Publications by authors named "Li Guo"

1,576 Publications

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Cancer risk in tuberculosis patients in a high endemic area.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 9;21(1):679. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, No. 270, Dong'an Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) may facilitate carcinogenesis. We performed a case-control study of the association between TB and cancer in Xinjiang, a high TB endemic area of China.

Methods: From January 2016 to December 2018, a total of 45,455 patients hospitalized in Xinjiang Cancer Hospital were consecutively enrolled and divided into a malignant tumor group (n = 32,539) and a benign tumor group (n = 12,916). Patients with active and previous TB before the diagnosis of cancer were retrospectively identified in the two groups.

Results: A significantly higher proportion of TB was found in the malignant tumor group (n = 1776, 5.46%) than in the control (benign tumor) group (n = 175, 1.35%) (p < 0.0001). The highest and lowest proportions of TB in the malignant group were in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (16.74%) and thyroid cancer (0.77%), respectively. In multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, TB remained an independent risk factor for all cancers (odds ratio (OR) 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-1.97). Furthermore, TB was associated with a significantly higher risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cervical cancer, esophageal cancer, "other" cancers, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. Moreover, females with TB were more likely to develop cancer than males (p < 0.0001), except for esophageal cancer and lymphoma.

Conclusion: TB patients have an elevated cancer risk. A screening strategy for TB should be taken into consideration before treatment in patients with some cancer types that are associated with a high proportion of TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08391-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Rapid controlled synthesis of gold-platinum nanorods with excellent photothermal properties under 808 nm excitation.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2021 17;12:462-472. Epub 2021 May 17.

MicroNano System Research Center, College of Information and Computer & Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi, China.

Noble metal nanomaterials are particularly suitable as photothermal transduction agents (PTAs) with high photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) due to local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Studies on different gold-platinum (Au-Pt) bimetal nanoparticles exhibiting the LSPR effect have provided a new idea for the synthesis of excellent PTAs. But there is no simple and scalable method for the controllable synthesis of Au-Pt nanoparticles with adjustable LSPR wavelength range. In this work, the effects of Ag and KPtCl on the deposition of Pt on the surface of gold nanorods (AuNRs) were investigated. A fast, precise, and controlled synthesis of dumbbell-like Pt-coated AuNRs ([email protected] NRs) under mild conditions is proposed. The synthesized [email protected] NRs have a longitudinal LSPR wavelength of 812 nm, which is very close to a common laser wavelength of 808 nm. The [email protected] NRs exhibit excellent photothermal properties when irradiated with a laser. The temperature increased by more than 36 °C after irradiation for 10 min, with a PCE of about 78.77%, which is much higher than that of AuNRs (57.33%). In addition, even after four on/off cycles, the [email protected] NRs are able to maintain the photothermal properties and retain their optical properties, indicating that they have excellent photothermal stability and reusability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.12.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144918PMC
May 2021

[Relationship between Reference Interval Establishment and Clinical Evaluation in Quantitative Diagnostic Reagents].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2021 Jun;45(3):326-329

Jiangsu Bioperfectus Technology Co. Ltd., Taizhou, 225300.

Reference interval study and clinical evaluation are crucial supportive researches to demonstrate the intended use of quantitative diagnostic reagents. The process of determining reference interval, as well as the problems found frequently in clinical evaluation, are discussed here, and the links between them are analyzed from the aspects of product's traceability, intended use and group design. Further, some suggestions are offered in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2021.03.020DOI Listing
June 2021

Analysis of the Effect of Incentive Nursing Intervention in Children with Severe Viral Encephalitis and Myocarditis during Rehabilitation Based on Diffusion Weighted MRI.

J Healthc Eng 2021 13;2021:9993264. Epub 2021 May 13.

Bakhtar University, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Background: Severe viral encephalitis in children causes a viral infection that damages their central nervous system. This situation arises the mental abnormalities, sudden rise in body temperature, disturbance of consciousness, and so forth in children, which can be life-threatening.

Objective: This work aimed at exploring the effect of diffusion weighted MRI on children with severe viral encephalitis and myocarditis.

Methods: This work presents a diffusion weighted MRI scanning method that involves scanning through a serial imaging device, axial scanning, and sagittal and coronal scanning. 60 children with severe viral encephalitis and myocarditis who admitted to Brain Hospital of Hunan Province from April 2017 to May 2020 were deemed as research subjects. All the children underwent CT and MRI examination, blood routine examination, and cerebrospinal fluid examination after admission. This work uses the random number table method to classify the subjects into control group and observation group, each consisting of 30 cases. Children in the control group were provided with the routine nursing intervention, whereas children in the observation group were subjected to incentive nursing intervention. The baseline data, ECG monitoring indicators, body abnormalities, and clinical symptom relief time of the two groups of children were compared and the results of diffusion weighted MRI scans were analyzed and the ADC values were counted.

Results: The two groups of children were compared on the basis of baseline data, and the variation was not statistically substantial ( > 0.05). The cases of children in the control group had higher heart rate and respiration, and physical dysfunction, language dysfunction, unconsciousness, and nervous dysfunction were more than those in the observation group. However, the cases of blood oxygen saturation were less than those of the observation group. After nursing intervention done for the control group, remission time of clinical symptoms such as convulsion, physical dysfunction, unconsciousness, and nerve dysfunction was longer relative to the observation group (all < 0.05 are considered).

Conclusion: The diffusion weighted MRI had diagnostic significance for severe viral encephalitis and myocarditis. For children with severe viral encephalitis and myocarditis, clinical incentive nursing intervention was particularly imperative. It can not only help children to relieve symptoms and control the deterioration of the disease in a short time but also help improve the quality of life of the children and the confidence of family members to cope with the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9993264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140845PMC
May 2021

An Ensemble Broad Learning Scheme for Semisupervised Vehicle Type Classification.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 4;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Nowadays vehicle type classification is a fundamental part of intelligent transportation systems (ITSs) and is widely used in various applications like traffic flow monitoring, security enforcement, and autonomous driving, etc. However, vehicle classification is usually used in supervised learning, which greatly limits the applicability for real ITS. This article proposes a semisupervised vehicle type classification scheme via ensemble broad learning for ITS. This presented method contains two main parts. In the first part, a collection of base broad learning system (BLS) classifiers is trained by semisupervised learning to avoid time-consuming training process and alleviate the increasingly unlabeled samples burden. In the second part, a dynamic ensemble structure constructed by trained classifier groups with different characteristics obtains the highest type probability and determine which the vehicle belongs, so as to achieve superior generalization performance than a single base classifier. Several experiments conducted on the pubic BIT-Vehicle dataset and MIO-TCD dataset demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms single BLS classifier and some mainstream methods on effectiveness and efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3083508DOI Listing
June 2021

Large-area Piezoelectric Single Crystal Composites via 3D-printing Assisted Dice-and-insert Technology for Hydrophone Applications.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Jun 4;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Compared with Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramics, piezoelectric ceramic composites (PCCs), and piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer, piezoelectric single crystal composites (PSCCs) are thought to be promising candidates for hydrophone applications because of their superior hydrostatic performance. However, due to the brittleness and small dimensions of single crystals, the preparation of large-area or conformal PSCCs is to be challenged. Herein, we prepared a large-area PSCC with dimensions of 50 mm × 50 mm × 5 mm using 3D-printing assisted dice-and-insert technology. The hydrostatic piezoelectric performances for PSCC were investigated using a quasi-static method. The hydrostatic figure-of-merit (HFOM) of PSCC is approximately 1469×10-15 m2/N, which is higher by 69.4% than that of PCC. Furthermore, PSCC shows advantages in the dielectric loss, frequency constant, electromechanical coupling coefficient and hydrostatic pressure stability. The results suggest that PSCCs have great potential in substantially improving the sensitivity of hydrophones. In addition, 3D-printing assisted dice-and-insert technology breaks through the restriction of as-grown piezoelectric crystal size so as to make it possible for the applications where large-scale piezoelectric composites are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3085842DOI Listing
June 2021

GPER1 Modulates Synaptic Plasticity During the Development of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Rats.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Diseases, Incubation Base of the National Key Laboratory, Ningxia Medical University, 1160 Shengli Street, Yinchuan, 750001, Ningxia, China.

G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) is a novel type of estrogen receptor. Several studies have shown that it has an anti-inflammatory action,which plays an important role in remyelination and cognitive ability adjustment. However, whether it is involved in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is still unknown. The present study established a TLE model by intraperitoneal injection of lithium chloride (3 mmol/kg) and pilocarpine (50 mg/kg) in rats to study the effect of GPER1 in the synaptic plasticity during the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. A microinjection cannula was implanted into the lateral ventricle region of rats via a stereotaxic instrument. G-1 is the specific GPER1 agonist and G15 is the specific GPER1 antagonist. The G1 or G15 and Dimethyl sulfoxide were injected into the rat brains in the intervention groups and control group, respectively. After G1 intervention, the learning and memory abilities and hippocampal neuron damage in epileptic rats were significantly improved, while G15 weakened the neuroprotective effect of GPER1. Meanwhile, G1 controlled the abnormal formation of hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting caused by seizures, and participated in the regulation of synaptic plasticity by reducing the expression of Synapsin I and increasing the expression of gephyrin. Inhibitory synapse gephyrin may play a significant role in synaptic plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03336-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Caused Protein Damage in Methicillin-Resistant Cells in Biofilms.

Microorganisms 2021 May 17;9(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Frank Reidy Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23508, USA.

Biofilms formed by multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is attractive for sterilization, especially to disrupt biofilms formed by multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. In this study, CAP effectively reduced the living cells in the biofilms formed by methicillin-resistant , and 6 min treatment with CAP reduced the cells in biofilms by 3.5 log. The treatment with CAP caused the polymerization of SaFtsZ and SaClpP proteins in the cells of the biofilms. In vitro analysis demonstrated that recombinant SaFtsZ lost its self-assembly capability, and recombinant SaClpP lost its peptidase activity after 2 min of treatment with CAP. Mass spectrometry showed oxidative modifications of a cluster of peaks differing by 16 Da, 31 Da, 32 Da, 47 Da, 48 Da, 62 Da, and 78 Da, induced by reactive species of CAP. It is speculated that the oxidative damage to proteins in cells was induced by CAP, which contributed to the reduction of biofilms. This study elucidates the biological effect of CAP on the proteins in bacterial cells of biofilms and provides a basis for the application of CAP in the disinfection of biofilms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156483PMC
May 2021

Glucose and Triphenylphosphonium Co-Modified Redox-Sensitive Liposomes to Synergistically Treat Glioma with Doxorubicin and Lonidamine.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Glioma is one of the most lethal and complex tumors, and thus, an effective drug delivery system must selectively target the tumor sites and release its cargos in a controlled manner. For the first time, we combined chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) and chemosensitizer lonidamine (LND) to synergistically treat glioma. We also designed and prepared multitargeted redox-sensitive liposomes (Lip-SPG) co-modified with glucose and triphenylphosphonium (TPP) to effectively deliver DOX and LND for anti-glioma therapy. The anti-glioma evaluation shows that DOX and LND have a synergistic effect and Lip-SPG could further enhance their cooperation. , Lip-SPG could increase the cellular uptake and mitochondrial uptake on bEnd.3 cells and C6 cells with multitargeting ability on the brain, tumor, and mitochondria mediated by glucose and TPP. Lip-SPG can also escape from lysosomes before entering the mitochondria. The anti-glioma efficacy shows that Lip-SPG can inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In addition, Lip-SPG have a remarkable interference to mitochondria, such as reducing intracellular ATP production, inducing ROS generation, and promoting mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. Furthermore, , the introduction of PEGylation via glutathione-sensitive disulfide bonds endows Lip-SPG with favorable pharmacokinetic properties, brain targeting ability, low toxicity to normal tissues, and great anti-glioma efficacy with the survival time extended from 19 to 39 days. In conclusion, Lip-SPG are an effective delivery system for synergistically treating glioma with DOX and LND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02404DOI Listing
June 2021

A novel decision tree model based on chromosome imbalances in cell-free DNA and CA-125 in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

Int J Biol Markers 2021 May 31:1724600821992356. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Gynecology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: CA-125 is widely used as biomarker of ovarian cancer. However, CA-125 suffers low accuracy. We developed a hybrid analytical model, the Ovarian Cancer Decision Tree (OCDT), employing a two-layer decision tree, which considers genetic alteration information from cell-free DNA along with CA-125 value to distinguish malignant tumors from benign tumors.

Methods: We consider major copy number alterations at whole chromosome and chromosome-arm level as the main feature of our detection model. Fifty-eight patients diagnosed with malignant tumors, 66 with borderline tumors, and 10 with benign tumors were enrolled.

Results: Genetic analysis revealed significant arm-level imbalances in most malignant tumors, especially in high-grade serous cancers in which 12 chromosome arms with significant aneuploidy (<0.01) were identified, including 7 arms with significant gains and 5 with significant losses. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.8985 for copy number variations analysis, compared to 0.8751 of CA125. The OCDT was generated with a cancerous score (CScore) threshold of 5.18 for the first level, and a CA-125 value of 103.1 for the second level. Our most optimized OCDT model achieved an AUC of 0.975.

Conclusions: The results suggested that genetic variations extracted from cfDNA can be combined with CA-125, and together improved the differential diagnosis of malignant from benign ovarian tumors. The model would aid in the pre-operative assessment of women with adnexal masses. Future clinical trials need to be conducted to further evaluate the value of CScore in clinical settings and search for the optimal threshold for malignancy detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1724600821992356DOI Listing
May 2021

Efficient and accurate identification of ear diseases using an ensemble deep learning model.

Sci Rep 2021 May 25;11(1):10839. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Mathematics and Systems Science, Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, Guangzhou, 510665, China.

Early detection and appropriate medical treatment are of great use for ear disease. However, a new diagnostic strategy is necessary for the absence of experts and relatively low diagnostic accuracy, in which deep learning plays an important role. This paper puts forward a mechanic learning model which uses abundant otoscope image data gained in clinical cases to achieve an automatic diagnosis of ear diseases in real time. A total of 20,542 endoscopic images were employed to train nine common deep convolution neural networks. According to the characteristics of the eardrum and external auditory canal, eight kinds of ear diseases were classified, involving the majority of ear diseases, such as normal, Cholestestoma of the middle ear, Chronic suppurative otitis media, External auditory cana bleeding, Impacted cerumen, Otomycosis external, Secretory otitis media, Tympanic membrane calcification. After we evaluate these optimization schemes, two best performance models are selected to combine the ensemble classifiers with real-time automatic classification. Based on accuracy and training time, we choose a transferring learning model based on DensNet-BC169 and DensNet-BC1615, getting a result that each model has obvious improvement by using these two ensemble classifiers, and has an average accuracy of 95.59%. Considering the dependence of classifier performance on data size in transfer learning, we evaluate the high accuracy of the current model that can be attributed to large databases. Current studies are unparalleled regarding disease diversity and diagnostic precision. The real-time classifier trains the data under different acquisition conditions, which is suitable for real cases. According to this study, in the clinical case, the deep learning model is of great use in the early detection and remedy of ear diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90345-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149397PMC
May 2021

The effect of SOX4 gene 3'UTR polymorphisms on osteoporosis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 May 18;16(1):321. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Orthopedics, Zibo Central Hospital, 54 West Gongqingtuan Road, Zibo, 255036, Shandong, China.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the correlation between the SRY-related high-mobility-group box gene 4 (SOX4) 3' untranslated region (UTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and osteoporosis susceptibility.

Methods: The study recruited 330 osteoporosis patients (the case group) and 330 non-osteoporosis patients (the control group) in Sichuan Chengdu First People's Hospital and Zibo Central Hospital from August 2016 to August 2019. Sanger sequencing was used to analyze the genotypes of SOX4 gene rs79958549, rs139085828, and rs201335371 loci. Multi-factor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to analyze the interaction between the SOX4 gene rs79958549, rs139085828, and rs201335371 loci and the clinical characteristics of the subjects.

Results: The risk of osteoporosis in the carriers of A allele at SOX4 rs79958549 was 5.40 times that in the carriers of the G allele (95% CI 3.25-8.96, P < 0.01). The risk of osteoporosis in the carriers of the A allele at SOX4 rs139085828 was 1.68 times that in the carriers of the G allele (95% CI 1.45-1.85, P < 0.01). The risk of osteoporosis in the carriers of the T allele at SOX4 rs201335371 was 0.54 times that in the carriers of the C allele (95% CI 0.43-0.69, P < 0.01). The SOX4 gene rs79958549, rs139085828, and rs201335371 A-A-C haplotype (OR = 5.14, 95% CI 2.45-10.57, P < 0.01) were associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and G-G-T haplotype was significantly associated with decreased risk of osteoporosis (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.38-0.62, P < 0.01). The interaction among the factors of sex, smoking, drinking, rs79958549, rs201335371 was the best model for osteoporosis prediction, and the risk for osteoporosis in 'high-risk combination' was 2.74 times that of 'low-risk combination' (95% CI 1.01-7.43, P = 0.04). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for osteoporosis were BMD (OR = 5.85, 95% CI 2.88-8.94, P < 0.01), T score (OR = 8.54, 95% CI 5.66-10.49, P < 0.01), Z score (OR = 3.77, 95% CI 2.15-8.50, P < 0.01), rs79958549 SNP (OR = 6.92, 95% CI 3.58-8.93, P < 0.01), and rs139085828 SNP (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.85-4.27, P < 0.01). The protective factor for osteoporosis was rs201335371SNP (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.32-0.75, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: The SOX4 gene SNPs rs79958549, rs139085828, and rs201335371 loci were significantly associated with osteoporosis risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02454-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130251PMC
May 2021

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Protects Against Cognitive Impairment Caused by Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has beneficial effects in learning and memory. However, the mechanism by which PACAP improves cognitive impairment of vascular dementia (VaD) is not clear.

Methods: We established a VaD model by bilateral common carotid stenosis (BCAS) to investigate the molecular mechanism of cognitive impairment. Protein levels of PACAP, Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) were assessed by Western blot. In vitro, oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) was used to simulate the ischemia/hypoxia state. HT22 cells were transfected with Sirt3 knockdown and overexpression to study the relationship between PACAP, Sirt3, and BDNF. In vivo, PACAP was administered intranasally to assess its protective effects on BCAS.

Results: The study showed that the levels of PACAP, Sirt3, BDNF, and PSD-95 were decreased in the BCAS model of VaD. PACAP increased the protein levels of Sirt3, BDNF, PSD-95, Bcl-2, and Bax under OGD condition in vitro. Sirt3 regulated BDNF and synaptic plasticity. Intranasal PACAP increased the protein levels of PAC1, Sirt3, BDNF, and PSD-95 in vivo.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that PACAP regulates synaptic plasticity and plays an antiapoptotic role through Sirt3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02381-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Comprehensive Analysis of Myeloid Signature Genes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Predict the Prognosis and Immune Infiltration.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:659184. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Myeloid cells are a major heterogeneous cell population in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). Imbalance of myeloid response remains a major obstacle to a favorable prognosis and successful immune therapy. Therefore, we aimed to construct a risk model to evaluate the myeloid contexture, which may facilitate the prediction of prognosis and immune infiltration in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In our study, six myeloid signature genes (including , , , , and ) analyzed from 52 differentially expressed myeloid signature genes were finally pooled to establish a prognostic risk model, termed as myeloid gene score (MGS) in a training cohort and validated in a test cohort and an independent external cohort. Furthermore, based on the MGS subgroups, we were able to effectively identify patients with a poor prognosis, aggressive clinical parameters, immune cell infiltration status and immunotherapy response. Thus, MGS may serve as an effective prognostic signature and predictive indicator for immunotherapy response in patients with HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.659184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116959PMC
April 2021

Reconfigurable magnetic near-field distributions based on the coding metasurfaces in MHz band.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(9):13908-13924

Magnetic near-field control has attracted extensive attention and have a wide range of applications in filters, sensors, and energy-transfer devices. Coding metamaterial has the convenience of miniaturization and integration, which not only provides a bridge between physics and information science, but also exploits a whole new perspective for magnetic near-field control. In this work, we theoretically propose and experimentally verify that the coding metasurface can realize the reconfigurable magnetic near-field distributions. By adjusting the digital voltage signals which drive the resonant units of metasurface, capacitance of the resonator can be dynamically controlled, thus the dynamic modulation of magnetic near-field distribution can be achieved. Specially, this magnetic near-field control can be explained with the help of coupled mode theory and coherent superposition method. Moreover, simulated annealing algorithm is employed to determine working frequency of the whole modulation system, which can avoid time-consuming frequency scanning process. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated results. This work reveals the significant potential of coding metasurface for the experimental study of the magnetic near-field control and promotes the use of metasurface for numerous integrated functional devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.424234DOI Listing
April 2021

In situ fabrication of BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction photocatalyst for simultaneous photocatalytic phenol degradation and Cr(VI) reduction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Oct 28;599:741-751. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yan'an University, Yan'an 716000, PR China; Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, School of Xingfa Mining Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073, PR China. Electronic address:

In this work, we designed a novel BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction photocatalyst and successfully fabricated by a facile solvothermal-calcination approach. Experimental characterizations indicated that the formation of BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction was caused by controlling oxygen vacancies formation. Such BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction exhibits about 240 times higher photocatalytic activity towards phenol degradation as compared with pure BiMoO under visible light irradiation. Similarly, for a co-existed phenol and Cr(VI) model system, BiMoO/BiMoO-catalyzed the photodegradation of phenol and the reduction of Cr(VI) simultaneously occur, and BiMoO/BiMoO homojunction also displays a superior photocatalytic activity, that is 4 and 8 times higher than pure BiMoO, respectively. The remarkably boosted photocatalytic activity could be attributed primarily to the highly efficient separation of photogenerated electrons/holes due to the homojunction and the synergistic effect between phenol oxidation and Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, the present insight provides an effective strategy for designing and preparing highly active photocatalysts with the incorporation of oxygen vacancies modulation and applying for environmental remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.04.122DOI Listing
October 2021

Ponesimod modulates the Th1/Th17/Treg cell balance and ameliorates disease in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Jul 23;356:577583. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Key Laboratory of Hebei Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) plays an important role in autoimmune disease. Here, we evaluated whether ponesimod, an S1P1 modulator, affects inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and investigated Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cell subsets. Ponesimod treatment ameliorated EAE and alleviated inflammatory infiltration. Compared with untreated EAE, ponesimod-treated mice had lower Th1 and Th17 cell numbers and higher Treg cell numbers; their IFN-γ, T-bet, IL-17, and RORγt levels as well as their pmTOR/mTOR ratio were diminished, while their TGF-β and Foxp3 levels were enhanced. These results suggest that ponesimod modulates the Th1/Th17/Treg balance and regulates the mTOR pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577583DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of Polyvascular Disease and Elevated Interleukin-6 With Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.

Front Neurol 2021 13;12:661779. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Polyvascular disease (PolyVD) and interleukin (IL)-6 are associated with poor outcomes in patients with stroke respectively. However, whether combined PolyVD and elevated IL-6 levels would increase the risk of poor outcomes of stroke patients is yet unclear. Data were obtained from the Third China National Stroke Registry (CNSR-III). PolyVD was defined as acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) with coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Patients were divided into four groups according to the combination of vascular beds number (non-PolyVD or PolyVD) and IL-6 levels (IL-6 < 2.64 pg/mL or IL-6 ≥ 2.64 pg/mL). The primary outcome was a recurrent stroke at 1-year follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to identify the association of the combined effect of PolyVD and IL-6 with the prognosis of patients. A total of 10,773 patients with IL-6 levels and 1-year follow-up were included. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 9.87% during the 1-year follow-up. Compared to non-PolyVD and IL-6<2.64 pg/mL patients, patients had non-PolyVD with IL-6 ≥ 2.64 pg/mL (HR 1.245 95%CI 1.072-1.446; < 0.001) and PolyVD with IL-6 <2.64 pg/mL (HR 1.251 95%CI 1.002-1.563; = 0.04) were associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke during 1-year follow-up. Likewise, patients with PolyVD and IL-6 ≥ 2.64 pg/mL (HR 1.290; 95% CI 1.058-1.572; = 0.01) had the highest risk of recurrent stroke at 1-year follow-up among groups. PolyVD and elevated IL-6 levels are both associated with poor outcomes in patients with AIS or TIA. Moreover, the combination of them increases the efficiency of stroke risk stratification compared with when used alone. More attention and intensive treatment should be given to those patients with both PolyVD and elevated IL-6 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.661779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076541PMC
April 2021

Comparative Analysis of Ethylene/Diene Copolymerization and Ethylene/Propylene/Diene Terpolymerization Using Ansa-Zirconocene Catalyst with Alkylaluminum/Borate Activator: The Effect of Conjugated and Nonconjugated Dienes on Catalytic Behavior and Polymer Microstructure.

Molecules 2021 Apr 2;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Research School of Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

The copolymerization of ethylene‒diene conjugates (butadiene (BD), isoprene (IP) and nonconjugates (5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB), vinyl norbornene VNB, 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) and 1, 4-hexadiene (HD)), and terpolymerization of ethylene-propylene-diene conjugates (BD, IP) and nonconjugates (ENB, VNB, VCH and HD) using two traditional catalysts of C-symmetric metallocene-silylene-bridged rac-MeSi(2-Me-4-Ph-Ind)ZrCl (complex A) and ethylene-bridged rac-Et(Ind)ZrCl (complex B)-with a [PhC][B(CF)] borate/TIBA co-catalyst, were intensively studied. Compared to that in the copolymerization of ethylene diene, the catalytic activity was more significant in E/P/diene terpolymerization. We obtained a maximum yield of both metallocene catalysts with conjugated diene between 3.00 × 10 g/mol·h and 5.00 × 10 g/mol·h. ENB had the highest deactivation impact on complex A, and HD had the most substantial deactivation effect on complex B. A H NMR study suggests that dienes were incorporated into the co/ter polymers' backbone through regioselectivity. ENB and VNB, inserted by the edo double bond, left the ethylidene double bond intact, so VCH had an exo double bond. Complex A's methyl and phenyl groups rendered it structurally stable and exhibited a dihedral angle greater than that of complex B, resulting in 1, 2 isoprene insertion higher than 1, 4 isoprene that is usually incapable of polymerization coordination. High efficiency in terms of co- and ter- monomer incorporation with higher molecular weight was found for complex 1. The rate of incorporation of ethylene and propylene in the terpolymer backbone structure may also be altered by the conjugated and nonconjugated dienes. C-NMR, H-NMR, and GPC techniques were used to characterize the polymers obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26072037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038244PMC
April 2021

Preparation and characterization of selenium-rich polysaccharide from Phellinus igniarius and its effects on wound healing.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 24;264:117982. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Proteins and Peptides Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shandong Universities Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceuticals, School of Life Science and Technology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, 261053, China. Electronic address:

The modified of polysaccharides show various bio-activities. In our work, Phellinus igniarius Selenium-enriched mycelias polysaccharides (PSeP) were prepared from Phellinus igniarius, and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on injured mice were evaluated. The selenium content and physical properties of polysaccharides were characterized by GC, HPGPC, and FT-IR analysis. The results showed that PSeP could reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Meanwhile, it increased the enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT). Finally, it showed obvious wound healing effects in vivo. Moreover, PSeP could clear the ROS without obvious cytotoxicity. PSeP could further improve its ability to clear ROS level to promote skin wound healing in mice three days in advance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117982DOI Listing
July 2021

Homoploid F1 hybrids and segmental allotetraploids of rice subspecies are similarly more tolerant to N-deficiency than are parental lines.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of the Ministry of Education (MOE), Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

Whether merger of two divergent genomes by hybridization at the homoploid level or coupled with WGD (allopolyploidy) can bestow plants better tolerance to stress conditions remains understudied. In this study, two diploid rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, japonica, and indica, their reciprocal F1 hybrids and segmental allotetraploids were compared for phenotypic performance and gene expression under normal and nitrogen (N)-deficient conditions. We found that F1 hybrids and tetraploids showed higher tolerance at similar levels than did either parent. In parallel, total expression levels of 18 relevant functional genes were less perturbed by nitrogen deficiency in F1 hybrids and tetraploids than in the parents. This is consistent with stable intrinsic partitioning of allelic/homoeologous expression defined by parental legacy in the homoploid F1 hybrids/tetraploids between the two conditions. Our results suggest that genetic additivity at both the homoploid level or allopolyploidy may lead to similar beneficial phenotypic responses to nitrogen stress compared with their parents. The lack of synergistic responses to nitrogen limitation concomitant with WGD, relative to that exhibited by F1 hybrids, adds new empirical evidence in support of the emerging notion that hybridization by itself may play a significant role in plant adaptive evolution in times of stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab184DOI Listing
April 2021

The association between rosacea and the condition of low tolerance to skincare of the facial skin: a case-control study in China.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Dermatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Patients with rosacea often complained of low tolerance to skincare.

Aim: To examine if the preexisted low tolerance to skincare is associated with rosacea the occurrence of the Chinese population.

Methods: A retrospective case-control survey of 997 rosacea cases and 1012 skin-healthy controls was carried out in China. Low tolerance to skincare was evaluated based on the history of facial skin allergic reactions related to skincare in the past 5 years before the onset of rosacea. A comparative analysis was performed between the case and control groups by the chi-square test and the logistic regression analysis.

Results: History of facial skin allergic reaction due to skin care products (OR = 5.110, 95% CI = 3.893-6.706) and skin care in beauty salons (OR = 3.002, 95% CI = 1.506-5.981) both presented a positive correlations with the occurrence of rosacea. Facial masks and cosmetics were two of the most common products causing facial allergic reaction. The OR values increased with the increased frequency of allergic reactions related to facial mask and cosmetics. In addition, the history of facial skin allergic reaction had a significantly associated with the severity of self-reported symptoms of rosacea including dryness, burning, stinging and itching.

Conclusions: The condition of low tolerance of the facial skin to skincare was closely associated with the occurrence of rosacea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14178DOI Listing
April 2021

Platelet MHC Class I Mediates CD8+ T Cell Suppression During Sepsis.

Blood 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, United States.

Circulating platelets interact with leukocytes to modulate host immune and thrombotic responses. In sepsis, platelet-leukocyte interactions are increased, and have been associated with adverse clinical events, including increased platelet-T cell interactions. Sepsis is associated with reduced CD8+ T cell numbers and functional responses, but whether platelets regulate CD8+ T cell responses during sepsis remains unknown. In our current study, we systemically evaluated platelet antigen internalization and presentation through major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and their effects on antigen specific CD8+ T cells in sepsis in vivo and ex vivo. We discovered that both human and murine platelets internalize and proteolyze exogenous antigens, generating peptides that are loaded onto MHC-I. The expression of platelet MHC-I, but not platelet MHC-II, is significantly increased in human and murine platelets during sepsis and in human megakaryocytes stimulated with agonists generated systemically during sepsis (e.g., IFN-g and LPS). Upregulation of platelet MHC-I during sepsis increases antigen cross-presentation and interactions with CD8+ T cells in an antigen-specific manner. Using a platelet lineage specific MHC-I deficient mouse strain (B2mf/f--Pf4Cre), we demonstrate that platelet MHC-I regulates antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro, as well as the number and functional responses of CD8+ T cells in vivo during sepsis. Loss of platelet MHC-I reduced sepsis-associated mortality in mice in an antigen specific setting. These data identify a new mechanism by which platelets, through MHC-I, process and cross-present antigens, engage antigen specific CD8+ T cells, and regulate CD8+ T cell number, functional responses, and outcomes during sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008958DOI Listing
April 2021

Functionalised molybdenum disulfide nanosheets for co-delivery of doxorubicin and siRNA for combined chemo/gene/photothermal therapy on multidrug-resistant cancer.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Pharmaceutical College, Guangxi Medical University, No. 22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning 530021, Guangxi, China.

Objective: Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been developed for medical uses due to its excellent medically beneficial characteristics. This research was designed to develop a multifunctional nano-drug delivery system based on the nano-structure of MoS2 for combined chemo/gene/photothermal therapy targeting multidrug-resistant cancer.

Methods: MoS2 nanosheets were prepared by a hydrothermal reaction and modified. Afterward, the nanocarrier was characterised. In vitro cytotoxicity of the drug delivery systems on human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines was assessed.

Key Findings: The nanocarrier was a flake-like structure with a uniform hydrodynamic diameter and possessing good colloidal stability. The nanocarrier showed the capacity to be deployed for co-delivery of Doxorubicin (DOX) and siRNA. The release of DOX could be triggered and enhanced by pH and application of near-infrared (NIR) laser. The nanocarrier had a good photothermic response and stability. The nanocarrier had little effect on the cells and exhibited good biocompatibility. Measurement of the therapeutic efficacy showed that synergistic therapy combining chemo-, gene- and photothermal therapy deploying this drug delivery system will achieve a better anticancer effect on drug-resistant cancer cells than DOX alone.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that this drug delivery system has potential application in the therapeutic strategy for drug-resistant cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab059DOI Listing
April 2021

Polyacetylene glucosides from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius and their anti-inflammatory activity.

Phytochemistry 2021 Jul 16;187:112770. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China; Institute of Innovative Medicine Ingredients of Southwest Specialty Medicinal Materials, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China; State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Five previously undescribed polyacetylene glucosides, namely, four C- and one C-acetylenes, together with three known analogues, were isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. The structures of these novel compounds were elucidated to be (5R)-5-acetoxy-8,10,12-tetradecatriyne-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (2Z)-decaene-4,6,8-triyne-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (8Z)-1-[(3-O-β-D-glucosyl)-isovaleroyloxy]-8-decaene-4,6-diyne, (8Z)-decaene-1-isovaleroyloxy-4,6-diyne-10-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (2E,8E)-decadiene-4,6-diyne-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside via spectroscopic and chemical methods. All of the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines, antibacterial activity, and inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. The results showed that (5R)-5-acetoxy-8,10,12-tetradecatriyne-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112770DOI Listing
July 2021

Antibacterial activity, optical, and functional properties of corn starch-based films impregnated with bamboo leaf volatile oil.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 6;357:129743. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250353, China; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt; Department of Medical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Electronic address:

In this study, the optical, morphological, antibacterial, and physical properties of corn starch-based films prepared by a solution casting method were investigated after adding various levels of bamboo leaf volatile oil (BVO, 0.5, 1, and 2%). Further, the roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy and the antibacterial activities were tested by agar diffusion method. We found that the thickness (TC) and elongation at break (EAB) of the corn starch-based films increased significantly (Duncan's range test, P < 0.05) with the addition of BVO (TC from 0.121 to 0.207 mm; EAB from 2.48 to 10.40%). However, with the addition of BVO, the moisture content (MC) and water-solubility decreased (MC: from 13.12 to 11.41%; water solubility: from 30.58 to 26.95%), and the water vapor permeability (WVP) and tensile strength (TS) decreased significantly (WVP: from 3.91 to 3.05 g m m s Pa; TS: from 20.64 to 10.68 MPa, Duncan's range test, P < 0.05). Furthermore, supplementation of BVO to corn starch-based films increased the surface roughness and the antibacterial effects. The addition of BVO also increases the opacity of the films, which is helpful to protect food from ultraviolet damage. In sum, this study provides a theoretical basis for using corn starch-based films as alternative packing biomaterial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129743DOI Listing
April 2021

Metatranscriptomic comparison of endophytic and pathogenic Fusarium-Arabidopsis interactions reveals plant transcriptional plasticity.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 240 Thatcher Road, Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States, 01003;

Plants are continuously exposed to beneficial and pathogenic microbes, but how plants recognize and respond to friends versus foes remains poorly understood. Here, we compared the molecular response of independently challenged with a endophyte Fo47 versus a pathogen Fo5176. These two strains share a core genome of about 46 Mb, in addition to unique 1,229 and 5,415 accessory genes. Metatranscriptomic data reveal a shared pattern of expression for most plant genes (~80%) in responding to both fungal inoculums at all time points from 12 to 96 h post inoculation (HPI). However, the distinct responding genes depict transcriptional plasticity, as the pathogenic interaction activates plant stress responses and suppresses plant growth/development related functions, while the endophytic interaction attenuates host immunity but activates plant nitrogen assimilation. The differences in reprogramming of the plant transcriptome are most obvious in 12 HPI, the earliest time point sampled and are linked to accessory genes in both fungal genomes. Collectively, our results indicate that the and interaction displays both transcriptome conservation and plasticity in the early stages of infection, providing insights into the fine-tuning of gene regulation underlying plant differential responses to fungal endophytes and pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-03-21-0063-RDOI Listing
April 2021

Retinal Changes in Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Glaucoma & Retinal Neurodegeneration Research Group, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, the most common form of dementia. AD is characterized by amyloid-ß (Aß) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in the brain, in association with neuronal loss and synaptic failure, causing cognitive deficits. Accurate and early diagnosis is currently unavailable in lifespan, hampering early intervention of potential new treatments. Visual deficits have been well-documented in AD patients, and the pathological changes identified in the brain are also believed to be found in the retina, an integral part of the central nervous system. Retinal changes can be detected by real-time non-invasive imaging due to the transparent nature of the ocular media, potentially allowing an earlier diagnosis as well as monitoring disease progression and treatment outcome. Animal models are essential for AD research, and this review has a focus on retinal changes in various transgenic AD mouse models with retinal imaging and immunohistochemical analysis as well as therapeutic effects in those models. We also discuss the limitations of transgenic AD models in clinical translations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205018666210414113634DOI Listing
April 2021

mi-IsoNet: systems-scale microRNA landscape reveals rampant isoform-mediated gain of target interaction diversity and signaling specificity.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Oncology, Livestrong Cancer Institutes, Dell Medical School, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

MicroRNA (miRNA) is not a single sequence, but a series of multiple variants (also termed isomiRs) with sequence and expression heterogeneity. Whether and how these isoforms contribute to functional variation and complexity at the systems and network levels remain largely unknown. To explore this question systematically, we comprehensively analyzed the expression of small RNAs and their target sites to interrogate functional variations between novel isomiRs and their canonical miRNA sequences. Our analyses of the pan-cancer landscape of miRNA expression indicate that multiple isomiRs generated from the same miRNA locus often exhibit remarkable variation in their sequence, expression and function. We interrogated abundant and differentially expressed 5' isomiRs with novel seed sequences via seed shifting and identified many potential novel targets of these 5' isomiRs that would expand interaction capabilities between small RNAs and mRNAs, rewiring regulatory networks and increasing signaling circuit complexity. Further analyses revealed that some miRNA loci might generate diverse dominant isomiRs that often involved isomiRs with varied seeds and arm-switching, suggesting a selective advantage of multiple isomiRs in regulating gene expression. Finally, experimental validation indicated that isomiRs with shifted seed sequences could regulate novel target mRNAs and therefore contribute to regulatory network rewiring. Our analysis uncovers a widespread expansion of isomiR and mRNA interaction networks compared with those seen in canonical small RNA analysis; this expansion suggests global gene regulation network perturbations by alternative small RNA variants or isoforms. Taken together, the variations in isomiRs that occur during miRNA processing and maturation are likely to play a far more complex and plastic role in gene regulation than previously anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab091DOI Listing
April 2021