Publications by authors named "Lesley Robertson"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Medicines used in mental, neurological and substance use disorders in Gauteng, South Africa: A secondary analysis of the 2017-2018 provincial pharmaceutical database, Part 1.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2021 28;27:1552. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Access to essential medicines is an integral part of effective health systems. Analysis of medicine procurement may assist with ensuring sustainable access.

Aim: To describe the profile and cost of medicines procured for managing mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders during the 2017-2018 financial year.

Setting: The study was conducted in the public health sector in the Gauteng province, South Africa.

Method: A secondary analysis of the Gauteng Medical Stores Administration System database was performed. Medicine procurement for managing MNS disorders was analysed descriptively by using the World Health Organization's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD) methodology. Procurement of each medicine was evaluated in local currency (Rands) and in DDD/1000 population served. The District Health Information System was used to estimate population served.

Results: Of the total provincial medicines expenditure in 2017-2018, 3.73% was for MNS disorders, which is similar to the spending on cardiovascular (4%) and respiratory (3%) disorders. Antivirals for systemic use comprised 44% of the total expenditure, followed by vaccines at 13%. Of the medicines for MNS disorders, 32.5% of DDDs procured were for anti-epileptics (ATC N03A) at 47.5% of expenditure; 26.2% of DDDs were for antipsychotics (ATC N05A) at 30.9% of expenditure; and antidepressants accounted for 30.8% of DDDs at 6% of expenditure.

Conclusion: Less than 4% of provincial medicines expenditure was on medicines for MNS disorders, of which almost 78.4% of expenditure was on anti-epileptics and antipsychotics. With limited financial resources, evaluation of procurement patterns raises awareness of relative costs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v27i0.1552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876964PMC
January 2021

Prevalence and clinical correlates of substance use amongst acute psychiatric inpatients in Gauteng, South Africa.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2020 25;26:1526. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Mental disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) commonly occur together, impacting healthcare outcomes. The diagnosis of substance use is often inadequate when comorbidity is present. It is vital to understand the prevalence of substance use amongst psychiatric patients to inform both clinical practice and service development in South Africa.

Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and clinical correlates of SUD amongst acute psychiatric inpatients.

Setting: The setting for this study was Helen Joseph Hospital acute psychiatric ward.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted whereby consecutively admitted patients were invited to participate in a structured clinical interview utilising the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and drug use disorders identification test (DUDIT) questionnaires. Statistical comparisons were made between those with and without SUD.

Results: Of 150 participants, 100 (67%) were identified with a SUD. Those with SUD were younger ( = 0.0010), more often male ( = 0.012), less likely to have a disability grant ( = 0.015) and more likely to be brought to hospital by police, ambulance or self than by a family member ( = 0.025). Almost half of people with bipolar disorder (47.3%) and schizophrenia (41.4%) had comorbid SUD. Twenty-three (15%) participants identified with SUD on questionnaire had been missed clinically. Only two participants were referred for inpatient substance rehabilitation on discharge.

Conclusion: Substance use disorders are highly prevalent amongst psychiatric inpatients. The AUDIT and DUDIT are potentially useful screening tools in routine clinical practice. Greater collaboration between psychiatric and substance rehabilitation services is recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v26i0.1526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565019PMC
September 2020

Historical microbiology - using a Van Musschenbroek microscope.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 08;366(16)

Department of Biotechnology and Delft Science Centre, Delft University of Technology, Mijnbouwstraat 120, 2628 RX Delft, The Netherlands.

A single-lensed microscope made by the Van Musschenbroek workshops between 1690 and 1750 has been examined experimentally, and the method of use established. The results were compared with those obtained with facsimile van Leeuwenhoek microscopes. As might be expected, each microscope had its stronger and weaker points.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz203DOI Listing
August 2019

Was Antoni van Leeuwenhoek secretive? His experiments with insect corneas.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 08;366(16)

Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Delft Science Centre, Mijnbouwstraat 120, 2628 RX Delft, The Netherlands.

It is often claimed that Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was secretive about his methods. However, closer examination of his letters suggests that this reputation was not always deserved. Some letters were not published in the Royal Society Proceedings, and others were edited. This paper describes the repetition of his experiments with the eyes of bees and dragonflies using his own account of his experiments, despite the fact that only one of the four letters was published in the Proceedings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz194DOI Listing
August 2019

Strategies to strengthen the provision of mental health care at the primary care setting: An Evidence Map.

PLoS One 2019 6;14(9):e0222162. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Centre for Health Policy, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

In a deinstitutionalised mental health care system, those with mental illness require complex, multidisciplinary and intersectoral care at the primary or community service setting. This paper describes an Evidence Map of different strategies to strengthen the provision of mental health care at the primary health care (PHC) setting, the quality of the evidence, and knowledge gaps. Electronic and reference searching yielded 2666 articles of which 306 qualified for data extraction. A systematic review methodology identified nine different strategies that strengthen the provision of mental healthcare and these strategies are mapped in line with the outcomes they affect. The top three strategies that were reported the most, included strategies to empower families, carers and patients; integration of care or collaborative interventions; and e-health interventions. The least reported strategy was task shifting. The Evidence Map further shows the amount and quality of evidence supporting each of the listed strategies, and this helps to inform policy design and research priorities around mental health. This is the first systematic Evidence Map to show the different strategies that strengthen the provision of mental healthcare at PHC setting and the impact these strategies have on patient, hospital and societal level indicators.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222162PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731011PMC
March 2020

Predictors of quality of life among community psychiatric patients in a peri-urban district of Gauteng Province, South Africa.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2019 06 29;65(4):322-332. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

5 Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Few studies on quality of life (QoL) among people with mental illness have been conducted in South Africa, and none in community dwelling individuals. However, a greater understanding of subjective QoL may inform community-based medical, psychotherapeutic, or social interventions. This study examined the QoL, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of psychiatric patients attending community mental health clinics in the Gauteng Province of South Africa.

Methods: A cross sectional interview-based study was conducted with 121 adult patients attending community psychiatric clinics. To reduce the impact of acute psychiatric symptoms on subjective QoL, only clinically stable patients were included. Sociodemographic details and clinical characteristics were recorded. Subjective QoL was assessed using the World Health Organization QOL-Bref scale (WHOQOL-Bref), and severity of psychiatric illness measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, expanded version 4.0 (BPRS-E).

Results: Just over half of the sample rated their overall QoL as good or very good. Residual psychiatric symptomatology was the strongest predictor of a poor QoL in all four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref. The most severe BPRS scores were for the symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatic concern. Perceived social support significantly predicted a better QoL in the psychological, social relationships and environmental domains.

Conclusion: This study highlights the negative impact of residual psychiatric symptoms on subjective QoL and the importance of social support in enhancing QoL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764019842291DOI Listing
June 2019

The impact of urbanization on mental health service provision: a Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa and Africa focus.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2019 05;32(3):224-231

Department of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Purpose Of Review: Asia and Africa are experiencing rapid urbanization and rural growth. This review focuses on the impact of urbanization on preventive and treatment mental health service provision with attention to the Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa economic bloc and sub-Saharan Africa.

Recent Findings: A search of the PubMed, Academic Search Ultimate, and Global Health databases, and use of Google Scholar yielded relevant health, environmental, and urban planning research articles from sub-Saharan Africa and Brazil, India, China, and South Africa. Preventive services are ineffective in addressing violence exposure, substance use, poor quality housing, and spatial segregation, with differing trajectories in the various countries. Similarly, the impact of urbanization on social capital and green infrastructure is variable. Although Brazil appears to have a well-developed mental health system, it is unable to meet the care demand. Integrated country-wide and district-based analyses in China indicate planning is underway.

Summary: In general, existing mental and general health services in low and middle-income countries are grossly inadequate in terms of prevention, coverage, and quality to withstand population transitions lying ahead. People with mental disability, as a vulnerable and stigmatized subpopulation, are at high risk of neglect as urbanization progresses, particularly in India and sub-Saharan Africa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000495DOI Listing
May 2019

Lighting Van Leeuwenhoek's samples.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2017 12;364(24)

Department of Biotechnology and Delft Science Centre, Delft University of Technology, Mijnbouwstraat 120, 2628RX, Delft, The Netherlands.

Possible techniques for lighting opaque samples while using Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes have been tested, and the results are presented in relation to published material. The design of the microscope causes the sample to be in shadow with any form of top lighting. It is therefore suggested that Van Leeuwenhoek's hinted 'particular method of observing' might refer to a different style of microscope as shown in the frontispiece of the sale catalogue for his microscopes, and available at that time for purchase from sellers of optical equipment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnx247DOI Listing
December 2017

A retrospective record review and assessment of cost of quetiapine use in a community psychiatric setting in the Sedibeng district of Gauteng.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2017 17;23:1057. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

Background: With the revision of the National Essential Medicines List in South Africa, quetiapine is only available at the discretion of individual institutions in the public health sector. However, quetiapine is effective in managing all aspects of bipolar disorder, including preventative treatment of depressive episodes, and may be a cost-effective option in severe illness.

Aim: To present the first retrospective review of quetiapine use in a peri-urban health district of South Africa, describing the patient profile, clinical response and prescribing patterns.

Methods: The clinical files of all patients in Sedibeng District who received quetiapine over a defined 3-year period (2011-2013) were reviewed. A positive clinical response was defined as both symptomatic and functional improvement. Demographic and clinical characteristics of responders were compared with that of non-responders. Pre- and post-quetiapine scripts of the responders were audited and costed.

Results: Patients who received quetiapine ( = 40) had chronic disabling illness, often with multiple medication trials and hospitalisations prior to quetiapine use. Bipolar II disorder (followed by bipolar I disorder) was the most common primary psychiatric diagnosis documented. Other than improvement in functioning ( < 0.0001), responders differed significantly from non-responders in terms of a higher level of polypharmacy and a significant reduction in median number of medications from pre- to post-quetiapine ( = 0.0057).

Conclusion: Quetiapine use was associated with a highly significant improvement in functioning; however, it came at a 52% increase in medicine cost. Pre-quetiapine treatments, though, did not achieve an optimal level of functioning, and overall costs may be reduced by more rational prescribing habits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v23i0.1057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138076PMC
July 2017

Community mental health services in Southern Gauteng: An audit using Gauteng District Health Information Systems data.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2017 5;23:1055. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

Background: Community mental health services (CMHS) are a central objective of the National Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan. Three core components are described: residential facilities, day care and outpatient services. Primary mental health care with specialist support is required according to an intervention pyramid. Staffing norms provide for a minimum mental health service coverage of 2.7% of the population for adults and 1.5% for children and adolescents.

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the existing CMHS in Southern Gauteng in terms of the National Mental Health Policy.

Methods: The CMHS of the City of Johannesburg, Ekurhuleni, Sedibeng and West Rand districts were studied. Information regarding service organisation and staffing was obtained via the Gauteng Directorate of Mental Health. Routinely collected District Health Information Systems data for the 2014/2015 year were analysed.

Results: The organisation of services was not consistent with that recommended by the Mental Health Policy, and specialist CMHS were inappropriately situated within primary care. Only 2.23% of clinic visits were for mental health, and 80% of these were at specialist CMHS. Overall mental health coverage was approximately 0.3% of the population for adults and 0.02% for children and adolescents. Staffing, residential facilities and day care were far below the cited norms for minimal cover.

Conclusion: Our audit revealed that the CMHS in Southern Gauteng did not meet any of the norms cited by the Mental Health Policy. Barriers to implementation of this aspect of the Mental Health Policy need to be explored.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v23i0.1055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138200PMC
July 2017

The South African Society of Psychiatrists' response to the White Paper for National Health Insurance in South Africa.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2016 26;22(1):1053. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Department of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v22i1.1053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138116PMC
October 2016

And then there were 12--distinguishing Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes from old or new copies.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2015 Jul 12;362(14). Epub 2015 Jul 12.

Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft, the Netherlands

In the wake of announcements of the authentications of two previously unknown Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes in one month, this paper reviews the possibilities and potential pitfalls that might be involved in distinguishing 17th/18th century single-lensed microscopes from historical and modern copies. It is clear that a combination of characteristics must be considered, no single parameter will do.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnv113DOI Listing
July 2015

Historical microbiology, is it relevant in the 21st century?

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2015 May 6;362(9). Epub 2015 Apr 6.

Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, 2628BC, Delft, the Netherlands

Facsimile microscopes have been used to examine the possibilities of van Leeuwenhoek microscopes with a range of magnifications, particularly to confirm that bacteria can be seen if the microscope is strong enough. The relevance of historical microbiology in education is also illustrated by adapting versions of van Leeuwenhoek's pepper water experiment and Beijerinck's use of bioluminescent bacteria as oxygen probes. These experiments can demonstrate fundamentals such as enrichment and isolation cultures, physiology and experimental planning as well as critical reading of published material.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnv057DOI Listing
May 2015

van Leeuwenhoek microscopes-where are they now?

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2015 May 6;362(9). Epub 2015 Apr 6.

Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, 2628 BC, Delft, the Netherlands

When Antonie van Leeuwenhoek died, he left over 500 simple microscopes, aalkijkers (an adaption of his microscope to allow the examination of blood circulation in the tails of small eels) and lenses, yet now there are only 10 microscopes with a claim to being authentic, one possible aalkijker and six lenses. He made microscopes with more than one lens, and possibly three forms of the aalkijker. This paper attempts to establish exactly what he left and trace the fate of some of the others using the earliest possible documents and publications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnv056DOI Listing
May 2015

Physical activity and quality of life in severely obese adults during a two-year lifestyle intervention programme.

J Obes 2015 13;2015:314194. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway.

It is unknown how changes in physical activity may affect changes in quality of life (QoL) outcomes during lifestyle interventions for severely obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine associations in the patterns of change between objectively assessed physical activity as the independent variable and physical, mental, and obesity-specific QoL and life satisfaction as the dependent variables during a two-year lifestyle intervention. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women; 43.6 ± 9.4 years; body mass index 42.1 ± 6.0 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. Assessments were conducted four times using Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), Obesity-Related Problems (OP) scale, a single item on life satisfaction, and accelerometers. The physical component summary (PCS) score and the mental component summary (MCS) score were used as SF-36 outcomes. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses and reported as standardized coefficients (stand. coeff.). Change in physical activity was independently associated with change in PCS (stand. coeff. = 0.35, P = .033), MCS (stand. coeff. = 0.51, P = .001), OP (stand. coeff. = -0.31,  P = .018), and life satisfaction (stand. coeff. = 0.39, P = .004) after adjustment for gender, age, and change in body mass index.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/314194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310224PMC
September 2015

Factors and associations for physical activity in severely obese adults during a two-year lifestyle intervention.

PeerJ 2014 7;2:e505. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen , Bergen , Norway.

Objective. This study of severely obese adults participating in a two-year lifestyle intervention investigates associations between the independent variables: change in self-efficacy for physical activity (PA) in the face of psychological barriers, perceived behavioural control over PA, and PA self-identity and the dependent variable of change in objectively assessed PA. The intervention comprised four residential periods in a rehabilitation centre and combined diet, physical activity, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women, mean body mass index 42.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Assessment was done four times using questionnaires and an accelerometer. A linear mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood was used in analyses for change over time. Associations were studied using linear regression analyses. Age, gender, and change in body mass index were used as control variables. Results. In the adjusted analyses, change in perceived behavioural control over PA was associated with change in PA (Stand. coeff. = 0.32, p = .005). Change in PA was not associated with either change in self-efficacy over PA in the face of psychological barriers (Stand. coeff. = 0.13, p = .259) or PA self-identity (Stand. coeff. = -0.07, p = .538). Conclusion. Perceived behavioural control may be a valid target to increase and maintain PA in severely obese adults participating in lifestyle interventions. More research is needed to investigate the process of behaviour change in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4137665PMC
August 2014

Photobacterium piscicola sp. nov., isolated from marine fish and spoiled packed cod.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2014 Jul 27;37(5):329-35. Epub 2014 May 27.

Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Biotechnology, Delft, The Netherlands.

Five isolates from marine fish (W3(T), WM, W1S, S2 and S3) and three isolates misclassified as Photobacterium phosphoreum, originating from spoiled modified atmosphere packed stored cod (NCIMB 13482 and NCIMB 13483) and the intestine of skate (NCIMB 192), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates were members of the genus Photobacterium. Sequence analysis using the gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA and rpoA loci showed that these isolates formed a distinct branch in the genus Photobacterium, and were most closely related to Photobacterium aquimaris, Photobacterium kishitanii, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Photobacterium iliopiscarium. The luxA gene was present in isolates W3(T), WM, W1S, S2 and S3 but not in NCIMB 13482, NCIMB 13483 and NCIMB 192. AFLP and (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting indicated that the eight isolates represented at least five distinct genotypes. DNA-DNA hybridizations revealed 89% relatedness between isolate W3(T) and NCIMB 192, and values below 70% with the type strains of the phylogenetically closest species, P. iliopiscarium LMG 19543(T), P. kishitanii LMG 23890(T), P. aquimaris LMG 26951(T) and P. phosphoreum LMG4233(T). The strains of this new taxon could also be distinguished from the latter species by phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, we propose to classify this new taxon as Photobacterium piscicola sp. nov., with W3(T) (=NCCB 100098(T)=LMG 27681(T)) as the type strain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2014.05.003DOI Listing
July 2014

Physical activity is associated with weight loss and increased cardiorespiratory fitness in severely obese men and women undergoing lifestyle treatment.

J Obes 2012 15;2012:810594. Epub 2012 May 15.

Faculty of Health Studies, Sogn og Fjordane University College, P.O. Box 523, 6803 Førde, Norway.

We aimed to examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) and change in body weight and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in severely obese men and women. Thirty-five subjects (10 men, body mass index 43.2 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)) who participated in a 10-month lifestyle treatment programme were included. The PA duration correlated only with weight change for men (r = -0.69, P = .027 versus r = -0.19, P = .372 for women). Conversely, the PA intensity correlated only with CRF for women (r = 0.61, P = .003 versus r = 0.39, P = .340 for men). PA explained 55.8 and 5.6% of weight change for men and women, respectively, whereas the corresponding explained variances for CRF were 15.6 and 36.7%. We conclude that PA was associated with change in body weight and CRF; however, there was a trend towards a gender specific effect between severely obese men and women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/810594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3362060PMC
August 2012

Historical microbiology: revival and phylogenetic analysis of the luminous bacterial cultures of M. W. Beijerinck.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2011 Dec 6;78(3):463-72. Epub 2011 Sep 6.

The Netherlands Culture Collection of Bacteria, CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Luminous bacteria isolated by Martinus W. Beijerinck were sealed in glass ampoules in 1924 and 1925 and stored under the names Photobacterium phosphoreum and 'Photobacterium splendidum'. To determine if the stored cultures were viable and to assess their evolutionary relationship with currently recognized bacteria, portions of the ampoule contents were inoculated into culture medium. Growth and luminescence were evident after 13 days of incubation, indicating the presence of viable cells after more than 80 years of storage. The Beijerinck strains are apparently the oldest bacterial cultures to be revived from storage. Multi-locus sequence analysis, based on the 16S rRNA, gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA, luxA, and luxB genes, revealed that the Beijerinck strains are distant from the type strains of P. phosphoreum, ATCC 11040(T), and Vibrio splendidus, ATCC 33125(T), and instead form an evolutionarily distinct clade of Vibrio. Newly isolated strains from coastal seawater in Norway, France, Uruguay, Mexico, and Japan grouped with the Beijerinck strains, indicating a global distribution for this new clade, designated as the beijerinckii clade. Strains of the beijerinckii clade exhibited little sequence variation for the seven genes and approximately 6300 nucleotides examined despite the geographic distances and the more than 80 years separating their isolation. Gram-negative bacteria therefore can survive for many decades in liquid storage, and in nature, they do not necessarily diverge rapidly over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01177.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Beijerinck and the bioluminescent bacteria: microbiological experiments in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2011 Feb 6;75(2):185-94. Epub 2010 Dec 6.

Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.

Microbiological research in the days before specialized equipment, or even electricity, required a great deal of ingenuity. The revival of 90-year-old bioluminescent bacteria from Beijerinck's laboratory in Delft prompted a review of his work with these microorganisms and revealed their use in simple techniques for the investigation of, among other things, sugar metabolism in yeasts, oxygen generation and uptake and even the survival of microorganisms in liquid hydrogen. He used variant strains of bioluminescent bacteria in an attempt to study heredity and variation in biological systems and described one of the earliest examples of enzyme induction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.01004.xDOI Listing
February 2011

Adults with untreated phenylketonuria: out of sight, out of mind.

Br J Psychiatry 2008 Dec;193(6):501-2

Tizard Centre, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7LZ, UK.

Some people with phenylketonuria who were born before screening began were never treated and are still alive. Here we report that far fewer people with untreated phenylketonuria were detected than are thought to exist (about 2000). The majority of those traced had high support needs, challenging behaviour and other symptoms of phenylketonuria. No significant differences were found between those who had or had not tried the phenylalanine-restricted diet. A randomised controlled trial is required to examine the effect of trying the low-phenylalanine diet for people with untreated phenylketonuria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.045021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802510PMC
December 2008

The Delft School of Microbiology, from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2003 ;52:357-88

Kluyver Laboratory for Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628BC, The Netherlands.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2164(03)01014-1DOI Listing
November 2003

Metabolic pathway of anaerobic ammonium oxidation on the basis of N studies in a fluidized bed reactor.

Microbiology (Reading) 1997 Jul;143(7):2415-2421

Kluyver Laboratory for Biotechnology, Department of Microbiology and Enzymology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft, The Netherlands.

A novel metabolic pathway for anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite as the electron acceptor has been elucidated using N-Iabelled nitrogen compounds. These experiments showed that ammonium was biologically oxidized with hydroxylamine as the most probable electron acceptor. The hydroxylamine itself is most likely derived from nitrite. Batch experiments in which ammonium was oxidized with hydroxylamine transiently accumulated hydrazine. The conversion of hydrazine to dinitrogen gas is postulated as the reaction generating electron equivalents for the reduction of nitrite to hydroxylamine. During the conversion of ammonium, a small amount of nitrate was formed from some of the nitrite. The addition of NHOH to an operating fluidized bed system caused a stoichiometric increase in the ammonium conversion rate (1 mmol I h) and a decrease in the nitrate production rate (0.5 mmol I h). Addition of hydrazine also caused a decrease in nitrate production. On the basis of these findings, it is postulated that the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate could provide the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria with the reducing equivalents necessary for CO fixation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/00221287-143-7-2415DOI Listing
July 1997