria of different taxonomic as potential microbial markers for the C21 group relative to the control group. In contrast, repeated administration of CNO (or C21) did not alter SCFAs in feces samples of adult mice. The data suggest that repeated administration of CNO or C21 contributes to an unusual organization of the gut microbiota in adult mice. Therefore, abnormalities in the composition of gut microbiota by repeated dosing of DREADD ligands should be taken into consideration for behavioral and biological functions in rodents treated with DREADD ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.05.012DOI Listing
August 2021

β-Arrestin 2 Regulates Inflammatory Responses against Infection through ERK1/2 Signaling.

J Immunol 2021 Jun 17;206(11):2623-2637. Epub 2021 May 17.

Institute of Molecular Immunology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China

the pathogen that causes tuberculosis, exhibits complex host-pathogen interactions. Pattern recognition receptors and their downstream signaling pathways play crucial roles in determining the outcome of infection. In particular, the scaffold protein β-arrestin 2 mediates downstream signaling of G protein-coupled receptors. However, the role of β-arrestin 2 in conferring immunity against has not yet been explored. We found that β-arrestin 2 was upregulated in the lesioned regions of lung tissues in patients with tuberculosis. infection upregulated β-arrestin 2 expression in human macrophages, and silencing of β-arrestin 2 significantly enhanced bactericidal activity by enhancing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α. β-Arrestin 2 was shown to inhibit the activation of the TLR2/ERK1/2 pathway and its transcriptional regulation activity upon infection. Furthermore, β-arrestin 2 transcriptionally regulates TNF-α by binding to CREB1. These observations revealed that the upregulation of β-arrestin 2 is critical for to escape immune surveillance through an unknown mechanism. Our research offers a novel interference modality to enhance the immune response against tuberculosis by targeting β-arrestin 2 to modulate the TLR2-β-arrestin 2-ERK1/2-CREB1-TNF-α regulatory axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2001346DOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular mechanisms of intermuscular bone development in fish: a review.

Zool Res 2021 May;42(3):362-376

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Innovative Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China.

Intermuscular bones (IBs) are slender linear bones embedded in muscle, which ossify from tendons through a process of intramembranous ossification, and only exist in basal teleosts. IBs are essential for fish swimming, but they present a choking risk during human consumption, especially in children, which can lead to commercial risks that have a negative impact on the aquaculture of these fish. In this review, we discuss the morphogenesis and functions of IBs, including their underlying molecular mechanisms, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods for IB studies and techniques for breeding and generating IB-free fish lines. This review reveals that the many key genes involved in tendon development, osteoblast differentiation, and bone formation, e.g., , , , , , and , also play roles in IB development. Thus, this paper provides useful information for the breeding of new fish strains without IBs via genome editing and artificial selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175950PMC
May 2021

Signal Pathway of Estrogen and Estrogen Receptor in the Development of Thyroid Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 28;11:593479. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Thyroid Surgery, Jilin University Second Hospital, Changchun, China.

The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of thyroid cancer (TC) have been examined through extensive experiments. A large number of studies have shown that the incidences of thyroid cancer in women is much higher than that in men, so estrogen plays a key role in the development of thyroid cancer. Estrogen plays its growth-promoting role through classical genomic and non-genomic pathways mediated by membrane-bound estrogen receptors. It also can affect tumor progression by regulating the tumor microenvironment. We summarize the understanding of molecular mechanisms of estrogen signaling pathways in thyroid cancer. Furthermore, it will provide a new target for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma by blocking estrogen and its related action pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.593479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113849PMC
April 2021

Identification of a five-gene signature in association with overall survival for hepatocellular carcinoma.

PeerJ 2021 28;9:e11273. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be a malignant tumor with a high incidence and a high mortality. Accurate prognostic models are urgently needed. The present study was aimed at screening the critical genes for prognosis of HCC.

Methods: The GSE25097, GSE14520, GSE36376 and GSE76427 datasets were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We used GEO2R to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A protein-protein interaction network of the DEGs was constructed by Cytoscape in order to find hub genes by module analysis. The Metascape was performed to discover biological functions and pathway enrichment of DEGs. MCODE components were calculated to construct a module complex of DEGs. Then, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used for gene enrichment analysis. ONCOMINE was employed to assess the mRNA expression levels of key genes in HCC, and the survival analysis was conducted using the array from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of HCC. Then, the LASSO Cox regression model was performed to establish and identify the prognostic gene signature. We validated the prognostic value of the gene signature in the TCGA cohort.

Results: We screened out 10 hub genes which were all up-regulated in HCC tissue. They mainly enrich in mitotic cell cycle process. The GSEA results showed that these data sets had good enrichment score and significance in the cell cycle pathway. Each candidate gene may be an indicator of prognostic factors in the development of HCC. However, hub genes expression was weekly associated with overall survival in HCC patients. LASSO Cox regression analysis validated a five-gene signature (including CDC20, CCNB2, NCAPG, ASPM and NUSAP1). These results suggest that five-gene signature model may provide clues for clinical prognostic biomarker of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088210PMC
April 2021

Maternal control of visceral asymmetry evolution in Astyanax cavefish.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10312. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

The direction of visceral organ asymmetry is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution with heart development biased to the left and pancreas and liver development restricted to opposing sides of the midline. Here we show that reversals in visceral organ asymmetry have evolved in Astyanax mexicanus, a teleost species with interfertile surface-dwelling (surface fish) and cave-dwelling (cavefish) forms. Visceral organ asymmetry is conventional in surface fish but some cavefish have evolved reversals in heart, liver, and pancreas development. Corresponding changes in the normally left-sided expression of the Nodal-Pitx2/Lefty signaling system are also present in the cavefish lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). The Nodal antagonists lefty1 (lft1) and lefty2 (lft2), which confine Nodal signaling to the left LPM, are expressed in most surface fish, however, lft2, but not lft1, expression is absent during somitogenesis of most cavefish. Despite this difference, multiple lines of evidence suggested that evolutionary changes in L-R patterning are controlled upstream of Nodal-Pitx2/Lefty signaling. Accordingly, reciprocal hybridization of cavefish and surface fish showed that modifications of heart asymmetry are present in hybrids derived from cavefish mothers but not from surface fish mothers. The results indicate that changes in visceral asymmetry during cavefish evolution are influenced by maternal genetic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89702-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119719PMC
May 2021