Publications by authors named "Leonie A Menke"

25 Publications

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Parenting a child with Marfan syndrome: Distress and everyday problems.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 01 9;185(1):50-59. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a multisystemic, autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that occurs de novo in 25%. In many families, parent and child(ren) are affected, which may increase distress in parents. To assess distress, 42 mothers (29% MFS) and 25 fathers (60% MFS) of 43 affected children, completed the validated screening-questionnaire Distress thermometer for parents of a chronically ill child, including questions on overall distress (score 0-10; ≥4 denoting "clinical distress") and everyday problems (score 0-36). Data were compared to 1,134 control-group-parents of healthy children. Mothers reported significantly less overall distress (2, 1-4 vs. 3, 1-6; p = .049; r = -.07) and total everyday problems (3, 0-6 vs. 4, 1-8; p = .03; r = -.08) compared to control-group-mothers. Mothers without MFS reported significantly less overall distress compared to mothers with MFS, both of a child with MFS (1, 0-4 vs. 3.5, 2-5; p = .039; r = -.17). No significant differences were found between the father-groups, nor between the group of healthy parents of an affected child living together with an affected partner compared to control-group-parents. No differences in percentages of clinical distress were reported between mothers and control-group-mothers (33 vs. 42%); fathers and control-group-fathers (28 vs. 32%); nor between the other groups. Distress was not associated with the children's MFS characteristics. Concluding, parents of a child with MFS did not show more clinical distress compared to parents of healthy children. However, clinical distress was reported in approximately one-third and may increase in case of acute medical complications. We advise monitoring distress in parents of a child with MFS to provide targeted support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756496PMC
January 2021

Primrose syndrome: Characterization of the phenotype in 42 patients.

Clin Genet 2020 06 20;97(6):890-901. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Primrose syndrome (PS; MIM# 259050) is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), macrocephaly, unusual facial features (frontal bossing, deeply set eyes, down-slanting palpebral fissures), calcified external ears, sparse body hair and distal muscle wasting. The syndrome is caused by de novo heterozygous missense variants in ZBTB20. Most of the 29 published patients are adults as characteristics appear more recognizable with age. We present 13 hitherto unpublished individuals and summarize the clinical and molecular findings in all 42 patients. Several signs and symptoms of PS develop during childhood, but the cardinal features, such as calcification of the external ears, cystic bone lesions, muscle wasting, and contractures typically develop between 10 and 16 years of age. Biochemically, anemia and increased alpha-fetoprotein levels are often present. Two adult males with PS developed a testicular tumor. Although PS should be regarded as a progressive entity, there are no indications that cognition becomes more impaired with age. No obvious genotype-phenotype correlation is present. A subgroup of patients with ZBTB20 variants may be associated with mild, nonspecific ID. Metabolic investigations suggest a disturbed mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We suggest a regular surveillance in all adult males with PS until it is clear whether or not there is a truly elevated risk of testicular cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384157PMC
June 2020

Delineation of phenotypes and genotypes related to cohesin structural protein RAD21.

Hum Genet 2020 May 19;139(5):575-592. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

RAD21 encodes a key component of the cohesin complex, and variants in RAD21 have been associated with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS). Limited information on phenotypes attributable to RAD21 variants and genotype-phenotype relationships is currently published. We gathered a series of 49 individuals from 33 families with RAD21 alterations [24 different intragenic sequence variants (2 recurrent), 7 unique microdeletions], including 24 hitherto unpublished cases. We evaluated consequences of 12 intragenic variants by protein modelling and molecular dynamic studies. Full clinical information was available for 29 individuals. Their phenotype is an attenuated CdLS phenotype compared to that caused by variants in NIPBL or SMC1A for facial morphology, limb anomalies, and especially for cognition and behavior. In the 20 individuals with limited clinical information, additional phenotypes include Mungan syndrome (in patients with biallelic variants) and holoprosencephaly, with or without CdLS characteristics. We describe several additional cases with phenotypes including sclerocornea, in which involvement of the RAD21 variant is uncertain. Variants were frequently familial, and genotype-phenotype analyses demonstrated striking interfamilial and intrafamilial variability. Careful phenotyping is essential in interpreting consequences of RAD21 variants, and protein modeling and dynamics can be helpful in determining pathogenicity. The current study should be helpful when counseling families with a RAD21 variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-020-02138-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170815PMC
May 2020

Phenotypic spectrum of TGFB3 disease-causing variants in a Dutch-French cohort and first report of a homozygous patient.

Clin Genet 2020 05 16;97(5):723-730. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Département de Génétique, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France.

Disease-causing variants in TGFB3 cause an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder which is hard to phenotypically delineate because of the small number of identified cases. The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study is to elucidate the genotype and phenotype in an international cohort of TGFB3 patients. Eleven (eight novel) TGFB3 disease-causing variants were identified in 32 patients (17 families). Aortic root dilatation and mitral valve disease represented the most common cardiovascular findings, reported in 29% and 32% of patients, respectively. Dissection involving distal aortic segments occurred in two patients at age 50 and 52 years. A high frequency of systemic features (65% high-arched palate, 63% arachnodactyly, 57% pectus deformity, 52% joint hypermobility) was observed. In familial cases, incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expressivity were noted. Our cohort included the first described homozygous patient, who presented with a more severe phenotype compared to her heterozygous relatives. In conclusion, TGFB3 variants were associated with a high percentage of systemic features and aortic disease (dilatation/dissection) in 35% of patients. No deaths occurred from cardiovascular events or pregnancy-related complications. Nevertheless, homozygosity may be driving a more severe phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13700DOI Listing
May 2020

Marfan syndrome in adolescence: adolescents' perspectives on (physical) functioning, disability, contextual factors and support needs.

Eur J Pediatr 2019 Dec 16;178(12):1883-1892. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Rehabilitation, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Meibergdreef 9, PO 22660, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Although essential for providing optimal adolescent patient support, knowledge of the impact of Marfan syndrome in adolescence is limited. To explore adolescents' perceived impact of Marfan syndrome on (physical) functioning (activities, participation), disability (limitations, restrictions), contextual factors and support needs, we interviewed 19 adolescents with Marfan syndrome. Audio-recordings were transcribed, coded and analysed using thematic analysis. Identified themes were "difficulties in keeping up with peers" and "being and feeling different from peers". Furthermore, an adolescent Marfan syndrome-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) model derived from the data describing the adolescent perceived impact of Marfan syndrome on functioning, disability and its contextual factors. Adolescents perceived problems in keeping up with peers in school, sports, leisure and friendships/relationships, and they could not meet work requirements. Moreover, participants perceived to differ from peers due to their appearance and disability. Contextual factors: coping with Marfan syndrome, self-esteem/image, knowledge about Marfan syndrome, support from family/friends/teachers, ability to express needs and peer-group acceptation acted individually as barrier or facilitator for identified themes.Conclusion: Adolescents with Marfan syndrome perceived limitations and restrictions in (physical) functioning. They perceived problems in keeping up with peers and perceived to differ from peers due to their appearance and disability. This warrants awareness and tailored physical, psychosocial, educational and environmental support programmes to improve (physical) functioning and empowerment of adolescents with Marfan syndrome.What is known:• Marfan syndrome is a hereditary connective tissue disorder.• Marfan syndrome affects multiple systems.What is new:• Adolescents with Marfan syndrome perceive (1) problems in keeping up with peers in school, sports, leisure, friendships/relationships and work (2) to differ from peers due to their appearance and disability.• An adolescent Marfan syndrome-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth model derived from the data describing the adolescent perceived impact of Marfan syndrome on functioning, disability and contextual factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-019-03469-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6881250PMC
December 2019

Marfan syndrome in childhood: parents' perspectives of the impact on daily functioning of children, parents and family; a qualitative study.

BMC Pediatr 2019 07 29;19(1):262. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Rehabilitation, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a heritable connective tissue disease caused by a defect in FBN1. The diagnosis is based on the revised Ghent criteria. The main features involve the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, ophthalmic, pulmonary systems and facial features. Although the clinical manifestations of MFS in children are thoroughly addressed in several studies, literature on the impact of MFS on daily functioning is restricted to pediatric advice on sports and leisure participation. Therefore, the full impact of MFS on daily functioning remains unclear. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore parents' perspectives on the impact of MFS on daily functioning of children with MFS aged 4-12 years, themselves and family regarding functional performance, activities, participation, personal and environmental factors, and disease burden.

Methods: In this qualitative study parents participated in individual semi-structured interviews (n = 10) and 3 focus groups (n = 5, n = 5 and n = 6). Meetings were transcribed, and data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Meaningful concepts were coded, and concepts concerning children with MFS were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth. Thereafter themes were identified and interpreted.

Results: Parents reported their children could not keep up with peers because of fatigue, pain and physical impairments. Children experienced participation restrictions in school, sports, play and other leisure activities. Parents reported their child as being different due to physical appearance, which provoked unsupportive attitudes. Parental burden was caused by high care needs, lack of support, a limited social life, and concerns about the child's development. Family burden was caused by adjusted and complex family schedules, other family members with MFS, and reproductive planning decision-making, whereas family cohesiveness and caring were positively perceived factors.

Conclusions: Parents perceived a large impact of MFS on daily functioning of their children with MFS, themselves and their family. More awareness among all professionals involved in the care of children with MFS and their families is needed so that professionals can address their support needs and provide tailored interventions, rehabilitation and/or educational programs to empower and improve daily functioning of the children, parents and family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1612-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6661807PMC
July 2019

Towards a Rational and Efficient Diagnostic Approach in Children Referred for Tall Stature and/or Accelerated Growth to the General Paediatrician.

Horm Res Paediatr 2019 12;91(5):293-310. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Paediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Tall stature and/or accelerated growth (TS/AG) in a child can be the result of a primary or secondary growth disorder, but more frequently no cause can be found (idiopathic TS). The conditions with the most important therapeutic implications are Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome and secondary growth disorders such as precocious puberty, hyperthyroidism and growth hormone excess. We propose a diagnostic flow chart offering a systematic approach to evaluate children referred for TS/AG to the general paediatrician. Based on the incidence, prevalence and clinical features of medical conditions associated with TS/AG, we identified relevant clues for primary and secondary growth disorders that may be obtained from the medical history, physical evaluation, growth analysis and additional laboratory and genetic testing. In addition to obtaining a diagnosis, a further goal is to predict adult height based on growth pattern, pubertal development and skeletal maturation. We speculate that an improved diagnostic approach in addition to expanding use of genetic testing may increase the diagnostic yield and lower the age at diagnosis of children with a pathologic cause of TS/AG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500810DOI Listing
February 2020

De novo and biallelic DEAF1 variants cause a phenotypic spectrum.

Genet Med 2019 09 29;21(9):2059-2069. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of different DEAF1 variants on the phenotype of patients with autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns and on DEAF1 activity in vitro.

Methods: We assembled a cohort of 23 patients with de novo and biallelic DEAF1 variants, described the genotype-phenotype correlation, and investigated the differential effect of de novo and recessive variants on transcription assays using DEAF1 and Eif4g3 promoter luciferase constructs.

Results: The proportion of the most prevalent phenotypic features, including intellectual disability, speech delay, motor delay, autism, sleep disturbances, and a high pain threshold, were not significantly different in patients with biallelic and pathogenic de novo DEAF1 variants. However, microcephaly was exclusively observed in patients with recessive variants (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: We propose that different variants in the DEAF1 gene result in a phenotypic spectrum centered around neurodevelopmental delay. While a pathogenic de novo dominant variant would also incapacitate the product of the wild-type allele and result in a dominant-negative effect, a combination of two recessive variants would result in a partial loss of function. Because the clinical picture can be nonspecific, detailed phenotype information, segregation, and functional analysis are fundamental to determine the pathogenicity of novel variants and to improve the care of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0473-6DOI Listing
September 2019

Diagnosis and management of Cornelia de Lange syndrome: first international consensus statement.

Nat Rev Genet 2018 10;19(10):649-666

Department of Paediatrics, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is an archetypical genetic syndrome that is characterized by intellectual disability, well-defined facial features, upper limb anomalies and atypical growth, among numerous other signs and symptoms. It is caused by variants in any one of seven genes, all of which have a structural or regulatory function in the cohesin complex. Although recent advances in next-generation sequencing have improved molecular diagnostics, marked heterogeneity exists in clinical and molecular diagnostic approaches and care practices worldwide. Here, we outline a series of recommendations that document the consensus of a group of international experts on clinical diagnostic criteria, both for classic CdLS and non-classic CdLS phenotypes, molecular investigations, long-term management and care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41576-018-0031-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136165PMC
October 2018

Results of next-generation sequencing gene panel diagnostics including copy-number variation analysis in 810 patients suspected of heritable thoracic aortic disorders.

Hum Mutat 2018 09 12;39(9):1173-1192. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Simultaneous analysis of multiple genes using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has become widely available. Copy-number variations (CNVs) in disease-associated genes have emerged as a cause for several hereditary disorders. CNVs are, however, not routinely detected using NGS analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield and the prevalence of CNVs using our panel of Hereditary Thoracic Aortic Disease (H-TAD)-associated genes. Eight hundred ten patients suspected of H-TAD were analyzed by targeted NGS analysis of 21 H-TAD associated genes. In addition, the eXome hidden Markov model (XHMM; an algorithm to identify CNVs in targeted NGS data) was used to detect CNVs in these genes. A pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant was found in 66 of 810 patients (8.1%). Of these 66 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants, six (9.1%) were CNVs not detectable by routine NGS analysis. These CNVs were four intragenic (multi-)exon deletions in MYLK, TGFB2, SMAD3, and PRKG1, respectively. In addition, a large duplication including NOTCH1 and a large deletion encompassing SCARF2 were detected. As confirmed by additional analyses, both CNVs indicated larger chromosomal abnormalities, which could explain the phenotype in both patients. Given the clinical relevance of the identification of a genetic cause, CNV analysis using a method such as XHMM should be incorporated into the clinical diagnostic care for H-TAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175145PMC
September 2018

Further delineation of Malan syndrome.

Hum Mutat 2018 09 25;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175110PMC
September 2018

Further delineation of an entity caused by CREBBP and EP300 mutations but not resembling Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 04 20;176(4):862-876. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In 2016, we described that missense variants in parts of exons 30 and 31 of CREBBP can cause a phenotype that differs from Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS). Here we report on another 11 patients with variants in this region of CREBBP (between bp 5,128 and 5,614) and two with variants in the homologous region of EP300. None of the patients show characteristics typical for RSTS. The variants were detected by exome sequencing using a panel for intellectual disability in all but one individual, in whom Sanger sequencing was performed upon clinical recognition of the entity. The main characteristics of the patients are developmental delay (90%), autistic behavior (65%), short stature (42%), and microcephaly (43%). Medical problems include feeding problems (75%), vision (50%), and hearing (54%) impairments, recurrent upper airway infections (42%), and epilepsy (21%). Major malformations are less common except for cryptorchidism (46% of males), and cerebral anomalies (70%). Individuals with variants between bp 5,595 and 5,614 of CREBBP show a specific phenotype (ptosis, telecanthi, short and upslanted palpebral fissures, depressed nasal ridge, short nose, anteverted nares, short columella, and long philtrum). 3D face shape demonstrated resemblance to individuals with a duplication of 16p13.3 (the region that includes CREBBP), possibly indicating a gain of function. The other affected individuals show a less specific phenotype. We conclude that there is now more firm evidence that variants in these specific regions of CREBBP and EP300 result in a phenotype that differs from RSTS, and that this phenotype may be heterogeneous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38626DOI Listing
April 2018

Recurrent GNAO1 Mutations Associated With Developmental Delay and a Movement Disorder.

J Child Neurol 2016 12 12;31(14):1598-1601. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

In 2 unrelated patients with axial hypotonia, developmental delay and a hyperkinetic movement disorder, a missense mutation was found in codon 209 of the GNAO1 gene. From the still scarce literature on GNAO1 mutations, a clear genotype-phenotype correlation emerged. From the 26 patients reported thus far, 12 patients had epileptic encephalopathy, and 14 had a developmental delay and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. All but 1 of the latter patients had missense mutations in GNAO1 codon 209 or 246, which thus appear to be mutation hotspots. At least 2 sibling pairs showed that the recurrence risk after 1 affected child with a GNAO1 mutation might be relatively high (5-15%), due to apparent gonadal mosaicism in the parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073816666474DOI Listing
December 2016

CREBBP mutations in individuals without Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome phenotype.

Am J Med Genet A 2016 10 17;170(10):2681-93. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Mutations in CREBBP cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. By using exome sequencing, and by using Sanger in one patient, CREBBP mutations were detected in 11 patients who did not, or only in a very limited manner, resemble Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. The combined facial signs typical for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome were absent, none had broad thumbs, and three had only somewhat broad halluces. All had apparent developmental delay (being the reason for molecular analysis); five had short stature and seven had microcephaly. The facial characteristics were variable; main characteristics were short palpebral fissures, telecanthi, depressed nasal ridge, short nose, anteverted nares, short columella, and long philtrum. Six patients had autistic behavior, and two had self-injurious behavior. Other symptoms were recurrent upper airway infections (n = 5), feeding problems (n = 7) and impaired hearing (n = 7). Major malformations occurred infrequently. All patients had a de novo missense mutation in the last part of exon 30 or beginning of exon 31 of CREBBP, between base pairs 5,128 and 5,614 (codons 1,710 and 1,872). No missense or truncating mutations in this region have been described to be associated with the classical Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome phenotype. No functional studies have (yet) been performed, but we hypothesize that the mutations disturb protein-protein interactions by altering zinc finger function. We conclude that patients with missense mutations in this specific CREBBP region show a phenotype that differs substantially from that in patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and may prove to constitute one (or more) separate entities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37800DOI Listing
October 2016

Karyotype-specific ear and hearing problems in young adults with Turner syndrome and the effect of oxandrolone treatment.

Otol Neurotol 2014 Oct;35(9):1577-84

*Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht; †Departments of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, and ‡Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen; §Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus Medical Center/Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam; ∥Department of Pediatrics, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht; ¶Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen; #Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden; and **Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objective: To evaluate karyotype-specific ear and hearing problems in young-adult patients with Turner syndrome (TS) and assess the effects of previous treatment with oxandrolone (Ox).

Study Design: Double-blind follow-up study.

Setting: University hospital.

Patients: Sixty-five TS patients (mean age, 24.3 yr) previously treated with growth hormone combined with placebo, Ox 0.03 mg/kg per day, or Ox 0.06 mg/kg per day from the age of 8 years and estrogen from the age of 12 years.

Intervention: Ear examination was performed according to standard clinical practice. Air- and bone conduction thresholds were measured in decibel hearing level.

Main Outcome Measures: We compared patients with total monosomy of the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp), monosomy 45,X and isochromosome 46,X,i(Xq), with patients with a partial monosomy Xp, mosaicism or other structural X chromosomal anomalies. We assessed the effect of previous Ox treatment.

Results: Sixty-six percent of the patients had a history of recurrent otitis media. We found hearing loss in 66% of the ears, including pure sensorineural hearing loss in 32%. Hearing thresholds in patients with a complete monosomy Xp were about 10 dB worse compared with those in patients with a partial monosomy Xp. Air- and bone conduction thresholds were not different between the placebo and Ox treatment groups.

Conclusion: Young-adult TS individuals frequently have structural ear pathology, and many suffer from hearing loss. This indicates that careful follow-up to detect ear and hearing problems is necessary, especially for those with a monosomy 45,X or isochromosome 46,X,i(Xq). Ox does not seem to have an effect on hearing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000000406DOI Listing
October 2014

Comparison of body surface area versus weight-based growth hormone dosing for girls with Turner syndrome.

Horm Res Paediatr 2014 23;81(5):319-30. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background/aims: Growth Hormone (GH) dosage in childhood is adjusted for body size, but there is no consensus whether body weight (BW) or body surface area (BSA) should be used. We aimed at comparing the biological effect and cost-effectiveness of GH treatment dosed per m2 BSA in comparison with dosing per kg BW in girls with Turner syndrome (TS).

Methods: Serum IGF-I, GH dose, and adult height gain (AHG) from girls participating in two Dutch and five Swedish studies on the efficacy of GH were analyzed, and the cumulative GH dose and costs were calculated for both dose adjustment methods. Additional medication included estrogens (if no spontaneous puberty occurred) and oxandrolone in some studies.

Results: At each GH dose, the serum IGF-I standard deviation score remained stable over time after an initial increase after the start of treatment. On a high dose (at 1 m2 equivalent to 0.056-0.067 mg/kg/day), AHG was at least equal on GH dosed per m2 BSA compared with dosing per kg BW. The cumulative dose and cost were significantly lower if the GH dose was adjusted for m2 BSA.

Conclusion: Dosing GH per m2 BSA is at least as efficacious as dosing per kg BW, and is more cost-effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357844DOI Listing
February 2015

Long-term effects of previous oxandrolone treatment in adult women with Turner syndrome.

Eur J Endocrinol 2013 Jan 10;168(1):91-9. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

Department of Endocrinology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objective: Short stature is a prominent feature of Turner syndrome (TS), which is partially overcome by GH treatment. We have previously reported the results of a trial on the effect of oxandrolone (Ox) in girls with TS. Ox in a dose of 0.03 mg/kg per day (Ox 0.03) significantly increased adult height gain, whereas Ox mg/kg per day (0.06) did not, at the cost of deceleration of breast development and mild virilization. The aim of this follow-up study in adult participants of the pediatric trial was to investigate the long-term effects of previous Ox treatment.

Design And Methods: During the previous randomized controlled trial, 133 girls were treated with GH combined with placebo (Pl), Ox 0.03, or Ox 0.06 from 8 years of age and estrogen from 12 years. Sixty-eight women (Pl, n=23; Ox 0.03, n=27; and Ox 0.06, n=18) participated in the double-blind follow-up study (mean age, 24.0 years; mean time since stopping GH, 8.7 years; and mean time of Ox/Pl use, 4.9 years). We assessed height, body proportions, breast size, virilization, and body composition.

Results: Height gain (final minus predicted adult height) was maintained at follow-up (Ox 0.03 10.2±4.9 cm, Ox 0.06 9.7±4.4 cm vs Pl 8.0±4.6 cm). Breast size, Tanner breast stage, and body composition were not different between groups. Ox-treated women reported more subjective virilization and had a lower voice frequency.

Conclusion: Ox 0.03 mg/kg per day has a beneficial effect on adult height gain in TS patients. Despite previously reported deceleration of breast development during Ox 0.03 treatment, adult breast size is not affected. Mild virilization persists in only a small minority of patients. The long-term evaluation indicates that Ox 0.03 treatment is effective and safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-12-0404DOI Listing
January 2013

The effect of oxandrolone on voice frequency in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

J Voice 2011 Sep 25;25(5):602-10. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Dutch Growth Research Foundation, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives/hypothesis: Oxandrolone (Ox) increases height gain but may also cause voice deepening in growth hormone (GH)-treated girls with Turner syndrome (TS). We assessed the effect of Ox on objective and subjective speaking voice frequency in GH-treated girls with TS.

Study Design: A multicenter, randomized, placebo (Pl)-controlled, double-blind study was conducted.

Methods: One hundred thirty-three patients were included and treated with GH (1.33 mg/m2/d) from baseline, combined with Pl or Ox in a low (0.03 mg/kg/d) or conventional (0.06 mg/kg/d) dose from the age of 8 years and estrogens from the age of 12 years. Yearly from starting Ox/Pl until 6 months after discontinuing GH+Ox/Pl, voices were recorded and questionnaires were completed.

Results: At start, mean (±standard deviation [SD]) voice frequency SD score (SDS) was high for age (1.0±1.2, P<0.001) but normal for height. Compared with GH+Pl, voices tended to lower on GH+Ox 0.03 (P=0.09) and significantly lowered on GH+Ox 0.06 (P=0.007). At the last measurement, voice frequency SDS was still relatively high in GH+Pl group (0.6±0.7, P=0.002) but similar to healthy girls in both GH+Ox groups. Voice frequency became lower than -2 SDS in one patient (3%) on GH+Ox 0.03 and three patients (11%) on GH+Ox 0.06. The percentage of patients reporting subjective voice deepening was similar between the dosage groups.

Conclusions: Untreated girls with TS have relatively high-pitched voices. The addition of Ox to GH decreases voice frequency in a dose-dependent way. Although most voice frequencies remain within the normal range, they may occasionally become lower than -2 SDS, especially on GH+Ox 0.06 mg/kg/d.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2010.06.002DOI Listing
September 2011

Effect of oxandrolone on glucose metabolism in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

Horm Res Paediatr 2011 Feb 3;75(2):115-22. Epub 2010 Sep 3.

Dutch Growth Research Foundation, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. l.a.menke @ lumc.nl

Background: The weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) may increase height but may also affect glucose metabolism in girls with Turner syndrome (TS).

Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we assessed the effect of Ox at a dosage of either 0.06 or 0.03 mg/kg/day on glucose metabolism in 133 growth hormone (GH)-treated girls with TS. Patients were treated with GH (1.33 mg/m(2)/day) from baseline, combined with placebo (Pl) or Ox from the age of 8, and estrogens from the age of 12. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed, and HbA1c levels were measured before, during, and after discontinuing Ox/Pl therapy.

Results: Insulin sensitivity, assessed by the whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) decreased during GH+Ox/Pl (p = 0.003) without significant differences between the dosage groups. Values returned to pre-treatment levels after discontinuing GH+Ox/Pl. On GH+Ox, fasting glucose was less frequently impaired (Ox 0.03, p = 0.001; Ox 0.06, p = 0.02) and HbA1c levels decreased more (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively) than on GH+Pl.

Conclusions: We conclude that in GH-treated girls with TS, Ox at a dosage of 0.03 or 0.06 mg/kg/day does not significantly affect insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity decreases during GH therapy, to return to a pre-treatment level after discontinuing therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000319313DOI Listing
February 2011

The effect of oxandrolone on body proportions and body composition in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2010 Aug 23;73(2):212-9. Epub 2010 Jan 23.

Dutch Growth Research Foundation, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Untreated girls with Turner syndrome (TS) have short stature, relatively broad shoulders, a broad pelvis, short legs, a high fat mass and low muscle mass. Our objective was to assess the effect of the weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) on body proportions and composition in growth hormone (GH)-treated girls with TS.

Design/patients: 133 patients were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

Methods: Patients were treated with GH (1.33 mg/m(2) per day) from baseline, combined with placebo (Pl) or Ox in a low (0.03 mg/kg per day) or previously conventional (0.06 mg/kg per day) dose from the age of eight, and oestrogens from the age of twelve. Sitting height, biacromial and biiliacal distances compared with height (i.e. shape values), BMI, waist circumference, sum of 4 skinfolds (sum4skin) and upper arm muscle area (UAMA) SD scores (SDS) were assessed half-yearly.

Results: Compared with GH + Pl, adult shape values on GH + Ox tended to be higher for sitting height (Ox 0.03, P = 0.2; Ox 0.06, P = 0.02) and biacromial distance (Ox 0.03, P = 0.2; Ox 0.06, P = 0.07) and lower for biiliacal distance (Ox 0.03, P = 0.004; Ox 0.06, P = 0.08). Sum4skin SDS tended to decrease more (Ox 0.03, P = 0.2; Ox 0.06, P = 0.005) while UAMA SDS increased more (Ox 0.03, P < 0.001; Ox 0.06, P < 0.001) than on GH + Pl. The increase in BMI and waist circumference SDS was comparable between the dosage groups.

Conclusions: In GH-treated girls with TS, Ox 0.06 increases sitting height and tends to increase biacromial distance and decrease biiliacal distance, while Ox 0.03 significantly decreases biiliacal distance compared with height. Furthermore, Ox 0.06 reduces subcutaneous fat mass, and both Ox dosages increase muscle mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03789.xDOI Listing
August 2010

Efficacy and safety of oxandrolone in growth hormone-treated girls with turner syndrome.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010 Mar 8;95(3):1151-60. Epub 2010 Jan 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Context And Objective: GH therapy increases growth and adult height in Turner syndrome (TS). The benefit to risk ratio of adding the weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) to GH is unclear.

Design And Participants: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-response study was performed in 10 centers in The Netherlands. One hundred thirty-three patients with TS were included in age group 1 (2-7.99 yr), 2 (8-11.99 yr), or 3 (12-15.99 yr). Patients were treated with GH (1.33 mg/m(2) . d) from baseline, combined with placebo (Pl) or Ox in low (0.03 mg/kg . d) or conventional (0.06 mg/kg . d) dose from the age of 8 yr and estrogens from the age of 12 yr. Adult height gain (adult height minus predicted adult height) and safety parameters were systematically assessed.

Results: Compared with GH+Pl, GH+Ox 0.03 increased adult height gain in the intention-to-treat analysis (mean +/- sd, 9.5 +/- 4.7 vs. 7.2 +/- 4.0 cm, P = 0.02) and per-protocol analysis (9.8 +/- 4.9 vs. 6.8 +/- 4.4 cm, P = 0.02). Partly due to accelerated bone maturation (P < 0.001), adult height gain on GH+Ox 0.06 was not significantly different from that on GH+Pl (8.3 +/- 4.7 vs. 7.2 +/- 4.0 cm, P = 0.3). Breast development was slower on GH+Ox (GH+Ox 0.03, P = 0.02; GH+Ox 0.06, P = 0.05), and more girls reported virilization on GH+Ox 0.06 than on GH+Pl (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: In GH-treated girls with TS, we discourage the use of the conventional Ox dosage (0.06 mg/kg . d) because of its low benefit to risk ratio. The addition of Ox 0.03 mg/kg . d modestly increases adult height gain and has a fairly good safety profile, except for some deceleration of breast development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2009-1821DOI Listing
March 2010

The effect of the weak androgen oxandrolone on psychological and behavioral characteristics in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

Horm Behav 2010 Mar 4;57(3):297-305. Epub 2010 Jan 4.

Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden, the Netherlands.

The weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) increases height gain in growth-hormone (GH) treated girls with Turner syndrome (TS), but may also give rise to virilizing side effects. To assess the effect of Ox, at a conventional and low dosage, on behavior, aggression, romantic and sexual interest, mood, and gender role in GH-treated girls with TS, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted. 133 patients were treated with GH (1.33 mg/m(2)/d) from baseline, combined with placebo (Pl), Ox 0.03 mg/kg/d, or Ox 0.06 mg/kg/d from the age of eight, and with estrogens from the age of 12. The child behavior checklist (CBCL), Junior Dutch Personality Questionnaire (DPQ-J), State-subscale of the Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Scale, Romantic and Sexual Interest Questionnaire, Mood Questionnaire, and Gender Role Questionnaire were filled out before, during, and after discontinuing Ox/Pl. The changes during Ox/Pl therapy were not significantly different between the dosage groups. In untreated patients, the mean CBCL total (P=0.002) and internalizing (P=0.003) T scores, as well as the mean DPQ-J social inadequacy SD score (SDS) (P=0.004) were higher than in reference girls, but decreased during GH+Ox/Pl therapy (P<0.001, P=0.05, P<0.001, respectively). Whereas the mean total (P=0.01) and internalizing (P<0.001) T score remained relatively high, the mean social inadequacy SDS became comparable with reference values. We conclude that in GH-treated girls with TS, Ox 0.03 mg/kg/d or 0.06 mg/kg/d does not cause evident psychological virilizing side effects. Problem behavior, frequently present in untreated girls with TS, decreases during therapy, but total and internalizing problem behavior remain increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.12.011DOI Listing
March 2010

Ectrodactyly with fibular aplasia: a separate entity?

Eur J Med Genet 2008 Sep-Oct;51(5):488-96. Epub 2008 May 2.

Department of Paediatric Genetics, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

E/FA is the combination of ectrodactyly (split hand/foot malformation, SHFM) and fibular aplasia. It is a rare disorder considered to be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with reduced penetrance and variable expression. In order to determine recurrence risks for the two patients we describe, the literature on inheritance of E/FA was carefully reviewed. In our opinion, only two of the eight families previously reported as examples of familial E/FA may fit this judgment. Until mutation analysis of all SHFM genes is possible, the question remains whether these familial cases represent autosomal dominant E/FA, or an allelic variant of an SHFM subtype. Many sporadic patients with presumed E/FA may represent the fibular developmental field defect, which is a non-genetic entity with a low recurrence risk. We therefore suggest that the high recurrence risk associated with autosomal dominant inheritance should not be counselled in patients with E/FA unless their family shows the following characteristics: (1) at least one patient shows typical SHFM combined with fibular aplasia, (2) multiple limbs are affected, and (3) multiple family members are affected in at least two generations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2008.04.001DOI Listing
November 2008

Congenital heart defects in spinal muscular atrophy type I: a clinical report of two siblings and a review of the literature.

Am J Med Genet A 2008 Mar;146A(6):740-4

Department of Pediatric Genetics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

A newborn girl presented with asphyxia, joint contractures and diminished spontaneous movements. Echocardiography showed hypoplastic left heart. Spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA I) was diagnosed by detecting a homozygous deletion in the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1). In the first trimester of a subsequent pregnancy, SMA I, hypoplastic left heart, and contractures were identified again. Congenital heart defects (CHD) have now been reported in 20 patients with SMA I, including three previously reported siblings and our two siblings, leading us to hypothesize that SMA I/CHD represents a unique phenotype of SMA I rather than a coincidental association. The homozygous SMN1 deletion may play a role in the development of CHD when it occurs in the presence of mutations or polymorphisms in other genes important for cardiac development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.32233DOI Listing
March 2008