Publications by authors named "Li Deng"

789 Publications

Comparison Between Wedge Resection and Lobectomy/Segmentectomy for Early-Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Bayesian Meta-analysis and Systematic Review.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Surgery has become an accepted method for the treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this Bayesian meta-analysis was to compare the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) between wedge resection and lobectomy/segmentectomy for treatment of early-stage NSCLC.

Methods: Eligible studies were retrieved from Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, and WanFang up to July 2021 and screened based on established selection criteria. The Bayesian meta-analysis was performed with the combination of the reported survival outcomes of the individual studies using a random-effect model. The OS, DFS, and RFS of the wedge resection group was compared with the lobectomy/segmentectomy group. The hazard ratio (HR) and standard error were extracted or calculated for each study using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: This study was registered with PROSPERO (INPLASY202080090).The pooled OS hazard ratio between segmentectomy and lobectomy was 1.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.4], the pooled HR between lobectomy and wedge resection was 0.71 [95% CI 0.52-0.96], and the pooled HR between segmentectomy and wedge was 0.80 [95% CI 0.56-1.10]. The pooled HR of DFS or RFS was not statistically significant among the three surgical approaches.

Conclusions: Patients with early-stage NSCLC received lobectomy had the lowest hazard ratio of OS than patients received wedge resection, indicating that the overall survival of patients received lobectomy was higher than patients received wedge resection. However, regarding DFS and RFS, the three surgical approaches showed no significant difference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10857-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493945PMC
October 2021

Several anthropometric measurements and cancer mortality: predictor screening, threshold determination, and joint analysis in a multicenter cohort of 12138 adults.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Department of Clinical Nutrition, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100038, China.

Background: Anthropometric measurements (AMs) are cost-effective surrogates for evaluating body size. This study aimed to identify the optimal prognostic AMs, their thresholds, and their joint associations with cancer mortality.

Methods: We performed an observational cohort study including 12138 patients with cancer at five institutions in China. Information on demographics, disease, nutritional status, and AMs, including the body mass index, mid-arm muscle circumference, mid-arm circumference, handgrip strength, calf circumference (CC), and triceps-skinfold thickness (TSF), was collected and screened as mortality predictors. The optimal stratification was used to determine the thresholds to categorize those prognostic AMs, and their associations with mortality were estimated independently and jointly by calculating multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs).

Results: The study included 5744 females and 6394 males with a mean age of 56.9 years. The CC and TSF were identified as better mortality predictors than other AMs. The optimal thresholds were women 30 cm and men 32.8 cm for the CC, and women 21.8 mm and men 13.6 mm for the TSF. Patients in the low CC or low TSF group had a 13% (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03-1.23) and 22% (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.12-1.32) greater mortality risk compared with their normal CC/TSF counterparties, respectively. Concurrent low CC and low TSF showed potential joint effect on mortality risk (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.25-1.55).

Conclusions: These findings support the importance of assessing the CC and TSF simultaneously in hospitalized cancer patients to guide interventions to optimize their long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-01009-xDOI Listing
September 2021

A Multicenter Study of Viral Aetiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children in Chinese Mainland.

Virol Sin 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. In this study, we aimed to describe the aetiology of viral infection of pediatric CAP in Chinese mainland. During November 2014 to June 2016, the prospective study was conducted in 13 hospitals. The hospitalized children under 18 years old who met the criteria for CAP were enrolled. The throat swabs or nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected which were then screened 18 respiratory viruses using multiplex PCR assay. Viral pathogens were present in 56.6% (1539/2721) of the enrolled cases, with the detection rate of single virus in 39.8% of the cases and multiple viruses in 16.8% of the cases. The most frequently detected virus was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (15.2%, 414/2721). The highest detection rate of virus was in < 6-month-age group (70.7%, 292/413). RSV, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) and influenza B virus (Flu B) showed the similar prevalence patterns both in north and south China, but HPIVs, Flu A, human bocavirus (HBoV), human adenovirus (HAdV) and human coronaviruses (HCoVs) showed the distinct circulating patterns in north and south China. Human enterovirus/human rhinovirus (HEV/HRV) (27.6%, 27/98), HBoV (18.4%, 18/98), RSV (16.3%, 16/98) and HMPV (14.3%, 14/98) were the most commonly detected viruses in severe pneumonia cases with single virus infection. In conclusion, viral pathogens are frequently detected in pediatric CAP cases and may therefore play a vital role in the aetiology of CAP. RSV was the most important virus in hospitalized children with CAP in Chinese mainland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-021-00437-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440149PMC
September 2021

NANOG Promotes Cell Proliferation, Invasion, and Stemness via IL-6/STAT3 Signaling in Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211038492

Institute of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells, Nanchong Central Hospital, 74655The Second Clinical College of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Cancer cells have properties similar to those of stem cells, including high proliferation and self-renewal ability. is the key regulatory gene that maintains the self-renewal and pluripotency characteristics of embryonic stem cells. We previously reported that knockdown of the pluripotent stem cell factor NANOG obviously reduced the proliferation and drug-resistance capabilities of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, we gained insights into the potential regulatory mechanism of NANOG, particularly in ESCC. NANOG was ectopically expressed in the Eca-109 cell line via pcDNA3.1 vector transfection. The mRNA expression of different genes was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein quantification was performed by western blotting. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6). The capabilities of proliferation, migration, and invasion were investigated using cell count and Transwell assays. The tumor sphere-forming assay was used to investigate the sphere formation capacity of cancer stem cells. The expression of NANOG promoted the cell proliferation and sphere formation capacity of cancer stem cells in a dose-dependent manner. IL-6-mediated activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was closely related to the expression of NANOG in ESCC. Consistently, the target genes of STAT3, including , , , and , were upregulated upon the overexpression of NANOG. These results revealed that the expression of NANOG promotes cell proliferation, invasion, and stemness via IL-6/STAT3 signaling in ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15330338211038492DOI Listing
September 2021

[Treatment of bone and periprosthetic infections with bacteriophages : A systematic review].

Orthopade 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Unfallchirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053, Regensburg, Deutschland.

Background: The treatment of bone and prosthesis infections remains difficult despite modern treatment concepts. Further tools for the improvement of treatment outcome are desirable. Preclinical studies provide promising evidence of the efficacy of bacteriophages for the treatment of bone and joint infections.

Objectives: The present work provides a systematic review of the clinical application of bacteriophages for the treatment of bone and joint infections.

Materials And Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed to identify primary clinical data on the use of phage therapy in patients with bone and joint infection.

Results: Eight case reports and three case series were included in the study. Indications for phage therapy were periprosthetic joint infection (n = 12, 52.2%), fracture-related infection (n = 9, 39.1%), osteomyelitis (n = 1, 4.4%) and sacroiliac joint infection after cement augmentation of a metastasis (n = 1, 4.4%). Interventions were heterogeneous; phages were administered intravenously, injected intraoperatively into the joint, applied locally intraoperatively, or administered via drains. In combination with antibiotic therapy, complete infection eradication was achieved in 18 patients (78.3%). No side effects were reported in 91.3% of patients.

Conclusion: Bacteriophages represent a promising treatment option for bone and prosthesis infections in combination with antibiotic therapy. Future clinical trials with a higher level of evidence are required for the successful translation of bacteriophage therapy into clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00132-021-04148-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Arsenic sulfide inhibits the progression of gastric cancer through regulating the circRNA_ASAP2/Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Anticancer Drugs 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Southwest Hospital affiliated to the Army Medical University Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital affiliated to the Army Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.

In our paper, the effects of As4S4 treatments on the growth and migration of gastric cancer (GC) cells were explored, and the potential underlying molecular mechanisms were also identified. Cell viability was evaluated by cell counting kit 8 assay. The expression of Ki-67 was examined using immunofluorescence staining. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The migratory and invasion abilities of cells were determined using Transwell assay. The mRNA and protein levels of related gene were examined by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. CircRNAs chip was performed to identify the differentiated expression of circRNAs in GC cells following the treatment with As4S4. Our results revealed that the proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells were remarkably suppressed by the treatment with As4S4, while cell apoptosis was promoted. Furthermore, circRNA_ASAP2 was a novel target of As4S4 in GC, and it is involved in As4S4-modulated biological behavior alterations in GC cells. In addition, the activities of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in GC cells were affected by the overexpression circRNA_ASAP2 and the treatment with As4S4. Moreover, the behavior changes in GC cells caused by the knockdown of circRNA_ASAP2 were reversed by the treatment with Wnt agonist SKL2001. In summary, As4S4 could function as an antitumor agent in GC through regulating the circRNA_ASAP2/Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which in turn influences the growth and metastasis of GC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000001246DOI Listing
September 2021

Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of human adenovirus serotype 41 strains circulating in Beijing, China, during 2010-2019.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Nov 1;95:105056. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Laboratory of Virology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Etiology of Viral Diseases in Children, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, 2 Yabao Road, Beijing 100020, China. Electronic address:

Human adenovirus serotype 41 (HAdV-F41) is an important pathogen that causes diarrhea in children. However, the data on its molecular genetic characteristics and evolutionary history are still neither comprehensive nor sufficient. Four capsid protein genes from 58 HAdV-F41-positive specimens taken from diarrheal children in Beijing during 2010-2019 were amplified and analyzed. Variant amino acids in the hexon gene (18 sites) and short fiber gene (4 sites) clustered these strains into two clades and four subclades. The deletion of 15 amino acids found in the gene seemed to have little effect on the genomic strain cluster same as to penton gene. The HAdV-F41 strains had high diversity, as assessed from the intraspecific recombination of hexon, short fiber and long fiber. The molecular evolutionary rate of HAdV-F41's concatenated genes was 4.07 × 10 substitutions/site/year, and it diverged from the most recent common ancestor in 1720. Apart from in the penton gene, positive selection codons were predicted in the other three genes, which may play a synergistic role in the evolution of HAdV-F41. These results provide new insights for understanding the characteristics of infectivity and developing vectors and vaccine vehicles for HAdV-F41.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105056DOI Listing
November 2021

Prediction of exacerbation frequency of AECOPD based on next-generation sequencing and its relationship with imbalance of lung and gut microbiota: a protocol of a prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 09 2;11(9):e047202. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China

Introduction: Patients with frequent acute exacerbation phenotype chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have a higher hospitalisation rate than infrequent exacerbation, the disease progresses quickly and treatment is more difficult. At present, it is impossible to predict patients with COPD with frequent acute exacerbation phenotypes. The composition of the lower respiratory tract flora and the intestinal flora is closely related to AECOPD, but the specific association mechanism between them is not very clear. This study used metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) technology to explore the microbial characteristics of the intestinal tract and airways of patients with COPD, and analyse the correlation between the sequencing results and inflammatory factors, immune factors and nutritional factors.

Methods And Analysis: This will be a prospective cohort study. We intend to recruit 152 patients with stable COPD. In the baseline, we will detect the participants' induced sputum and faecal flora through mNGS, and changes in blood immune levels, and the patient's condition is evaluated. Every 2 months, we will check the number of acute exacerbation through the phone range. After 12 months, we will check again the changes in the blood immune level, evaluate the patient's condition and count the number of episodes.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study has been approved by the ethics committee of Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (approval number ZF2019-219-03). The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals.

Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (ChiCTR2000032870).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413946PMC
September 2021

Flocculation of combined contaminants of dye and heavy metal by nano-chitosan flocculants.

J Environ Manage 2021 Dec 28;299:113589. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

College of Urban Construction, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 211800, China.

In this study, two multifunctional nano-chitosan flocculants (CPAM-NCS1 and CPAM-NCS2) were made through the graft modification of cationic monomer and carboxymethylchitosan (CMCTS) to remove combined contaminants. The effects of various factors (pH, flocculant dosage and hydraulic mixing conditions) on the flocculation performance under single and composite pollution conditions were systematically investigated, the optimal chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the chromaticity removal rates in the dye wastewater were 79.9% and 83.9% at wastewater pH 7, the fast stirring rate 300 rpm, the fast stirring time 8 min, and the dosage of CPAM-NCS1 80 mg/L, respectively. The optimal removal rates of Cu (II) obtained by CPAM-NCS1 and CPAM-NCS2 at were 80.3% and 75.2% at 60 mg/L and the wastewater pH 7, respectively. The optimal removal rates of Cu (II) and disperse orange were 85.3% and 89.4%, respectively, in a composite pollutant system in which Cu (II) and disperse orange coexisted when the pH of the composite system was 9 and the dosage of CPAM -NCS1 was 60 mg/L. This study proved that nanoflocculants made by modifying CMCTS with different structures can demonstrate ideal flocculation removal performance for dye and heavy metal wastewaters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113589DOI Listing
December 2021

Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus A16 circulating in children in Beijing, China from 2010 to 2019.

World J Pediatr 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Laboratory of Virology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Etiology of Viral Diseases in Children, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, 2 Yabao Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020, China.

Background: Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is one of the major etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary characteristics of CVA16.

Methods: Throat swabs were collected from children with HFMD and suspected HFMD during 2010-2019. Enteroviruses (EVs) were detected and typed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-PCR. The genotype, evolutionary rate, the most recent common ancestor, population dynamics and selection pressure of CVA16 were analyzed based on viral protein gene (VP1) by bioinformatics software.

Results: A total of 4709 throat swabs were screened. EVs were detected in 3180 samples and 814 were CVA16 positive. More than 81% of CVA16-positive children were under 5 years old. The prevalence of CVA16 showed obvious periodic fluctuations with a high level during 2010-2012 followed by an apparent decline during 2013-2017. However, the activities of CVA16 increased gradually during 2018-2019. All the Beijing CVA16 strains belonged to sub-genotype B1, and B1b was the dominant strain. One B1c strain was detected in Beijing for the first time in 2016. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of VP1 gene was 4.49 × 10 substitution/site/year. Methionine gradually fixed at site-23 of VP1 since 2012. Two sites were detected under episodic positive selection, one of which (site-223) located in neutralizing linear epitope PEP71.

Conclusions: The dominant strains of CVA16 belonged to clade B1b and evolved in a fast evolutionary rate during 2010-2019 in Beijing. To provide more favorable data for HFMD prevention and control, it is necessary to keep attention on molecular epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of CVA16.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-021-00451-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Differences in Gut Virome Related to Barrett Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

Microorganisms 2021 Aug 10;9(8). Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Helmholtz Centre Munich-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Virology, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

The relationship between viruses (dominated by bacteriophages or phages) and lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases has been investigated, whereas the relationship between gut bacteriophages and upper GI tract diseases, such as esophageal diseases, which mainly include Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), remains poorly described. This study aimed to reveal the gut bacteriophage community and their behavior in the progression of esophageal diseases. In total, we analyzed the gut phage community of sixteen samples from patients with esophageal diseases (six BE patients and four EAC patients) as well as six healthy controls. Differences were found in the community composition of abundant and rare bacteriophages among three groups. In addition, the auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) related to bacterial exotoxin and virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) biosynthesis proteins were found to be more abundant in the genome of rare phages from BE and EAC samples compared to the controls. These results suggest that the community composition of gut phages and functional traits encoded by them were different in two stages of esophageal diseases. However, the findings from this study need to be validated with larger sample sizes in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401523PMC
August 2021

Does social trust stimulate university technology transfer? Evidence from China.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(8):e0256551. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

School of Finance, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu, China.

This paper examines the effect of social trust on university technology transfer. A large sample of Chinese universities from the 2007-2017 period was used. We find that social trust facilitates university technology transfer. The finding remain valid after a series of robustness. The mechanism test shows that social trust facilitates university technology transfer by improving the level of university-industry cooperative innovation. Our study suggests that social trust is an important factor that affects university technology transfer.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256551PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386828PMC
August 2021

Cost-effectiveness of Anbainuo plus methotrexate compared to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis patients in China.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(14):1165

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Zhuzhou Central Hospital, The Affiliated Zhuzhou Hospital Xiangya Medical College CSU, Zhuzhou, China.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Anbainuo (ABN) plus methotrexate (MTX) . conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) in Chinese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

Methods: A total of 90 RA patients who underwent ABN + MTX [assigned as ABN + MTX group (n=47)] or cDMARDs [assigned as control group (n=43)] treatment were analyzed. Disease activity was assessed at baseline (M0), 3 month (M3), 6 month (M6), and 12 month (M12) after treatment. Drug, other medical, indirect, and total costs were calculated. Then, pharmacoeconomic analyses were performed with the threshold of cost-effectiveness set as 3 times of the mean gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in China during the study period.

Results: Treatment response rate was similar between the 2 groups, while disease remission and low disease activity (LDA) rates were increased in the ABN + MTX group compared to control group. Drug cost, other medical costs, and total cost were higher in the ABN + MTX group than control group, while indirect cost was similar between the 2 groups. Meanwhile, the quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) in ABN + MTX group and control group were 0.72 and 0.48 years, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of ABN + MTX group compared to control group among the entire participant cohort, moderate-disease-activity participants, and severe-disease-activity participants were ¥135,486.7, ¥146,450.4, and ¥124,987.2/QALY, respectively, which were all below the cost-effectiveness threshold. Further sensitivity analyses revealed that the cost-effectiveness of ABN + MTX . cDMARDs was relatively robust, while among all the indexes, ABN price and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score change for the ABN + MTX group affected ICER most.

Conclusions: Treatment with ABN + MTX offers acceptable cost-effectiveness compared to cDMARDs treatment in Chinese RA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-3132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350709PMC
July 2021

Serum levels of SIRT3 and other inflammatory factors are associated with clinical outcomes and prognosis in severe community-acquired pneumonia in adults: A prospective study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(32):e26721

Department of Pharmacy, Tianyou Hospital Affiliated to Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate clinical significance of SIRT3 in severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients.This prospective observational research enrolled a total of 114 severe CAP patients who went to our hospital during January 2018 to December 2019. Serum SIRT3 and IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Demographic data, including age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), as well as clinical symptoms, SOFA and SMART-COP scores were collected. The routine blood test was conducted for all patients and white blood cell (WBC) amount, as well as serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), D-Dimer, and procalcitonin (PCT).Among all patients, 55 cases died during the study period. The serum levels of CRP, PCT, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as SOFA and SMART-COP scores were markedly higher in deceased patients than in the survival patients. The expression of SIRT3 was significantly decreased in severe CAP patients compared with the healthy, especially in the deceased patients. SIRT3 levels were negatively correlated with levels of CRP, PCT, IL-1β, and IL-6. Patients with SIRT3 low expression showed remarkably higher expression of CRP, PCT, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as high SMART-COP scores, higher 1-month mortality rate, and shorter survival. Only SIRT3 and IL-1β were independent risk factors for 1-month mortality in severe CAP patients.Lower serum SIRT3 level predicts poor clinical outcomes and prognosis in severe CAP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360436PMC
August 2021

Effectiveness of COVID-19 Vaccines in Preventing Hospitalization Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years - COVID-NET, 13 States, February-April 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Aug 13;70(32):1088-1093. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized for emergency use in the United States (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) indicate that these vaccines have high efficacy against symptomatic disease, including moderate to severe illness (1-3). In addition to clinical trials, real-world assessments of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness are critical in guiding vaccine policy and building vaccine confidence, particularly among populations at higher risk for more severe illness from COVID-19, including older adults. To determine the real-world effectiveness of the three currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines among persons aged ≥65 years during February 1-April 30, 2021, data on 7,280 patients from the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) were analyzed with vaccination coverage data from state immunization information systems (IISs) for the COVID-NET catchment area (approximately 4.8 million persons). Among adults aged 65-74 years, effectiveness of full vaccination in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 94%-98%) for Pfizer-BioNTech, 96% (95% CI = 95%-98%) for Moderna, and 84% (95% CI = 64%-93%) for Janssen vaccine products. Effectiveness of full vaccination in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization among adults aged ≥75 years was 91% (95% CI = 87%-94%) for Pfizer-BioNTech, 96% (95% CI = 93%-98%) for Moderna, and 85% (95% CI = 72%-92%) for Janssen vaccine products. COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized in the United States are highly effective in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in older adults. In light of real-world data demonstrating high effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines among older adults, efforts to increase vaccination coverage in this age group are critical to reducing the risk for COVID-19-related hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7032e3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360274PMC
August 2021

Evidence-based bundled care for patients with dysphagia after severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(7):7819-7828. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Qujing No. 1 Hospital Qujing, Yunnan Province, China.

Objective: To explore the effect of an evidence-based bundled care model in patients with dysphagia after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled study. A total of 60 patients with dysphagia after severe TBI (traumatic brain injury) admitted to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine were selected and randomly divided into the test group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). Patients in the control group received routine care in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, while patients in the test group received evidence-based bundled care on the basis of the treatment of the control group. The improvement of swallowing function (dye test in comatose patients), oral hygiene, and nutritional risk was assessed in both groups. The incidence of adverse events such as aspiration and aspiration pneumonia, as well as the length and costs of hospitalization were compared between the two groups.

Results: Compared with patients in the control group, swallowing function of patients in the test group was significantly improved after the care (P<0.05), and for comatose patients, the positive rate of Evans blue dye test was markedly reduced (P<0.05). Compared with patients in the control group, the oral hygiene of patients in the test group was significantly improved after care, and the nutritional risk scores were also significantly decreased (P<0.05). During hospitalization, the total incidence of adverse events, length and costs of hospitalization of patients in the test group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Evidence-based bundled care can effectively improve swallowing function and reduce the incidence of nutritional risks and adverse events in patients with dysphagia after severe TBI, which further promotes postoperative rehabilitation of patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340219PMC
July 2021

[Characteristics of circulation and microcirculation in healthy people of Han nationality at different altitudes].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;37(4):371-375

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qinghai People's Hospital, Xining 810007.

To observe the circulation and microcirculation characteristics of healthy han people in Qinghai at different Guoluo (4 100 m) and Huzhu (2 600 m) and in Shanghai in plain area (4 m). The 28 healthy han people aged (45.62±10.15) from Guoluo in Qinghai, 27 healthy han people aged (47.25±8.43) from Huzhu in Qinghai and 20 healthy han people aged (43.12±8.28) from Shanghai were divided into three groups: Guoluo group (GL), Huzhu group (HZ) and Shanghai group (SH); Venous blood was collected for routine blood test: red blood cells count(RBC), hemoglobin(HGB), hematocrit(HCT), platelet(PLT); and coagulation index: prothrombin time(PT), interntionl normlized ratio(INR), fibrin(Fib), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time(TT), continuous non - invasive hemodynamic monitor (CNAP) was used for continuous measurement: cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), pulse pressure variation rate (PPV), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), mean arterial pressure (MAP); pulse oxygen monitoring instrument is used for monitoring SPO (pulse oxygen); the total vascular density (TVD), perfusion vascular density (PVD), proportion of perfused vascular(PPV), and microvascular flow index (MFI) of sublingual microcirculation were observed by using peripheral dark field imaging (SDF) monitoring technique. Compared with the Shanghai group, the RBC and HGB levels in the Huzhu group and the Guoluo group were significantly increased (<0.05), while PLT levels were significantly decreased (<0.05); The levels of PT, Fib, APTT, TT, CO, HR, SV, MAP and SPO in the Huzhu group were significantly decreased (<0.05), while the levels of TVD, PVD, PPV and MFI were significantly increased (<0.05). In Guoluo group, the levels of HCT, Fib, CO, SV, PPV, MAP, TVD and PVD were significantly increased (<0.05), while the levels of PT, INR, TT and SPO were significantly decreased (<0.05). Compared with the Huzhu group, the levels of RBC, HGB, HCT, Fib and APTT of Guoluo group were significantly increased (<0.05); while the levels of SPO, TVD, PVD, INR and TT were significantly decreased (<0.05). The microcirculation of healthy people in different altitude areas is significantly different, and the microcirculation density of healthy people in high altitude areas is significantly higher than that in plain areas, especially in moderate altitude areas. Its special physiological significance is of guiding significance for the treatment of infectious shock and chronic altitude disease in plateau areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.6014.2021.006DOI Listing
July 2021

A fusion decision system to identify and grade malnutrition in cancer patients: Machine learning reveals feasible workflow from representative real-world data.

Clin Nutr 2021 08 3;40(8):4958-4970. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, 400042, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Most nutritional assessment tools are based on pre-defined questionnaires or consensus guidelines. However, it has been postulated that population data can be used directly to develop a solution for assessing malnutrition. This study established a machine learning (ML)-based, individualized decision system to identify and grade malnutrition using large-scale data from cancer patients.

Methods: This was an observational, nationwide, multicenter cohort study that included 14134 cancer patients from five institutions in four different geographic regions of China. Multi-stage K-means clustering was performed to isolate and grade malnutrition based on 17 core nutritional features. The effectiveness of the identified clusters for reflecting clinical characteristics, nutritional status and patient outcomes was comprehensively evaluated. The study population was randomly split for model derivation and validation. Multiple ML algorithms were developed, validated and compared to screen for optimal models to implement the cluster prediction.

Results: A well-nourished cluster (n = 8193, 58.0%) and a malnourished cluster with three phenotype-specific severity levels (mild = 2195, 15.5%; moderate = 2491, 17.6%; severe = 1255, 8.9%) were identified. The clusters showed moderate agreement with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment and the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition criteria. The severity of malnutrition was negatively associated with the nutritional status, physical status, quality of life, and short-term outcomes, and was monotonically correlated with reduced overall survival. A multinomial logistic regression was found to be the optimal ML algorithm, and models built based on this algorithm showed almost perfect performance to predict the clusters in the validation data.

Conclusions: This study developed a fusion decision system that can be used to facilitate the identification and severity grading of malnutrition in patients with cancer. Moreover, the study workflow is flexible, and might provide a generalizable solution for the artificial intelligence-based assessment of malnutrition in a wider variety of scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.06.028DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparison of the effect of ticagrelor combined with tirofiban versus clopidogrel combined with tirofiban on inflammation response and prognosis of patients with unstable angina pectoris in long term follow-up.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

To investigate the effect of ticagrelor combined with tirofiban versus clopidogrel combined with tirofiban on inflammation response and prognosis of patients with unstable angina pectoris (UA). The present prospective study included a total of 291 patients who were diagnosed as unstable UA from January 2018 to December 2019. All UA patients were divided into two groups: ticagrelor combined with tirofiban group (n = 159) and clopidogrel combined with tirofiban group (n = 132). Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) curve was performed for analysis of cumulative incidences of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Both ticagrelor combined with tirofiban and clopidogrel combined with tirofiban significantly decreased the serum levels of inflammatory factors in UA patients. Compared to clopidogrel combined with the tirofiban group, ticagrelor combined with the tirofiban group had a lower platelet aggregation rate and improved cardiac function of UA patients. Besides, ticagrelor combined with tirofiban group had a better prognosis and the K-M curve showed that UA patients treated by ticagrelor and tirofiban had lower incidences of MACEs in one-year follow-up. The treatment of ticagrelor combined with tirofiban significantly attenuated inflammation response and improved the prognosis of UA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/kjm2.12421DOI Listing
August 2021

A clinical scoring system for pediatric hand-foot-mouth disease.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jul 31;21(1):722. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The Affiliated Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China.

Background: The aim of the present study was to develop a clinical scoring system for the diagnosis of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) with improved accuracy.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on standardized patient history and clinical examination data obtained from 1435 pediatric patients under the age of three years who presented with acute rash illness and underwent enterovirus nucleic acid detection. Patients were then divided into the HFMD (1094 patients) group or non-HFMD (341 patients) group based on a positive or a negative result from the assay, respectively. We then divided the data into a training set (1004 cases, 70%) and a test set (431 cases, 30%) using a random number method. Multivariate logistic regression was performed on 15 clinical variables (e.g. age, exposure history, number of rash spots in a single body region) to identify variables highly predictive of a positive diagnosis in the training set. Using the variables with high impact on the diagnostic accuracy, we generated a scoring system for predicting HFMD and subsequently evaluated this system in the test set by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve).

Results: Using the logistic model, we identified seven clinical variables (age, exposure history, and rash density at specific regions of the body) to be included into the scoring system. The final scores ranged from - 5 to 24 (higher scores positively predicted HFMD diagnosis). Through our training set, a cutoff score of 7 resulted in a sensitivity of 0.76 and specificity of 0.68. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.804 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.773-0.835) (P < 0.001). Using the test set, we obtained an AUC of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.710-0.810) with a sensitivity of 0.76 and a specificity of 0.62. These results from the test set were consistent with those from the training set.

Conclusions: This study establishes an objective scoring system for the diagnosis of typical and atypical HFMD using measures accessible through routine clinical encounters. Due to the accuracy and sensitivity achieved by this scoring system, it can be employed as a rapid, low-cost method for establishing diagnoses in children with acute rash illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06424-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325785PMC
July 2021

[Preparation and Characterization of Clopidogrel Bisulfate Liposomes].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Jul;52(4):630-636

Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To prepare encapsulated clopidogrel bisulfate (CLP) liposomes so as to deal with the poor water solubility of CLP, and to provide the experimental basis for the development of CLP formulations for intravascular injection.

Methods: CLP-loaded liposomes were prepared using thin film hydration/sonication method and pH gradient active drug loading technology. Then, the morphology, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading capacity, Zeta potentials and release behavior were characterized. Bilateral renal arteries of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were clamped with micro-artery clamps to establish the model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in male SD rats. The study aimed to preliminarily investigate the therapeutic effect of CLP-loaded liposome pretreatment on renal IRI in rats.

Results: It was found that the optimal formulation and preparation technology of CLP liposomes were as follows: the CLP-to-phospholipid weight ratio of 1∶10, phospholipid-to-cholesterol ratio of 6∶1, octadecylamine-to-CLP ratio of 1.2∶1, PEG -to-CLP ratio of 1∶1, and incubation at 50 ℃ for 40 min. Then, following ultrasonication of 100 W efficiency at 5-second intervals for 20 times, CLP loading was conducted using 5 mL of 0.1 mol/L citric acid buffer at pH 3.0. Liposome samples were prepared with the film dispersion method, and the pH value was adjusted to 7.5 through pH gradient active drug loading technology. The CLP-loaded liposomes obtained in this way had a rounded shape, good dispersity, an average particle size of (134.13±2.60) nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.25±0.02, and a Zeta potential of (2.12±0.23) mV. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be (98.66±0.14)%, and the drug loading capacity was (7.47±0.01)%. The release results showed that 66.24% of CLP was released cumulatively within 72 h. Preliminary efficacy experiments showed that animals pretreated with CLP-loaded liposomes had lower serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to the levels of IRI model rats without any pretreatment.

Conclusion: CLP-loaded liposomes were successfully prepared, which might provide the experimental foundation for the future development of CLP formulations for injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20210760102DOI Listing
July 2021

Protective effect of exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on rats with diabetic nephropathy and its possible mechanism.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6423-6430. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Ji'nan University Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC-Exos) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats and its possible mechanism.

Methods: Thirty rats were divided into the following three groups of 10 rats each: the NC group (normal rats), the DN group (rats with DN), and the BM group (DN rats injected with BMMSC-Exo). Blood glucose level, renal function, blood lipid level, and plasma viscosity of the rats were detected. Renal tissue morphology was observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expression levels of JAK2 and STAT3 in rats' kidneys were measured by RT-PCR and western blot.

Results: The rats in the DN group had higher levels of blood glucose, blood lipids, and blood viscosity, worse renal function, and lower body weight than those in the NC group (all P<0.05). After treatment with BMMSC-Exos, rats in the BM group had markedly decreased levels of blood glucose, blood lipids, and blood viscosity, improved renal function, and higher body weight compared to those in the DN group (all P<0.05). The renal tissues in the NC group had intact structure, and no hyperplastic or hypertrophic cells were observed. In the DN group, the renal glomerulus and mesangial matrix were abnormal, and the capillary lumen and renal tubule lumen were depressed and blocked, accompanied by interstitial edema. Pathologic changes in the renal glomerulus and tubule in the BM group were less severe than those in the DN group. The DN rats had higher expression levels of JAK2 and STAT3 than normal rats, and the rats treated with BMMSC-Exos had lower levels of JAK2 and STAT3 compared to the DN rats (all P<0.05).

Conclusion: BMMSC-Exo can achieve a good therapeutic effect in DN, which may be due to its ability to lower the blood glucose level, improve renal function, and inhibit JAK2/STAT3 expression.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290711PMC
June 2021

Herbal Medicine, Gut Microbiota, and COVID-19.

Front Pharmacol 2021 7;12:646560. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has grown to a worldwide pandemic with substantial mortality. The symptoms of COVID-19 range from mild flu-like symptoms, including cough and fever, to life threatening complications. There are still quite a number of patients with COVID-19 showed enteric symptoms including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The gastrointestinal tract may be one of the target organs of SARS-CoV-2. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is significantly expressed in intestinal cells. ACE2 links amino acid malnutrition to microbial ecology and intestinal inflammation. Intestinal flora imbalance and endotoxemia may accelerate the progression of COVID-19. Many herbs have demonstrated properties relevant to the treatment of COVID-19, by supporting organs and systems of the body affected by the virus. Herbs can restore the structure of the intestinal flora, which may further modulate the immune function after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Regulation of intestinal flora by herbal medicine may be helpful for the treatment and recovery of the disease. Understanding the role of herbs that regulate intestinal flora in fighting respiratory virus infections and maintaining intestinal flora balance can provide new ideas for preventing and treating COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.646560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293616PMC
July 2021

4-Acetyl-Antroquinonol B Improves the Sensitization of Cetuximab on Both Kras Mutant and Wild Type Colorectal Cancer by Modulating the Expression of Ras/Raf/miR-193a-3p Signaling Axis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 14;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan.

The KRAS mutation is one of the leading driver mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC), and it is usually associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. Therapies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) are widely used for end-stage CRC. However, patients with KRAS mutant genes cannot benefit from this therapy because of Ras signaling activation by KRAS mutant genes. Our previous study revealed the anti-proliferative effect of 4-acetyl-antroquinonol B (4-AAQB) on CRC cells, but whether the drug is effective in KRAS-mutant CRC remains unknown. We screened CRC cell lines harboring the KRAS mutation, namely G12A, G12C, G12V and G13D, with one wild type cell line as the control; SW1463 and Caco-2 cell lines were used for further experiments. Sulforhodamine B assays, together with the clonogenicity and invasion assay, revealed that KRAS-mutant SW1463 cells were resistant to cetuximab; however, 4-AAQB treatment effectively resensitized CRC cells to cetuximab through the reduction of colony formation, invasion, and tumorsphere generation and of oncogenic KRAS signaling cascade of CRC cells. Thus, inducing cells with 4-AAQB before cetuximab therapy could resensitize KRAS-mutant, but not wild-type, cells to cetuximab. Therefore, we hypothesized that 4-AAQB can inhibit KRAS. In silico analysis of the publicly available GEO (GSE66548) dataset of KRAS-mutated versus KRAS wild-type CRC patients confirmed that miR-193a-3p was significantly downregulated in the former compared with the latter patient population. Overexpression of miR-193a-3p considerably reduced the oncogenicity of both CRC cells. Furthermore, KRAS is a key target of miR-193a-3p. In vivo treatment with the combination of 4-AAQB and cetuximab significantly reduced the tumor burden of a xenograft mice model through the reduction of the expression of oncogenic markers (EGFR) and p-MEK, p-ERK, and c-RAF/p-c-RAF signaling, with the simultaneous induction of miR-193a-3p expression in the plasma. In summary, our findings provide strong evidence regarding the therapeutic effect of 4-AAQB on KRAS-mutant CRC cells. Furthermore, 4-AAQB effectively inhibits Ras singling in CRC cells, through which KRAS-mutant CRC can be resensitized to cetuximab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307961PMC
July 2021

Molecular Characteristics of Human Adenovirus Type 3 Circulating in Parts of China During 2014-2018.

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:688661. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Research Unit of Critical Infection in Children, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 2019RU016, Laboratory of Infection and Virology, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are important pathogens causing respiratory infections; 3.5-11% of childhood community-acquired pneumonia is associated with HAdV infection. Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3), leading to severe morbidity and mortality, is one of the most prevalent genotype among adenoviruses responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children in China. To identify the genetic variation of HAdV-3 in children with ARIs in China, a molecular epidemiological study was conducted. A total of 54 HAdV-3 isolated strains were obtained from children with ARIs in Beijing, Wenzhou, Shanghai, Shijiazhuang, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, and Changchun from 2014 to 2018. Thirty-two strains of which were selected for whole-genome sequencing, while the hexon, penton base, and fiber genes were sequenced for remaining strains. Bioinformatics analysis was performed on the obtained sequences. The phylogenetic analyses based on whole-genome sequences, major capsid protein genes (hexon, penton base, and fiber), and early genes (E1, E2, E3, and E4) showed that the HAdV-3 strains obtained in this study always clustered together with the reference strains from Chinese mainland, while the HAdV-3 prototype strain formed a cluster independently. Compared with the prototype strain, all strains possessed nine amino acid (AA) substitutions at neutralization antigenic epitopes of hexon. The homology models of the hexon protein of the HAdV-3 prototype and strain BJ20160214 showed that there was no evident structural change at the AA mutation sites. Two AA substitutions were found at the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) loop and hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) region of the penton base. A distinct AA insertion (20P) in the highly conserved PPPSY motif of the penton base that had never been reported before was observed. Recombination analysis indicated that partial regions of protein IIIa precursor, penton base, and protein VII precursor genes among all HAdV-3 strains in this study were from HAdV-7. This study showed that the genomes of the HAdV-3 strains in China were highly homologous. Some AA mutations were found at antigenic sites; however, the significance needs further study. Our data demonstrated the molecular characteristics of HAdV-3 circulating in China and was highly beneficial for further epidemiological exploration and the development of vaccines and drugs against HAdV-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.688661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276179PMC
June 2021

Comparative analysis of clonal evolution among patients with right- and left-sided colon and rectal cancer.

iScience 2021 Jul 11;24(7):102718. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

BGI-Qingdao, BGI-Shenzhen, Qingdao 266555, China.

Tumor multiregion sequencing reveals intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) and clonal evolution playing a key role in tumor progression and metastases. Large-scale high-depth multiregional sequencing of colorectal cancer, comparative analysis among patients with right-sided colon cancer (RCC), left-sided colon cancer (LCC), and rectal cancer (RC), as well as the study of lymph node metastasis (LN) with extranodal tumor deposits (ENTDs) from evolutionary perspective remain weakly explored. Here, we recruited 68 patients with RCC (18), LCC (20), and RC (30). We performed high-depth whole-exome sequencing of 206 tumor regions including 176 primary tumors, 19 LN, and 11 ENTD samples. Our results showed ITH with a Darwinian pattern of evolution and the evolution pattern of LCC and RC was more complex and divergent than RCC. Genetic and evolutionary evidences found that both LN and ENTD originated from different clones. Moreover, ENTD was a distinct entity from LN and evolved later.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254024PMC
July 2021

GeGen QinLian decoction alleviate influenza virus infectious pneumonia through intestinal flora.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Sep 8;141:111896. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Influenza in humans is often accompanied by gastroenteritis-like symptoms. GeGen QinLian decoction (GQD), a Chinese herb formula, has been widely used to treat infectious diarrhea for centuries and has the effect of restoring intestinal flora. Studies have also reported that GQD were used to treat patients with influenza. However, whether regulating the intestinal flora is one of the ways GQD treats influenza has not been confirmed. In present research, we conducted a systemic pharmacological study, and the results showed that GQD may acts through multiple targets and pathways. In influenza-infected mice, GQD treatment reduced mortality and lung inflammation. Most importantly, the mortality and lung inflammation were also reduced in influenza-infected mice that have undergone fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from GQD (FMT-GQD) treated mice. GQD treatment or FMT-GQD treatment restores the intestinal flora, resulting in an increase in Akkermansia_muciniphila, Desulfovibrio_C21_c20 and Lactobacillus_salivarius, and a decrease in Escherichia_coli. FMT-GQD treatment inhibited the NOD/RIP2/NF-κB signaling pathway in the intestine and affected the expression of downstream related inflammatory cytokines in mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and serum. In addition, FMT-GQD treatment showed systemic protection by restraining the inflammatory differentiation of CD4 T cells. In conclusion, our study shows that GQD can affect systemic immunity, at least in part, through the intestinal flora, thereby protect the mice against influenza virus infectious pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111896DOI Listing
September 2021

Fat mass assessment using the triceps skinfold thickness enhances the prognostic value of the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition criteria in patients with lung cancer.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jul 5:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing400042, People's Republic of China.

The present study evaluated whether fat mass assessment using the triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness provides additional prognostic value to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) framework in patients with lung cancer (LC). We performed an observational cohort study including 2672 LC patients in China. Comprehensive demographic, disease and nutritional characteristics were collected. Malnutrition was retrospectively defined using the GLIM criteria, and optimal stratification was used to determine the best thresholds for the TSF. The associations of malnutrition and TSF categories with survival were estimated independently and jointly by calculating multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Malnutrition was identified in 808 (30·2 %) patients, and the best TSF thresholds were 9·5 mm in men and 12 mm in women. Accordingly, 496 (18·6 %) patients were identified as having a low TSF. Patients with concurrent malnutrition and a low TSF had a 54 % (HR = 1·54, 95 % CI = 1·25, 1·88) greater death hazard compared with well-nourished individuals, which was also greater compared with malnourished patients with a normal TSF (HR = 1·23, 95 % CI = 1·06, 1·43) or malnourished patients without TSF assessment (HR = 1·31, 95 % CI = 1·14, 1·50). These associations were concentrated among those patients with adequate muscle mass (as indicated by the calf circumference). Additional fat mass assessment using the TSF enhances the prognostic value of the GLIM criteria. Using the population-derived thresholds for the TSF may provide significant prognostic value when used in combination with the GLIM criteria to guide strategies to optimise the long-term outcomes in patients with LC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521002531DOI Listing
July 2021

BTEX biodegradation is linked to bacterial community assembly patterns in contaminated groundwater ecosystem.

J Hazard Mater 2021 10 24;419:126205. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Virology, Helmholtz Zentrum München German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Institute of Virology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

The control of degrader populations and the stochasticity and certainty of the microbial community in contaminated groundwater are not well-understood. In this study, a long-term contaminated groundwater ecosystem was selected to investigate the impact of BTEX on microbial communities and how microbial communities respond to BTEX pollution. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomic sequencing provided insights on microbial community assemblage patterns and their role in BTEX cleaning. The operational taxonomy units (OTUs) in the contaminated groundwater ecosystem were clustered distinguishably between the Plume and the Deeper Zone (lower contaminated zone). βNTI analysis revealed that the assembly strategies of abundant and rare OTU subcommunities preferred deterministic processes. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) and mantel testing indicated that benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) strongly drove the abundant OTU subcommunity, while the rare OTU subcommunity was only weakly affected. Deltaproteobacteria, the most dominant degrading microorganism, contains the complete degradation genes in the plume layer. In summary, our finding revealed that BTEX was the major factor in shaping the microbial community structure, and functional bacteria contribute greatly to water cleaning. Investigating the pattern of microbial community assembly will provide insights into the ecological controls of contaminant degradation in groundwater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126205DOI Listing
October 2021

On-chip ultra-narrow-linewidth single-mode microlaser on lithium niobate on insulator.

Opt Lett 2021 Jul;46(13):3131-3134

We report an on-chip single-mode microlaser with a low threshold fabricated on erbium doped lithium-niobate-on-insulator (LNOI). The single-mode laser emission at 1550.5 nm wavelength is generated in a coupled microdisk via the inverse Vernier effect at room temperature, when pumping the resonator at 977.7 nm wavelength. A threshold pump power as low as 200 μW is demonstrated due to the high quality factor above 10. Moreover, the measured linewidth of the microlaser reaches 348 kHz without discounting the broadening caused by the utilization of optical amplifiers, which is, to our knowledge, the best result in LNOI microlasers. Such a single-mode microlaser lithographically fabricated on chip is in high demand by the photonics community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.430015DOI Listing
July 2021
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