Publications by authors named "Leslie Eisele"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A multilaboratory comparison of calibration accuracy and the performance of external references in analytical ultracentrifugation.

PLoS One 2015 21;10(5):e0126420. Epub 2015 May 21.

Institut Pasteur, Centre of Biophysics of Macromolecules and Their Interactions, Paris, 75724, France.

Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0126420PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440767PMC
February 2016

Hydrophobic and charged residues in the C-terminal arm of hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase regulate initiation and elongation.

J Virol 2015 Feb 26;89(4):2052-63. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA Ordway Research, Center for Medical Science, Albany, New York, USA

Unlabelled: The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is essential for viral genome replication. Crystal structures of the HCV RdRp reveal two C-terminal features, a β-loop and a C-terminal arm, suitably located for involvement in positioning components of the initiation complex. Here we show that these two elements intimately regulate template and nucleotide binding, initiation, and elongation. We constructed a series of β-loop and C-terminal arm mutants, which were used for in vitro analysis of RdRp de novo initiation and primer extension activities. All mutants showed a substantial decrease in initiation activities but a marked increase in primer extension activities, indicating an ability to form more stable elongation complexes with long primer-template RNAs. Structural studies of the mutants indicated that these enzyme properties might be attributed to an increased flexibility in the C-terminal features resulting in a more open polymerase cleft, which likely favors the elongation process but hampers the initiation steps. A UTP cocrystal structure of one mutant shows, in contrast to the wild-type protein, several alternate conformations of the substrate, confirming that even subtle changes in the C-terminal arm result in a more loosely organized active site and flexible binding modes of the nucleotide. We used a subgenomic replicon system to assess the effects of the same mutations on viral replication in cells. Even the subtlest mutations either severely impaired or completely abolished the ability of the replicon to replicate, further supporting the concept that the correct positioning of both the β-loop and C-terminal arm plays an essential role during initiation and in HCV replication in general.

Importance: HCV RNA polymerase is a key target for the development of directly acting agents to cure HCV infections, which necessitates a thorough understanding of the functional roles of the various structural features of the RdRp. Here we show that even highly conservative changes, e.g., Tyr→Phe or Asp→Glu, in these seemingly peripheral structural features have profound effects on the initiation and elongation properties of the HCV polymerase.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01106-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338901PMC
February 2015

Differential neutralizing activities of a single domain camelid antibody (VHH) specific for ricin toxin's binding subunit (RTB).

PLoS One 2014 11;9(6):e99788. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

Division of Infectious Disease, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University at Albany School of Public Health, Albany, New York, United States of America.

Ricin, a member of the A-B family of ribosome-inactivating proteins, is classified as a Select Toxin by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of its potential use as a biothreat agent. In an effort to engineer therapeutics for ricin, we recently produced a collection of alpaca-derived, heavy-chain only antibody VH domains (VHH or "nanobody") specific for ricin's enzymatic (RTA) and binding (RTB) subunits. We reported that one particular RTB-specific VHH, RTB-B7, when covalently linked via a peptide spacer to different RTA-specific VHHs, resulted in heterodimers like VHH D10/B7 that were capable of passively protecting mice against a lethal dose challenge with ricin. However, RTB-B7 itself, when mixed with ricin at a 1 ∶ 10 toxin:antibody ratio did not afford any protection in vivo, even though it had demonstrable toxin-neutralizing activity in vitro. To better define the specific attributes of antibodies associated with ricin neutralization in vitro and in vivo, we undertook a more thorough characterization of RTB-B7. We report that RTB-B7, even at 100-fold molar excess (toxin:antibody) was unable to alter the toxicity of ricin in a mouse model. On the other hand, in two well-established cytotoxicity assays, RTB-B7 neutralized ricin with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) that was equivalent to that of 24B11, a well-characterized and potent RTB-specific murine monoclonal antibody. In fact, RTB-B7 and 24B11 were virtually identical when compared across a series of in vitro assays, including adherence to and neutralization of ricin after the toxin was pre-bound to cell surface receptors. RTB-B7 differed from both 24B11 and VHH D10/B7 in that it was relatively less effective at blocking ricin attachment to receptors on host cells and was not able to form high molecular weight toxin:antibody complexes in solution. Whether either of these activities is important in ricin toxin neutralizing activity in vivo remains to be determined.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0099788PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4053406PMC
September 2015

Two DHH subfamily 1 proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae possess cyclic di-AMP phosphodiesterase activity and affect bacterial growth and virulence.

J Bacteriol 2013 Nov 6;195(22):5123-32. Epub 2013 Sep 6.

Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA.

Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) are signaling molecules that play important roles in bacterial biology and pathogenesis. However, these nucleotides have not been explored in Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important bacterial pathogen. In this study, we characterized the c-di-AMP-associated genes of S. pneumoniae. The results showed that SPD_1392 (DacA) is a diadenylate cyclase that converts ATP to c-di-AMP. Both SPD_2032 (Pde1) and SPD_1153 (Pde2), which belong to the DHH subfamily 1 proteins, displayed c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase activity. Pde1 cleaved c-di-AMP into phosphoadenylyl adenosine (pApA), whereas Pde2 directly hydrolyzed c-di-AMP into AMP. Additionally, Pde2, but not Pde1, degraded pApA into AMP. Our results also demonstrated that both Pde1 and Pde2 played roles in bacterial growth, resistance to UV treatment, and virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. These results indicate that c-di-AMP homeostasis is essential for pneumococcal biology and disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00769-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3811582PMC
November 2013

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3586 (DacA) is a diadenylate cyclase that converts ATP or ADP into c-di-AMP.

PLoS One 2012 17;7(4):e35206. Epub 2012 Apr 17.

Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, United States of America.

Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) are recently identified signaling molecules. c-di-GMP has been shown to play important roles in bacterial pathogenesis, whereas information about c-di-AMP remains very limited. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3586 (DacA), which is an ortholog of Bacillus subtilis DisA, is a putative diadenylate cyclase. In this study, we determined the enzymatic activity of DacA in vitro using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Our results showed that DacA was mainly a diadenylate cyclase, which resembles DisA. In addition, DacA also exhibited residual ATPase and ADPase in vitro. Among the potential substrates tested, DacA was able to utilize both ATP and ADP, but not AMP, pApA, c-di-AMP or GTP. By using gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation, we further demonstrated that DacA existed as an octamer, with the N-terminal domain contributing to tetramerization and the C-terminal domain providing additional dimerization. Both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains were essential for the DacA's enzymatically active conformation. The diadenylate cyclase activity of DacA was dependent on divalent metal ions such as Mg(2+), Mn(2+) or Co(2+). DacA was more active at a basic pH rather than at an acidic pH. The conserved RHR motif in DacA was essential for interacting with ATP, and mutation of this motif to AAA completely abolished DacA's diadenylate cyclase activity. These results provide the molecular basis for designating DacA as a diadenylate cyclase. Our future studies will explore the biological function of this enzyme in M. tuberculosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0035206PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328451PMC
November 2012

Conservation of structure and protein-protein interactions mediated by the secreted mycobacterial proteins EsxA, EsxB, and EspA.

J Bacteriol 2010 Jan;192(1):326-35

Division of Genetics, Wadsworth Center, NYS Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis EsxA and EsxB proteins are founding members of the WXG100 (WXG) protein family, characterized by their small size (approximately 100 amino acids) and conserved WXG amino acid motif. M. tuberculosis contains 11 tandem pairs of WXG genes; each gene pair is thought to be coexpressed to form a heterodimer. The precise role of these proteins in the biology of M. tuberculosis is unknown, but several of the heterodimers are secreted, which is important for virulence. However, WXG proteins are not simply virulence factors, since nonpathogenic mycobacteria also express and secrete these proteins. Here we show that three WXG heterodimers have structures and properties similar to those of the M. tuberculosis EsxBA (MtbEsxBA) heterodimer, regardless of their host species and apparent biological function. Biophysical studies indicate that the WXG proteins from M. tuberculosis (EsxG and EsxH), Mycobacterium smegmatis (EsxA and EsxB), and Corynebacterium diphtheriae (EsxA and EsxB) are heterodimers and fold into a predominately alpha-helical structure. An in vivo protein-protein interaction assay was modified to identify proteins that interact specifically with the native WXG100 heterodimer. MtbEsxA and MtbEsxB were fused into a single polypeptide, MtbEsxBA, to create a biomimetic bait for the native heterodimer. The MtbEsxBA bait showed specific association with several esx-1-encoded proteins and EspA, a virulence protein secreted by ESX-1. The MtbEsxBA fusion peptide was also utilized to identify residues in both EsxA and EsxB that are important for establishing protein interactions with Rv3871 and EspA. Together, the results are consistent with a model in which WXG proteins perform similar biological roles in virulent and nonvirulent species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.01032-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2798242PMC
January 2010

Zinc induces dimerization of the class II major histocompatibility complex molecule that leads to cooperative binding to a superantigen.

J Biol Chem 2007 Mar 13;282(9):5991-6000. Epub 2006 Dec 13.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, University of Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12208, USA.

Dimerization of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in the MHC biological function. Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen (MAM) is a superantigen that can activate large fractions of T cells bearing specific T cell receptor Vbeta elements. Here we have used structural, sedimentation, and surface plasmon resonance detection approaches to investigate the molecular interactions between MAM and the class II MHC molecule HLA-DR1 in the context of a hemagglutinin peptide-(306-318) (HA). Our results revealed that zinc ion can efficiently induce the dimerization of the HLA-DR1/HA complex. Because the crystal structure of the MAM/HLA-DR1/hemagglutinin complex in the presence of EDTA is nearly identical to the structure of the complex crystallized in the presence of zinc ion, Zn(2+) is evidently not directly involved in the binding between MAM and HLA-DR1. Sedimentation and surface plasmon resonance studies further revealed that MAM binds the HLA-DR1/HA complex with high affinity in a 1:1 stoichiometry, in the absence of Zn(2+). However, in the presence of Zn(2+), a dimerized MAM/HLA-DR1/HA complex can arise through the Zn(2+)-induced DR1 dimer. In the presence of Zn(2+), cooperative binding of MAM to the DR1 dimer was also observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M608482200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924565PMC
March 2007

Specificity of human thymine DNA glycosylase depends on N-glycosidic bond stability.

J Am Chem Soc 2006 Sep;128(38):12510-9

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

Initiating the DNA base excision repair pathway, DNA glycosylases find and hydrolytically excise damaged bases from DNA. While some DNA glycosylases exhibit narrow specificity, others remove multiple forms of damage. Human thymine DNA glycosylase (hTDG) cleaves thymine from mutagenic G.T mispairs, recognizes many additional lesions, and has a strong preference for nucleobases paired with guanine rather than adenine. Yet, hTDG avoids cytosine, despite the million-fold excess of normal G.C pairs over G.T mispairs. The mechanism of this remarkable and essential specificity has remained obscure. Here, we examine the possibility that hTDG specificity depends on the stability of the scissile base-sugar bond by determining the maximal activity (k(max)) against a series of nucleobases with varying leaving-group ability. We find that hTDG removes 5-fluorouracil 78-fold faster than uracil, and 5-chlorouracil, 572-fold faster than thymine, differences that can be attributed predominantly to leaving-group ability. Moreover, hTDG readily excises cytosine analogues with improved leaving ability, including 5-fluorocytosine, 5-bromocytosine, and 5-hydroxycytosine, indicating that cytosine has access to the active site. A plot of log(k(max)) versus leaving-group pK(a) reveals a Brønsted-type linear free energy relationship with a large negative slope of beta(lg) = -1.6 +/- 0.2, consistent with a highly dissociative reaction mechanism. Further, we find that the hydrophobic active site of hTDG contributes to its specificity by enhancing the inherent differences in substrate reactivity. Thus, hTDG specificity depends on N-glycosidic bond stability, and the discrimination against cytosine is due largely to its very poor leaving ability rather than its exclusion from the active site.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja0634829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2809119PMC
September 2006

Characterization of Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in solution demonstrates that the enzyme is a non-dissociating homodimer.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2006 Sep 12;1764(9):1479-86. Epub 2006 Jul 12.

Wadsworth Center, Empire State Plaza, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (hGH) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of folic acid and in the pharmacology of many antifolate drugs. hGH catalyzes removal of the poly-gamma-glutamate chains of intracellular folic acid and antifolates. hGH crystallized as a homodimer with two putative active sites. However, the quaternary structure and the number of species of the enzyme in solution have not been determined. hGH has now been characterized using analytical ultracentrifugation and dynamic light scattering. HisTag fusion proteins of wild-type hGH, rat GH, and hGH expressed as a glycosylated protein were studied. Analyses of HisTag wild-type hGH were conducted over a range of protein concentrations (1.4-200 microM), ionic strengths (0-1 M NaCl), and pH (4.5-8.5). A single species with a molecular mass consistent with a homodimer was observed. Glycosylated hGH and HisTag rat gamma-glutamyl hydrolase also formed very stable homodimers. The lack of dissociation of the dimer, the large monomer-monomer interface, and the presence of catalytically essential Tyr-36 in the homodimer interface sequences suggest that homodimer formation is required for the hGH monomer to fold into an active conformation. The conservation of hGH monomer-monomer interface sequences in other mammalian and plant gamma-glutamyl hydrolase molecules suggests that they also exist as stable homodimers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2006.06.008DOI Listing
September 2006

Mutagenesis, biochemical, and biophysical characterization of Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen.

Mol Immunol 2007 Feb 5;44(5):763-73. Epub 2006 Jun 5.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen (MAM) is a superantigen (SAg) that can activate large fractions of T cells bearing particular TCR Vbeta elements. Here we report the mutagenesis, biochemical and biophysical studies on the dimerization of MAM in solution. Our studies showed that although MAM mainly exists as a monomer in solution, a small percentage of MAM molecules form homodimer at high protein concentration, regardless of the presence of Zn2+. A distinct peak corresponding to a MAM homodimer was detected in the presence of EDTA, using both chemical cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation methods. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that single mutation of residues at the interface of the crystallographic dimer of MAM does not significantly affect the dimerization of MAM in solution. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis indicated that addition of Zn2+ does not induce conformational changes of MAM from its apo-state. Thermal denaturation experiments indicated that addition of Zn2+ to MAM solution resulted in a decrease of melting point (Tm), whereas addition of EDTA did not affect the Tm of MAM. These results imply that there is no defined Zn2+-binding site on MAM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2006.04.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3923304PMC
February 2007

Crystal structures of T cell receptor (beta) chains related to rheumatoid arthritis.

Protein Sci 2005 Dec 31;14(12):3025-38. Epub 2005 Oct 31.

Wadsworth Center, 150 New Scotland Avenue, CMS-1155, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

The crystal structures of the Vbeta17+ beta chains of two human T cell receptors (TCRs), originally derived from the synovial fluid (SF4) and tissue (C5-1) of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), have been determined in native (SF4) and mutant (C5-1(F104-->Y/C187-->S)) forms, respectively. These TCR beta chains form homo-dimers in solution and in crystals. Structural comparison reveals that the main-chain conformations in the CDR regions of the C5-1 and SF4 Vbeta17 closely resemble those of a Vbeta17 JM22 in a bound form; however, the CDR3 region shows different conformations among these three Vbeta17 structures. At the side-chain level, conformational differences were observed at the CDR2 regions between our two ligand-free forms and the bound JM22 form. Other significant differences were observed at the Vbeta regions 8-12, 40-44, and 82-88 between C5-1/SF4 and JM22 Vbeta17, implying that there is considerable variability in the structures of very similar beta chains. Structural alignments also reveal a considerable variation in the Vbeta-Cbeta associations, and this may affect ligand recognition. The crystal structures also provide insights into the structure basis of T cell recognition of Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen (MAM), a superantigen that may be implicated in the development of human RA. Structural comparisons of the Vbeta domains of known TCR structures indicate that there are significant similarities among Vbeta regions that are MAM-reactive, whereas there appear to be significant structural differences among those Vbeta regions that lack MAM-reactivity. It further reveals that CDR2 and framework region (FR) 3 are likely to account for the binding of TCR to MAM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1110/ps.051748305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2253245PMC
December 2005

Differential effects of alpha subunit Asparagine56 oligosaccharide structure on equine lutropin and follitropin hybrid conformation and receptor-binding activity.

Biochemistry 2004 Aug;43(33):10817-33

Department of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260, USA.

The gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and chorionic gonadotropin (CG), are cysteine-knot growth-factor superfamily glycoproteins composed of a common alpha subunit noncovalently associated with a hormone-specific beta subunit. The cysteine-knot motifs in both subunits create two hairpin loops, designated L1 and L3, on one side of the knot, with the intervening long loop, L2, on the opposite side. As the average alpha-subunit loop 2 oligosaccharide mass increased from 1482 to 2327, LH and FSH receptor-binding affinities of the dual-specificity eLH declined significantly, while the decrease in FSH receptor-binding affinity for eFSH was not significant. In the present study, we characterized hormone-specific glycosylation of alphaL2 oligosaccharides in eLHalpha, eFSHalpha, and eCGalpha preparations. MALDI mass spectrometry revealed 28-57 structures, including high mannose, hybrid, bi-, and triantennary oligosaccharides. The same intact subunit preparations and their alphaL2 loop-deglycosylated derivatives were combined with either eLHbeta or eFSHbeta, and the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum for each preparation was determined. We predicted that hybrid hormone preparations obtained by combining intact eLHalpha, eFSHalpha, and eCGalpha preparations with eLHbeta might exhibit differences in conformation that would disappear when the alphaL2 oligosaccharide attached to alphaAsn(56) was removed by selective peptide-N-glycanase digestion (N(56)dg-alpha). CD data supported the first prediction; however, elimination of alphaL2 oligosaccharide actually increased the conformational differences. The intact alpha subunit:eFSHbeta hybrids had virtually identical CD spectra, as expected. However, the N(56)dg-alpha:eFSHbeta hybrid spectra differed from each other. Oligosaccharide removal altered the conformation of most hybrids, suggesting that alphaAsn(82) oligosaccharide (located in alphaL3) also influenced gonadotropin conformation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi049857pDOI Listing
August 2004

Transient induction of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by indirubin.

Biochem Pharmacol 2003 Dec;66(12):2313-21

New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), when activated by exogenous ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), regulates expression of several phase I and phase II enzymes and is also involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. Several studies suggest that endogenous AhR ligand(s) may exist. One putative endogenous ligand is indirubin, which was recently identified in human urine and bovine serum. We determined the effect of indirubin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells on induction of the activities of cytochromes P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1, as measured by estradiol and ethoxyresorufin metabolism, and on induction of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNAs. With 4-hr exposure, the effects of indirubin and TCDD at 10nM on CYP activity were comparable, but the effects of indirubin, unlike those of TCDD, were transitory. Indirubin-induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was maximal by 6-9 hr post-exposure and had disappeared by 24 hr, whereas TCDD-induced activities remained elevated for at least 72 hr. The effects of indirubin on CYP mRNA induction were maximal at 3 hr. Indirubin was metabolized by microsomes containing cDNA-expressed human CYP1A1 or CYP1B1. The potency of indirubin was comparable to that of TCDD in a CYP1B1-promoter-driven luciferase assay, when MCF-7 cells were co-exposed to the AhR ligands together with the CYP inhibitor, ellipticine. Thus, if indirubin is an endogenous AhR ligand, then AhR-mediated signaling by indirubin is likely to be transient and tightly controlled by the ability of indirubin to induce CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and hence its own metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2003.08.019DOI Listing
December 2003

Allophycocyanin: trimers, monomers, subunits, and homodimers.

Biopolymers 2003 ;72(5):352-65

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA.

Allophycocyanin is a photosynthetic light-harvesting pigment-protein complex located in the phycobilisomes of cyanobacteria and red algae. Using dynamic light scattering and circular dichroism, solutions of purified allophycocyanin were shown to consist of homogeneous trimers (alpha3beta3) with a nonspherical shape over a very wide range of protein concentrations at pH 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Deconvolutions of the visible circular dichroism spectrum of the trimer were carried out for the first determination of the individual spectra of all six-component chromophores. The chromophores were shown to be in different microenvironments that helped determine the spectrum of the trimer. Monomers (alpha beta) that were formed in either the presence of 0.50M NaSCN or at 45 degrees C were shown to be completely reversible to trimers. However, subunits (alpha and beta) that were formed in either the presence of 8M urea or at 60 degrees C, using spectroscopy and gel-filtration column chromatography, were observed to only partially reconstitute trimers. Homodimers (alpha2 and/or beta2) formed during the regeneration of trimers. The homodimer, which was detected for the first time when both subunits were present, was shown to be in equilibrium with its subunits. Unlike the trimer situation, subunits were found to fully reconstitute monomers in the presence of 0.50M NaSCN. These results suggest a route to trimer assembly from subunits with monomers serving as intermediaries and the homodimers forming in a nonproductive step that did not interfere with the overall assembly scheme.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bip.10437DOI Listing
November 2003

Anti-prostate cancer and anti-breast cancer activities of two peptides derived from alpha-fetoprotein.

Anticancer Res 2002 Sep-Oct;22(5):2817-20

Rumbaugh-Goodwin Institute for Cancer Research, Inc., 1850 NW 69th Avenue, Suite 5, Plantation, Florida 33313, USA.

A chemically synthesized 34-amino-acid peptide and a select analog have been studied to determine their activities against the growth of prostate and breast cancer tumors. It was of interest to determine if the peptide has anti-prostate cancer activity. Previously, the peptide was shown to inhibit the growth of breast cancer tumor cells. The peptide inhibited the growth of both breast and prostate tumors. A novel experimental design for the peptide was in a study in which a time-release pellet was used to give daily peptide doses to mice that were subjected to a breast cancer tumor. The peptide was effective in inhibiting the growth of tumors in the mice. The 2 C-->2 A analog peptide, in which the two cysteines were replaced by alanines, was also active in inhibition of the growth of prostate and breast cancer cell lines and in an in vivo assay against breast cancer. A scrambled amino acid sequence of the peptide was used as a control in these tumor studies, and it had virtually no anti-cancer activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2003