Publications by authors named "Lewis C Becker"

129 Publications

Whole genome sequence analysis of platelet traits in the NHLBI trans-omics for precision medicine initiative.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Human Genetics Center, Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are highly heritable quantitative traits, with hundreds of genetic signals previously identified, mostly in European ancestry populations. We here utilize whole genome sequencing from NHLBI's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Initiative (TOPMed) in a large multi-ethnic sample to further explore common and rare variation contributing to PLT (n = 61 200) and MPV (n = 23 485). We identified and replicated secondary signals at MPL (rs532784633) and PECAM1 (rs73345162), both more common in African ancestry populations. We also observed rare variation in Mendelian platelet related disorder genes influencing variation in platelet traits in TOPMed cohorts (not enriched for blood disorders). For example, association of GP9 with lower PLT and higher MPV was partly driven by a pathogenic Bernard-Soulier syndrome variant (rs5030764, p.Asn61Ser), and the signals at TUBB1 and CD36 were partly driven by loss of function variants not annotated as pathogenic in ClinVar (rs199948010 and rs571975065). However, residual signal remained for these gene-based signals after adjusting for lead variants, suggesting that additional variants in Mendelian genes with impacts in general population cohorts remain to be identified. Gene-based signals were also identified at several GWAS identified loci for genes not annotated for Mendelian platelet disorders (PTPRH, TET2, CHEK2), with somatic variation driving the result at TET2. These results highlight the value of whole genome sequencing in populations of diverse genetic ancestry to identify novel regulatory and coding signals, even for well-studied traits like platelet traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab252DOI Listing
September 2021

Genome sequencing unveils a regulatory landscape of platelet reactivity.

Nat Commun 2021 06 15;12(1):3626. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Intramural Research, Population Sciences Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Platelet aggregation at the site of atherosclerotic vascular injury is the underlying pathophysiology of myocardial infarction and stroke. To build upon prior GWAS, here we report on 16 loci identified through a whole genome sequencing (WGS) approach in 3,855 NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) participants deeply phenotyped for platelet aggregation. We identify the RGS18 locus, which encodes a myeloerythroid lineage-specific regulator of G-protein signaling that co-localizes with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) signatures for RGS18 expression in platelets. Gene-based approaches implicate the SVEP1 gene, a known contributor of coronary artery disease risk. Sentinel variants at RGS18 and PEAR1 are associated with thrombosis risk and increased gastrointestinal bleeding risk, respectively. Our WGS findings add to previously identified GWAS loci, provide insights regarding the mechanism(s) by which genetics may influence cardiovascular disease risk, and underscore the importance of rare variant and regulatory approaches to identifying loci contributing to complex phenotypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23470-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206369PMC
June 2021

Association of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis With Brain White Matter Hyperintensity.

Stroke 2021 Aug 18;52(8):2594-2600. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Neurology (M.C.J., R.F.G., P.N.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

[Figure: see text].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316285PMC
August 2021

Whole-genome sequencing association analysis of quantitative red blood cell phenotypes: The NHLBI TOPMed program.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 05 21;108(5):874-893. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a powerful tool for detecting novel coding and non-coding disease-causing variants, has largely been applied to clinical diagnosis of inherited disorders. Here we leveraged WGS data in up to 62,653 ethnically diverse participants from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program and assessed statistical association of variants with seven red blood cell (RBC) quantitative traits. We discovered 14 single variant-RBC trait associations at 12 genomic loci, which have not been reported previously. Several of the RBC trait-variant associations (RPN1, ELL2, MIDN, HBB, HBA1, PIEZO1, and G6PD) were replicated in independent GWAS datasets imputed to the TOPMed reference panel. Most of these discovered variants are rare/low frequency, and several are observed disproportionately among non-European Ancestry (African, Hispanic/Latino, or East Asian) populations. We identified a 3 bp indel p.Lys2169del (g.88717175_88717177TCT[4]) (common only in the Ashkenazi Jewish population) of PIEZO1, a gene responsible for the Mendelian red cell disorder hereditary xerocytosis (MIM: 194380), associated with higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In stepwise conditional analysis and in gene-based rare variant aggregated association analysis, we identified several of the variants in HBB, HBA1, TMPRSS6, and G6PD that represent the carrier state for known coding, promoter, or splice site loss-of-function variants that cause inherited RBC disorders. Finally, we applied base and nuclease editing to demonstrate that the sentinel variant rs112097551 (nearest gene RPN1) acts through a cis-regulatory element that exerts long-range control of the gene RUVBL1 which is essential for hematopoiesis. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of WGS in ethnically diverse population-based samples and gene editing for expanding knowledge of the genetic architecture of quantitative hematologic traits and suggest a continuum between complex trait and Mendelian red cell disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206199PMC
May 2021

FGL1 as a modulator of plasma D-dimer levels: Exome-wide marker analysis of plasma tPA, PAI-1, and D-dimer.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 08 30;19(8):2019-2028. Epub 2021 May 30.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Use of targeted exome-arrays with common, rare variants and functionally enriched variation has led to discovery of new genes contributing to population variation in risk factors. Plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and the plasma product D-dimer are important components of the fibrinolytic system. There have been few large-scale genome-wide or exome-wide studies of PAI-1, tPA, and D-dimer.

Objectives: We sought to discover new genetic loci contributing to variation in these traits using an exome-array approach.

Methods: Cohort-level analyses and fixed effects meta-analyses of PAI-1 (n = 15 603), tPA (n = 6876,) and D-dimer (n = 19 306) from 12 cohorts of European ancestry with diverse study design were conducted, including single-variant analyses and gene-based burden testing.

Results: Five variants located in NME7, FGL1, and the fibrinogen locus, all associated with D-dimer levels, achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10 ). Replication was sought for these 5 variants, as well as 45 well-imputed variants with P < 1 × 10 in the discovery using an independent cohort. Replication was observed for three out of the five significant associations, including a novel and uncommon (0.013 allele frequency) coding variant p.Trp256Leu in FGL1 (fibrinogen-like-1) with increased plasma D-dimer levels. Additionally, a candidate-gene approach revealed a suggestive association for a coding variant (rs143202684-C) in SERPINB2, and suggestive associations with consistent effect in the replication analysis include an intronic variant (rs11057830-A) in SCARB1 associated with increased D-dimer levels.

Conclusion: This work provides new evidence for a role of FGL1 in hemostasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15345DOI Listing
August 2021

Chromosome Xq23 is associated with lower atherogenic lipid concentrations and favorable cardiometabolic indices.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2182. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Cardiology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Healthcare Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22339-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042019PMC
April 2021

Gene and protein expression in human megakaryocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 07 6;19(7):1783-1799. Epub 2021 May 6.

The GeneSTAR Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: There is interest in deriving megakaryocytes (MKs) from pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for biological studies. We previously found that genomic structural integrity and genotype concordance is maintained in iPSC-derived MKs.

Objective: To establish a comprehensive dataset of genes and proteins expressed in iPSC-derived MKs.

Methods: iPSCs were reprogrammed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and MKs were derived from the iPSCs in 194 healthy European American and African American subjects. mRNA was isolated and gene expression measured by RNA sequencing. Protein expression was measured in 62 of the subjects using mass spectrometry.

Results And Conclusions: MKs expressed genes and proteins known to be important in MK and platelet function and demonstrated good agreement with previous studies in human MKs derived from CD34+ progenitor cells. The percent of cells expressing the MK markers CD41 and CD42a was consistent in biological replicates, but variable across subjects, suggesting that unidentified subject-specific factors determine differentiation of MKs from iPSCs. Gene and protein sets important in platelet function were associated with increasing expression of CD41/42a, while those related to more basic cellular functions were associated with lower CD41/42a expression. There was differential gene expression by the sex and race (but not age) of the subject. Numerous genes and proteins were highly expressed in MKs but not known to play a role in MK or platelet function; these represent excellent candidates for future study of hematopoiesis, platelet formation, and/or platelet function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15334DOI Listing
July 2021

Longitudinal uncoupling of the heart and arteries with aging in a community-dwelling population.

Geroscience 2021 04 18;43(2):551-561. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Although mechanical energy transfer between the heart and arterial system, referred to as arterial-ventricular (AV) coupling, is an important determinant of cardiovascular performance, how AV coupling changes over time within and among individuals as they age has not been fully explored. We studied 129 participants (baseline age 21-96) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, free of clinical CVD. Participants underwent repeated multigated cardiac blood pool scans to estimate left ventricular (LV) volumes (SV, EDV, and ESV). Total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR), total arterial compliance (TAC), effective arterial elastance (Ea), and end-systolic LV elastance (Elv) were calculated using LV volumes and brachial BP measurements; calculated Ea/Elv was the measure of AV coupling. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate person-specific rates of change (Change) for each variable. The rate at which Ea increased over time was faster than the rate at which Elv increased, resulting in AV uncoupling (increased Ea/Elv) over time that was significantly greater in women than in men. Loss of arterial compliance was the main determinant of (Ea/Elv), which was negatively associated with changes in SV and EDV but positively with changes in ESV. Progressive AV uncoupling occurred with aging and was more pronounced in women than men. While Ea change did not differ by sex, Elv increased at a slower rate in women than in men. AV uncoupling was inversely associated with EDV and SV rates of change and a directly associated with an increase in ESV rate of change. Additional studies are needed to explore the functional consequences of AV uncoupling in healthy individuals with respect to the emergence of age-associated clinical cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00321-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110622PMC
April 2021

Sequencing of 53,831 diverse genomes from the NHLBI TOPMed Program.

Nature 2021 02 10;590(7845):290-299. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation server, and genomic and phenotypic data that are available through dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes). In the first 53,831 TOPMed samples, we detected more than 400 million single-nucleotide and insertion or deletion variants after alignment with the reference genome. Additional previously undescribed variants were detected through assembly of unmapped reads and customized analysis in highly variable loci. Among the more than 400 million detected variants, 97% have frequencies of less than 1% and 46% are singletons that are present in only one individual (53% among unrelated individuals). These rare variants provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history. The extensive catalogue of genetic variation in TOPMed studies provides unique opportunities for exploring the contributions of rare and noncoding sequence variants to phenotypic variation. Furthermore, combining TOPMed haplotypes with modern imputation methods improves the power and reach of genome-wide association studies to include variants down to a frequency of approximately 0.01%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03205-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875770PMC
February 2021

Loss-of-function genomic variants highlight potential therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease.

Nat Commun 2020 12 18;11(1):6417. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

The Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Department of Pediatrics and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, CA, USA.

Pharmaceutical drugs targeting dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) may increase the risk of fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. To identify potential novel CVD drug targets without these adverse effects, we perform genome-wide analyses of participants in the HUNT Study in Norway (n = 69,479) to search for protein-altering variants with beneficial impact on quantitative blood traits related to cardiovascular disease, but without detrimental impact on liver function. We identify 76 (11 previously unreported) presumed causal protein-altering variants associated with one or more CVD- or liver-related blood traits. Nine of the variants are predicted to result in loss-of-function of the protein. This includes ZNF529:p.K405X, which is associated with decreased low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = 1.3 × 10) without being associated with liver enzymes or non-fasting blood glucose. Silencing of ZNF529 in human hepatoma cells results in upregulation of LDL receptor and increased LDL uptake in the cells. This suggests that inhibition of ZNF529 or its gene product should be prioritized as a novel candidate drug target for treating dyslipidemia and associated CVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20086-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749177PMC
December 2020

White Matter Injury Is Associated with Reduced Manual Dexterity and Elevated Serum Ceramides in Subjects with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 4;50(1):100-107. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA,

Introduction: We have demonstrated that asymptomatic cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) measured by white matter hyperintensity volume is associated with reduced manipulative manual dexterity on the Grooved Peg Board Test (GPBT) in middle-aged healthy individuals with a family history of early coronary artery disease. In this current study, we aim to identify the association of subcortical white matter microstructural impairment measured by diffusion tensor imaging, manual dexterity measured by GPBT and circulating serums ceramide, another marker for white matter injury. We hypothesize that lower regional fractional anisotropy (rFA) is associated with worse performance on GPBT and elevated serum ceramides in the same study population.

Methods: rFA of 48 regions representing the subcortical white matters were analyzed in GeneSTAR participants in addition to serum ceramides and GPBT scores. Unadjusted univariable analyses with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons were completed using Spearman correlation for testing the associations between ceramides, rFA of subcortical white matter, and GPBT performance. Subsequently, sensitivity analyses were performed after excluding the participants that had any physical limitation that may influence their performance on GPBT. Finally, in the adjusted analysis using generalized estimating equation, linear regression models were performed for the areas that met significance threshold in the unadjusted analyses.

Results: 112 subjects (age [49 ± 11], 51% female, 39.3% African American) were included. Adjusted analyses for the significant correlations that met the Bonferroni correction threshold in the unadjusted univariable analyses identified significant negative associations between rFA of the right fornix (RF) and log-GPBT score (β = -0.497, p = 0.037). In addition, rFA of RF negatively correlated with log serum ceramide levels (C18: β = -0.03, p = 0.003, C20: β = -0.0002, p = 0.004) and rFA of left genu of corpus callosum negatively correlated with log C18 level (β = -0.0103, p = 0.027).

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that subcortical microstructural white matter disruption is associated with elevated serum ceramides and reduced manual dexterity in a population with cSVD. These findings suggest that injury to white matter tracts undermines neural networks, with functional consequences in a middle-aged population with cardiovascular risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878290PMC
August 2021

Genetic loci associated with prevalent and incident myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(11):e0230035. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

The Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, The Lundquist Institute for Biomedical Innovation at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, United States of America.

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome.

Methods And Results: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event.

Conclusion: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230035PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665790PMC
December 2020

Transcriptional profile of platelets and iPSC-derived megakaryocytes from whole-genome and RNA sequencing.

Blood 2021 02;137(7):959-968

The GeneSTAR Research Program.

Genome-wide association studies have identified common variants associated with platelet-related phenotypes, but because these variants are largely intronic or intergenic, their link to platelet biology is unclear. In 290 normal subjects from the GeneSTAR Research Study (110 African Americans [AAs] and 180 European Americans [EAs]), we generated whole-genome sequence data from whole blood and RNA sequence data from extracted nonribosomal RNA from 185 induced pluripotent stem cell-derived megakaryocyte (MK) cell lines (platelet precursor cells) and 290 blood platelet samples from these subjects. Using eigenMT software to select the peak single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for each expressed gene, and meta-analyzing the results of AAs and EAs, we identify (q-value < 0.05) 946 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in derived MKs and 1830 cis-eQTLs in blood platelets. Among the 57 eQTLs shared between the 2 tissues, the estimated directions of effect are very consistent (98.2% concordance). A high proportion of detected cis-eQTLs (74.9% in MKs and 84.3% in platelets) are unique to MKs and platelets compared with peak-associated SNP-expressed gene pairs of 48 other tissue types that are reported in version V7 of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project. The locations of our identified eQTLs are significantly enriched for overlap with several annotation tracks highlighting genomic regions with specific functionality in MKs, including MK-specific DNAse hotspots, H3K27-acetylation marks, H3K4-methylation marks, enhancers, and superenhancers. These results offer insights into the regulatory signature of MKs and platelets, with significant overlap in genes expressed, eQTLs detected, and enrichment within known superenhancers relevant to platelet biology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918180PMC
February 2021

Inherited causes of clonal haematopoiesis in 97,691 whole genomes.

Nature 2020 10 14;586(7831):763-768. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer and coronary heart disease-this phenomenon is termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Simultaneous analyses of germline and somatic whole-genome sequences provide the opportunity to identify root causes of CHIP. Here we analyse high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 97,691 participants of diverse ancestries in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme, and identify 4,229 individuals with CHIP. We identify associations with blood cell, lipid and inflammatory traits that are specific to different CHIP driver genes. Association of a genome-wide set of germline genetic variants enabled the identification of three genetic loci associated with CHIP status, including one locus at TET2 that was specific to individuals of African ancestry. In silico-informed in vitro evaluation of the TET2 germline locus enabled the identification of a causal variant that disrupts a TET2 distal enhancer, resulting in increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Overall, we observe that germline genetic variation shapes haematopoietic stem cell function, leading to CHIP through mechanisms that are specific to clonal haematopoiesis as well as shared mechanisms that lead to somatic mutations across tissues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2819-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944936PMC
October 2020

Common Genetic Variation Indicates Separate Causes for Periventricular and Deep White Matter Hyperintensities.

Stroke 2020 07 10;51(7):2111-2121. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry (C.F.-N.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Background And Purpose: Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMH; PVWMH) and deep WMH (DWMH) are regional classifications of WMH and reflect proposed differences in cause. In the first study, to date, we undertook genome-wide association analyses of DWMH and PVWMH to show that these phenotypes have different genetic underpinnings.

Methods: Participants were aged 45 years and older, free of stroke and dementia. We conducted genome-wide association analyses of PVWMH and DWMH in 26,654 participants from CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology), ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro-Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis), and the UKB (UK Biobank). Regional correlations were investigated using the genome-wide association analyses -pairwise method. Cross-trait genetic correlations between PVWMH, DWMH, stroke, and dementia were estimated using LDSC.

Results: In the discovery and replication analysis, for PVWMH only, we found associations on chromosomes 2 (), 10q23.1 (), and 10q24.33 ( In the much larger combined meta-analysis of all cohorts, we identified ten significant regions for PVWMH: chromosomes 2 (3 regions), 6, 7, 10 (2 regions), 13, 16, and 17q23.1. New loci of interest include 7q36.1 () and 16q24.2. In both the discovery/replication and combined analysis, we found genome-wide significant associations for the 17q25.1 locus for both DWMH and PVWMH. Using gene-based association analysis, 19 genes across all regions were identified for PVWMH only, including the new genes: (2q32.1), (3q27.1), (5q27.1), and (22q13.1). Thirteen genes in the 17q25.1 locus were significant for both phenotypes. More extensive genetic correlations were observed for PVWMH with small vessel ischemic stroke. There were no associations with dementia for either phenotype.

Conclusions: Our study confirms these phenotypes have distinct and also shared genetic architectures. Genetic analyses indicated PVWMH was more associated with ischemic stroke whilst DWMH loci were implicated in vascular, astrocyte, and neuronal function. Our study confirms these phenotypes are distinct neuroimaging classifications and identifies new candidate genes associated with PVWMH only.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365038PMC
July 2020

Genomic integrity of human induced pluripotent stem cells across nine studies in the NHLBI NextGen program.

Stem Cell Res 2020 07 6;46:101803. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines have previously been generated through the NHLBI sponsored NextGen program at nine individual study sites. Here, we examined the structural integrity of 506 hiPSC lines as determined by copy number variations (CNVs). We observed that 149 hiPSC lines acquired 258 CNVs relative to donor DNA. We identified six recurrent regions of CNVs on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 16 and 20 that overlapped with cancer associated genes. Furthermore, the genes mapping to regions of acquired CNVs show an enrichment in cancer related biological processes (IL6 production) and signaling cascades (JNK cascade & NFκB cascade). The genomic region of instability on chr20 (chr20q11.2) includes transcriptomic signatures for cancer associated genes such as ID1, BCL2L1, TPX2, PDRG1 and HCK. Of these HCK shows statistically significant differential expression between carrier and non-carrier hiPSC lines. Overall, while a low level of genomic instability was observed in the NextGen generated hiPSC lines, the observation of structural instability in regions with known cancer associated genes substantiates the importance of systematic evaluation of genetic variations in hiPSCs before using them as disease/research models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.101803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575060PMC
July 2020

Use of >100,000 NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Consortium whole genome sequences improves imputation quality and detection of rare variant associations in admixed African and Hispanic/Latino populations.

PLoS Genet 2019 12 23;15(12):e1008500. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Genomics Platform, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Most genome-wide association and fine-mapping studies to date have been conducted in individuals of European descent, and genetic studies of populations of Hispanic/Latino and African ancestry are limited. In addition, these populations have more complex linkage disequilibrium structure. In order to better define the genetic architecture of these understudied populations, we leveraged >100,000 phased sequences available from deep-coverage whole genome sequencing through the multi-ethnic NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program to impute genotypes into admixed African and Hispanic/Latino samples with genome-wide genotyping array data. We demonstrated that using TOPMed sequencing data as the imputation reference panel improves genotype imputation quality in these populations, which subsequently enhanced gene-mapping power for complex traits. For rare variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.5%, we observed a 2.3- to 6.1-fold increase in the number of well-imputed variants, with 11-34% improvement in average imputation quality, compared to the state-of-the-art 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 and Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels. Impressively, even for extremely rare variants with minor allele count <10 (including singletons) in the imputation target samples, average information content rescued was >86%. Subsequent association analyses of TOPMed reference panel-imputed genotype data with hematological traits (hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and white blood cell count (WBC)) in ~21,600 African-ancestry and ~21,700 Hispanic/Latino individuals identified associations with two rare variants in the HBB gene (rs33930165 with higher WBC [p = 8.8x10-15] in African populations, rs11549407 with lower HGB [p = 1.5x10-12] and HCT [p = 8.8x10-10] in Hispanics/Latinos). By comparison, neither variant would have been genome-wide significant if either 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 or Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels had been used for imputation. Our findings highlight the utility of the TOPMed imputation reference panel for identification of novel rare variant associations not previously detected in similarly sized genome-wide studies of under-represented African and Hispanic/Latino populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953885PMC
December 2019

Mendelian randomization evaluation of causal effects of fibrinogen on incident coronary heart disease.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(5):e0216222. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Fibrinogen is an essential hemostatic factor and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Early attempts at evaluating the causal effect of fibrinogen on coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infraction (MI) using Mendelian randomization (MR) used single variant approaches, and did not take advantage of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or multi-variant, pleiotropy robust MR methodologies.

Methods And Findings: We evaluated evidence for a causal effect of fibrinogen on both CHD and MI using MR. We used both an allele score approach and pleiotropy robust MR models. The allele score was composed of 38 fibrinogen-associated variants from recent GWAS. Initial analyses using the allele score used a meta-analysis of 11 European-ancestry prospective cohorts, free of CHD and MI at baseline, to examine incidence CHD and MI. We also applied 2 sample MR methods with data from a prevalent CHD and MI GWAS. Results are given in terms of the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR), depending on the study design, and associated 95% confidence interval (CI). In single variant analyses no causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD or MI was observed. In multi-variant analyses using incidence CHD cases and the allele score approach, the estimated causal effect (HR) of a 1 g/L higher fibrinogen concentration was 1.62 (CI = 1.12, 2.36) when using incident cases and the allele score approach. In 2 sample MR analyses that accounted for pleiotropy, the causal estimate (OR) was reduced to 1.18 (CI = 0.98, 1.42) and 1.09 (CI = 0.89, 1.33) in the 2 most precise (smallest CI) models, out of 4 models evaluated. In the 2 sample MR analyses for MI, there was only very weak evidence of a causal effect in only 1 out of 4 models.

Conclusions: A small causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD is observed using multi-variant MR approaches which account for pleiotropy, but not single variant MR approaches. Taken together, results indicate that even with large sample sizes and multi-variant approaches MR analyses still cannot exclude the null when estimating the causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD, but that any potential causal effect is likely to be much smaller than observed in epidemiological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216222PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6510421PMC
January 2020

Evolution of Hominin Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism: From Africa to the New World.

Genome Biol Evol 2019 05;11(5):1417-1430

Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

The metabolic conversion of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 18 carbon (18C) to long chain (>20 carbon) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) is vital for human life. The rate-limiting steps of this process are catalyzed by fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 and 2. Therefore, understanding the evolutionary history of the FADS genes is essential to our understanding of hominin evolution. The FADS genes have two haplogroups, ancestral and derived, with the derived haplogroup being associated with more efficient LC-PUFA biosynthesis than the ancestral haplogroup. In addition, there is a complex global distribution of these haplogroups that is suggestive of Neanderthal introgression. We confirm that Native American ancestry is nearly fixed for the ancestral haplogroup, and replicate a positive selection signal in Native Americans. This positive selection potentially continued after the founding of the Americas, although simulations suggest that the timing is dependent on the allele frequency of the ancestral Beringian population. We also find that the Neanderthal FADS haplotype is more closely related to the derived haplogroup and the Denisovan clusters closer to the ancestral haplogroup. Furthermore, the derived haplogroup has a time to the most recent common ancestor of 688,474 years before present. These results support an ancient polymorphism, as opposed to Neanderthal introgression, forming in the FADS region during the Pleistocene with possibly differential selection pressures on both haplogroups. The near fixation of the ancestral haplogroup in Native American ancestry calls for future studies to explore the potential health risk of associated low LC-PUFA levels in these populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514828PMC
May 2019

Leveraging linkage evidence to identify low-frequency and rare variants on 16p13 associated with blood pressure using TOPMed whole genome sequencing data.

Hum Genet 2019 Feb 22;138(2):199-210. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of General Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

In this study, we investigated low-frequency and rare variants associated with blood pressure (BP) by focusing on a linkage region on chromosome 16p13. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program on 395 Cleveland Family Study (CFS) European Americans (CFS-EA). By analyzing functional coding variants and non-coding rare variants with CADD score > 10 residing within the chromosomal region in families with linkage evidence, we observed 25 genes with nominal statistical evidence (burden or SKAT p < 0.05). One of the genes is RBFOX1, an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates tissue-specific alternative splicing that we previously reported to be associated with BP using exome array data in CFS. After follow-up analysis of the 25 genes in ten independent TOPMed studies with individuals of European, African, and East Asian ancestry, and Hispanics (N = 29,988), we identified variants in SLX4 (p = 2.19 × 10) to be significantly associated with BP traits when accounting for multiple testing. We also replicated the associations previously reported for RBFOX1 (p = 0.007). Follow-up analysis with GTEx eQTL data shows SLX4 variants are associated with gene expression in coronary artery, multiple brain tissues, and right atrial appendage of the heart. Our study demonstrates that linkage analysis of family data can provide an efficient approach for detecting rare variants associated with complex traits in WGS data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-019-01975-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404531PMC
February 2019

Genome-Wide Association Transethnic Meta-Analyses Identifies Novel Associations Regulating Coagulation Factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor Plasma Levels.

Circulation 2019 01;139(5):620-635

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.), University of Glasgow, UK.

Background: Factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) are associated with risk of arterial and venous thrombosis and with hemorrhagic disorders. We aimed to identify and functionally test novel genetic associations regulating plasma FVIII and VWF.

Methods: We meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 46 354 individuals of European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. All studies performed linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model and associated ≈35 million imputed variants with natural log-transformed phenotype levels. In vitro gene silencing in cultured endothelial cells was performed for candidate genes to provide additional evidence on association and function. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to test the causal role of FVIII and VWF plasma levels on the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events.

Results: We identified 13 novel genome-wide significant ( P≤2.5×10) associations, 7 with FVIII levels ( FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, SOX17/RP1, LINC00583/NFIB, RAB5C-KAT2A, RPL3/TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA) and 11 with VWF levels ( PDHB/PXK/KCTD6, SLC39A8, FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, GIMAP7/GIMAP4, OR13C5/NIPSNAP, DAB2IP, C2CD4B, RAB5C-KAT2A, TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA), beyond 10 previously reported associations with these phenotypes. Functional validation provided further evidence of association for all loci on VWF except ARSA and DAB2IP. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of plasma FVIII activity levels on venous thrombosis and coronary artery disease risk and plasma VWF levels on ischemic stroke risk.

Conclusions: The meta-analysis identified 13 novel genetic loci regulating FVIII and VWF plasma levels, 10 of which we validated functionally. We provide some evidence for a causal role of these proteins in thrombotic events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.034532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438386PMC
January 2019

Diabetes and Platelet Response to Low-Dose Aspirin.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 12;103(12):4599-4608

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Context: Previous studies have suggested less cardioprotective benefit of aspirin in adults with diabetes, raising concerns about "aspirin resistance" and potentially reduced effectiveness for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Objective: To examine differences in platelet response to aspirin by diabetes status.

Design, Setting, Participants: We examined platelet response before and after aspirin (81 mg/day for 14 days) in 2113 adults (175 with diabetes, 1,938 without diabetes), in the Genetic Study of Aspirin Responsiveness cohort, who had family history of early-onset CVD.

Main Outcome Measures: In vivo platelet activation (urinary thromboxane B2), in vitro platelet aggregation to agonists (arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, collagen), and platelet function analyzer-100 closure time.

Results: Although adults with diabetes had higher in vivo platelet activation before aspirin, the reduction in in vivo platelet activation after aspirin was similar in those with vs without diabetes. Likewise, the reduction in multiple in vitro platelet measures was similar after aspirin by diabetes status. In regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI, smoking, platelet counts, and fibrinogen levels, in vivo platelet activation remained higher in adults with vs without diabetes after aspirin (P = 0.04), but this difference was attenuated after additional adjustment for preaspirin levels (P = 0.10). No differences by diabetes status were noted for any of the in vitro platelet measures after aspirin in fully adjusted models that also accounted for preaspirin levels.

Conclusions: In vitro platelet response to aspirin does not differ by diabetes status, suggesting no intrinsic differences in platelet response to aspirin. Instead, factors extrinsic to platelet function should be investigated to give further insights into aspirin use for primary prevention in diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-01254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232753PMC
December 2018

The relationship of family history and risk of type 2 diabetes differs by ancestry.

Diabetes Metab 2019 06 21;45(3):261-267. Epub 2018 May 21.

The Johns Hopkins GeneSTAR Research Program, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830, East Monument Street, Room 8023, 21287 Baltimore, MD, USA.

Aim: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a first-degree relative is a risk factor for incident diabetes. Americans of African ancestry (AA) have higher rates of T2DM than Americans of European ancestry (EA). Thus, we aimed to determine whether the presence, number and kinship of affected relatives are associated with race-specific T2DM incidence in a prospective study of participants from the Genetic Study of Atherosclerosis Risk (GeneSTAR), who underwent baseline screening including a detailed family history.

Methods: Nondiabetic healthy siblings (n=1405) of patients with early-onset coronary artery disease (18-59 years) were enrolled (861 EA and 544 AA) and followed for incident T2DM (mean 14±6 years).

Results: Baseline age was 46.2±7.3 years and 56% were female. T2DM occurred in 12.3% of EA and 19.1% of AA. Among EA, 32.6% had ≥1 affected first-degree relatives versus 53.1% in AA, P<0.0001. In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazard analyses, any family history was related to incident T2DM in EA (HR=2.53, 95% CI: 1.58-4.06) but not in AA (HR=1.01, 0.67-1.53). The number of affected relatives conferred incremental risk of T2DM in EA with HR=1.82 (1.08-3.06), 4.83 (2.15-10.85) and 8.46 (3.09-23.91) for 1, 2, and ≥3 affected, respectively. In AA only ≥3 affected increased risk (HR=2.45, 1.44-4.19). Specific kinship patterns were associated with incident T2DM in EA but not in AA.

Conclusions: The presence of any first-degree relative with T2DM does not discriminate risk in AA given the high race-specific prevalence of diabetes. Accounting for the number of affected relatives may more appropriately estimate risk for incident diabetes in both races.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2018.05.004DOI Listing
June 2019

Targeted deep sequencing of the PEAR1 locus for platelet aggregation in European and African American families.

Platelets 2019 19;30(3):380-386. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

a GeneSTAR Research Program Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aggregation of activated platelets on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque is a critical step in most acute cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a common variant within the first intron of the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor1 (PEAR1), to be robustly associated with platelet aggregation. In this study, we used targeted deep sequencing to fine-map the prior GWAS peak and identify additional rare variants of PEAR1 that account for missing heritability in platelet aggregation within the GeneSTAR families. In this study, 1709 subjects (1043 European Americans, EA and 666 African Americans, AA) from families in the GeneSTAR study were included. In vitro platelet aggregation in response to collagen, ADP and epinephrine was measured at baseline and 14 days after aspirin therapy (81 mg/day). Targeted deep sequencing of PEAR1 in addition to 2kb of upstream and downstream of the gene was performed. Under an additive genetic model, the association of single variants of PEAR1 with platelet aggregation phenotypes were examined. Additionally, we examined the association between the burden of PEAR1 rare non-synonymous variants and platelet aggregation phenotypes. Of 532 variants identified through sequencing, the intron 1 variant, rs12041331, was significantly associated with all platelet aggregation phenotypes at baseline and after platelet inhibition with aspirin therapy. rs12566888, which is in linkage disequilibrium with rs12041331, was associated with platelet aggregation phenotypes but to a lesser extent. In the EA families, the burden of PEAR1 missense variants was associated with platelet aggregation after aspirin therapy when the platelets were stimulated with epinephrine (p = 0.0009) and collagen (p = 0.03). In AAs, the burden of PEAR1 missense variants was associated, to a lesser degree, with platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine (p = 0.02) and ADP (p = 0.04). Our study confirmed that the GWAS-identified variant, rs12041331, is the strongest variant associated with platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin therapy in our GeneSTAR families in both races. We identified additional association of rare missense variants in PEAR1 with platelet aggregation following aspirin therapy. However, we observed a racial difference in the contribution of these rare variants to the platelet aggregation, most likely due to higher residual missing heritability of platelet aggregation after accounting for rs12041331 in the EAs compared to AAs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2018.1447659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257055PMC
April 2019

Exome-chip meta-analysis identifies association between variation in ANKRD26 and platelet aggregation.

Platelets 2019 29;30(2):164-173. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

h GeneSTAR Research Program, Department of Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several variants associated with platelet function phenotypes; however, the proportion of variance explained by the identified variants is mostly small. Rare coding variants, particularly those with high potential for impact on protein structure/function, may have substantial impact on phenotype but are difficult to detect by GWAS. The main purpose of this study was to identify low frequency or rare variants associated with platelet function using genotype data from the Illumina HumanExome Bead Chip. Three family-based cohorts of European ancestry, including ~4,000 total subjects, comprised the discovery cohort and two independent cohorts, one of European and one of African American ancestry, were used for replication. Optical aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma was performed in all the discovery cohorts in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, and collagen. Meta-analyses were performed using both gene-based and single nucleotide variant association methods. The gene-based meta-analysis identified a significant association (P = 7.13 × 10) between rare genetic variants in ANKRD26 and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. One of the ANKRD26 SNVs - rs191015656, encoding a threonine to isoleucine substitution predicted to alter protein structure/function, was replicated in Europeans. Aggregation increases of ~20-50% were observed in heterozygotes in all cohorts. Novel genetic signals in ABCG1 and HCP5 were also associated with platelet aggregation to ADP in meta-analyses, although only results for HCP5 could be replicated. The SNV in HCP5 intersects epigenetic signatures in CD41+ megakaryocytes suggesting a new functional role in platelet biology for HCP5. This is the first study to use gene-based association methods from SNV array genotypes to identify rare variants related to platelet function. The molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological relevance for the identified genetic associations requires further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2017.1384538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214797PMC
April 2019

White Matter Lesion Progression and Cognitive Function Over 5 Years in a Young Susceptible Population.

Neuroepidemiology 2017 30;49(1-2):62-63. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

The Johns Hopkins GeneSTAR Research Program, Departments of Neurology and Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000480238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634942PMC
June 2019

Whole exome sequencing in the Framingham Heart Study identifies rare variation in HYAL2 that influences platelet aggregation.

Thromb Haemost 2017 06 16;117(6):1083-1092. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Andrew D. Johnson, Tenure Track Investigator, Population Sciences Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, The Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Ave. Suite #2, Framingham, MA 01702, USA, Tel.: +1 508 663 4082, E-mail:

Inhibition of platelet reactivity is a common therapeutic strategy in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Genetic and environmental factors influence inter-individual variation in platelet reactivity. Identifying genes that contribute to platelet reactivity can reveal new biological mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets. Here, we examined rare coding variation to identify genes associated with platelet reactivity in a population-based cohort. To do so, we performed whole exome sequencing in the Framingham Heart Study and conducted single variant and gene-based association tests against platelet reactivity to collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and epinephrine agonists in up to 1,211 individuals. Single variant tests revealed no significant associations (p<1.44×10), though we observed a suggestive association with previously implicated MRVI1 (rs11042902, p = 1.95×10). Using gene-based association tests of rare and low-frequency variants, we found significant associations of HYAL2 with increased ADP-induced aggregation (p = 1.07×10) and GSTZ1 with increased epinephrine-induced aggregation (p = 1.62×10). HYAL2 also showed suggestive associations with epinephrine-induced aggregation (p = 2.64×10). The rare variants in the HYAL2 gene-based association included a missense variant (N357S) at a known N-glycosylation site and a nonsense variant (Q406*) that removes a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor from the resulting protein. These variants suggest that improper membrane trafficking of HYAL2 influences platelet reactivity. We also observed suggestive associations of AR (p = 7.39×10) and MAPRE1 (p = 7.26×10) with ADP-induced reactivity. Our study demonstrates that gene-based tests and other grouping strategies of rare variants are powerful approaches to detect associations in population-based analyses of complex traits not detected by single variant tests and possible new genetic influences on platelet reactivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH16-09-0677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472427PMC
June 2017

Integrity of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) Derived Megakaryocytes as Assessed by Genetic and Transcriptomic Analysis.

PLoS One 2017 20;12(1):e0167794. Epub 2017 Jan 20.

The GeneSTAR Research Program, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Previously, we have described our feeder-free, xeno-free approach to generate megakaryocytes (MKs) in culture from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we focus specifically on the integrity of these MKs using: (1) genotype discordance between parent cell DNA to iPSC cell DNA and onward to the differentiated MK DNA; (2) genomic structural integrity using copy number variation (CNV); and (3) transcriptomic signatures of the derived MK lines compared to the iPSC lines. We detected a very low rate of genotype discordance; estimates were 0.0001%-0.01%, well below the genotyping error rate for our assay (0.37%). No CNVs were generated in the iPSCs that were subsequently passed on to the MKs. Finally, we observed highly biologically relevant gene sets as being upregulated in MKs relative to the iPSCs: platelet activation, blood coagulation, megakaryocyte development, platelet formation, platelet degranulation, and platelet aggregation. These data strongly support the integrity of the derived MK lines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167794PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5249236PMC
August 2017
-->