Publications by authors named "Li Gong"

449 Publications

Significant Association Between XRCC1 Expression and Its rs25487 Polymorphism and Radiotherapy-Related Cancer Prognosis.

Front Oncol 2021 19;11:654784. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Background/aims: XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1) expression and its single nucleotide polymorphism XRCC1 rs25487 (G>A) may be related to radiotherapy-related cancer prognosis or radiation-induced side effects. However, this association is controversial. We performed a bioinformatic analysis and a meta-analysis to obtain comprehensive results. TCGA data sets and eligible publications published before November 31, 2020 were retrieved by searching the PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases. ORs (odds ratios) and HRs (hazard ratios) with their corresponding 95% CIs (confidence intervals) were calculated to evaluate associations. For XRCC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms, we employed three types of comparisons: GA vs GG, AA vs GG and GA+AA vs GG.

Results: Sixty nine articles with 10232 patients and 17 TCGA data sets with 2705 patients were included in the analysis. We observed that high XRCC1 expression was associated with an increased risk of minor treatment response and poor overall survival, XRCC1 rs25487 was associated with reduced risk of minor treatment response in esophageal cancer and an increased risk of high-grade side effects in head and neck cancer.

Conclusion: The results suggest that XRCC1 expression and rs25487 polymorphism are prognostic factors for patients receiving radiotherapy-related treatment. Considering the insufficient treatment parameters provided and the various sample sizes in most of the studies, we suggest that genetic association studies related to radiation-based treatment should include more cancer types with sufficient statistical power and more detailed clinical parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.654784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170393PMC
May 2021

Visible-light photoredox-catalyzed umpolung carboxylation of carbonyl compounds with CO.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 3;12(1):3306. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Photoredox-mediated umpolung strategy provides an alternative pattern for functionalization of carbonyl compounds. However, general approaches towards carboxylation of carbonyl compounds with CO remain scarce. Herein, we report a strategy for visible-light photoredox-catalyzed umpolung carboxylation of diverse carbonyl compounds with CO by using Lewis acidic chlorosilanes as activating/protecting groups. This strategy is general and practical to generate valuable α-hydroxycarboxylic acids. It works well for challenging alkyl aryl ketones and aryl aldehydes, as well as for α-ketoamides and α-ketoesters, the latter two of which have never been successfully applied in umpolung carboxylations with CO (to the best of our knowledge). This reaction features high selectivity, broad substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, mild reaction conditions and facile derivations of products to bioactive compounds, including oxypheonium, mepenzolate bromide, benactyzine, and tiotropium. Moreover, the formation of carbon radicals and carbanions as well as the key role of chlorosilanes are supported by control experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23447-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175691PMC
June 2021

Risk factors for the severity of Guillain-Barré syndrome and predictors of short-term prognosis of severe Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;11(1):11578. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Neurology, The affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, 264000, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a neurological disorder characterized by paralysis. Identifying the severity, appropriate therapeutic method, and prognosis of GBS at an early stage is highly important. This study aimed to investigate the modifiable risk factors for the severity of GBS and consequent need for mechanical ventilation (MV) and to identify clinical predictive factors for poor short-term outcomes of severe GBS. 155 GBS patients who were admitted to the Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University during 2014-2020 were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary data were collected and were then analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Our analytic data demonstrated that the significant clinical predictors of severe GBS were recent history of surgery, older age, cranial nerve impairment, and elevated levels of liver enzymes (p < 0.05). Furthermore, autonomic dysfunction, lower Medical Research Council (MRC) score at nadir, and elevated levels of liver enzymes were significantly associated with MV for severe GBS (p < 0.05), and lower MRC score at nadir and autonomic dysfunction remained significant predictors of MV in severe GBS (p < 0.05). Lastly, recent history of surgery, lower MRC score at admission and at nadir, requirement for MV, and pneumonia during hospitalization were significantly associated with the short-term outcome of severe GBS and that lower MRC score at admission and need for MV were confirmed to be predictors of poor short-term prognosis (p < 0.05). Of note, this study suggested that recent history of surgery is a predictor of severity in GBS patients and is associated with the poor short-term prognosis of severe GBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91132-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172857PMC
June 2021

Novel Plasmid-Borne Fimbriae-Associated Gene Cluster Participates in Biofilm Formation in .

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, College of Veterinary Medicine South China Agricultural University Guangzhou, China.

This study reported the involvement of a gene cluster from a conjugative plasmid in the biofilm formation of . We used a novel EZ-Tn transposon technique to generate a transposon library and used arbitrarily primed PCR to detect the insertion sites in biofilm formation-deficient mutants. To validate the function of candidate biofilm formation genes, the genes were cloned into plasmid pBluescript II SK (+) and transformed into DH5α. Biofilm production from the transformants was then assessed by phenotypic biofilm formation using Crystal Violet staining and microscopy. A total of 3,000 transposon mutants of DH5α-p253 were screened, of which 28 were found to be deficient in biofilm formation. Further characterization revealed that 24/28 mutations were detected with their insertions in chromosome, while the remaining 4 mutations were evidenced that the functional genes for biofilm formation were harbored in the plasmid. Interestingly, the plasmid sequencing showed that these four transposon mutations were all inserted into a fimbriae-associated gene cluster (-cluster). This -cluster is a hybrid segment spanning a 7,949 bp sequence, with a terminal inverted repeat sequence and two coding regions. In summary, we performed a high-efficiency screening to a library constructed with the EZ-Tn5-based transposon approach and identified the gene clusters responsible for the biofilm production of , especially the genes harbored in the plasmid. Further studies are needed to understand the spread of this novel plasmid-mediated biofilm formation gene in clinical isolates and the clinical impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2020.0512DOI Listing
June 2021

CD4CD25 Regulatory T Cells in Intracranial Thrombi Are Inversely Correlated with Hemorrhagic Transformation after Thrombectomy: A Clinical-Immunohistochemical Analysis of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 17;2021:3143248. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University, 301# Middle Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072, China.

Mechanical thrombectomy is not only effective for managing patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), but it also enables a valuable histological analysis of thrombi. Previous studies indicated that regulatory T cells (Treg) adoptive transfer might alleviate the hemorrhagic transformation. However, whether Treg in intracranial thrombi correlates with hemorrhagic transformation after mechanical thrombectomy remains unclear. This study mainly analyzed the colocation of Treg markers in serial thrombus sections stained serially for CD4 and CD25 in groups of hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic transformation. Second, to investigate whether these immunohistochemical parameters could provide any additional information beyond hemorrhagic transformation, we compared the overlap between Treg markers among other groups, such as functional outcomes, stroke subtypes, and gender. Our results showed that the number of CD4CD25 Treg cells was lower in the hemorrhagic transformation thrombi than in the nonhemorrhagic group ( < 0.001) but there were no significant differences otherwise. The present finding of CD4CD25 Treg cell reductions in thrombi associated with hemorrhagic transformation provides the histological evidence supporting that thromboinflammation might involve in the pathological process of an acute stroke after mechanical thrombectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3143248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149217PMC
May 2021

Exploring the resources of the genus Viscum for potential therapeutic applications.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 24;277:114233. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The genus Viscum comprises approximately 100 species that are mainly distributed across Africa, Asia and Europe. The extracts and preparations of Viscum species are widely used as common complementary and alternative medicines in the treatment of rheumatism and cancer.

Aim Of The Review: This review aims to explore the medicinal properties of twelve species belonging to the genus Viscum for potential therapeutic applications.

Materials And Methods: We collected online information (including PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) from January 1915 to April 2021 and knowledge from classical books on Chinese herbal medicines available for 12 species of the genus Viscum, including Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai, Viscum album L., Viscum articulatum Burm. f., Viscum liquidambaricola Hayata, Viscum ovalifolium DC., Viscum capitellatum Sm., Viscum cruciatum Sieber ex Boiss., Viscum nudum Danser, Viscum angulatum B.Heyne ex DC., Viscum tuberculatum A.Rich., Viscum multinerve Hayata, and Viscum diospyrosicola Hayata.

Results: At least 250 different compounds have been reported across twelve Viscum species, including amino acid and peptides, alkaloids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, lipids, and other types of compounds. In particular, for Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai and Viscum album L., the plants, preparations, and bioactive components have been thoroughly reviewed. This has allowed to elucidate the role of active components, including lectins, viscotoxins, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic acids, and polysaccharides, in multiple bioactivities, such as anti-cancer, anti-rheumatism arthralgia, anti-inflammation, anti-cardiovascular diseases, enhancing immunity, and anti-chemotherapy side effects. We also evaluated quality control methods based on active compounds, in vivo exposure compounds, and discriminated chemical markers.

Conclusions: This is the first report to systematically review the pharmaceutical development history, chemical composition, clinical evidence, pharmacological activity, discriminated chemical markers, in vivo exposure, and quality control on twelve distinct species of Viscum plants with medicinal properties. The significant safety and efficacy, along with the minor side effects are constantly confirmed in clinics. The genus Viscum is thus an important medicinal resource that is worth exploring and developing in future pharmacological and chemical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114233DOI Listing
May 2021

Nomogram to Predict Cognitive Dysfunction After a Minor Ischemic Stroke in Hospitalized-Population.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 14;13:637363. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

An easily scoring system to predict the risk of cognitive impairment after minor ischemic stroke has not been available. We aimed to develop and externally validate a nomogram for predicting the probability of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) among hospitalized population with minor stroke. Moreover, the association of Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) with PSCI is also investigated. We prospectively conducted a developed cohort on collected data in stroke center from June 2017 to February 2018, as well as an external validation cohort between June 2018 and February 2019. The main outcome is cognitive impairment defined as <22 Montreal Cognition Assessment (MoCA) score points 6 - 12 months following a minor stroke onset. Based on multivariate logistic models, the nomogram model was generated. Plasma TMAO levels were assessed at admission using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 228 participants completed the follow-up data for generating the nomogram. After multivariate logistic regression, seven variables remained independent predictors of PSCI to compose the nomogram included age, female, Fazekas score, educational level, number of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS), HbA1c, and cortical infarction. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve of model was 0.829, C index was good (0.810), and the AUC-ROC of the model applied in validation cohort was 0.812. Plasma TMAO levels were higher in patients with cognitive impairment than in them without cognitive dysfunction (median 4.56 vs. 3.22 μmol/L; ≤ 0.001). In conclusion, this scoring system is the first nomogram developed and validated in a stroke center cohort for individualized prediction of cognitive impairment after minor stroke. Higher plasma TMAO level at admission suggests a potential marker of PSCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.637363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098660PMC
April 2021

Graphene-Like Hydrogen-Bonded Melamine-Cyanuric Acid Supramolecular Nanosheets as Pseudo-Porous Catalyst Support.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 24;33(22):e2007368. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, P. R. China.

Behaving as structural protectors and electronic modulators, catalyst supports such as graphene derivatives are generally constructed by covalent bonds. Here, hydrogen-bonded ultrathin nanosheets are reported as a new type of catalyst support. Melamine (M) and cyanuric acid (CA) molecules self-assemble to form the graphite-like hydrogen-bonded co-crystal M-CA, which can be easily exfoliated by ultrasonic treatment to yield ultrathin nanosheets with thickness of ≈1.6 nm and high stability at pH = 0. The dynamic nanosheets form adaptive defects/pores in the synthetic process of CoP nanoparticles, giving embedded composite with high hydrogen evolution activity (overpotential of 66 mV at 10 mA cm ) and stability. Computational calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy unveil the electron modulation effects of the nanosheets. This pseudo-porous catalyst support also can be applied to other metal phosphides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202007368DOI Listing
June 2021

Berberine suppresses bladder cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting JAK1-STAT3 signaling via upregulation of miR-17-5p.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jun 20;188:114575. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Urinary Precision Diagnosis and Treatment, Department of Urology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China. Electronic address:

Hyperactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is strongly associated with cancer initiation, progression, metastasis, chemoresistance, and immune evasion; thus, STAT3 has been intensely studied as a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Berberine (BBR), an active component extracted from Coptis chinensis, has shown anti-tumor effects in multiple tumors. However, its underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of BBR on bladder cancer (BCa) cells. We found that BBR showed significant cytotoxic effects against BCa cell lines both in vivo and in vitro, with much lower cytotoxic effects on the human normal urothelial cell line SV-HUC-1. BBR treatment induced DNA replication defects and cell cycle arrest, resulting in apoptosis or cell senescence, depending on p53 status, in BCa cells. Mechanistically, BBR exerted anti-tumor effects on BCa cells by inhibiting Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)-STAT3 signaling through the upregulation of miR-17-5p, which directly binds to the 3'UTR of JAK1 and STAT3, downregulating their expressions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that BBR exerts anti-tumor effects by perturbing JAK1-STAT3 signaling through the upregulation of miR-17-5p in BCa cells, and that BBR may serve as a potential therapeutic option for BCa treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2021.114575DOI Listing
June 2021

Large-scale sequencing of flatfish genomes provides insights into the polyphyletic origin of their specialized body plan.

Nat Genet 2021 05 19;53(5):742-751. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Ecology and Environment, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China.

The evolutionary and genetic origins of the specialized body plan of flatfish are largely unclear. We analyzed the genomes of 11 flatfish species representing 9 of the 14 Pleuronectiforme families and conclude that Pleuronectoidei and Psettodoidei do not form a monophyletic group, suggesting independent origins from different percoid ancestors. Genomic and transcriptomic data indicate that genes related to WNT and retinoic acid pathways, hampered musculature and reduced lipids might have functioned in the evolution of the specialized body plan of Pleuronectoidei. Evolution of Psettodoidei involved similar but not identical genes. Our work provides valuable resources and insights for understanding the genetic origins of the unusual body plan of flatfishes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00836-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110480PMC
May 2021

CUL4B Promotes Temozolomide Resistance in Gliomas by Epigenetically Repressing Transcription.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:638802. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ), the first-line chemotherapeutic drug for glioblastoma (GBM) and anaplastic gliomas, is one of the most significant obstacles in clinical treatment. TMZ resistance is regulated by complex genetic and epigenetic networks. Understanding the mechanisms of TMZ resistance can help to identify novel drug targets and more effective therapies. CUL4B has been shown to be upregulated and promotes progression and chemoresistance in several cancer types. However, its regulatory effect and mechanisms on TMZ resistance have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to decipher the role and mechanism of CUL4B in TMZ resistance. Western blot and public datasets analysis showed that CUL4B was upregulated in glioma specimens. CUL4B elevation positively correlated with advanced pathological stage, tumor recurrence, malignant molecular subtype and poor survival in glioma patients receiving TMZ treatment. CUL4B expression was correlated with TMZ resistance in GBM cell lines. Knocking down CUL4B restored TMZ sensitivity, while upregulation of CUL4B promoted TMZ resistance in GBM cells. By employing senescence β-galactosidase staining, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we found that CUL4B coordinated histone deacetylase (HDAC) to co-occupy the promoter and epigenetically silenced transcription, leading to attenuation of TMZ-induced senescence and rendering the GBM cells TMZ resistance. Collectively, our findings identify a novel mechanism by which GBM cells develop resistance to TMZ and suggest that CUL4B inhibition may be beneficial for overcoming resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.638802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050354PMC
April 2021

Highly efficient photosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide in ambient conditions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, 510275 Guangzhou, China;

Photosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide (HO) in ambient conditions remains neither cost effective nor environmentally friendly enough because of the rapid charge recombination. Here, a photocatalytic rate of as high as 114 μmol⋅g⋅h for the production of HO in pure water and open air is achieved by using a Z-scheme heterojunction, which outperforms almost all reported photocatalysts under the same conditions. An extensive study at the atomic level demonstrates that Z-scheme electron transfer is realized by improving the photoresponse of the oxidation semiconductor under visible light, when the difference between the Fermi levels of the two constituent semiconductors is not sufficiently large. Moreover, it is verified that a type II electron transfer pathway can be converted to the desired Z-scheme pathway by tuning the excitation wavelengths. This study demonstrates a feasible strategy for developing efficient Z-scheme photocatalysts by regulating photoresponses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2103964118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072241PMC
April 2021

[Research progress on identification methods of growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Mar;46(6):1357-1367

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs,National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700,China.

The growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials are closely related to their quality, which directly affects the efficacy and safety of clinical medication. Therefore, it is particularly important to establish an identification method for the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. In this review, the identification methods for the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials were summarized systematically, and were divided into four types according to the identification principles and methods: traditional identification, molecular identification, physical/chemical identification, and integrated identification. Relying on rich experience, objective molecular markers, various physical/chemical methods and integrated identification techniques(including infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, bionic identification technology and their tandem technologies, etc.), the differences of characters or chemical fingerprints were compared in depth. The growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials were quickly identified or predicted by the appearance and characters, the whole fingerprint information or the content of specific chemical markers, and their content ratios. Through the case analysis of mature varieties, we intend to promote the establishment of a perfect technology system for the identification of the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, and to provide a reference for other perennial herbal materials, finally resulting in the accurate and precise quality control of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201223.102DOI Listing
March 2021

A KRT6A and a Novel KRT16 Gene Mutations in Chinese Patients with Pachyonychia Congenita.

Int J Gen Med 2021 17;14:903-907. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Dermatology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare, autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, cystic lesions, follicular hyperkeratosis, mucosal leukokeratoses, hyperhidrosis, hoarseness, and, rarely, natal teeth. Five keratin genes, and , have been found to be associated with PC.

Methods: Using polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing techniques, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical features associated with PC and discover disease-associated variants. The , and exonic and flanking region sequences were amplified and directly sequenced to detect mutations.

Results: Across two independent instances of PC, we identified a previously reported c.1393T>C (p.Tyr465His) mutation in exon 7 of , and a novel c.1237G>C (p.Glu413Gln) heterozygous missense mutation in exon 6 of the gene.

Conclusion: Through phenotype-genotype analysis among PC pedigrees, confirmed diagnoses of PC-K6a and PC-K16 were made in the two patients who presented with symptoms of PC. A new pathogenic mutation site in PC-K16 was potentially discovered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S280160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982554PMC
March 2021

Genomic Mutation Profile of Primary Gastrointestinal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:622648. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital and School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (GI-DLBCL) is the most common gastrointestinal lymphoma, but its genetic features are poorly understood. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 25 primary tumor samples from patients with GI-DLBCL and 23 matched normal tissue samples. Oncogenic mutations were screened, and the correlations between genetic mutations and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Twenty-five patients with GI-DLBCL were enrolled in the genetic mutation analysis with a median of 184 (range 79-382) protein-altering variants per patient. We identified recurrent oncogenic mutations in GI-DLBCL, including those in , and . Compared with nodal DLBCL, GI-DLBCL exhibited an increased mutation frequency of and reduced mutation frequencies of , and . Moreover, GI-DLBCL exhibited fewer and mutations than DLBCL in the testis and central nervous system. GI-DLBCLs with , and mutations exhibited a tendency toward a high proliferation index. and mutations often occurred in tumors with early clinical staging. Our data provide a comprehensive understanding of the landscape of mutations in a small subset of GI-DLBCLs. The genetic mutation profiles of GI-DLBCL differ from those of nodal DLBCL and DLBCL in immune-privileged sites. The different mutated genes are related to the NF-κB and JAK-STAT pathways, and the different pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the development of DLBCL may be influenced by the tissue microenvironment. Differences in genetic alterations might influence the clinicopathological characteristics of GI-DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.622648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973209PMC
March 2021

Preoperative prediction of granulation pattern subtypes in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Jul 10;95(1):134-142. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to establish a preoperative prediction method for sparsely granulated (SG) growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma, an aggressive tumour subtype with high recurrence risk, in acromegaly patients.

Methods: Eighty-three patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas were included in this study. GH measurements, cytokeratin immunostaining and electron microscopy were performed to detect granulation patterns. Preoperative factors, including general, radiological and endocrinological features and acute octreotide suppression test outcomes, were compared between SG and densely granulated (DG) groups. The predictive capabilities of these features were analysed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the most predictive features were combined to establish a grading scale.

Results: Thirty-nine of the 83 patients had SG GH-secreting pituitary adenomas; 44 had DG tumours. SG tumours tended to occur in younger patients and have larger diameters and volumes, higher Knosp grades, lower GH indexes and normalized insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level, and a lower ∆GH% after octreotide treatment. The tumour size, Knosp grade, GH index and ∆GH% after octreotide treatment had good predictive performance, with area under the curve (AUC) values ranging from 0.70 to 0.80. Combining four parameters, including diameter, Knosp grade, GH index and ∆GH% after octreotide treatment, we established a grading scale for predicting SG GH-secreting pituitary adenomas with an AUC of 0.84 and relatively high sensitivity and specificity.

Conclusions: We propose a predictive method for distinguishing SG and DG GH-secreting pituitary adenomas preoperatively. This method will help physicians identify candidates for presurgical medical treatment and neurosurgeons determine radical surgical strategies for high-risk tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14465DOI Listing
July 2021

FeN(C)-Coated Microscale Zero-Valent Iron for Fast and Stable Trichloroethylene Dechlorination in both Acidic and Basic pH Conditions.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 17;55(8):5393-5402. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China.

FeN in Fe single-atom catalysts can be the active site for adsorption and activation of reactants. In addition, FeN species have been shown to facilitate electron transfer between Fe and the carbon supports used in newly developed metal-air batteries. We hypothesized that the combination of FeN species with granular zero-valent iron (ZVI) might result in catalyzed reductive decontamination of groundwater contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). Here, such materials synthesized by ball milling microscale ZVI with melamine and the resulting N species were mainly in the form of pyridinic, pyrrolic, and graphitic N. This new material (abbreviated as N-C-mZVI) dechlorinated TCE at higher rates than bare mZVI (about 3.5-fold) due to facilitated electron transfer through (or around) the surface layer of iron oxides by the newly formed Fe-N(C). N-C-mZVI gave higher (0.4-1.14 day) than mZVI (0-0.4 day) over a wide range of pH values (4-11). Unlike most ZVI systems, for N-C-mZVI increased with increasing pH values. This is because the oxide layer that passivates Fe at a high pH is disrupted by Fe-N(C) formed on N-C-mZVI, thereby allowing TCE dechlorination and HER under basic conditions. Serial respike experiments gave no evidence of decreased performance of N-C-mZVI, showing that the advantages of this material might remain under field applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08176DOI Listing
April 2021

Protective Effects of 16 and Paenibacillus polymyxa 10 Against Infection in Broilers.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:628374. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition of the Ministry of Education, College of Animal Sciences, Institute of Feed Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of 16 (Lac16) and a 10 (BSC10) against (Cp) infection in broilers. A total of 720 one-day-old chicks were randomly divided into four groups. The control and Cp group were only fed a basal diet, while the two treatment groups received basal diets supplemented with Lac16 (1 × 10 cfu·kg) and BSC10 (1 × 10 cfu·kg) for 21 days, respectively. On day 1 and days 14 to 20, birds except those in the control group were challenged with 1 × 10 cfu type A strain once a day. The results showed that both Lac16 and BSC10 could ameliorate intestinal structure damage caused by infection. infection induced apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bax and and decreasing Bcl-2 expression and inflammation evidence by higher levels of , , and in the ileum mucosa, and NO production in jejunal mucosa, which was reversed by Lac16 and BSC10 treatment except for ( 0.05). Besides, the two probiotics restored the intestinal microbiota imbalance induced by infection, characterized by the reduced and and the increased at the phyla level and decreased and at the genus level. The two probiotics also reversed metabolic pathways of the microbiota in -infected broilers, including B-vitamin biosynthesis, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate II pathway. In conclusion, Lac16 and BSC10 can effectively protect broilers against infection through improved composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, intestinal structure, inflammation, and anti-apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.628374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930238PMC
February 2021

Clinical Features and Molecular Markers on Diffuse Midline Gliomas With H3K27M Mutations: A 43 Cases Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Oncol 2020 15;10:602553. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Purpose: Diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) with H3K27M mutations have been identified as a rare distinctive entity with unique genetic features, varied molecular alterations, and poor prognosis. The current study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and profile of molecular markers on patients with a DMG harboring H3K27M mutations, and explore the impact of this genetic makeup on overall survival.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 43 consecutive patients diagnosed with a DMG harboring H3K27M mutations (age range 3 to 75 years) and treated in a tertiary institution within China between January 2017 to December 2019. Various clinical and molecular factors were evaluated to assess their prognostic value in this unique patient cohort.

Results: The median overall survival (OS) was 12.83 months. Preoperative Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) and adjuvant radiotherapy were found to be independent clinical parameters influencing the OS by multivariate analysis ( = 0.027 and < 0.001 respectively). Whereas extent of tumor resection failed to demonstrate statistical significance. For molecular markers, P53 overexpression was identified as a negative prognostic factor for overall survival by multivariate analysis ( = 0.030).

Conclusion: Low preoperative KPS, absence of radiotherapy and P53 overexpression were identified as predictors of a dismal overall survival in patients with DMG and H3K27M mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.602553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917281PMC
February 2021

Corrigendum: Autophagy and Inflammation Regulation in Acute Kidney Injury.

Front Physiol 2020 9;11:639938. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2020.576463.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.639938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901025PMC
February 2021

Nanoporous and Highly Thermal Conductive Thin Film of Single-Crystal Covalent Organic Frameworks Ribbons.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Mar 25;143(10):3927-3933. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composite and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, and State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, 510275, Guangzhou, China.

Nanoporous materials are widely explored as efficient adsorbents for the storage of gases and liquids as well as for effective low-dielectric materials in large-scale integrated circuits. These applications require fast heat transfer, while most nanoporous substances are thermal insulators. Here, the oriented growth of micrometer-sized single-crystal covalent organic frameworks (COFs) ribbons with nanoporous structures at an air-water interface is presented. The obtained COFs ribbons are interconnected into a continuous and purely crystalline thin film. Due to the robust connectivity among the COFs ribbons, the entire film can be easily transferred and reliably contacted with target supports. The measured thermal conductivity amounts to ∼5.31 ± 0.37 W m K at 305 K, which is so far the highest value for nanoporous materials. These findings provide a methodology to grow and assemble single-crystal COFs into large area ensembles for the exploration of functional properties and potentially lead to new devices with COFs thin films where both porosity and thermal conductivity are desired.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c13458DOI Listing
March 2021

Establishing a rare diseases center: Experiences from Western China.

Authors:
Li Gong Qian He

Intractable Rare Dis Res 2021 Feb;10(1):60-61

Department of Outpatient, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Rare diseases pose unique challenges to health care delivery. In August 2016, the West China Hospital of Sichuan University (WCHSU) established a rare diseases center. This center has created a multidisciplinary team of rare disease experts. The center provides expedited pathways online and offline for patients with rare diseases to save them time and money, to improve their experience, and to increase the hospital's efficiency. At the same time, the center regularly organizes public education campaigns and it offers free consultations to enhance awareness of rare diseases. Establishment of the rare disease alliance and facilitation of 5G-based remote multi-disciplinary consultations will help to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment and to solve problems with diagnosis and treatment encountered by local patients with rare diseases. WCHSU's rare diseases center has been feasible, acceptable, and effective in Western China and it should benefit patients, doctors, and hospitals. The center should lead to significant improvements in treatment for patients with rare diseases. The successful establishment of a rare diseases center here may be a useful reference for other parts of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2020.03091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882083PMC
February 2021

Molecular Pathological Markers Correlated With the Recurrence Patterns of Glioma.

Front Oncol 2020 8;10:565045. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Purpose: Glioma is one of the most common tumors of the central nervous system, and many patients suffer from recurrence even after standard comprehensive treatment. However, little is known about the molecular markers that predict the recurrence patterns of glioma. This study aimed to demonstrate the correlations between molecular markers and glioma recurrence patterns, which included local/nonlocal recurrence and paraventricular/nonparaventricular recurrence.

Methods: Immunohistochemical techniques were used to assess the molecular markers of 88 glioma tissues following surgical resection. The recurrence patterns were divided into local recurrence, marginal recurrence, distant recurrence, multirecurrence, and subarachniod recurrence, with the last four recurrence patterns being collectively called nonlocal recurrence. According to whether the recurrence invaded ventricles, the nonlocal recurrence patterns were divided into paraventricular and nonparaventricular recurrence. Then, we compared the different recurrence patterns and their clinical characteristics, focusing on the expression of molecular markers.

Results: More patients in the nonlocal recurrence group received combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy than patients in the local recurrence group (p=0.019). Sex, age, extent of surgery, time to recurrence, tumor location, size, and WHO grade were not different in the defined groups (P>0.05). Recurrent tumor volume and WHO grade were significantly different between the paraventricular and nonparaventricular recurrence groups (p=0.046 and 0.033). The expression of Ki-67, P53, and PCNA in the nonlocal recurrence group was significantly higher than that in the local recurrence group (p=0.015, 0.009, and 0.037), while the expression of S-100 in the nonlocal recurrence group was significantly lower than that in the local recurrence group (p=0.015). Cox regression indicated hazard ratio (HR) for high expression level of PCNA associated with non-local recurrence was 3.43 (95% CI, 1.15, 10.24), and HR for high expression level of MGMT associated with paraventricular recurrence was 2.64 (95% CI, 1.15,6.08).

Conclusions: Ki-67, P53, PCNA, and MGMT might be important clinical markers for nonlocal recurrence and paraventricular recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.565045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873968PMC
January 2021

Construction of an Iodine Diffusion Barrier Using Network Structure Silicone Resin for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 10;13(7):8138-8146. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Siyuan Laboratory, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Vacuum Coating Technologies and New Energy Materials, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632, People's Republic of China.

Long-term stability of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is inhibited by ion diffusion. Herein, we introduce a thermally stable and hydrophobic silicone resin layer with a network structure as an interfacial layer between the perovskite and the hole-transporting layer (HTL). Experimental and theoretical investigations confirm that the small Si-O-Si unit in the network forms both Si-I and Pb-O bonds with the perovskite surface, which physically and chemically inhibit the diffusion and self-release of iodine. Besides, the silicone resin layer suppresses the thermal crystallization of spiro-OMeTAD and optimizes the interfacial energy level alignment for hole extraction. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a perovskite solar cell with a silicone resin layer is improved to 21.11%. The device maintains more than 90.1% of its original PCE after 1200 h under 85 °C thermal stress, 99.6% after 2000 h under RH ∼55 ± 5%, and 83% of its original PCE after light soaking in air for 1037 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c18009DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of monobutyrin supplementation on egg production, biochemical indexes, and gut microbiota of broiler breeders.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 10;100(3):100907. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

School of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, China 528000. Electronic address:

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of monobutyrin supplementation on egg production, biochemical indexes, and gut microbiota of broiler breeders at the late stage of production. A total of 180 healthy Qingyuan partridge broilers were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1) corn-soybean meal-based diet and 2) basal diet supplemented with 250 mg monobutyrin/kg. Each treatment group had 6 replicates/cages with 15 birds within each replicate. The experiment started at week 33 and lasted for 8 wk. Egg production rate, feed conversion rate, shell breaking strength, and shell thickness were not different between control and treatment groups. Supplementation of monobutyrin increased egg weight and tended to decrease egg breaking rate of Qingyuan partridge chickens. Supplementation of monobutyrin did not affect any of the biochemical indexes except total protein concentration. The 4 antioxidant parameters measured were not affected either. Alpha diversity indexes (Shannon, Simpson, Chao1, Ace, and Good's Coverage) and composition of cecal microbiota were not affected by monobutyrin supplementation. Overall, supplementation of monobutyrin at 250 mg/kg level improved egg quality, but its effect on cecal microbiota composition was limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.11.074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936130PMC
March 2021

Dietary supplementation with berberine improves growth performance and modulates the composition and function of cecal microbiota in yellow-feathered broilers.

Poult Sci 2021 Feb 19;100(2):1034-1048. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

School of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528225, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effect of berberine (BBR) on growth performance and composition and function of cecal microbiota in yellow-feathered broilers. A total of 360 1-day-old female broilers were assigned to 3 dietary treatments, each with 6 replicates of 20 birds. The dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet as negative control (NC), basal plus 200 mg/kg oxytetracycline calcium and 250 mg/kg nasiheptide as an antibiotic positive control (PC), and basal plus 250 mg/kg BBR. On day 21, 42, and 63, one chicken from each replicate was randomly selected for blood collection and cecal sampling. The 16S rRNA sequencing technology was used to analyze the community composition and function of cecal microbiota. Dietary supplementation with antibiotics or BBR increased the final body weight (BW) at day 63 and the average daily gain (ADG) during 1 to 21 d compared with the NC (P < 0.05). Supplementation with BBR improved the average daily feed intake (ADFI) at 22 to 42 d, 43 to 63 d, and 1 to 63 d (P < 0.05). Feed efficiency, indicated by feed to gain ratio (F/G), increased with PC during day 1 to 21 compared with NC (P < 0.05). The plasma concentrations of total protein at 42 d and uric acid at 21 d were increased, whereas creatine concentration at 63 d was decreased by BBR treatment (P < 0.05). The Chao 1 and Shannon index representing microbial α-diversity was reduced by BBR treatment (P < 0.05). The abundances of phylum Firmicutes and genera Lachnospiraceae, Lachnoclostridium, Clostridiales, and Intestinimonas were decreased, whereas the abundances of phylum Bacteroidetes and genus Bacteroides were increased with BBR treatment. Functional prediction of microbiota revealed that BBR treatment enriched pathways related to metabolism, organismal systems, and genetic information processing, especially DNA replication. The abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genera Bacteroides and Lactobacillus in cecal contents were positively correlated with broiler growth performance. These results demonstrated dietary BBR supplementation improved the growth performance of yellow-feathered broilers, and was closely related to the significant changes in cecal microbiota composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.10.071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858044PMC
February 2021

IS-Mediated Mobilization of the Colistin Resistance Gene in .

Front Microbiol 2020 12;11:564973. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: The emergence of mobile colistin resistance genes has compromised the efficacy of the last resort antibiotic, colistin, in clinical treatment. The gene was first identified in Belgium in association with the insertion sequence IS. However, the molecular mechanisms of mobilization are not well understood.

Methods: To further explore the mobilization of gene via IS, we constructed a conjugative plasmid that carries an intact composite transposon Tn7052. Transposition assays were performed by conjugation, the transposition sites were characterized by arbitrary primed PCR and DNA sequencing.

Results: In this study, we experimentally demonstrated that could be mobilized as a composite transposon Tn7052 and its transposition generated 8-bp AT-rich duplications in the host genome.

Conclusion: These results indicate that gene could be mobilized by IS, the current investigations provide mechanistic insights in the transposition of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.564973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835479PMC
January 2021

Novel gene rearrangement in the mitochondrial genome of Muraenesox cinereus and the phylogenetic relationship of Anguilliformes.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 28;11(1):2411. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

National Engineering Laboratory of Marine Germplasm Resources Exploration and Utilization, Zhejiang Ocean University, No. 1, Haida South Road, Zhoushan, Zhejiang, 316022, People's Republic of China.

The structure and gene sequence of the fish mitochondrial genome are generally considered to be conservative. However, two types of gene arrangements are found in the mitochondrial genome of Anguilliformes. In this paper, we report a complete mitogenome of Muraenesox cinereus (Anguilliformes: Muraenesocidae) with rearrangement phenomenon. The total length of the M. cinereus mitogenome was 17,673 bp, and it contained 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two identical control regions (CRs). The mitochondrial genome of M. cinereus was obviously rearranged compared with the mitochondria of typical vertebrates. The genes ND6 and the conjoint trnE were translocated to the location between trnT and trnP, and one of the duplicated CR was translocated to the upstream of the ND6. The tandem duplication and random loss is most suitable for explaining this mitochondrial gene rearrangement. The Anguilliformes phylogenetic tree constructed based on the whole mitochondrial genome well supports Congridae non-monophyly. These results provide a basis for the future Anguilliformes mitochondrial gene arrangement characteristics and further phylogenetic research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81622-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844273PMC
January 2021

PharmVar GeneFocus: CYP2B6.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutic Innovation, Children's Mercy, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

The Pharmacogene Variation Consortium (PharmVar) catalogs star (*) allele nomenclature for the polymorphic human CYP2B6 gene. Genetic variation within the CYP2B6 gene locus impacts the metabolism or bioactivation of clinically important drugs. Of particular importance are efficacy and safety concerns regarding: efavirenz, which is used for the treatment of HIV type-1 infection; methadone, a mainstay in the treatment of opioid use disorder and as an analgesic; ketamine, used as an antidepressant and analgesic; and bupropion, which is prescribed to treat depression and for smoking cessation. This GeneFocus provides a comprehensive overview and summary of CYP2B6 and describes how haplotype information catalogued by PharmVar is utilized by the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) and the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2166DOI Listing
January 2021

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Macrotocinclus affinis (Siluriformes; Loricariidae) and phylogenetic studies of Siluriformes.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jan 13;48(1):677-689. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

National engineering Laboratory of Marine Germplasm Resources Exploration and Utilization, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, 316022, China.

The vertebrate mitochondrial genome is typically circular molecules made up of 14,000 to 16,000 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (12 s rRNA and 16 s rRNA) and a control region. Compared with nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA has a higher mutation rate, so it is one of the most effective and reliable molecular markers in fish phylogeny. Macrotocinclus affinis was the only species in Macrotocinclus (it was classified as Otocinclus in the past) and currently lacks genetic information. Most of the current researches are based on the mitochondrial Cytb gene and RAG1 and RAG2 nuclear genes to study the phylogenetic analysis of Siluriformes. So, the study provides the characteristic features of the Macrotocinclus affinis mitochondrial genome and this is the first time that the phylogenetic relationship of Siluriformes has been reconstructed based on COI. We aimed to sequence the entire mitochondrial genome of Macrotocinclus affinis using conventional PCR techniques and to clarify its phylogenetic status in Siluriformes by using the COI sequence of mitochondria. In this study, we sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of this species yielding a 16,632 bp circular assembly composed of the typical vertebrate mitochondrial features. It contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a putative control region, and one origin of replication on the light-strand. The overall base composition includes A (30.07%), T (24.43%), C (29.43%) and G (16.01%). The genome composition is A + T biased (54.5%), and exhibits AT-skew (0.1036) and GC-skew (-0.2962). Moreover, the 13 PCGs encode 3850 amino acids in total. The result of the phylogenetic tree supports Macrotocinclus affinis has a closest relationship with Otocinclus cf. hoppei far. These results will help to understand the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome of Macrotocinclus affinis and provide molecular basis for the evolutionary relationship of Loricariidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-06120-zDOI Listing
January 2021