Publications by authors named "Li Liang"

3,500 Publications

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Depression accelerates gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by inducing a neuroendocrine phenotype via the catecholamine/β -AR/MACC1 axis.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, P. R. China.

Background: Depression is a common, easily ignored, accompanied disease of gastric cancer (GC) patients and is often observed with elevated plasma catecholamine levels. Depression frequently promotes GC progression and leads to poor clinical outcomes; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying depression-induced GC progression remain poorly understood. We aimed to study the effects of depression on GC progression and explore possible mechanisms mediating the action of depression-associated catecholamines on GC.

Methods: Depression states of GC patients were graded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and plasma catecholamine levels were examined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Migrative and invasive GC cells were examined using transwell assays, and metastatic GC niches were imaged using bioluminescence technology in a depression mouse model established with chronic unpredictable mild stress. Mouse depression-like behaviors were assessed through sucrose preference, forced swimming, and tail suspension tests. Characteristics of the neuroendocrine phenotype were observed via RT-PCR, Western blotting, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy.

Results: Fifty-one GC patients (age: 53.61 ± 1.79 years; cancer duration: 3.71 ± 0.33 months; depression duration: 2.37 ± 0.38 months; male-to-female ratio: 1.55:1) were enrolled in the study. Depression grade was significantly higher in GC patients showing higher plasma levels of catecholamines (epinephrine: P = 0.018; noradrenaline: P = 0.009), higher oncogene metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) level (P = 0.018), and metastasis (P < 0.001). Further, depression-associated catecholamine specifically bound to the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β -AR) and upregulated MACC1 expression, and thus promoting neuroendocrine phenotypic transformation through direct binding between MACC1 and synaptophysin. Eventually, the neuroendocrine phenotypic transformation accelerated GC invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. However, β -AR antagonist ICI-118,551 or MACC1 silencing effectively blocked the catecholamine-induced neuroendocrine phenotypic transformation and eliminated depression-enhanced GC migration and invasion. Moreover, β -AR blocking or MACC1 silencing prevented GC metastasis attributed to a neuroendocrine phenotype in a depression mouse model.

Conclusions: Catecholamine-induced neuroendocrine phenotypes of GC cells led to depression-accelerated GC invasion and metastasis via the β -AR/MACC1 axis, while β -AR antagonist or MACC1 silencing could reverse it, showing promising potential therapeutic strategies for improving the outcome of GC patients with comorbid depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12198DOI Listing
July 2021

Fish can save energy via proprioceptive sensing.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

College of Engineering, Peking University, China, Beijing, Beijing, 100871, CHINA.

Fish have evolved diverse and robust locomotive strategies to swim efficiently in complex fluid environments. However, we know little, if anything, about how these strategies can be achieved. Although most studies suggest that fish rely on the lateral line system to sense local flow and optimise body undulation, recent work has shown that fish are still able to gain benefits from the local flow even with the lateral line impaired. In this paper, we hypothesise that fish can save energy by extracting vortices shed from their neighbours using only simple proprioceptive sensing with the caudal fin. We tested this hypothesis on both computational and robotic fish by synthesising a central pattern generator (CPG) with feedback, proprioceptive sensing, and reinforcement learning. The CPG controller adjusts the body undulation after receiving feedback from the proprioceptive sensing signal, decoded via reinforcement learning. In our study, we consider potential proprioceptive sensing inputs to consist of low-dimensional signals (e.g., perceived forces) detected from the flow. With simulations on a computational robot and experiments on a robotic fish swimming in unknown dynamic flows, we show that the simple proprioceptive sensing is sufficient to optimise the body undulation to save energy, without any input from the lateral line. Our results reveal a new sensory-motor mechanism in schooling fish and shed new light on the strategy of control for robotic fish swimming in complex flows with high efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/ac165eDOI Listing
July 2021

Regulatory T cell activation, proliferation, and reprogramming induced by extracellular vesicles.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from heart stromal/progenitor cells modulate innate immunity, with salutary effects in a variety of cardiac disease models. Little is known, however, about the effects of these EVs on adaptive immunity.

Methods: Ex vivo differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells was conducted to assess the effect of EVs on cytokine production and proliferation of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (T) cells. These effects were further tested in vivo using the experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model.

Results: Using differentiated CD4 T cells, we show that EVs secreted by human-derived heart stromal/progenitor cells selectively influence the phenotype, activity, and proliferation of regulatory T (T) cells. Exposure of T cells to EVs results in faster proliferation, augmented production of IL-10, and polarization toward an intermediate FOXP3RORγt phenotype. In experimental autoimmune myocarditis, EVs attenuate cardiac inflammation and functional decline, in association with increased numbers of splenic IL10-T cells.

Conclusions: T cell modulation by EVs represents a novel therapeutic approach to inflammation, harnessing endogenous immunosuppressive mechanisms that may be applied in solid organ transplantation, graft-versus-host disease, and autoimmune disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2021.06.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Meningitic Escherichia coli α-hemolysin aggravates blood-brain barrier disruption via targeting TGFβ1-triggered hedgehog signaling.

Mol Brain 2021 Jul 19;14(1):116. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease with severe neurological sequelae and a high mortality rate, in which Escherichia coli is one of the primary Gram-negative etiological bacteria. Meningitic E. coli infection is often accompanied by an elevated blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. BBB is the structural and functional barrier composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), astrocytes, and pericytes, and we have previously shown that astrocytes-derived TGFβ1 physiologically maintained the BBB permeability by triggering a non-canonical hedgehog signaling in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Here, we subsequently demonstrated that meningitic E. coli infection could subvert this intercellular communication within BBB by attenuating TGFBRII/Gli2-mediated such signaling. By high-throughput screening, we identified E. coli α-hemolysin as the critical determinant responsible for this attenuation through Sp1-dependent TGFBRII reduction and triggering Ca influx and protein kinase A activation, thus leading to Gli2 suppression. Additionally, the exogenous hedgehog agonist SAG exhibited promising protection against the infection-caused BBB dysfunction. Our work revealed a hedgehog-targeted pathogenic mechanism during meningitic E. coli-caused BBB disruption and suggested that activating hedgehog signaling within BBB could be a potential protective strategy for future therapy of bacterial meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-021-00826-2DOI Listing
July 2021

The moderated associations of self-compassion with physiological and psychological stress responses: Comparisons between cancer caregivers and non-caregivers.

J Health Psychol 2021 Jul 20:13591053211030994. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Centre for Psychosocial Health, The Education University of Hong Kong, China.

Self-compassion has been shown to be protective against stress. Whether its stress buffering effect differs between cancer caregivers and non-caregivers is unknown. This study examined the moderating effect of self-compassion among cancer caregivers relative to non-caregivers by recruiting cancer caregivers from the hospital and a community sample matching on sex and age. Participants completed a questionnaire which comprised the self-reported anxiety (STAI-6) and self-compassion (SCS-SF) measures, and administered cortisol sample collections with Salivette tubes at home. Whereas caregivers experienced higher diurnal cortisol level, the differential protective effects of self-compassion were only present against anxiety symptoms but not physiological stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13591053211030994DOI Listing
July 2021

Antagonist targeting miR‑106b‑5p attenuates acute renal injury by regulating renal function, apoptosis and autophagy via the upregulation of TCF4.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Sep 19;48(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pathology, The Southern Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, P.R. China.

Acute renal injury (ARI) is a life‑threatening condition and a main contributor to end‑stage renal disease, which is mainly caused by ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R). miR‑106b‑5p is a kidney function‑related miRNA; however, whether miR‑106b‑5p regulates the progression of ARI remains unclear. The present study thus aimed to examine the effects of miR‑106b‑5p antagonist on the regulation of ARI progression. It was found that miR‑106b‑5p expression was upregulated in the renal tissue of rats with I/R‑induced ARI and in NRK‑52E rat renal proximal tubular epithelial cells subjected to hypoxia‑reoxygenation (H/R). , H/R induction suppressed the proliferation, and promoted the apoptosis and autophagy of NRK‑52E cells, whereas miR‑106b‑5p antagonist (inhibition of miR‑106b‑5p) promoted the proliferation, and attenuated the apoptosis and autophagy of NRK‑52E cells under the H/R condition. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay validated that transcription factor 4 (TCF4) was a target of miR‑106b‑5p. It was further found that TCF4 overexpression promoted the proliferation, and inhibited the apoptosis and autophagy of NRK‑52E cells subjected to H/R. Moreover, the effects of miR‑106b‑5p antagonist on NRK‑52E cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy were mediated through the regulation of TCF4. , miR‑106b‑5p antagonist reduced the severity of renal injury, decreased cell proliferation in renal tissues and lowered the serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in the blood samples from rats with I/R‑induced ARI. On the whole, the findings presented herein demonstrate that miR‑106b‑5p antagonist attenuates ARI by promoting the proliferation, and suppressing the apoptosis and autophagy of renal cells via upregulating TCF4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5002DOI Listing
September 2021

Major and trace elements changes of female methamphetamine addicts during six months' compulsory treatment: Biomarkers discovery.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Jul 2;325:110892. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China; Guangdong Province Translational Forensic Medicine Engineering Technology Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: The concentration levels of major and trace elements are significantly correlated with human health. However, studies profiling major and trace elements among female using methamphetamine are rare. This study aims to investigate the major and trace elements changes and discover elemental biomarkers in plasma of female methamphetamine (METH) addicts in six months' compulsory treatment.

Methods: A total of 60 female METH addicts selected from drug rehabilitation center were randomly divided into three equal groups: (1) Detoxification for one month; (2) Detoxification for three months; (3) Detoxification for six months. Twenty healthy women, without drug abuse history were selected as control group. Four major elements including Na, Mg, K, Ca and twelve trace elements including V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Pb were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK test). Elemental biomarkers were discovered based on orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA).

Results: The four groups used in the study were divided into four significant sections according to scatter plots. The total elemental concentrations of three METH withdrawal groups were increased compared to the control group. Over six months, element contents of the withdrawal groups gradually equaled element contents of the control group in compulsory treatment. The variable importance in the projection values (VIP > 1) of OPLS-DA model and SNK test (p < 0.05) revealed Fe, Cu, Cr and Se as elemental biomarkers.

Conclusion: Major and trace elements demonstrated significant differences between control group and three METH withdrawal groups. Fe, Cu, Cr and Se are potential elemental biomarkers among METH-abused female groups. Metabolic disorders of major and trace elements exist in the female methamphetamine addicts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2021.110892DOI Listing
July 2021

Embedding of Ti C T Nanocrystals in MAPbI Microwires for Improved Responsivity and Detectivity of Photodetector.

Small 2021 Jul 16:e2101954. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Center for Nano Energy Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University and Shaanxi Joint Laboratory of Graphene (NPU), Xi'an, 710072, P. R. China.

Organic-inorganic hybrid MAPbI microwires show unique optoelectronic properties for high performances of photodetectors (PDs). However, the defects-assisted nonradiative recombination is harmful for carrier transport, which limits the performances improvement of MAPbI microwires PDs. Traditional organic passivation agents effectively combine the surface defects of microwires and also reduce the mobility of overall film based on the perovskite microwires. Therefore, the improvement of internal carrier transport of microwires and the mobility of integrated film simultaneously is a particular challenge for fabrication of performances enhanced perovskite microwires PDs. Here, the Ti C T NCs are fabricated by nonfocus laser irradiation in liquid environment, and hybrids the high conductive NCs in the MAPbI microwires. The presence of Ti C T NCs renders defects passivation, enhancement of crystalline orientation, charge transport, and carrier extraction for MAPbI microwires, and boots the mobility of microwires based film, leading to about tenfolds enhancement of performances of PDs than that of the control. The maximum responsivity and the detectivity of the Ti C T NCs embedded MAPbI microwires PDs reach to 1.70 A W and 7.0 × 10 Jones in visible window, respectively. The findings suggest that the laser generated high conductive Ti C T NCs is an effective additive for perovskite microwires to fabricate performances enhanced optoelectronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101954DOI Listing
July 2021

Statistical modeling of longitudinal medical cost trajectory: renal cell cancer care cost analyses.

Biostatistics 2020 Jul 16. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA.

Estimating the current cost of cancer care is important to health policy makers. An indispensable step in cost projection is to estimate cost trajectories from an incident cohort of cancer patients using longitudinal medical cost data, accounting for terminal events such as death, and right censoring due to loss of follow-up. Since the cost of cancer care and survival are correlated, a scientifically meaningful quantity for inference in this context is the mean cost trajectory conditional on survival. We propose a two-stage semiparametric approach to estimate the longitudinal cost trajectories from a joint model of longitudinal medical costs and survival. The longitudinal cost trajectories corresponding to various survival times form a bivariate surface in a triangular area. The cost trajectories are estimated using the tensor products of discretized measurement time and survival, as well as effective ridge penalties for data in 2D arrays. The proposed approach balances the practical considerations of model flexibility, statistical efficiency, and computational tractability. We used the proposed method to estimate the cost trajectories of renal cell cancer patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biostatistics/kxab024DOI Listing
July 2020

Identification of a metabolic signature to predict overall survival for colorectal cancer.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 14:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Medical Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: Metabolic genes are associated with the occurrence and development of tumors. Metabolic-related risk models have showed partly prognostic predictive ability in cancers. However, the correlation between metabolic-related genes (MRGs) and the outcome of colorectal cancer is still poorly understood.

Patients And Methods: TCGA database is used as the training cohort; while GSE39582 is the verification cohort. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator Cox regression analysis were utilized to identify the MRGs and establish a genetic risk scoring model. A nomogram by integrating MRGs risk scores with TNM stage was constructed. The potential biological mechanisms were explored using gene set enrichment analysis. Associations of the signature with immune cell infiltrations and the tumor mutation burden (TMB) were also uncovered by Spearman rank test.

Results: A six-gene metabolic signature was identified. Based on the risk scoring model with the signature, patients were divided into two groups (high-risk versus low-risk). The overall survival (OS) duration of patients with high-risk were quite shorter than those of low-risk patients (TCGA:  < .001, GSE39582:  < .001). Metabolic-related pathways were major enriched in low-risk group, while the high-risk group exhibited multiple immune-related pathways. Moreover, our signature was more linear dependent with antigen-presenting cell than effector immune cells, and a positive correction were seen between our signature and TMB.

Conclusion: Our research has discovered a six-gene metabolic signature to predict the OS of colorectal cancer. These genes may play significant roles in colorectal cancer regulating tumor microenvironment and serving as potential biomarkers for anti-cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1948605DOI Listing
July 2021

Systematic and statistical uncertainties of the hilbert-transform based high-precision FID frequency extraction method.

J Magn Reson 2021 Jun 15;329:107020. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, USA.

Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is widely used in high-precision magnetic field measurements. The absolute value of the magnetic field is determined from the precession frequency of nuclear magnetic moments. The Hilbert transform is one of the methods that have been used to extract the phase function from the observed free induction decay (FID) signal and then its frequency. In this paper, a detailed implementation of a Hilbert-transform based FID frequency extraction method is described, and it is briefly compared with other commonly used frequency extraction methods. How artifacts and noise level in the FID signal affect the extracted phase function are derived analytically. A method of mitigating the artifacts in the extracted phase function of an FID is discussed. Correlations between noises of the phase function samples are studied for different noise spectra. We discovered that the error covariance matrix for the extracted phase function is nearly singular and improper for constructing the χ used in the fitting routine. A down-sampling method for fixing the singular covariance matrix has been developed, so that the minimum χ-fit yields properly the statistical uncertainty of the extracted frequency. Other practical methods of obtaining the statistical uncertainty are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2021.107020DOI Listing
June 2021

Metabolic profile of irradiated whole blood by chemical isotope-labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jul 6;204:114247. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 79 Qingchun Rd, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 310003, China.

Irradiated blood is a new type of blood product used to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. However, the effects of irradiation on the metabolism of plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are largely unknown. We developed a workflow for testing metabolic changes in whole blood to determine the impact of irradiation by chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CIL LC-MS). Blood parameters, PBMC proliferation and apoptosis were examined before and after irradiation. Next, the amine/phenol metabolites in the blood components were assayed by C- andC-dansylation labeling LC-MS. We identified 1654, 1730, and 1666 peak pairs in plasma, RBCs, and PBMCs, respectively. We screened out 367, 177, and 219 significant metabolites in plasma, RBCs, and PBMCs, respectively, by principle component analyses, volcano plots, and Venn plots. Metabolic pathway analyses showed that irradiation modulated taurine and hypotaurine metabolism in plasma and purine metabolism in RBCs and PBMCs. Changes in potential biomarkers, including an increase in hypoxanthine level and a decrease in adenine level, may be related to the dysfunction of DNA synthesis in PBMCs. The decreased AMP level in RBCs may interfere with RBC storage lesions. Our research provides a more comprehensive perspective on blood metabolism associated with irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114247DOI Listing
July 2021

Comprehensive Serum Lipidomics for Detecting Incipient Dementia in Parkinson's Disease.

J Proteome Res 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3, Canada.

While a number of methods are available for analyzing lipids, unbiased untargeted lipidomics with high coverage remains a challenge. In this work, we report a study of isotope-standard-assisted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry lipidomics of serum for biomarker discovery. We focus on Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder that often progresses to dementia. Currently, the diagnosis of PD is purely clinical and there is limited ability to predict which PD patients will transition to dementia, hampering early interventions. We studied serum samples from healthy controls and PD patients with no clinical signs of dementia. A follow-up 3 years later revealed that a subset of PD patients had transitioned to dementia. Using the baseline samples, we constructed two biomarker panels to differentiate (1) PD patients from healthy controls and (2) PD patients that remained cognitively stable from PD patients with incipient dementia (diagnosed 3 years after sample collection). The proposed biomarker panels displayed excellent performance and may be useful for detecting prodromal PD dementia, allowing early interventions and prevention efforts. The biochemistry of significantly changed lipids is also discussed within the current knowledge of neurological pathologies. Our results are promising and future work using a larger cohort of samples is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00374DOI Listing
July 2021

Erratum: "A broad range frequency measurement method for continuous and pulsed THz waves" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 91, 014710 (2020)].

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jun;92(6):069903

Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0057623DOI Listing
June 2021

3-T MRI in Patients Received Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Surgery with MAVRIC SL IR Sequence: A Feasibility Study.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Radiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the feasibility of multi-acquisition with variable resonance image combination slab selectivity inversion recovery (MAVRIC SL IR) sequence on 3.0 T MRI in patients with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery compared to bandwidth-optimized short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence.

Methods: Paired sagittal MR images of MAVRIC SL IR and bandwidth-optimized STIR sequences were acquired and analyzed for 21 patients after ACDF surgery with PEEK cage-plate construct. Quantitative comparisons were made on the metal artifact areas of paired mid-sagittal images. In qualitative analysis, the consistency of fat suppression and visibility of anatomic structures (bone-metal interface, surrounding soft tissues, and spinal cord) were independently assessed, based on a five-point scale by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blind to the images and patient details.

Results: The application of the MAVRIC SL IR sequence resulted in a significant reduction of 48% in the mean area of metal artifacts (t =-7.141, P < 0.001). Based on the comments received from both the reviewers, MAVRIC SL IR sequence showed greater visibility of the bone-metal interface (P < 0.001), considerable visibility of the surrounding soft tissues (P > 0.05) but worse visibility obtained of the spinal cord (P < 0.001), including the consistency of fat suppression (P < 0.001) relative to the bandwidth-optimized STIR sequence.

Conclusion: With significantly reduced metal artifacts, the MAVRIC SL IR sequence can be implemented in patients undergoing ACDF surgery with PEEK cage-plate construct for 3.0 T MRI, despite the poor visibility of the spinal cord.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207324666210322125827DOI Listing
March 2021

Current situation and prospects of the studies of ecological industries and ecological products in eco-fragile areas.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 2;201:111613. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Geographic and Environmental Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, 550001, Guiyang, Guizhou, China. Electronic address:

The current industrial structure of eco-fragile areas fails to reverse the trend of the deterioration of the ecological environment and severely affects the sustainable development of eco-fragile areas, so conducting scientific and technological studies of ecological industries and ecological products helps eco-fragile areas recover their degraded ecosystem. The results of a statistical analysis of 159 related documents show: (1) the number of documents published rises wave upon wave in time series, which indicates that this area of study is still at the stage of rising; (2) research contents concentrate on five dimensions-theoretical research, technology research and development, model building, demonstration and promotion, and efficiency analysis, among which theoretical research chiefly discusses environmental costs and effects of ecological industries, regional organizational layout, industrial chain construction, market supply and demand of biological products, discrimination of the nature of biological products, and value assessment and realization of biological products; (3) study areas are largely distributed in the Loess Plateau area in the north and karst areas in the south in China, which suggests that studies of biological industries and biological products in eco-fragile areas concentrate on arid and semi-arid areas and engineered arid areas. Furthermore, from five aspects-theoretical study, technology research and development, model building, experiment and demonstration, and monitoring and evaluation, this study reveals cutting-edge theories about ecological industries and ecological products in eco-fragile areas. At last, it is found that comprehensive theoretical research of the market circulation of ecological products in eco-fragile areas and the research and development of key technologies to enhance the value of ecological products lag behind, and it is necessary to deepen the studies about the whole industry chain development for ecological industries, the valuation of ecological effect, the standardization of ecological industry management, the circulation mechanism of ecological products, brand building and other aspects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111613DOI Listing
July 2021

Staged Endovascular Treatment for Symptomatic Occlusion Originating From the Intracranial Vertebral Arteries in the Early Non-acute Stage.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:673367. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

The ideal treatment for patients who survive from acute vertebrobasilar artery occlusion but develop aggressive ischemic events despite maximal medical therapy in the early non-acute stage is unknown. This paper reports the technical feasibility and outcome of staged endovascular treatment in a series of such patients with symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery occlusion. Ten consecutive patients who presented with aggressive ischemic events in the early non-acute stage of intracranial vertebral artery occlusion from Jan 2015 to Nov 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, eight male and two female patients with a mean age of 66.7 years developed aggressive ischemic events, and the NIHSS score was elevated by a median of 7 points despite medical therapy. All patients received staged endovascular treatment 4-21 days from onset, at an average of 11 days. The strategy of staged treatment was as follows: first, a microwire was passed through the portion of the occlusion, which was then dilated with balloon inflation to maintain the perfusion above TICI grade 2b. Then, with the use of antiplatelet drugs, the residual intravascular thrombus was gradually eliminated by the continuous perfusion and an activated fibrinolytic system, leaving the residual stenosis. A second stage of angioplasty with stent implantation was subsequently performed if residual stenosis was ≥50%. The NIHSS scores and mRS scores were compared between pre- and post-endovascular treatment groups and in the follow-up period. Technical success was achieved in 9 patients who received staged endovascular treatment (perforation occurred in one patient during the first stage). The NIHSS scores were significantly improved, with a median score 7 points lower on discharge compared with the scores for the most severe status. Favorable outcomes with mRS score ≤ 2 were achieved in 7 and 9 patients at the 3-month follow-up and the latest follow-up, respectively, which was better than the preoperative status. Staged endovascular treatment might be a safe, efficient, and viable option in carefully selected patients with symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery occlusion in the early non-acute stage. However, this needs to be confirmed by further investigation, preferably in a large, controlled setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.673367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245001PMC
June 2021

Sensitivity to a Break in Interaural Correlation in Frequency-Gliding Noises.

Front Psychol 2021 17;12:692785. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory on Machine Perception (Ministry of Education), Department of Machine Intelligence, Peking University, Beijing, China.

This study was to investigate whether human listeners are able to detect a binaurally uncorrelated arbitrary-noise fragment embedded in binaurally identical arbitrary-noise markers [a break in correlation, break in interaural correlation (BIAC)] in either frequency-constant (frequency-steady) or frequency-varied (unidirectionally frequency gliding) noise. Ten participants with normal hearing were tested in Experiment 1 for up-gliding, down-gliding, and frequency-steady noises. Twenty-one participants with normal hearing were tested in Experiment 2a for both up-gliding and frequency-steady noises. Another nineteen participants with normal hearing were tested in Experiment 2b for both down-gliding and frequency-steady noises. Listeners were able to detect a BIAC in the frequency-steady noise (center frequency = 400 Hz) and two types of frequency-gliding noises (center frequency: between 100 and 1,600 Hz). The duration threshold for detecting the BIAC in frequency-gliding noises was significantly longer than that in the frequency-steady noise (Experiment 1), and the longest interaural delay at which a duration-fixed BIAC (200 ms) in frequency-gliding noises could be detected was significantly shorter than that in the frequency-steady noise (Experiment 2). Although human listeners can detect a BIAC in frequency-gliding noises, their sensitivity to a BIAC in frequency-gliding noises is much lower than that in frequency-steady noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.692785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247655PMC
June 2021

Common Brain Substrates Underlying Auditory Speech Priming and Perceived Spatial Separation.

Front Neurosci 2021 17;15:664985. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Under a "cocktail party" environment, listeners can utilize prior knowledge of the content and voice of the target speech [i.e., auditory speech priming (ASP)] and perceived spatial separation to improve recognition of the target speech among masking speech. Previous studies suggest that these two unmasking cues are not processed independently. However, it is unclear whether the unmasking effects of these two cues are supported by common neural bases. In the current study, we aimed to first confirm that ASP and perceived spatial separation contribute to the improvement of speech recognition interactively in a multitalker condition and further investigate whether there exist intersectant brain substrates underlying both unmasking effects, by introducing these two unmasking cues in a unified paradigm and using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that neural activations by the unmasking effects of ASP and perceived separation partly overlapped in brain areas: the left pars triangularis (TriIFG) and orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral putamen, all of which are involved in the sensorimotor integration and the speech production. The activations of the left TriIFG were correlated with behavioral improvements caused by ASP and perceived separation. Meanwhile, ASP and perceived separation also enhanced the functional connectivity between the left IFG and brain areas related to the suppression of distractive speech signals: the anterior cingulate cortex and the left middle frontal gyrus, respectively. Therefore, these findings suggest that the motor representation of speech is important for both the unmasking effects of ASP and perceived separation and highlight the critical role of the left IFG in these unmasking effects in "cocktail party" environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.664985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247760PMC
June 2021

STING-mediated degradation of IFI16 negatively regulates apoptosis by inhibiting p53 phosphorylation at serine-392.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 30:100930. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Center for Systems Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China; Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, Suzhou 215123, China; Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China;. Electronic address:

Interferon-γ-inducible factor 16 (IFI16) triggers stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent type I interferon (IFN-I) production during host antiviral immunity and facilitates p53-dependent apoptosis during suppressing tumorigenesis. We have previously reported that STING-mediated IFI16 degradation negatively regulates IFN-I production. However, it is unknown whether STING also suppresses IFI16/p53-dependent apoptosis via degradation of IFI16. Here, our results from flow cytometry apoptosis detection and immunoblots assays show that IFI16 and Nutlin-3, a p53 pathway activator, synergistically induce apoptosis in U2OS and A549 cells. Protein kinase R (PKR)-triggered phosphorylation of p53 at serine-392 (Ser392) is critical for the IFI16-p53-dependent apoptosis. However, overexpression of STING suppressed p53 Ser392 phosphorylation, p53 transcriptional activity, p53-target gene expression, and p53-dependent mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis. In summary, our current study demonstrates that STING-mediated IFI16 degradation negatively regulates IFI16 mediated p53-dependent apoptosis in osteosarcoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, which suggests a pro-tumorigenic role for STING in certain cancer types due to its potent ability to degrade upstream IFI16.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100930DOI Listing
June 2021

Covalent Chemistry-Mediated Multimarker Purification of Circulating Tumor Cells Enables Noninvasive Detection of Molecular Signatures of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Adv Mater Technol 2021 May 9;6(5). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

California NanoSystems Institute, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 570 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Transcriptomic profiling of tumor tissues introduces a large database, which has led to improvements in the ability of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. However, performing tumor transcriptomic profiling in the clinical setting is very challenging since the procurement of tumor tissues is inherently limited by invasive sampling procedures. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of purifying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from clinical patient samples with improved molecular integrity using Click Chips in conjunction with a multimarker antibody cocktail. The purified CTCs were then subjected to mRNA profiling by NanoString nCounter platform, targeting 64 HCC-specific genes, which were generated from an integrated data analysis framework with 8 tissue-based prognostic gene signatures from 7 publicly available HCC transcriptomic studies. After bioinformatics analysis and comparison, the HCC CTC-derived gene signatures showed high concordance with HCC tissue-derived gene signatures from TCGA database, suggesting that HCC CTCs purified by Click Chips could enable the translation of HCC tissue molecular profiling into a noninvasive setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/admt.202001056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240468PMC
May 2021

Tracking positive and negative symptom improvement in first-episode schizophrenia treated with risperidone using individual-level functional connectivity.

Brain Connect 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Sichuan,Chengdu 610054, China, chengdu, China, 610054;

Background: To improve the treatment outcomes of patients with schizophrenia, research efforts have focused on identifying brain-based markers of treatment response. Personal characteristics regarding disease-related behaviors likely stem from inter-individual variability in the organization of brain functional systems. This study aimed to track dimension-specific changes in psychotic symptoms following risperidone treatment using individual-level functional connectivity (FC).

Methods: A reliable cortical parcellation approach that accounts for individual heterogeneity in cortical functional anatomy was used to localize functional regions in a longitudinal cohort, consisting of 42 drug-naive first-episodes schizophrenia (FES) patients at baseline and after 8 weeks of risperidone treatment. FC was calculated in individually specified brain regions and used to predict the baseline severity and improvement of positive and negative symptoms in FES.

Results: Distinct sets of individual-specific FC were separately associated with the positive and negative symptom burden at baseline, which could be used to track the corresponding symptom resolution in FES patients following risperidone treatment. Between-network connections of the fronto-parietal network (FPN) contributed the most to predicting the positive symptom domain. A combination of between-network connections of the default mode network, FPN, and within-network connections of the FPN contributed markedly to the prediction model of negative symptom.

Conclusion: This novel study, which accounts for individual brain variation, take a step toward establishing individual-specific theranostic biomarkers in schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/brain.2021.0061DOI Listing
July 2021

Experimental Study on High-Speed Milling of SiCf/SiC Composites with PCD and CVD Diamond Tools.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 22;14(13). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China.

Silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite (SiC/SiC composite) is characterized by a high strength-to-density ratio, high hardness, and high temperature resistance. However, due to the brittleness of the matrix material and the anisotropy of the reinforcing phase, it is a huge challenge for machining of the material. The milling method has advantages of a high material removal rate and applicability to complex surface geometry. However, no published literature on milling of SiC/SiC composite has been found up to now. In this paper, high-speed milling of SiC/SiC composites was carried out under dry conditions and cryogenic cooling using liquid nitrogen, respectively. Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond cutting tools were used for the milling work. The cutting performance of the two kinds of tools in high-speed milling of SiC/SiC composites was studied. Tool failure modes and mechanisms were analyzed. The effects of the cooling approach on tool wear and machined surface quality were also investigated. The experimental results showed that under identical cutting parameters and cooling approaches, the PCD tool yielded better cutting performance in terms of a longer tool life and better surface quality than that of the CVD diamond tool. In dry machining, the failure modes of the CVD diamond tool were a large area of spalling on the rake face, edge chipping and severe tool nose fracture, whereas for the PCD tool, only a small area of spalling around the tool nose took place. Compared to the dry machining, the wear magnitudes of both PCD and CVD diamond tools were decreased in cryogenic machining. Additionally, the surface quality also showed significant improvements. This study indicates that the PCD tool is highly suitable for machining of SiC/SiC composite, and that the cryogenic method can improve machining efficiency and surface quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14133470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269463PMC
June 2021

Effect of Ginger on Chemical Composition, Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Chicken Soup.

Foods 2021 Jun 23;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Jinmailang Food Co., Ltd., Xingtai 054000, China.

In order to investigate the effect of ginger on taste components and sensory characteristics in chicken soup, the content of amino acids, organic acids, 5'-nucleotides, and mineral elements were determined in chicken soup sample. With the ginger added, free amino acids in chicken soup obviously increased and exceeded the total amounts in ginger soup and chicken soup. The content of glutamic acid (122.74 μg/mL) was the highest among 17 free amino acids in ginger chicken soup. Meanwhile, six organic acids detected in chicken soup all obviously increased, among which lactic acid (1523.58 μg/mL) and critic acid (4692.41 μg/mL) exceeded 1000 μg/mL. The content of 5'-nucleotides had no obvious difference between ginger chicken soup and chicken soup. Compared with chicken soup, ginger chicken soup had a smaller particle size (136.43 nm) and color difference (79.69), but a higher viscosity. With ginger added in chicken soup, the content of seven mineral elements was reduced, and the content of total sugar increased. Results from an electronic tongue indicated a difference in taste profiles among the soups. The taste components and sensory quality of chicken soup were obviously affected by adding the ginger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071456DOI Listing
June 2021

Morphological and Phylogenetic Analysis of sp. and Parasitizing the Asian Swamp Eel in China.

Pathogens 2021 Jun 7;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

National Animal Protozoa Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Nematode infections transmitted to humans by the consumption of wild or cultured eels are increasingly being reported. In the present study, 120 Asian swamp eel, (Zuiew), individuals collected from China were examined for parasite infections, and 78 larval nematodes were isolated. Morphological and molecular characteristics, including sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene regions, were employed to identify these nematodes at the lowest taxonomic level possible. Asian swamp eel was infected with two zoonotic parasite taxa: advanced third-stage larvae, with 6.67% prevalence and mean intensity = 1.25, and sp. fourth-stage larvae, with 26.67% prevalence and mean intensity = 2.13. These findings evidence the need to enhance public hygiene and food safety awareness toward eel consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227449PMC
June 2021

Involvement of TIGIT in NK Cell Exhaustion and Immune Escape in Patients and Mouse Model with Liver E. multilocularis Infection.

Hepatology 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment of High Incidence Diseases in Central Asia, Xinjiang Medical University; Clinical Medicine Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal helminthic liver disease caused by persistent infection with Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis). Although more attention has been paid to the immunotolerance of T cells caused by E. multilocularis infection, the role of natural killer (NK) cell, a critical player in liver immunity, is seldom studied. Here, we observed that NK cells from the blood and closed liver tissue (CLT) of AE patients expressed higher level of inhibitory receptor TIGIT, and were functionally exhausted with lower expression of granzyme B, perforin, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Addition of anti-TIGIT mAb into AE patients' PBMC culture significantly enhanced the synthesis of IFN-γ and TNF-α by NK cells, indicating the reversion of exhausted NK cells by TIGIT blockade. In the mouse model of E. multilocularis infection, the liver and splenic TIGIT NK cells progressively increased dependent of infection dosage and timing, they were less activated and less degranulated with lower cytokine secretion. Further, TIGIT deficiency or blockade in vivo inhibited liver metacestode growth, reduced liver injury, and increased level of IFN-γ produced by liver NK cells. Interestingly, NK cells from mice with persistent chronic infection expressed higher level of TIGIT compared to self-healing mice. To look further into the mechanisms, more regulatory CD56 and murine CD49a NK cells with higher TIGIT expression existed in the liver of AE patients and mice infected with E. multilocularis respectively. They co-expressed higher surface PD-L1 and secreted more IL-10, two strong inducers to mediate functional exhaustion of NK cells. Conclusion: our results indicate for the first time, at least to our knowledge, that inhibitory receptor TIGIT is involved in NK cell exhaustion and immune escape from E. multilocularis infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.32035DOI Listing
June 2021

Eutrophication model driven by light and nutrients condition change in sluice-controlled river reaches.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Water Conservancy Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.

River eutrophication has become a challenging environmental problem worldwide because of the strong interference of anthropogenic activities and hydraulic structures. The driving mechanism of algae growth in sluice-controlled river reaches (SCRRs) is more complicated than that of natural rivers, because the operation mode of the sluices is an important influencing factor which changes the light and nutrient conditions of the water body. The main purpose of this study was to assess algal growth in SCRRs under external conditions and sluice regulation. In this study, a eutrophication model for SCRRs was developed based on the mechanism of river hydrodynamics and algae growth kinetics, considering the variation in underwater light intensity and nutrient condition. By choosing the light intensity, phosphorus concentration and sluice gate opening size as the influencing factors, 16 different combination conditions were proposed by orthogonal experimental design, and eutrophication of water bodies in the SCRRs was simulated using a eutrophication model. In the scenario design, four gate opening sizes were set, and the light intensity and nutrients were enlarged or reduced based on the original monitoring data. The results showed that both light intensity and nutrient concentration can promote the algal growth within a suitable range, and increasing the gate opening size can inhibit algal growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15002-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification and Analysis of Long Non-coding RNAs in Adapted to Highly Alkaline Conditions.

Front Physiol 2021 11;12:665268. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin, China.

is a freshwater fish that is known to inhabit the Dali Nor Lake, Inner Mongolia, China. The water in this lake has an HCO /CO concentration of 54 mM (pH 9.6) and a salinity of 0.6‰. The physiological mechanisms that allow this fish to tolerate these saline/alkaline conditions have yet to be elucidated. Transcriptional component analysis has shown that the expression levels of a large number of genes involved in the pathways responsible for osmo-ionoregulation and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway expression change significantly ( < 0.05) during the regulation of acid-base balance under high alkaline stress. In this study, we investigated the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) during adaptation to high alkaline conditions. Fish were challenged to an NaHCO-adjusted alkalinity of 0 mM, 30 mM (pH 9.44 ± 0.08), and 50 mM (pH 9.55 ± 0.06) for 20 days in the laboratory. Gill and kidney tissues were then collected for high-throughput sequencing assays. A total of 159 million clean reads were obtained by high-throughput sequencing, and 41,248 lncRNA transcripts were identified. Of these, the mean number of exons and the mean length of the lncRNA transcripts were 4.8 and 2,079 bp, respectively. Based on the analysis of differential lncRNA transcript expression, a total of 5,244 and 6,571 lncRNA transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the gills and kidneys, respectively. Results derived from Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of the coding genes were correlated with the lncRNA expression profiles. GO analysis showed that many lncRNAs were enriched in the following processes: "transporter activity," "response to stimulus," and "binding." KEGG analysis further revealed that metabolic pathways were significantly enriched. A random selection of 16 lncRNA transcripts was tested by RT-qPCR; these results were consistent with our sequencing results. We found that a large number of genes, with the same expression profiles as those with differentially expressed lncRNAs, were associated with the regulation of acid-base balance, ion transport, and the excretion of ammonia and nitrogen. Collectively, our data indicate that lncRNA-regulated gene expression plays an important role in the process of adaptation to high alkaline conditions in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.665268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232936PMC
June 2021

Effects of ODC on polyamine metabolism, hormone levels, cell proliferation and apoptosis in goose ovarian granulosa cells.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 28;100(8):101226. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) plays an indispensable role in the process of polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines are a pivotal part of living cells and have diverse roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, aging and reproduction. However, to date, there have been no reports about ODC regulating follicular development in goose ovaries. Here, we constructed ODC siRNA and overexpression plasmids and transfected them into goose primary granulosa cells (GCs) to elucidate the effects of ODC interference and overexpression on the polyamine metabolism, hormone levels, cell apoptosis and proliferation of granulosa cells. After interfering with ODC in GCs, the mRNA and protein levels of ODC and the content of putrescine were greatly decreased (P < 0.05). When ODC was overexpressed, ODC mRNA and protein levels and putrescine content were greatly increased (P < 0.05). The polyamine-metabolizing enzyme genes ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1) and spermidine / spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) were significantly increased, and spermidine synthase (SPDS) was significantly decreased when ODC was downregulated (P < 0.05). OAZ1, SPDS and SSAT were significantly increased when ODC was upregulated (P < 0.05). In addition, after interference with ODC, progesterone (P4) levels in the culture medium of GCs increased greatly (P < 0.05), while the overexpression of ODC caused the P4 level to decrease significantly (P < 0.05). After ODC downregulation, granulosa cell activity was significantly reduced, the apoptosis rate was significantly increased, and the BCL-2 / BAX ratio was downregulated (P < 0.05). Under ODC overexpression, the activity of GCs was notably increased, the apoptosis rate was significantly reduced, and the BCL-2 / BAX protein ratio was upregulated (P < 0.05). Our study successfully induced ODC interference and overexpression in goose ovarian GCs, and ODC regulated mainly putrescine content in GCs with a slight influence on spermidine and spermine. Moreover, ODC participated in the adjustment of P4 levels in the culture medium of GCs, promoted granulosa cell proliferation and inhibited granulosa cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254008PMC
April 2021

Gender Bias in the Evaluation of Surgical Performance: Results of a Prospective Randomized Trial.

Ann Surg 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Department of Academic Analytics and Technology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: The study aims to determine the influence of trainee gender on assessments of coronary anastomosis performance.

Summary Background Data: Understanding the impact of gender bias on the evaluation of trainees may enable us to identify and utilize assessment tools that are less susceptible to potential bias.

Methods: Cardiothoracic surgeons were randomized to review the video performance of trainees who were described by either male or female pronouns. All participants viewed the same video of a coronary anastomosis and were asked to grade technique using either a Checklist or Global Rating Scale (GRS). Effect of trainee gender on scores by respondent demographic was evaluated using regression analyses. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using the Cronbach's alpha.

Results: 103 cardiothoracic surgeons completed the Checklist (trainee gender: male n=50, female n=53) and 112 completed the GRS (trainee gender: male n=56, female n=56). For the Checklist, male cardiothoracic surgeons who were in practice <10 years (p=0.036) and involved in training residents (p=0.049) were more likely to score male trainees higher than female trainees. The GRS demonstrated high inter-rater reliability across male and female trainees by years and scope of practice for the respondent (alpha >0.900) when compared to the Checklist assessment tool.

Conclusions: Early career male surgeons may exhibit gender bias against women when evaluating trainee performance of coronary anastomoses. The GRS demonstrates higher inter-rater reliability and robustness against gender bias in the assessment of technical performance than the Checklist, and such scales should be emphasized in educational evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000005015DOI Listing
June 2021