Publications by authors named "Leslie Nguyen"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Testing the developmental hypothesis of the HPA axis in a tropical passerine: Dampened corticosterone response and faster negative feedback in nestling lance-tailed manakins (Chiroxiphia lanceolata).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Jan 2;300:113639. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Florida State University Department of Biological Science, 319 Stadium Dr., Tallahassee, FL 32306-4295, United States.

When vertebrates are exposed to stressors, the subsequent acute increase in glucocorticoids by the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis triggers a suite of adaptive responses, including mobilization of stored energy and repression of non-essential processes. However, chronic exposure to high concentrations of glucocorticoids can lead to metabolic dysregulation, impaired immune function, and cognitive decline. In developing young, this hormonal stress response shows considerable variation. Generally, the physiological stress response of young of precocial species is comparable to that of adults, whereas offspring of altricial species exhibit an attenuated response compared to adults. The developmental hypothesis of the HPA axis proposes that the dampened stress response in dependent offspring is an adaptive response to avoid the negative effects of elevated glucocorticoids, particularly in altricial species where young lack the ability to mitigate stressful stimuli.We aimed to test the developmental hypothesis in a tropical avian species, the lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata). We predicted that nestlings of this altricial species should have a dampened corticosterone response, in both magnitude and duration, compared to that of adults. We also predicted that recently fledged hatch-year birds would display a response intermediate to that of adults and nestlings. We quantified circulating corticosterone levels in adults, recently fledged hatch-year birds, and 11-day-old nestlings using a standardized capture and restraint protocol. Nestlings showed a lower maximal corticosterone response and faster negative feedback compared to adults. Further, five post-fledging hatch-year birds showed a feedback response intermediate to those of nestlings and adults. However, we caution against generalizing about fledgling responses beyond this study due to the small sample (n = 5). Interestingly, lance-tailed manakin nestlings appear to return to baseline concentrations faster than nestlings of temperate species. These results support the developmental hypothesis of the HPA axis explaining variation in stress response. This study is the first to assess the development of the hormonal stress response in nestlings of a tropical bird, which is of interest because of our still-developing understanding of how tropical and temperate species differ physiologically. Finally, findings here underscore the importance of validating and adjusting sampling protocols that quantify nestling stress responses, as sampling timelines identified for adults may underestimate the magnitude of the nestling stress response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2020.113639DOI Listing
January 2021

Design, Synthesis, and Preclinical Evaluation of 3-Methyl-6-(5-thiophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-imidazo[4,5-]pyridin-2-ones as Selective GluN2B Negative Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Mood Disorders.

J Med Chem 2020 09 28;63(17):9181-9196. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121-1126, United States.

Selective inhibitors of the GluN2B subunit of -methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the ionotropic glutamate receptor superfamily have been targeted for the treatment of mood disorders. We sought to identify structurally novel, brain penetrant, GluN2B-selective inhibitors suitable for evaluation in a clinical setting in patients with major depressive disorder. We identified a new class of negative allosteric modulators of GluN2B that contain a 1,3-dihydro-imidazo[4,5-]pyridin-2-one core. This series of compounds had poor solubility properties and poor permeability, which was addressed utilizing two approaches. First, a series of structural modifications was conducted which included replacing hydrogen bond donor groups. Second, enabling formulation development was undertaken in which a stable nanosuspension was identified for lead compound . Compound was found to have robust target engagement in rat with an ED of 1.4 mg/kg. The nanosuspension enabled sufficient margins in preclinical toleration studies to nominate for progression into advanced good laboratory practice studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b02113DOI Listing
September 2020

Pharmacologic Characterization of JNJ-42226314, [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone, a Reversible, Selective, and Potent Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2020 03 9;372(3):339-353. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California.

The serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) into arachidonic acid and glycerol. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation leads to elevation of 2-AG, the most abundant endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) CB1 and CB2. Activation of these receptors has demonstrated beneficial effects on mood, appetite, pain, and inflammation. Therefore, MAGL inhibitors have the potential to produce therapeutic effects in a vast array of complex human diseases. The present report describes the pharmacologic characterization of [1-(4-fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone (JNJ-42226314), a reversible and highly selective MAGL inhibitor. JNJ-42226314 inhibits MAGL in a competitive mode with respect to the 2-AG substrate. In rodent brain, the compound time- and dose-dependently bound to MAGL, indirectly led to CB1 occupancy by raising 2-AG levels, and raised norepinephrine levels in cortex. In vivo, the compound exhibited antinociceptive efficacy in both the rat complete Freund's adjuvant-induced radiant heat hypersensitivity and chronic constriction injury-induced cold hypersensitivity models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, respectively. Though 30 mg/kg induced hippocampal synaptic depression, altered sleep onset, and decreased electroencephalogram gamma power, 3 mg/kg still provided approximately 80% enzyme occupancy, significantly increased 2-AG and norepinephrine levels, and produced neuropathic antinociception without synaptic depression or decreased gamma power. Thus, it is anticipated that the profile exhibited by this compound will allow for precise modulation of 2-AG levels in vivo, supporting potential therapeutic application in several central nervous system disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Potentiation of endocannabinoid signaling activity via inhibition of the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is an appealing strategy in the development of treatments for several disorders, including ones related to mood, pain, and inflammation. [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone is presented in this report to be a novel, potent, selective, and reversible noncovalent MAGL inhibitor that demonstrates dose-dependent enhancement of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol as well as efficacy in models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.119.262139DOI Listing
March 2020

1-Pyrrolo[3,2-]pyridine GluN2B-Selective Negative Allosteric Modulators.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2019 Mar 10;10(3):261-266. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121-1126, United States.

Herein, we disclose a series of selective GluN2B negative allosteric modulators containing a 1-pyrrolo[3,2-]pyridine core. Lead optimization efforts included increasing brain penetration as well as decreasing cytochrome P450 inhibition and hERG channel binding. The series was also optimized to reduce metabolic turnover in human and rat. Compounds , , , and have good in vitro GluN2B potency and good predicted absorption, but moderate to high projected clearance. They were assessed in vivo to determine their target engagement. All four compounds achieved >75% receptor occupancy after an oral dose of 10 mg/kg in rat. Compound receptor occupancy was measured in a dose-response experiment, and its ED was found to be 2.0 mg/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421534PMC
March 2019

LC/MS/MS Profiling of Tissue Oxysterols and its Application in Dextran Sodium Sulphate Induced Mouse Colitis Models.

Curr Top Med Chem 2017 ;17(24):2781-2790

Janssen R&D, LLC., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121. United States.

We have developed a workflow to extract, separate, and semi-quantify bioactive oxysterols from mouse colon tissues and fecal matters using solid- and liquid-phase extractions, enzymatic and chemical modifications, and stable-isotope dilution LC/MS/MS. The method was applied to a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model, which revealed that one particular dihydroxycholesterol (diOHC), 7α,25-diOHC, was significantly elevated in both colon tissue and fecal matters of mice with colitis compared to that in naïve mice. The extent of 7α,25-diOHC elevation was positively correlated with colitis severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026617666170713165519DOI Listing
September 2017

Novel Phenyl-Substituted 5,6-Dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazine P2X7 Antagonists with Robust Target Engagement in Rat Brain.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2016 Apr 15;7(4):490-7. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC , 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121-1126, United States.

Novel 5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazine P2X7 antagonists were optimized to allow for good blood-brain barrier permeability and high P2X7 target engagement in the brain of rats. Compound 25 (huP2X7 IC50 = 9 nM; rat P2X7 IC50 = 42 nM) achieved 80% receptor occupancy for 6 h when dosed orally at 10 mg/kg in rats as measured by ex vivo radioligand binding autoradiography. Structure-activity relationships within this series are described, as well as in vitro ADME results. In vivo pharmacokinetic data for key compounds is also included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00303DOI Listing
April 2016

Metabolism, excretion and pharmacokinetics of [14C]crizotinib following oral administration to healthy subjects.

Xenobiotica 2015 Jan 18;45(1):45-59. Epub 2014 Jul 18.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Pfizer Inc. , San Diego, CA , USA .

1. Crizotinib (XALKORI®), an oral inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor kinase (c-Met), is currently approved for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer that is ALK-positive. 2. The metabolism, excretion and pharmacokinetics of crizotinib were investigated following administration of a single oral dose of 250 mg/100 µCi [(14)C]crizotinib to six healthy male subjects. 3. Mean recovery of [(14)C]crizotinib-related radioactivity in excreta samples was 85% of the dose (63% in feces and 22% in urine). 4. Crizotinib and its metabolite, crizotinib lactam, were the major components circulating in plasma, accounting for 33% and 10%, respectively, of the 0-96 h plasma radioactivity. Unchanged crizotinib was the major excreted component in feces (∼ 53% of the dose). In urine, crizotinib and O-desalkyl crizotinib lactam accounted for ∼ 2% and 5% of the dose, respectively. Collectively, these data indicate that the primary clearance pathway for crizotinib in humans is oxidative metabolism/hepatic elimination. 5. Based on plasma exposure in healthy subjects following a single dose of crizotinib and in vitro potency against ALK and c-Met, the crizotinib lactam diastereomers are not anticipated to contribute significantly to in vivo activity; however, additional assessment in cancer patients is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00498254.2014.941964DOI Listing
January 2015

Comparison of the ex vivo receptor occupancy profile of ketamine to several NMDA receptor antagonists in mouse hippocampus.

Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Sep 16;715(1-3):21-5. Epub 2013 Jul 16.

Janssen Research and Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121-1126, United States.

NMDA receptor antagonists, particularly these targeting the GluN2B subunit are of therapeutic interest for the treatment of severe mood disorders. The receptor occupancy profiles of several NMDA receptor antagonists (30 mg/kg, s.c.) were compared in mouse hippocampus by ex vivo autoradiography using [(3)H]MK-801, a non-selective NMDA channel blocker, and [(3)H]ifenprodil a selective GluN2B antagonist. Subcutaneous administration of ketamine ((RS)-2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone) and memantine (3,5-dimethyladamantan-1-amine) inhibited [(3)H]MK-801 but not [(3)H]ifenprodil binding in mouse hippocampus. Ketamine reached maximal occupancy of [(3)H]MK-801 binding sites after 15 min and rapidly cleared from the brain with no significant level of occupancy measured at the 1h time point. Memantine significantly occupied [(3)H]MK-801 binding sites throughout the 6h time course. The selective GluN2B antagonist CP101,606 ((1S,2S)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-4-phenylpiperidino)-1-propanol) and Ro 25-6981 ((αR,βS)-α-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-β-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperidinepropanol maleate) inhibited [(3)H]ifenprodil but not [(3)H]MK-801 binding and significant levels of occupancy (above 50%) were measured throughout the 6h time course. These data highlight the unique quick pulse target engagement profile of ketamine compared to other NMDA receptor antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.06.028DOI Listing
September 2013

Tumor P-Glycoprotein Correlates with Efficacy of PF-3758309 in in vitro and in vivo Models of Colorectal Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2013 22;4:22. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Pfizer Global Research and Development La Jolla, CA, USA ; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO, USA ; University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO, USA.

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, is overexpressed in a number of different cancers and some studies show that P-gp overexpression can be correlated to poor prognosis or therapeutic resistance. Here we sought to elucidate if PF-3758309 (PF-309), a novel p-21 activated kinase inhibitor, efficacy was influenced by tumor P-gp. Based on in vitro proliferation data, a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines were ranked as sensitive or resistant and ABCB1 (P-gp) expression was evaluated by microarray for these cell lines. P-gp expression was determined by western blot and activity determined by rhodamine efflux assay. Knock down of P-gp and pharmacologic inhibition of P-gp to restore PF-309 activity was performed in vitro. PF-309 activity was evaluated in vivo in cell line xenograft models and in primary patient derived tumor xenografts (PDTX). Mice were treated with 25 mg/kg PF-309 orally, twice daily. On the last day of treatment, tumor and plasma were collected for PF-309 analysis. Here we show that ABCB1 gene expression correlates with resistance to PF-309 treatment in vitro and the expression and activity of P-gp was verified in a panel of resistant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of P-gp increased the sensitivity of resistant cells, resulting in a 4-100-fold decrease in the IC50s. Eleven cell line xenografts and 12 PDTX models were treated with PF-309. From the cell line xenografts, we found a significant correlation between ABCB1 gene expression profiles and tumor response. We evaluated tumor and plasma concentrations for eight tumor models (three cell line xenografts and five PDTX models) and a significant correlation was found between tumor concentration and response. Additionally, we show that tumor concentration is approximately fourfold lower in tumors that express P-gp, verified by western blot. Our in vitro and in vivo data strongly suggests that PF-309 efficacy is influenced by the expression of tumor P-gp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2013.00022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3605511PMC
March 2013

Discovery pharmacokinetic studies in mice using serial microsampling, dried blood spots and microbore LC-MS/MS.

Bioanalysis 2012 May;4(9):1077-95

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics & Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research & Development, 10628 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Background: Initial pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of discovery compounds are conducted in mice to demonstrate exposure prior to conducting efficacy studies. PK information obtained from a single mouse by serial blood microsampling, dried blood spot collection and analyses using microbore (1 mm internal diameter column) LC-MS/MS is presented. Ex vivo blood to plasma concentration ratios (BPRs) from mouse PK studies were compared with in vitro BPRs for 15 compounds.

Results: Two compounds were orally dosed and blood was collected at time points via serial blood sampling. The calculated PK parameters (AUC, T(max) and C(max)) were comparable across liquid blood, dried blood spot and plasma matrices. The BPR results from both methods were comparable.

Conclusion: Serial blood microsampling has led to reduced animal and compound usage with improved PK data. Ex vivo BPR is suitable in a discovery setting. Microbore LC-MS/MS is well suited in instances where sample volume is limited, and enables faster analyses, reduced solvent use, and less frequent MS source cleaning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.85DOI Listing
May 2012

PF-04691502, a potent and selective oral inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR kinases with antitumor activity.

Mol Cancer Ther 2011 Nov 12;10(11):2189-99. Epub 2011 Jul 12.

Oncology Research Unit, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, La Jolla Laboratories, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Deregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway such as by PTEN loss or PIK3CA mutation occurs frequently in human cancer and contributes to resistance to antitumor therapies. Inhibition of key signaling proteins in the pathway therefore represents a valuable targeting strategy for diverse cancers. PF-04691502 is an ATP-competitive PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor, which potently inhibited recombinant class I PI3K and mTOR in biochemical assays and suppressed transformation of avian fibroblasts mediated by wild-type PI3K γ, δ, or mutant PI3Kα. In PIK3CA-mutant and PTEN-deleted cancer cell lines, PF-04691502 reduced phosphorylation of AKT T308 and AKT S473 (IC(50) of 7.5-47 nmol/L and 3.8-20 nmol/L, respectively) and inhibited cell proliferation (IC(50) of 179-313 nmol/L). PF-04691502 inhibited mTORC1 activity in cells as measured by PI3K-independent nutrient stimulated assay, with an IC(50) of 32 nmol/L and inhibited the activation of PI3K and mTOR downstream effectors including AKT, FKHRL1, PRAS40, p70S6K, 4EBP1, and S6RP. Short-term exposure to PF-04691502 predominantly inhibited PI3K, whereas mTOR inhibition persisted for 24 to 48 hours. PF-04691502 induced cell cycle G(1) arrest, concomitant with upregulation of p27 Kip1 and reduction of Rb. Antitumor activity was observed in U87 (PTEN null), SKOV3 (PIK3CA mutation), and gefitinib- and erlotinib-resistant non-small cell lung carcinoma xenografts. In summary, PF-04691502 is a potent dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor with broad antitumor activity. PF-04691502 has entered phase I clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0185DOI Listing
November 2011

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of biomarker response and tumor growth inhibition to an orally available heat shock protein 90 inhibitor in a human tumor xenograft mouse model.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011 Sep 16;338(3):964-73. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, San Diego, California 92121, USA.

PF04942847 [2-amino-4-{4-chloro-2-[2-(4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethoxy]-6-methylphenyl}-N-(2,2-difluoropropyl)-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide] was identified as an orally available, ATP-competitive, small-molecule inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). The objectives of the present study were: 1) to characterize the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of the plasma concentrations of PF04942847 to the inhibition of HSP90-dependent protein kinase, AKT, as a biomarker and 2) to characterize the relationship of AKT degradation to tumor growth inhibition as a pharmacological response (antitumor efficacy). Athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were treated with PF04942847 once daily at doses selected to encompass ED(50) values. Plasma concentrations of PF04942847 were adequately described by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. A time delay (hysteresis) was observed between the plasma concentrations of PF04942847 and AKT degradation; therefore, a link model was used to account for the hysteresis. The model reasonably fit the time courses of AKT degradation with the estimated EC(50) of 18 ng/ml. For tumor growth inhibition, the signal transduction model reasonably fit the inhibition of individual tumor growth curves with the estimated EC(50) of 7.3 ng/ml. Thus, the EC(50) for AKT degradation approximately corresponded to the EC(50) to EC(80) for tumor growth inhibition, suggesting that 50% AKT degradation was required for significant antitumor efficacy (50-80%). The consistent relationship between AKT degradation and antitumor efficacy was also demonstrated by applying an integrated signal transduction model for linking AKT degradation to tumor growth inhibition. The present results will be helpful in determining the appropriate dosing regimen and guiding dose escalation to achieve efficacious systemic exposure in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.111.181339DOI Listing
September 2011

RETRACTED: A novel class of specific Hsp90 small molecule inhibitors demonstrate in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in human melanoma cells.

Cancer Lett 2011 01;300(1):30-9

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Oncology Research, 10724 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Authors. Following an investigation by Pfizer, Figures 2, 5B and 5C appear to be duplications and hence the conclusions in the manuscript cannot be verified. The Authors apologize for this inconvenience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2010.09.002DOI Listing
January 2011

Quantitative analysis of PD 0332991 in xenograft mouse tumor tissue by a 96-well supported liquid extraction format and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2010 Nov 26;53(3):228-34. Epub 2010 Feb 26.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Pfizer Global Research & Development, 10724 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

Phase II attrition of clinical candidates in the drug development cycle is currently a major issue facing the pharmaceutical industry. To decrease phase II attrition, there is an increased emphasis on validation of mechanism of action, development of efficacy models and measurement of drug levels at the site of action. PD 0332991, a highly specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK-4) is currently in clinical development for the treatment of solid tumor. A clinical presurgical study will be required to better understand how PD 0332991 affects signaling pathways and how the intratumoral concentration of PD 0332991 correlates with plasma PK parameters and molecular alterations in breast cancer tissues after PD 0332991 treatment. Before conducting such a clinical study, it is important to evaluate PD 0332991 levels in tumor tissue samples from a xenograft mouse model for the determination of drug exposure at the site of action. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to develop and validate a sensitive LC-MS/MS method to quantify PD 0332991 in mouse tumor tissues from MDA-MB-231-Luc human breast tumor xenografts in SCID-beige mice; (2) to quantify PD 0332991 levels in mouse tumor tissues after oral administration of PD 0332991 at 10 and 100mg/kg using the validated LC-MS/MS method. Both liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and supported liquid extraction (SLE) in a 96-well format were developed and evaluated to achieve optimal extraction recovery with minimal matrix effects. The newly developed SLE method is more efficient (speed and ease) and demonstrates comparable recovery (93.1-100% at three different concentrations) compared to the traditional LLE method. The validated LC-MS/MS for PD 032291 in mouse tumor tissue homogenate method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.1-100 ng/mL with inter-day accuracy and precision within 15%. The validated method was successfully applied to measure PD 0332991 levels in tumor tissues in MDA-MB-231-Luc human breast tumor xenografts in SCID beige mice. The mean tumor concentrations at 6h post-oral PD 0332991 administration at 10 and 100mg/kg were 1793 (+/-1008) and 25,163 (+/-3959) ng/g, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2010.02.031DOI Listing
November 2010

High-throughput preparative process utilizing three complementary chromatographic purification technologies.

J Chromatogr A 2004 May;1036(1):7-13

Pfizer Global R&D-La Jolla, 10770 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

A high-throughput process was developed in which wells in plates generated from parallel synthesis are automatically channeled to an appropriate purification technique using analytical data as a guide. Samples are directed to either of three fundamentally different preparative techniques: HPLC with UV-triggered fraction collection, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with UV-triggered fraction collection, or HPLC with MS-triggered fraction collection. Automated analysis of the analytical data identifies the product compound mass and creates work lists based on chromatographic properties exhibited in the data so that each preparative instrument cherry picks the appropriate list of samples to purify when a preparative-scale plate is loaded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.02.071DOI Listing
May 2004