Publications by authors named "Leslie Bernstein"

541 Publications

Risk of Breast Cancer Among Carriers of Pathogenic Variants in Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes Varies by Polygenic Risk Score.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 8:JCO2001992. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Population Health Sciences Department, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

Purpose: This study assessed the joint association of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer (BC) predisposition genes and polygenic risk scores (PRS) with BC in the general population.

Methods: A total of 26,798 non-Hispanic white BC cases and 26,127 controls from predominately population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility consortium were evaluated for PVs in , , , , , , , , and . PRS based on 105 common variants were created using effect estimates from BC genome-wide association studies; the performance of an overall BC PRS and estrogen receptor-specific PRS were evaluated. The odds of BC based on the PVs and PRS were estimated using penalized logistic regression. The results were combined with age-specific incidence rates to estimate 5-year and lifetime absolute risks of BC across percentiles of PRS by PV status and first-degree family history of BC.

Results: The estimated lifetime risks of BC among general-population noncarriers, based on 10th and 90th percentiles of PRS, were 9.1%-23.9% and 6.7%-18.2% for women with or without first-degree relatives with BC, respectively. Taking PRS into account, more than 95% of , , and carriers had > 20% lifetime risks of BC, whereas, respectively, 52.5% and 69.7% of and carriers without first-degree relatives with BC, and 78.8% and 89.9% of those with a first-degree relative with BC had > 20% risk.

Conclusion: PRS facilitates personalization of BC risk among carriers of PVs in predisposition genes. Incorporating PRS into BC risk estimation may help identify > 30% of and nearly half of carriers below the 20% lifetime risk threshold, suggesting the addition of PRS may prevent overscreening and enable more personalized risk management approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01992DOI Listing
June 2021

Self-reported symptoms of arm lymphedema and health-related quality of life among female breast cancer survivors.

Sci Rep 2021 May 21;11(1):10701. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

We examined cross-sectional associations between arm lymphedema symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. 499 women diagnosed with localized or regional breast cancer at ages 35-64 years completed a survey, on average 40 months after diagnosis, querying presence of lymphedema, nine lymphedema-related symptoms, e.g., tension, burning pain, mobility loss, and warmth/redness, and HRQoL. Analysis of covariance models were used to assess HRQoL scores in relation to presence of lymphedema and lymphedema-related symptoms. Lymphedema was self-reported by 137 women, of whom 98 were experiencing lymphedema at the time of the assessment. The most common symptoms were heaviness (52%), numbness (47%), and tightness (45%). Perceived physical health was worse for women reporting past or current lymphedema than those reporting no lymphedema (P-value < 0.0001). No difference was observed for perceived mental health (P-value = 0.31). Perceived physical health, stress, and lymphedema-specific HRQoL scores worsened as number of symptoms increased (P-values ≤ 0.01). Women reporting tension in the arm had lower physical health (P-value = 0.01), and those experiencing burning pain, tension, heaviness, or warmth/redness in the arm had lower lymphedema-specific HRQoL (P-values < 0.05). Treatment targeting specific lymphedema-related symptoms in addition to size/volume reduction may improve some aspects of HRQoL among affected women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89055-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139966PMC
May 2021

Dairy foods, calcium, and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status: a pooled analysis of 21 cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status.

Method: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Associations were evaluated for dairy product and calcium intakes and risk of incident invasive breast cancer overall (n = 37,861 cases) and by subtypes defined by ER status. Study-specific multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated and then combined using random-effects models.

Results: Overall, no clear association was observed between the consumption of specific dairy foods, dietary (from foods only) calcium, and total (from foods and supplements) calcium, and risk of overall breast cancer. Although each dairy product showed a null or very weak inverse association with risk of overall breast cancer (P, test for trend >0.05 for all), differences by ER status were suggested for yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese with associations observed for ER-negative tumors only (pooled HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98 comparing ≥60 g/d with <1 g/d of yogurt and 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 comparing ≥25 g/d with <1 g/d of cottage/ricotta cheese). Dietary calcium intake was only weakly associated with breast cancer risk (pooled HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.99 per 350 mg/d).

Conclusion: Our study shows that adult dairy or calcium consumption is unlikely to associate with a higher risk of breast cancer and that higher yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative breast cancer, a less hormonally dependent subtype with poor prognosis. Future studies on fermented dairy products, earlier life exposures, ER-negative breast cancer, and different racial/ethnic populations may further elucidate the relation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab097DOI Listing
May 2021

Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Improve Patient-reported Sleep Quality and is Associated with Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors who are Overweight or Obese: Results from a Secondary Analysis.

Sleep 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Study Objectives: Poor sleep quality affects nearly one third of breast cancer survivors and is associated with insulin resistance. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the effects of a 16-week exercise intervention on patient-reported sleep quality among breast cancer survivors and assess whether changes in patient-reported sleep quality were associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers. We explored Hispanic ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of exercise on patient-reported sleep quality.

Methods: Breast cancer survivors who were overweight or obese were randomized to exercise (n=50) or usual care (n=50). The 16-week intervention included aerobic and resistance exercise. Patient-reported sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)] and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Within- and between-group differences were assessed using general linear models repeated-measures ANOVAs and mixed-model repeated measure analysis, respectively. Associations between changes in PSQI and cardiometabolic biomarkers were computed using Pearson correlations. Linear mixed-models were used to evaluate effect modification by ethnicity.

Results: Participants were 52±10.4 years old, and over half were of Hispanic ethnicity. As compared to usual care, PSQI global scores improved significantly in the exercise group (mean between group difference -2.2; 95% CI -3.2 to -0.6). Change in PSQI was inversely associated with changes in all cardiometabolic biomarkers (p<0.01) among the exercise group. Ethnicity was found to moderate the effects of exercise training on global sleep quality (p<0.001).

Conclusions: An aerobic and resistance exercise intervention effectively improved patient-reported sleep quality in breast cancer survivors. Hispanic ethnicity as a moderator showed greater improvement in patient-reported sleep indicating Hispanic versus non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors may derive larger sleep benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsab111DOI Listing
April 2021

Smoking, Radiation Therapy, and Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk in Young Women.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Evidence is mounting that cigarette smoking contributes to second primary contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. Whether radiation therapy (RT) interacts with smoking to modify this risk is unknown. In this multicenter, individually-matched case-control study, we examined the association between RT, smoking, and CBC risk. The study included 1,521 CBC cases and 2,212 controls with unilateral breast cancer, all diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer between 1985-2008 at age <55 years. Absorbed radiation doses to contralateral breast regions were estimated with thermoluminescent dosimeters in tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantoms and smoking history was collected by interview. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CBC risk were estimated by multivariable conditional logistic regression. There was no interaction between any measure of smoking with RT to increase CBC risk (eg, the interaction of continuous RT dose with smoking at first breast cancer diagnosis [ever/never]: RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.89-1.14; continuous RT dose with years smoked: RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and continuous RT dose with lifetime pack-years: RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01). There was no evidence that RT further increased CBC risk in young women with first primary breast cancer who were current smokers or had smoking history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab047DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluating Polygenic Risk Scores for Breast Cancer in Women of African Ancestry.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry.

Methods: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9,241 cases and 10,193 controls. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry, and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category.

Results: For overall BC, the odds ratios per standard deviation of PRS313 was 1.27 (95%CI = 1.23 to 1.31), with an AUC of 0.571 (95%CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared to women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38 to 1.72). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction.

Conclusion: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared to that reported in European, Asian and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab050DOI Listing
March 2021

Discovery and fine-mapping of height loci via high-density imputation of GWASs in individuals of African ancestry.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 04 12;108(4):564-582. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

The Charles R. Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Although many loci have been associated with height in European ancestry populations, very few have been identified in African ancestry individuals. Furthermore, many of the known loci have yet to be generalized to and fine-mapped within a large-scale African ancestry sample. We performed sex-combined and sex-stratified meta-analyses in up to 52,764 individuals with height and genome-wide genotyping data from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC). We additionally combined our African ancestry meta-analysis results with published European genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. In the African ancestry analyses, we identified three novel loci (SLC4A3, NCOA2, ECD/FAM149B1) in sex-combined results and two loci (CRB1, KLF6) in women only. In the African plus European sex-combined GWAS, we identified an additional three novel loci (RCCD1, G6PC3, CEP95) which were equally driven by AAAGC and European results. Among 39 genome-wide significant signals at known loci, conditioning index SNPs from European studies identified 20 secondary signals. Two of the 20 new secondary signals and none of the 8 novel loci had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 5%. Of 802 known European height signals, 643 displayed directionally consistent associations with height, of which 205 were nominally significant (p < 0.05) in the African ancestry sex-combined sample. Furthermore, 148 of 241 loci contained ≤20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% of the posterior probability of driving the associations. In summary, trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed novel signals and further improved fine-mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between African and European ancestry populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059339PMC
April 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

A Population-Based Study of Genes Previously Implicated in Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):440-451. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

From Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (C. Hu, S.N.H., R.G., K.Y.L., J.N., J.L., S. Yadav, N.J.B., T.L., J.E.O., C.S., C.M.V., E.C.P., F.J.C.); Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health (H.H., C.G., D.J.H., P.K.), Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University (K.A.B., J.R.P., L.R.), and Brigham and Women's Hospital (H.E.) - all in Boston; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany (R.S., J.K.); Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo (C.B.A., S. Yao), and Weill Cornell Medicine, New York (R.T.) - both in New York; the University of California, Irvine (H.A.-C., A.Z.), Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte (L.B., H.M., S.N., J.N.W.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (C. Haiman), and Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (E.M.J., A.W.K.) - all in California; the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, Milwaukee (P.A.), and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison (E.S.B., I.M.O., A.T.-D.); the Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick (E.V.B.); the Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta (B.D.C., S.M.G., M.G., J.M.H., E.J.J., A.V.P.); the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (D.J.H.); the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (C.K., P.A.N.) and the Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington (S.L.) - both in Seattle; the Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu (L.L.M.); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, NC (K.M.O., D.P.S., J.A.T., C.W.); Vanderbilt University, Nashville (T.P., S.R.); the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (D.E.G.); and the Department of Medicine and the Basser Center for BRCA, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.M.D., K.L.N.).

Background: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants.

Methods: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed.

Results: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in and were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in , , and were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in , , and were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in , were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

Conclusions: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2005936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127622PMC
February 2021

Binaural detection as a joint function of masker bandwidth, masker interaural correlation, and interaural time delay: Empirical data and modeling.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 12;148(6):3481

Departments of Neuroscience and Surgery (Otolaryngology), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA.

Empirical data are reported demonstrating how binaural detection is affected by joint variation of masker bandwidth, masker interaural correlation, and interaural time delay (ITD) of both masker and tonal signal. Most of the data were obtained with stimuli centered at 500 Hz; supplemental measures were obtained with stimuli centered at 4 kHz. The results indicate that as the interaural correlation of the masker (ρ) is decreased there is (1) an overall increase in threshold signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and (2) a progressively smaller effect on threshold S/N as ITD is increased. All of the data were accounted for quite accurately using the same quantitative, interaural cross-correlation-based model that was recently shown to account for binaural detection and discrimination data obtained in previous experiments. Importantly, the new data were predicted and explained using values of model parameters that were identical or very close to those found to predict accurately the earlier data. The success of the enterprise attests to the robustness of the approach and the generality of the model's ability to make accurate predictions of binaural performance over a wide range of historically important stimulus conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0002869DOI Listing
December 2020

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Survival after Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Status: A Pooled Analysis.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Feb 18;30(2):351-363. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Limited studies have investigated racial/ethnic survival disparities for breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status in a multiethnic population.

Methods: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed associations of race/ethnicity with ER/PR-specific breast cancer mortality in 10,366 California women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1993 to 2009. We evaluated joint associations of race/ethnicity, health care, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors with mortality.

Results: Among women with ER/PR breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality was similar among Hispanic and Asian American women, but higher among African American women [HR, 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.63] compared with non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. Breast cancer-specific mortality was modified by surgery type, hospital type, education, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), smoking history, and alcohol consumption. Among African American women, breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among those treated at nonaccredited hospitals (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21-2.04) and those from lower SES neighborhoods (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.16-1.88) compared with NHW women without these characteristics. Breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among African American women with at least some college education (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.82) compared with NHW women with similar education. For ER/PR disease, breast cancer-specific mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity and associations of race/ethnicity with breast cancer-specific mortality varied only by neighborhood SES among African American women.

Conclusions: Racial/ethnic survival disparities are more striking for ER/PR than ER/PR breast cancer. Social determinants and lifestyle factors may explain some of the survival disparities for ER/PR breast cancer.

Impact: Addressing these factors may help reduce the higher mortality of African American women with ER/PR breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867638PMC
February 2021

Germline variation in the insulin-like growth factor pathway and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Apr;42(3):369-377

Department of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Science, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, UK.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE), have uncovered significant genetic components of risk, but most heritability remains unexplained. Targeted assessment of genetic variation in biologically relevant pathways using novel analytical approaches may identify missed susceptibility signals. Central obesity, a key BE/EAC risk factor, is linked to systemic inflammation, altered hormonal signaling and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis dysfunction. Here, we assessed IGF-related genetic variation and risk of BE and EAC. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate pathway-level and gene-level associations with BE/EAC, using genotypes for 270 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 12 IGF-related genes, ascertained from 3295 BE cases, 2515 EAC cases and 3207 controls in the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) GWAS. Gene-level signals were assessed using Multi-marker Analysis of GenoMic Annotation (MAGMA) and SNP summary statistics from BEACON and an expanded GWAS meta-analysis (6167 BE cases, 4112 EAC cases, 17 159 controls). Global variation in the IGF pathway was associated with risk of BE (P = 0.0015). Gene-level associations with BE were observed for GHR (growth hormone receptor; P = 0.00046, false discovery rate q = 0.0056) and IGF1R (IGF1 receptor; P = 0.0090, q = 0.0542). These gene-level signals remained significant at q < 0.1 when assessed using data from the largest available BE/EAC GWAS meta-analysis. No significant associations were observed for EAC. This study represents the most comprehensive evaluation to date of inherited genetic variation in the IGF pathway and BE/EAC risk, providing novel evidence that variation in two genes encoding cell-surface receptors, GHR and IGF1R, may influence risk of BE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052954PMC
April 2021

Body size and weight change over adulthood and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and hormone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohort studies.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jan 30;36(1):37-55. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00688-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847460PMC
January 2021

A case-control study of the joint effect of reproductive factors and radiation treatment for first breast cancer and risk of contralateral breast cancer in the WECARE study.

Breast 2020 Dec 24;54:62-69. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Objective: To examined the impact of reproductive factors on the relationship between radiation treatment (RT) for a first breast cancer and risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC).

Methods: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multi-center, population-based case-control study where cases are women with asynchronous CBC (N = 1521) and controls are women with unilateral breast cancer (N = 2211). Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression to assess the independent and joint effects of RT (ever/never and location-specific stray radiation dose to the contralateral breast [0, >0-<1Gy, ≥1Gy]) and reproductive factors (e.g., parity).

Results: Nulliparous women treated with RT (≥1Gy dose) were at increased risk of CBC compared with nulliparous women not treated with RT, although this relationship did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.87, 2.07). Women treated with RT who had an interval pregnancy (i.e., pregnancy after first diagnosis and before second diagnosis [in cases]/reference date [in controls]) had an increased risk of CBC compared with those who had an interval pregnancy with no RT (RR = 4.60, 95% CI 1.16, 18.28). This was most apparent for women with higher radiation doses to the contralateral breast.

Conclusion: Among young female survivors of breast cancer, we found some evidence suggesting that having an interval pregnancy could increase a woman's risk of CBC following RT for a first breast cancer. While sampling variability precludes strong interpretations, these findings suggest a role for pregnancy and hormonal factors in radiation-associated CBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2020.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494790PMC
December 2020

Sex-Specific Genetic Associations for Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

Gastroenterology 2020 12 9;159(6):2065-2076.e1. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Institute for Genomic Statistics and Bioinformatics, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, Germany.

Background & Aims: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and its premalignant lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), are characterized by a strong and yet unexplained male predominance (with a male-to-female ratio in EA incidence of up to 6:1). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 20 susceptibility loci for these conditions. However, potential sex differences in genetic associations with BE/EA remain largely unexplored.

Methods: Given strong genetic overlap, BE and EA cases were combined into a single case group for analysis. These were compared with population-based controls. We performed sex-specific GWAS of BE/EA in 3 separate studies and then used fixed-effects meta-analysis to provide summary estimates for >9 million variants for male and female individuals. A series of downstream analyses were conducted separately in male and female individuals to identify genes associated with BE/EA and the genetic correlations between BE/EA and other traits.

Results: We included 6758 male BE/EA cases, 7489 male controls, 1670 female BE/EA cases, and 6174 female controls. After Bonferroni correction, our meta-analysis of sex-specific GWAS identified 1 variant at chromosome 6q11.1 (rs112894788, KHDRBS2-MTRNR2L9, P = .039) that was statistically significantly associated with BE/EA risk in male individuals only, and 1 variant at chromosome 8p23.1 (rs13259457, PRSS55-RP1L1, P = 0.057) associated, at borderline significance, with BE/EA risk in female individuals only. We also observed strong genetic correlations of BE/EA with gastroesophageal reflux disease in male individuals and obesity in female individuals.

Conclusions: The identified novel sex-specific variants associated with BE/EA could improve the understanding of the genetic architecture of the disease and the reasons for the male predominance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.08.052DOI Listing
December 2020

Hispanic ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on physical fitness and quality-of-life in breast cancer survivors.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 Feb 17;15(1):127-139. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2H9, Canada.

Background: Exercise can profoundly affect physical fitness and quality of life in breast cancer survivors; however, few studies have focused on minorities. This secondary analysis examines Hispanic ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on physical fitness and quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

Methods: Eligible breast cancer survivors (n = 100) were randomized to exercise (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50). The exercise intervention consisted of supervised moderate-vigorous aerobic and resistance exercise thrice weekly for 16 weeks. Physical fitness and quality of life were measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 28-week follow-up (exercise only). Linear mixed-models adjusted for baseline value of the outcome, age, disease stage, adjuvant treatment, and recent physical activity were used to evaluate effect modification by ethnicity.

Results: The study sample included 57% Hispanic and 43% non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Hispanic breast cancer survivors were younger, less fit, and diagnosed with more advanced cancers compared with non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors (p < 0.001). Ethnicity was found to moderate the effects of exercise training on all physical fitness and quality-of-life measures including VO (8.4 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.2 to 13.4), physical well-being (12.3; 95% CI 4.2 to 18.4), and emotional well-being (11.4; 95% CI 5.9 to 15.5). In all cases, Hispanics experienced larger benefits than non-Hispanics.

Conclusions: Hispanic breast cancer survivors have poorer cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and quality-of-life and therefore may derive larger benefits from exercise than non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Clinical exercise interventions may attenuate existing health disparities among minority breast cancer survivors.

Implication Of Cancer Survivors: Here we report psychosocial and fitness-related disparities among Hispanic breast cancer survivors when compared with their non-Hispanic counterparts. Our exercise intervention highlights the importance of exercise for minority cancer survivors and the need for distinct, culturally tailored exercise intervention approaches to reduce psychosocial and fitness-related disparities among this understudied population of cancer survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11764-020-00918-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854763PMC
February 2021

Germline HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C do not confer an increased breast cancer risk.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9688. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65665-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297796PMC
June 2020

Hospital Characteristics and Breast Cancer Survival in the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium.

JCO Oncol Pract 2020 06;16(6):e517-e528

Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA.

Introduction: Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer survival are well documented, but the influence of health care institutions is unclear. We therefore examined the effect of hospital characteristics on survival.

Methods: Harmonized data pooled from 5 case-control and prospective cohort studies within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium were linked to the California Cancer Registry and the California Neighborhoods Data System. The study included 9,701 patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2007. First reporting hospitals were classified by hospital type-National Cancer Institute (NCI) -designated cancer center, American College of Surgeons (ACS) Cancer Program, other-and hospital composition of the neighborhood socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity of patients with cancer. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for clinical and patient-level prognostic factors were used to examine the influence of hospital characteristics on survival.

Results: Fewer than one half of women received their initial care at an NCI-designated cancer center (5%) or ACS program (38%) hospital. Receipt of initial care in ACS program hospitals varied by race/ethnicity-highest among non-Latina White patients (45%), and lowest among African Americans (21%). African-American women had superior breast cancer survival when receiving initial care in ACS hospitals versus other hospitals (non-ACS program and non-NCI-designated cancer center; hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.83). Other hospital characteristics were not associated with survival.

Conclusion: African American women may benefit significantly from breast cancer care in ACS program hospitals; however, most did not receive initial care at such facilities. Future research should identify the aspects of ACS program hospitals that are associated with higher survival and evaluate strategies by which to enhance access to and use of high-quality hospitals, particularly among African American women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.20.00064DOI Listing
June 2020

A crew of listeners with no more than "slight" hearing loss who exhibit binaural deficits also exhibit higher levels of stimulus-independent internal noise.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 05;147(5):3188

Departments of Neuroscience and Surgery (Otolaryngology), University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA.

Listeners having, at most, "slight" hearing loss may exhibit deficits in binaural detection which appear to stem from increased levels of stimulus-dependent, additive internal noise [Bernstein and Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 3540-3548 (2016); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 144, 292-307 (2018)]. This study reports that a small crew of such listeners also exhibits increased levels of low-level, stimulus-independent, additive internal noise. Detection thresholds were measured in: (1) the NoSπ configuration as a function of masker level; (2) the NρSπ configuration as a function of masker interaural correlation (ρ); (3) "the quiet" for So and Sπ tonal signals. Those measures were combined suitably to yield estimates of stimulus-independent, additive internal noise, separately, at center frequencies of 250, 500, and 4000 Hz. Derived levels of internal noise were found to be elevated, by about 5 dB at 250 and 500 Hz, and by about 9 dB at 4 kHz, for the group of listeners having no more than slight hearing loss and who exhibited deficits in binaural detection. The new findings, taken together with earlier investigations by the authors (which included data obtained from dozens of listeners), provide evidence that such listeners have greater levels of both stimulus-dependent and stimulus-independent, additive internal noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001207DOI Listing
May 2020

Contribution of Germline Predisposition Gene Mutations to Breast Cancer Risk in African American Women.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 12;112(12):1213-1221

Departments of Health Sciences Research, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902, USA.

Background: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies.

Methods: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer.

Results: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer.

Conclusions: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735769PMC
December 2020

Combined Associations of a Polygenic Risk Score and Classical Risk Factors With Breast Cancer Risk.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar;113(3):329-337

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72 284 cases and 80 354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression and a newly developed case-only method for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history) and, on average, 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936056PMC
March 2021

Radiation Treatment, ATM, BRCA1/2, and CHEK2*1100delC Pathogenic Variants and Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 12;112(12):1275-1279

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Whether radiation therapy (RT) affects contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in women with pathogenic germline variants in moderate- to high-penetrance breast cancer-associated genes is unknown. In a population-based case-control study, we examined the association between RT; variants in ATM, BRCA1/2, or CHEK2*1100delC; and CBC risk. We analyzed 708 cases of women with CBC and 1399 controls with unilateral breast cancer, all diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer between 1985 and 2000 and aged younger than 55 years at diagnosis and screened for variants in breast cancer-associated genes. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RT did not modify the association between known pathogenic variants and CBC risk (eg, BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers without RT: RR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.76 to 7.01; BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers with RT: RR = 4.46, 95% CI = 2.96 to 6.71), suggesting that modifying RT plans for young women with breast cancer is unwarranted. Rare ATM missense variants, not currently identified as pathogenic, were associated with increased risk of RT-associated CBC (carriers of ATM rare missense variants of uncertain significance without RT: RR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.09 to 1.55; carriers of ATM rare missense variants of uncertain significance with RT: RR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.31 to 6.80). Further mechanistic studies will aid clinical decision-making related to RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735763PMC
December 2020

Machine learning on genome-wide association studies to predict the risk of radiation-associated contralateral breast cancer in the WECARE Study.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(2):e0226157. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

The purpose of this study was to identify germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that optimally predict radiation-associated contralateral breast cancer (RCBC) and to provide new biological insights into the carcinogenic process. Fifty-two women with contralateral breast cancer and 153 women with unilateral breast cancer were identified within the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study who were at increased risk of RCBC because they were ≤ 40 years of age at first diagnosis of breast cancer and received a scatter radiation dose > 1 Gy to the contralateral breast. A previously reported algorithm, preconditioned random forest regression, was applied to predict the risk of developing RCBC. The resulting model produced an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.62 (p = 0.04) on hold-out validation data. The biological analysis identified the cyclic AMP-mediated signaling and Ephrin-A as significant biological correlates, which were previously shown to influence cell survival after radiation in an ATM-dependent manner. The key connected genes and proteins that are identified in this analysis were previously identified as relevant to breast cancer, radiation response, or both. In summary, machine learning/bioinformatics methods applied to genome-wide genotyping data have great potential to reveal plausible biological correlates associated with the risk of RCBC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226157PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046218PMC
May 2020

Follicular lymphoma polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk but improved overall survival among women in a population based case-control in Los Angeles County California.

Cancer Epidemiol 2020 04 21;65:101688. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Division of Health Analytics, Department of Computational and Quantitative Medicine, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, United States.

Introduction: Although clinical prognostic indicators exist for follicular lymphoma(FL), patient outcomes remain heterogeneous.

Material And Methods: We evaluated the association between survival and a polygenic risk score(PRS) composed of five previously identified FL susceptibility loci(rs12195582, rs13254990, rs17749561, rs4245081, rs4938573) among women who participated in a case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Los Angeles County between 2004-2008. Risk associations were estimated through logistic regression, calculating the odds ratios(OR) and 95 % confidence intervals(95 % CI). Survival was estimated under a Cox proportional hazards model and hazard ratios(HR) and 95 % CI were calculated.

Results: Among 437 non-Hispanic White controls and 100 non-Hispanic White FL patients, we confirmed a 2.6-fold increased risk of FL associated with the highest PRS tertile (95 % CI:1.35-4.86). After accounting for clinical indicators, the PRS was associated with improved overall survival in non-Hispanic women (HR:0.31; 95 % CI:0.10-0.96).

Conclusion: PRS was associated with increased risk of FL, but improved overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7131878PMC
April 2020

Assessing Cancer Treatment Information Using Medicare and Hospital Discharge Data among Women with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Los Angeles County Case-Control Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 05 17;29(5):936-941. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Division of Health Analytics, Department of Computational and Quantitative Medicine, City of Hope and the Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, California.

Background: We assessed the ability to supplement existing epidemiologic/etiologic studies with data on treatment and clinical outcomes by linking to publicly available cancer registry and administrative databases.

Methods: Medical records were retrieved and abstracted for cases enrolled in a Los Angeles County case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Cases were linked to the Los Angeles County cancer registry (CSP), the California state hospitalization discharge database (OSHPD), and the SEER-Medicare database. We assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of cancer treatment in linked databases, compared with medical record abstraction.

Results: We successfully retrieved medical records for 918 of 1,004 participating NHL cases and abstracted treatment for 698. We linked 59% of cases (96% of cases >65 years old) to SEER-Medicare and 96% to OSHPD. Chemotherapy was the most common treatment and best captured, with the highest sensitivity in SEER-Medicare (80%) and CSP (74%); combining all three data sources together increased sensitivity (92%), at reduced specificity (56%). Sensitivity for radiotherapy was moderate: 77% with aggregated data. Sensitivity of BMT was low in the CSP (42%), but high for the administrative databases, especially OSHPD (98%). Sensitivity for surgery reached 83% when considering all three datasets in aggregate, but PPV was 60%. In general, sensitivity and PPV for chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma were low.

Conclusions: Chemotherapy was accurately captured by all data sources. Hospitalization data yielded the highest performance values for BMTs. Performance measures for radiotherapy and surgery were moderate.

Impact: Various administrative databases can supplement epidemiologic studies, depending on treatment type and NHL subtype of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196521PMC
May 2020

Adult weight change and premenopausal breast cancer risk: A prospective pooled analysis of data from 628,463 women.

Int J Cancer 2020 09 15;147(5):1306-1314. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365745PMC
September 2020

A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of multiple myeloma among men and women of African ancestry.

Blood Adv 2020 01;4(1):181-190

Division of Cancer Genetics and Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD.

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960456PMC
January 2020

The Risk of Ovarian Cancer Increases with an Increase in the Lifetime Number of Ovulatory Cycles: An Analysis from the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3).

Cancer Res 2020 03 13;80(5):1210-1218. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, University Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-2850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056529PMC
March 2020

Association Between Levels of Sex Hormones and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett's Esophagus.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 11 19;18(12):2701-2709.e3. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background & Aims: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) occurs most frequently in men. We performed a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate whether genetic factors that regulate levels of sex hormones are associated with risk of EAC or Barrett's esophagus (BE).

Methods: We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using data from patients with EAC (n = 2488) or BE (n = 3247) and control participants (n = 2127), included in international consortia of genome-wide association studies in Australia, Europe, and North America. Genetic risk scores or single-nucleotide variants were used as instrumental variables for 9 specific sex hormones. Logistic regression provided odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs.

Results: Higher genetically predicted levels of follicle-stimulating hormones were associated with increased risks of EAC and/or BE in men (OR, 1.14 per allele increase; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27) and in women (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03-1.59). Higher predicted levels of luteinizing hormone were associated with a decreased risk of EAC in men (OR, 0.92 per SD increase; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99) and in women (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.79-1.09), and decreased risks of BE (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and EAC and/or BE (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00) in women. We found no clear associations for other hormones studied, including sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, progesterone, or free androgen index.

Conclusions: In a Mendelian randomization analysis of data from patients with EAC or BE, we found an association between genetically predicted levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones and risk of BE and EAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.11.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7580878PMC
November 2020