Publications by authors named "Leonard A Mattano"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Favorable Trisomies and Predict Cure in Low-Risk B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results From Children's Oncology Group Trial AALL0331.

J Clin Oncol 2021 05 19;39(14):1540-1552. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics, UT Southwestern, Simmons Cancer Center, Dallas, TX.

Purpose: Children's Oncology Group (COG) AALL0331 tested whether pegaspargase intensification on a low-intensity chemotherapy backbone would improve the continuous complete remission (CCR) rate in a low-risk subset of children with standard-risk B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Methods: AALL0331 enrolled 5,377 patients with National Cancer Institute standard-risk B-ALL (age 1-9 years, WBC < 50,000/μL) between 2005 and 2010. Following a common three-drug induction, a cohort of 1,857 eligible patients participated in the low-risk ALL random assignment. Low-risk criteria included no extramedullary disease, < 5% marrow blasts by day 15, end-induction marrow minimal residual disease < 0.1%, and favorable cytogenetics ( fusion or simultaneous trisomies of chromosomes 4, 10, and 17). Random assignment was to standard COG low-intensity therapy (including two pegaspargase doses, one each during induction and delayed intensification) with or without four additional pegaspargase doses at 3-week intervals during consolidation and interim maintenance. The study was powered to detect a 4% improvement in 6-year CCR rate from 92% to 96%.

Results: The 6-year CCR and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire low-risk cohort were 94.7% ± 0.6% and 98.7% ± 0.3%, respectively. The CCR rates were similar between arms (intensified pegaspargase 95.3% ± 0.8% standard 94.0% ± 0.8%; = .13) with no difference in OS (98.1% ± 0.5% 99.2% ± 0.3%; = .99). Compared to a subset of standard-risk study patients given identical therapy who had the same early response characteristics but did not have favorable or unfavorable cytogenetics, outcomes were significantly superior for low-risk patients (CCR hazard ratio 1.95; = .0004; OS hazard ratio 5.42; < .0001).

Conclusion: Standard COG therapy without intensified pegaspargase, which can easily be given as an outpatient with limited toxicity, cures nearly all children with B-ALL identified as low-risk by clinical, early response, and favorable cytogenetic criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274747PMC
May 2021

Outcome in Children With Standard-Risk B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results of Children's Oncology Group Trial AALL0331.

J Clin Oncol 2020 02 11;38(6):602-612. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas (UT) Southwestern, Dallas, TX.

Purpose: Children's Oncology Group (COG) AALL0331 tested whether intensified postinduction therapy that improves survival in children with high-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) would also improve outcomes for those with standard-risk (SR) ALL.

Patients And Methods: AALL0331 enrolled 5,377 patients between 2005 and 2010. All patients received a 3-drug induction with dexamethasone, vincristine, and pegaspargase (PEG) and were then classified as SR low, SR average, or SR high. Patients with SR-average disease were randomly assigned to receive either standard 4-week consolidation (SC) or 8-week intensified augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) consolidation (IC). Those with SR-high disease were nonrandomly assigned to the full COG-augmented BFM regimen, including 2 interim maintenance and delayed intensification phases.

Results: The 6-year event-free survival (EFS) rate for all patients enrolled in AALL0331 was 88.96% ± 0.46%, and overall survival (OS) was 95.54% ± 0.31%. For patients with SR-average disease, the 6-year continuous complete remission (CCR) and OS rates for SC versus IC were 87.8% ± 1.3% versus 89.1% ± 1.2% ( = .52) and 95.8% ± 0.8% versus 95.2% ± 0.8% ( = 1.0), respectively. Those with SR-average disease with end-induction minimal residual disease (MRD) of 0.01% to < 0.1% had an inferior outcome compared with those with lower MRD and no improvement with IC (6-year CCR: SC, 77.5% ± 4.8%; IC, 77.1% ± 4.8%; = .71). At 6 years, the CCR and OS rates among 635 nonrandomly treated patients with SR-high disease were 85.55% ± 1.49% and 92.97% ± 1.08%, respectively.

Conclusion: The 6-year OS rate for > 5,000 children with SR ALL enrolled in AALL0331 exceeded 95%. The addition of IC to treatment for patients with SR-average disease did not improve CCR or OS, even in patients with higher MRD, in whom it might have been predicted to provide more value. The EFS and OS rates are excellent for this group of patients with SR ALL, with particularly good outcomes for those with SR-high disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.01086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7030893PMC
February 2020

Masked hypodiploidy: Hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) mimicking hyperdiploid ALL in children: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Cancer Genet 2019 10 30;238:62-68. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Hyperdiploidy with greater than 50 chromosomes is usually associated with favorable prognosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), whereas hypodiploidy with ≤43 chromosomes is associated with extremely poor prognosis. Sometimes, hypodiploidy is "masked" and patients do not have a karyotypically visible clone with ≤43 chromosomes. Instead, their abnormal karyotypes contain 50-78 or more chromosomes from doubling of previously hypodiploid cells. When the hypodiploid and doubled hyperdiploid clones are both present, patients can be identified by traditional test methods [karyotype, DNA Index (DI), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)], but the incidence of masked hypodiploid cases in which only the doubled clone is visible is unknown. We analyzed 7013 patients with B-ALL enrolled in COG AALL03B1 (2003-2011) for whom chromosome studies were available. Of 115 patients with hypodiploidy (25-39 chromosomes), karyotypes of 40 showed only the hypodiploid clone, 47 showed mosaicism with both hypodiploid and hyperdiploid (doubled) karyotypes, and 28 with masked hypodiploidy showed only a hyperdiploid (doubled) clone. Unique karyotypic signatures were identified, and widespread loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was seen in the microsatellite panel for all patients with masked hypodiploidy. An increased awareness of the unusual karyotypic profile associated with a doubled hypodiploid clone and coordinated use of DI, FISH, and LOH studies when indicated can identify patients with masked hypodiploidy and allow appropriate treatment selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2019.07.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768693PMC
October 2019

Randomized phase 3 efficacy and safety trial of proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar MYL-1401H in the prophylactic treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

Ann Hematol 2019 May 1;98(5):1217-1224. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Global Clinical Research, Mylan, 1000 Mylan Boulevard, Canonsburg, PA, 15317, USA.

Pegfilgrastim is indicated for reducing the duration of neutropenia and incidence of febrile neutropenia in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, safety and efficacy of MYL-1401H, a proposed pegfilgrastim biosimilar, were investigated as prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. This was a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group equivalence trial of MYL-1401H vs European Union-sourced reference pegfilgrastim. Patients with newly diagnosed stage II/III breast cancer eligible to receive (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks for 6 cycles were enrolled and randomized 2:1 to 6 mg of MYL-1401H or reference pegfilgrastim 24 h (+ 2-h window after the first 24 h) after the end of chemotherapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia in cycle 1 (i.e., days with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 0.5 × 10/L). Mean (standard deviation (SD)) duration of severe neutropenia in MYL-1401H and reference pegfilgrastim groups was 1.2 days (0.93) and 1.2 days (1.10), respectively. The 95% CI for least squares mean difference (- 0.285, 0.298) was within the predefined equivalence range of ± 1 day. Secondary endpoints, including grade ≥ 3 neutropenia (frequency, 91% and 82% for MYL-1401H and reference pegfilgrastim, respectively), time to ANC nadir (mean (SD), 6.2 (0.98) and 6.3 (1.57) days), and duration of post-nadir recovery (mean (SD), 1.9 (0.85) and 1.7 (0.91) days) were comparable. Overall safety profiles of the study drugs were comparable. MYL-1401H demonstrated equivalent efficacy and similar safety to reference pegfilgrastim and may be an equivalent option for reducing incidence of neutropenia. ( ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02467868; EudraCT, 2014-002324-27).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03639-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469669PMC
May 2019

PAX5-driven subtypes of B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Nat Genet 2019 02 14;51(2):296-307. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

HARP Pharma Consulting, Mystic, CT, USA.

Recent genomic studies have identified chromosomal rearrangements defining new subtypes of B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), however many cases lack a known initiating genetic alteration. Using integrated genomic analysis of 1,988 childhood and adult cases, we describe a revised taxonomy of B-ALL incorporating 23 subtypes defined by chromosomal rearrangements, sequence mutations or heterogeneous genomic alterations, many of which show marked variation in prevalence according to age. Two subtypes have frequent alterations of the B lymphoid transcription-factor gene PAX5. One, PAX5alt (7.4%), has diverse PAX5 alterations (rearrangements, intragenic amplifications or mutations); a second subtype is defined by PAX5 p.Pro80Arg and biallelic PAX5 alterations. We show that p.Pro80Arg impairs B lymphoid development and promotes the development of B-ALL with biallelic Pax5 alteration in vivo. These results demonstrate the utility of transcriptome sequencing to classify B-ALL and reinforce the central role of PAX5 as a checkpoint in B lymphoid maturation and leukemogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0315-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6525306PMC
February 2019

Genomic and outcome analyses of Ph-like ALL in NCI standard-risk patients: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Blood 2018 08 11;132(8):815-824. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL; --like ALL) in children with National Cancer Institute (NCI) intermediate- or high-risk (HR) ALL is associated with poor outcome. Ph-like ALL is characterized by genetic alterations that activate cytokine receptor and kinase signaling and may be amenable to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The prevalence, outcome, and potential for targeted therapy of Ph-like ALL in standard-risk (SR) ALL is less clear. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 1023 SR childhood B-ALL consecutively enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group AALL0331 clinical trial. The Ph-like ALL gene expression profile was identified in 206 patients, and 67 patients with either - (n = 6) or - (n = 61) were excluded from downstream analysis, leaving 139 of 1023 (13.6%) as Ph-like. Targeted reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays and RNA-sequencing identified kinase-activating alterations in 38.8% of SR Ph-like cases, including rearrangements (29.5% of Ph-like), -class fusions (1.4%), fusions (1.4%), an fusion (0.7%), and other sequence mutations (, , ; 5.6%). Patients with Ph-like ALL had inferior 7-year event-free survival compared with non-Ph-like ALL (82.4 ± 3.6% vs 90.7 ± 1.0%, = .0022), with no difference in overall survival (93.2 ± 2.4% vs 95.8 ± 0.7%, = .14). These findings illustrate the significant differences in the spectrum of kinase alterations and clinical outcome of Ph-like ALL based on presenting clinical features and establish that genomic alterations potentially targetable with approved kinase inhibitors are less frequent in SR than in HR ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-04-841676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107876PMC
August 2018

Flow-cytometric vs. -morphologic assessment of remission in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group (COG).

Leukemia 2018 06 23;32(6):1370-1379. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA.

Minimal residual disease (MRD) after initial therapy is integral to risk stratification in B-precursor and T-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, T-ALL). Although MRD determines depth of remission, remission remains defined by morphology. We determined the outcomes of children with discordant assessments of remission by morphology vs. flow cytometry using patients age 1-30.99 years enrolled on Children's Oncology Group ALL trials who underwent bone marrow assessment at the end of induction (N = 9350). Morphologic response was assessed locally as M1 (<5% lymphoblasts; remission), M2 (5-25%), or M3 (>25%). MRD was centrally measured by flow cytometry. Overall, 19.8% of patients with M2/M3 morphology had MRD < 5%. M1 with MRD ≥ 5% was less common in B-ALL (0.9%) than T-ALL (6.9%; p < 0.0001). In B-ALL, M1/MRD ≥ 5% was associated with superior 5-year event-free survival (EFS) than M2/MRD ≥ 5% (59.1% ± 6.5% vs. 39.1% ± 7.9%; p = 0.009), but was inferior to M1/MRD < 5% (87.1% ± 0.4%; p < 0.0001). MRD levels were higher in M2/MRD ≥ 5% than M1/MRD ≥ 5% patients. In T-ALL, EFS was not significantly different between M1/MRD ≥ 5% and M2/MRD ≥ 5%. Patients with morphologic remission but MRD ≥ 5% have outcomes similar to those who fail to achieve morphological remission, and significantly inferior to those with M1 marrows and concordant MRD, suggesting that flow cytometry should augment the definition of remission in ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-018-0039-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992047PMC
June 2018

Genomic analyses identify recurrent MEF2D fusions in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Nat Commun 2016 11 8;7:13331. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702, USA.

Chromosomal rearrangements are initiating events in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Here using RNA sequencing of 560 ALL cases, we identify rearrangements between MEF2D (myocyte enhancer factor 2D) and five genes (BCL9, CSF1R, DAZAP1, HNRNPUL1 and SS18) in 22 B progenitor ALL (B-ALL) cases with a distinct gene expression profile, the most common of which is MEF2D-BCL9. Examination of an extended cohort of 1,164 B-ALL cases identified 30 cases with MEF2D rearrangements, which include an additional fusion partner, FOXJ2; thus, MEF2D-rearranged cases comprise 5.3% of cases lacking recurring alterations. MEF2D-rearranged ALL is characterized by a distinct immunophenotype, DNA copy number alterations at the rearrangement sites, older diagnosis age and poor outcome. The rearrangements result in enhanced MEF2D transcriptional activity, lymphoid transformation, activation of HDAC9 expression and sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment. Thus, MEF2D-rearranged ALL represents a distinct form of high-risk leukaemia, for which new therapeutic approaches should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5105166PMC
November 2016

Clinical and Genetic Risk Factors for Acute Pancreatitis in Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2016 06 25;34(18):2133-40. Epub 2016 Apr 25.

Chengcheng Liu, Wenjian Yang, Cheng Cheng, Deqing Pei, Colton Smith, Sima Jeha, Ching-Hon Pui, William E. Evans, and Mary V. Relling, St Jude Children's Research Hospital; Scott C. Howard, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN; Meenakshi Devidas, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; William L. Carroll, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY; Elizabeth A. Raetz, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; W. Paul Bowman, Cook Children's Hospital, Ft Worth; Naomi J. Winick, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Eric C. Larsen, Maine Children's Cancer Program, Scarborough, ME; Kelly W. Maloney, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO; Paul L. Martin, Duke University, Durham, NC; Leonard A. Mattano Jr, HARP Pharma Consulting, Mystic, CT; Elaine R. Mardis and Robert S. Fulton, The McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Deepa Bhojwani, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles; Mignon L. Loh, University of California San Francisco Medical Center-Parnassus, San Francisco, CA; and Stephen P. Hunger, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: Acute pancreatitis is one of the common causes of asparaginase intolerance. The mechanism is unknown, and genetic predisposition to asparaginase-induced pancreatitis has not been previously identified.

Methods: To determine clinical risk factors for asparaginase-induced pancreatitis, we studied a cohort of 5,185 children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, including 117 (2.3%) who were diagnosed with at least one episode of acute pancreatitis during therapy. A genome-wide association study was performed in the cohort and in an independent case-control group of 213 patients to identify genetic risk factors.

Results: Risk factors associated with pancreatitis included genetically defined Native American ancestry (P < .001), older age (P < .001), and higher cumulative dose of asparaginase (P < .001). No common variants reached genome-wide significance in the genome-wide association study, but a rare nonsense variant rs199695765 in CPA2, encoding carboxypeptidase A2, was highly associated with pancreatitis (hazard ratio, 587; 95% CI, 66.8 to 5166; P = 9.0 × 10(-9)). A gene-level analysis showed an excess of additional CPA2 variants in patients who did versus those who did not develop pancreatitis (P = .001). Sixteen CPA2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated (P < .05) with pancreatitis, and 13 of 24 patients who carried at least one of these variants developed pancreatitis. Biologic functions that were overrepresented by common variants modestly associated with pancreatitis included purine metabolism and cytoskeleton regulation.

Conclusion: Older age, higher exposure to asparaginase, and higher Native American ancestry were independent risk factors for pancreatitis in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Those who inherit a nonsense rare variant in the CPA2 gene had a markedly increased risk of asparaginase-induced pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.64.5812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4962704PMC
June 2016

Dexamethasone and High-Dose Methotrexate Improve Outcome for Children and Young Adults With High-Risk B-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From Children's Oncology Group Study AALL0232.

J Clin Oncol 2016 07 25;34(20):2380-8. Epub 2016 Apr 25.

Eric C. Larsen, Maine Children's Cancer Program, Scarborough, ME; Meenakshi Devidas and Si Chen, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Wanda L. Salzer, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Frederick; Michael J. Borowitz, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Elizabeth A. Raetz, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, Mignon L. Loh, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Leonard A. Mattano Jr, HARP Pharma Consulting, Mystic, CT; Catherine Cole, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children; University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; Alisa Eicher, Doernbecher Children's Hospital, Portland, OR; Maureen Haugan, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Mark Sorenson, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA; Nyla A. Heerema and Julie M. Gastier-Foster, The Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, OH; Andrew A. Carroll, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; Brent L. Wood, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Cheryl L. Willman, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Naomi J. Winick, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Stephen P. Hunger, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; and William L. Carroll, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Survival for children and young adults with high-risk B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved significantly, but 20% to 25% of patients are not cured. Children's Oncology Group study AALL0232 tested two interventions to improve survival.

Patients And Methods: Between January 2004 and January 2011, AALL0232 enrolled 3,154 participants 1 to 30 years old with newly diagnosed high-risk B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia. By using a 2 × 2 factorial design, 2,914 participants were randomly assigned to receive dexamethasone (14 days) versus prednisone (28 days) during induction and high-dose methotrexate versus Capizzi escalating-dose methotrexate plus pegaspargase during interim maintenance 1.

Results: Planned interim monitoring showed the superiority of the high-dose methotrexate regimens, which exceeded the predefined boundary and led to cessation of enrollment in January 2011. At that time, participants randomly assigned to high-dose methotrexate during interim maintenance 1 versus those randomly assigned to Capizzi methotrexate had a 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of 82% versus 75.4% (P = .006). Mature final data showed 5-year EFS rates of 79.6% for high-dose methotrexate and 75.2% for Capizzi methotrexate (P = .008). High-dose methotrexate decreased both marrow and CNS recurrences. Patients 1 to 9 years old who received dexamethasone and high-dose methotrexate had a superior outcome compared with those who received the other three regimens (5-year EFS, 91.2% v 83.2%, 80.8%, and 82.1%; P = .015). Older participants derived no benefit from dexamethasone during induction and experienced excess rates of osteonecrosis.

Conclusion: High-dose methotrexate is superior to Capizzi methotrexate for the treatment of high-risk B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with no increase in acute toxicity. Dexamethasone given during induction benefited younger children but provided no benefit and was associated with a higher risk of osteonecrosis among participants 10 years and older.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.62.4544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981974PMC
July 2016

Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression after completion of chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A prospective longitudinal study.

Cancer 2016 05 29;122(10):1608-17. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: The months immediately after the completion of treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are often regarded as a stressful time for children and families. In this prospective, longitudinal study, the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depressive symptoms after the completion of treatment were examined.

Methods: Participants included 160 children aged 2 to 9 years with standard-risk ALL who were enrolled on Children's Oncology Group protocol AALL0331. Parents completed standardized rating scales of their children's emotional-behavioral functioning and measures of coping and family functioning at approximately 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months after diagnosis and again 3 months after the completion of chemotherapy.

Results: At 3 months off therapy, approximately 24% of survivors had at-risk/clinically elevated anxiety scores and 28% had elevated depression scores, which are significantly higher than the expected 15% in the general population (P = .028 and .001, respectively). Patients with elevated anxiety 1 month after diagnosis were at greater risk of off-therapy anxiety (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-12.73 [P = .022]) and those with elevated depressive symptoms 6 months after diagnosis were at greater risk of off-therapy depression (odds ratio, 7.88; 95% confidence interval, 2.61-23.81 [P = .0002]). In adjusted longitudinal analyses, unhealthy family functioning (P = .008) and less reliance on social support coping (P = .009) were found to be associated with risk of emotional distress. Children from Spanish-speaking families (P = .05) also were found to be at a greater risk of distress.

Conclusions: A significant percentage of children experience emotional distress during and after therapy for ALL. These data provide a compelling rationale for targeted early screening and psychosocial interventions to support family functioning and coping skills. Cancer 2016;122:1608-17. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860039PMC
May 2016

Asparaginase Potentiates Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteonecrosis in a Mouse Model.

PLoS One 2016 11;11(3):e0151433. Epub 2016 Mar 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.

Osteonecrosis is a common dose-limiting toxicity of glucocorticoids. Data from clinical trials suggest that other medications can increase the risk of glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis. Here we utilized a mouse model to study the effect of asparaginase treatment on dexamethasone-induced osteonecrosis. Mice receiving asparaginase along with dexamethasone had a higher rate of osteonecrosis than those receiving only dexamethasone after 6 weeks of treatment (44% vs. 10%, P = 0.006). Similarly, epiphyseal arteriopathy, which we have shown to be an initiating event for osteonecrosis, was observed in 58% of mice receiving asparaginase and dexamethasone compared to 17% of mice receiving dexamethasone only (P = 0.007). As in the clinic, greater exposure to asparaginase was associated with greater plasma exposure to dexamethasone (P = 0.0001). This model also recapitulated other clinical risk factors for osteonecrosis, including age at start of treatment, and association with the systemic exposure to dexamethasone (P = 0.027) and asparaginase (P = 0.036). We conclude that asparaginase can potentiate the osteonecrotic effect of glucocorticoids.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151433PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4788417PMC
July 2016

Anxiety, pain, and nausea during the treatment of standard-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A prospective, longitudinal study from the Children's Oncology Group.

Cancer 2016 Apr 15;122(7):1116-25. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: This prospective study describes the procedure-related anxiety, treatment-related anxiety, pain, and nausea experienced by children with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the first year of treatment.

Methods: This study was undertaken at 31 Children's Oncology Group (COG) sites. Eligible children who were 2 to 9.99 years old were enrolled in a COG trial for patients with newly diagnosed standard-risk ALL from 2005 to 2009. Parents completed a demographic survey at the baseline and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0 Cancer Module (proxy version) and the General Functioning Scale of the Family Assessment Device 1, 6, and 12 months after the diagnosis. The association between patient-related (age, sex, ethnicity, and treatment), parent-related (marital status and education), and family-related factors (functioning, income, and size) and symptom scores was evaluated.

Results: The mean scores for procedure-related anxiety, treatment-related anxiety, and pain improved during the first year of treatment (P < .0389). The mean nausea score was poorer 6 months after the diagnosis in comparison with the other assessments (P = .0085). A younger age at diagnosis was associated with significantly worse procedure-related anxiety (P = .004). An older age (P = .0002) and assignment to the intensified consolidation study arm (P = .02) were associated with significantly worse nausea.

Conclusions: Children with ALL experienced decreasing treatment-related anxiety, procedure-related anxiety, and pain during the first year of treatment. In comparison with scores at 1 and 12 months, nausea was worse 6 months after the diagnosis. Minimization of procedure-related anxiety in younger children and improved nausea control in older children and those receiving more intensified treatment should be prioritized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5138861PMC
April 2016

Genetic risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis in children under age 10 treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood 2016 Feb 20;127(5):558-64. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN;

Osteonecrosis is a dose-limiting toxicity in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Prior studies on the genetics of osteonecrosis have focused on patients ≥10 years of age, leaving the genetic risk factors for the larger group of children <10 years incompletely understood. Here, we perform the first evaluation of genetic risk factors for osteonecrosis in children <10 years. The discovery cohort comprised 82 cases of osteonecrosis and 287 controls treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) standard-risk ALL protocol AALL0331 (NCT00103285, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00103285), with results tested for replication in 817 children <10 years treated on COG protocol AALL0232 (NCT00075725, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00075725). The top replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were near bone morphogenic protein 7 [BMP7: rs75161997, P = 5.34 × 10(-8) (odds ratio [OR] 15.0) and P = .0498 (OR 8.44) in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively] and PROX1-antisense RNA1 (PROX1-AS1: rs1891059, P = 2.28 × 10(-7) [OR 6.48] and P = .0077 [OR 3.78] for the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). The top replicated nonsynonymous SNP, rs34144324, was in a glutamate receptor gene (GRID2, P = 8.65 × 10(-6) [OR 3.46] and P = .0136 [OR 10.8] in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). In a meta-analysis, the BMP7 and PROX1-AS1 variants (rs75161997 and rs1891059, respectively) met the significance threshold of <5 × 10(-8). Top replicated SNPs were enriched in enhancers active in mesenchymal stem cells, and analysis of annotated genes demonstrated enrichment in glutamate receptor and adipogenesis pathways. These data may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-10-673848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4742546PMC
February 2016

Genetics of glucocorticoid-associated osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood 2015 Oct 11;126(15):1770-6. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN;

Glucocorticoids are important therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and their major adverse effect is osteonecrosis. Our goal was to identify genetic and nongenetic risk factors for osteonecrosis. We performed a genome-wide association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a discovery cohort comprising 2285 children with ALL, treated on the Children's Oncology Group AALL0232 protocol (NCT00075725), adjusting for covariates. The minor allele at SNP rs10989692 (near the glutamate receptor GRIN3A locus) was associated with osteonecrosis (hazard ratio = 2.03; P = 3.59 × 10(-7)). The association was supported by 2 replication cohorts, including 361 children with ALL on St. Jude's Total XV protocol (NCT00137111) and 309 non-ALL patients from Vanderbilt University's BioVU repository treated with glucocorticoids (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87 and 2.26; P = .063 and .0074, respectively). In a meta-analysis, rs10989692 was also highest ranked (P = 2.68 × 10(-8)), and the glutamate pathway was the top ranked pathway (P = 9.8 × 10(-4)). Osteonecrosis-associated glutamate receptor variants were also associated with other vascular phenotypes including cerebral ischemia (OR = 1.64; P = 2.5 × 10(-3)), and arterial embolism and thrombosis (OR = 1.88; P = 4.2 × 10(-3)). In conclusion, osteonecrosis was associated with inherited variations near glutamate receptor genes. Further understanding this association may allow interventions to decrease osteonecrosis. These trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00075725 and #NCT00137111.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-05-643601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600016PMC
October 2015

Prospective, longitudinal assessment of quality of life in children from diagnosis to 3 months off treatment for standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results of Children's Oncology Group study AALL0331.

Int J Cancer 2016 Jan 3;138(2):332-9. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

Department of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SR-ALL) has high cure rates, but requires 2-3 years of therapy. We aimed to (i) prospectively evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during and after SR-ALL therapy, and (ii) identify associated predictors. Parents of 160 SR-ALL patients enrolled on Children's Oncology Group (COG) therapeutic trial AALL0331 at 31 sites completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales (physical, emotional and social functioning) and Family Assessment Device-General Functioning (FAD-GF) at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis, and 3 months post-therapy. Mean PedsQL scores in physical, emotional and social functioning were impaired 1 month after diagnosis but steadily improved. Three months post-therapy, impaired physical and social functioning was observed in 27.8 and 25.8% of patients, respectively. In repeated-measures analysis, problematic family functioning predicted emotional (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.34) and social (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.21-3.27) impairment. Larger household size was associated with social impairment (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.45). Adverse neurological event(s) during therapy predicted post-therapy physical (OR = 5.17, 95% CI 1.61-16.63) and social (OR = 8.17, 95% CI 1.19-56.16) impairment. HRQOL 1 month after diagnosis was not predictive of HRQOL 3 months after therapy completion. In conclusion, children with SR-ALL experience considerable impairment in HRQOL at the end of induction, but rapidly improve. However, many still experience physical and social impairment 3 months post-therapy, suggesting a role for continued family and physical functioning support. Longer follow-up is needed to determine if post-therapy deficits change over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5138856PMC
January 2016

Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is associated with inferior outcomes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated in contemporary standard-risk children's oncology group studies: a report from the children's oncology group.

J Clin Oncol 2013 Sep 12;31(27):3397-402. Epub 2013 Aug 12.

Nyla A. Heerema and Julie M. Gastier-Foster, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center; Julie M. Gastier-Foster, The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH; Andrew J. Carroll, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; Meenakshi Devidas, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Mignon L. Loh, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Michael J. Borowitz, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Eric C. Larsen, Maine Children's Cancer Program, Scarborough, ME; Leonard A. Mattano Jr, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI; Kelly W. Maloney and Stephen P. Hunger, Children's Hospital Colorado and University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO; Cheryl L. Willman, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Brent L. Wood, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Naomi J. Winick, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; and William L. Carroll and Elizabeth A. Raetz, The New York University Cancer Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Five-year overall survival (OS) for children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) exceeds 90% with risk-adapted therapy. Age, initial WBC count, genetic aberrations, and minimal residual disease (MRD) are used for risk stratification. Intrachromosomal amplification of a region of chromosome 21 (iAMP21; three or more extra copies of RUNX1 on an abnormal chromosome 21) is a recently identified recurrent genomic lesion associated with inferior outcome in some studies. We investigated the impact of iAMP21 in a large cohort treated in contemporary Children's Oncology Group (COG) ALL trials.

Patients And Methods: Fluorescent in situ hybridization for specific genetic aberrations was required at diagnosis. MRD was measured by flow cytometry at end induction. Outcome was measured as event-free survival (EFS) and OS.

Results: iAMP21 was found in 158 (2%) of 7,793 patients with B-ALL age ≥ 1 year; 74 (1.5%) of 5,057 standard-risk (SR) patients, and 84 (3.1%) of 2,736 high-risk (HR) patients. iAMP21 was associated with age ≥ 10 years, WBC less than 50,000/μL, female sex, and detectable MRD at day 29. Four-year EFS and OS were significantly worse for patients with iAMP21 and SR B-ALL, but iAMP21 was not a statistically significant prognostic factor in HR patients. There was no interaction between MRD and iAMP21. Among SR patients, day 29 MRD ≥ 0.01% and iAMP21 were associated with the poorest EFS and OS; absence of both was associated with the best outcome.

Conclusion: iAMP21 is associated with inferior outcome in pediatric B-ALL, particularly SR patients who require more intensive therapy and are now treated on HR COG ALL protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2013.49.1308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770866PMC
September 2013

Effect of alternate-week versus continuous dexamethasone scheduling on the risk of osteonecrosis in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results from the CCG-1961 randomised cohort trial.

Lancet Oncol 2012 Sep 15;13(9):906-15. Epub 2012 Aug 15.

Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA.

Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is curable in more than 80% of children and adolescents who exhibit high-risk features. However, treatments are associated with symptomatic osteonecrosis that disproportionately affects adolescents. Based on the findings from the CCG-1882 trial, the CCG-1961 trial was designed to assess whether dexamethasone dose modification would reduce the risk of osteonecrosis. We therefore compared use of continuous versus alternate-week dexamethasone within standard and intensified post-induction treatments.

Methods: In the CCG-1961 trial, a multicohort cooperative group trial, 2056 patients (aged 1-21 years) with newly diagnosed high-risk ALL (age ≥10 years, white blood cell count ≥50×10(9) per L, or both) were recruited. To address osteonecrosis, a novel alternate-week schedule of dexamethasone (10 mg/m(2) per day on days 0-6 and 14-20) was compared with standard continuous dexamethasone (10 mg/m(2) per day on days 0-20) in computer-generated randomised regimens with permuted blocks within double or single delayed intensification phases, respectively. Masking was not possible because of the differences in the treatments. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002812.

Findings: Symptomatic osteonecrosis was diagnosed in 143 patients at 377 confirmed skeletal sites, resulting in 139 surgeries. In patients aged 1-21 years, the overall cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis at 5 years was 7·7% (SE 0·9), correlating with age at ALL diagnosis (1-9 years, 1·0% [0·5]; 10-15 years, 9·9% [1·5], hazard ratio 10·4 [4·8-22·5]; 16-21 years, 20·0% [4·3], 22·2 [10·0-49·3]; p<0·0001) and sex of the patients aged 10-21 years (girls 15·7% [2·5] vs boys 9·3% [1·7], 1·7 [1·2-2·4]; p=0·001). For patients aged 10 years and older with a rapid response to induction treatment, the use of alternate-week dexamethasone during phases of delayed intensification significantly reduced osteonecrosis incidence compared with continuous dexamethasone (8·7% [2·1] vs 17·0% [2·9], 2·1 [1·4-3·1]; p=0·0005), especially in those aged 16 years and older (11·3% [5·3] vs 37·5% [11·0], p=0·0003; girls 17·2% [8·1] vs 43·9% [14·1], p=0·05; boys 7·7% [5·9] vs 34·6% [11·6], p=0·0014).

Interpretation: Alternate-week dexamethasone during delayed intensification phases, a simple dose modification, reduces the risk of osteonecrosis in children and adolescents given intensified treatment for high-risk ALL. Its use is being evaluated in children with standard risk ALL.

Funding: US National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70274-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3448283PMC
September 2012

Young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have an excellent outcome with chemotherapy alone and benefit from intensive postinduction treatment: a report from the children's oncology group.

J Clin Oncol 2009 Nov 5;27(31):5189-94. Epub 2009 Oct 5.

University of Chicago Children's Hospital, MC 4060, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Purpose: Patients 16 to 21 years of age with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an inferior outcome compared with younger children, leading some medical oncologists to advocate allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in first remission for these patients. We examined outcome for young adults with ALL enrolled onto the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 1961 study between 1996 and 2002.

Patients And Methods: CCG 1961 entered patients with ALL 1 to 21 years of age with initial WBC count > or = 50,000/microL and/or age > or = 10 years. Randomly assigned therapies evaluated the impact of postinduction treatment intensification on outcome. We examined outcome and prognostic factors for 262 young adults with ALL.

Results: Five-year event-free and overall survival rates for young adult patients are 71.5% (SE, 3.6%) and 77.5% (SE, 3.3%), respectively. Rapid responder patients (< 25% bone marrow blasts on day 7) randomly assigned to augmented therapy had 5-year event-free survival of 81.8% (SE, 7%), as compared with 66.8% (SE, 6.7%) for patients receiving standard therapy (P = .07). One versus two interim maintenance and delayed intensification courses had no significant impact on event-free survival. WBC count more than 50,000/microL was an adverse prognostic factor.

Conclusion: Young adult patients with ALL showing a rapid response to induction chemotherapy benefit from early intensive postinduction therapy but do not benefit from a second interim maintenance and delayed intensification phase. Given the excellent outcome with this chemotherapy, there seems to be no role for the routine use of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in first remission for young adults with ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.20.8959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3053149PMC
November 2009

Bone mineral density deficits in survivors of childhood cancer: long-term follow-up guidelines and review of the literature.

Pediatrics 2008 Mar;121(3):e705-13

Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

The development of curative therapy for most pediatric malignancies has produced a growing population of childhood cancer survivors who are at increased risk for a variety of health problems resulting from their cancer or its treatment. Because of the fact that many treatment-related sequelae may not become clinically apparent until the survivor attains maturity or begins to age, the ability of primary care providers to anticipate late effects of treatment is essential for providing timely interventions that prevent or correct these sequelae and their adverse effects on quality of life. Altered bone metabolism during treatment for childhood cancer may interfere with attainment of peak bone mass, potentially predisposing to premature onset of and more severe complications related to osteopenia and osteoporosis. Bone mineral deficits have been reported after treatment for a variety of pediatric malignancies and represent morbidity that can be reduced or prevented through lifestyle changes and attention to other common cancer-related sequelae such as hypogonadism. The Children's Oncology Group long-term follow-up guidelines for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers provide risk-based surveillance recommendations that are based on expert opinion and review of the scientific literature for potential late effects of pediatric cancer therapy including osteopenia. This review summarizes the existing literature that has defined characteristics of cancer survivors at risk for bone mineral deficits and contributed to the surveillance and counseling recommendations outlined in the Children's Oncology group long-term follow-up guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-1396DOI Listing
March 2008

A PAI-1 (SERPINE1) polymorphism predicts osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Blood 2008 May 19;111(9):4496-9. Epub 2008 Feb 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 338105-2794, USA.

As glucocorticoid use increased in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, osteonecrosis became an increasingly frequent complication. Besides increased age, host risk factors are poorly defined. We tested whether 12 polymorphisms were associated with osteonecrosis among patients 10 years and older treated on the CCG1882 protocol. Candidate genes (TYMS, MTHFR, ABCB1, BGLAP, ACP5, LRP5, ESR1, PAI-1, VDR, PTH, and PTHR) were chosen based on putative mechanisms underlying osteonecrosis risk. All children received dexamethasone, with doses varying by treatment arm. A PAI-1 polymorphism (rs6092) was associated with risk of osteonecrosis in univariate (P = .002; odds ratio = 2.79) and multivariate (P = .002; odds ratio = 2.89) analyses (adjusting for gender, age, and treatment arm). Overall, 21 of 78 (26.9%) children with PAI-1 GA/AA genotypes, versus 25 of 214 (11.7%) children with GG genotype, developed osteonecrosis. PAI-1 polymorphisms and PAI-1 serum levels have previously been associated with thrombosis. We conclude that PAI-1 genetic variation may contribute to risk of osteonecrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-11-123885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2343589PMC
May 2008

Early postinduction intensification therapy improves survival for children and adolescents with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Blood 2008 Mar 26;111(5):2548-55. Epub 2007 Nov 26.

Hematology/Oncology, Children's National Medical Center and George Washington University School of Medicine and Public Health, 111 Michigan Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Longer and more intensive postinduction intensification (PII) improved the outcome of children and adolescents with "higher risk" acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a slow marrow response to induction therapy. In the Children's Cancer Group study (CCG-1961), we tested longer versus more intensive PII, using a 2 x 2 factorial design for children with higher risk ALL and a rapid marrow response to induction therapy. Between November 1996 and May 2002, 2078 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed ALL (1 to 9 years old with white blood count 50 000/mm3 or more, or 10 years of age or older with any white blood count) were enrolled. After induction, 1299 patients with marrow blasts less than or equal to 25% on day 7 of induction (rapid early responders) were randomized to standard or longer duration (n = 651 + 648) and standard or increased intensity (n = 649 + 650) PII. Stronger intensity PII improved event-free survival (81% vs 72%, P < .001) and survival (89% vs 83%, P = .003) at 5 years. Differences were most apparent after 2 years from diagnosis. Longer duration PII provided no benefit. Stronger intensity but not prolonged duration PII improved outcome for patients with higher-risk ALL. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00002812.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-02-070342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2254538PMC
March 2008

Osteonecrosis in children and adolescents with cancer - an adverse effect of systemic therapy.

Eur J Cancer 2007 Mar 13;43(4):683-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, HSC 3N27, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ont., Canada L8S 4J9.

Osteonecrosis (ON) is recognised increasingly as a complication of the treatment of cancer in children and adolescents. It is especially prevalent among survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in whom as many as 1/3 may be affected, likely reflecting the cumulative exposure to glucocorticosteroid therapy. The pathogenesis is complex and includes suppression of bone formation, expansion of the intra-medullary lipocyte compartment and a direct effect on nutrient arteries. Children > or =10 years of age are at particular risk and the disorder is substantially more common in Whites than in Blacks. Genetic predispositions have been identified. ON is often multi-articular and bilateral, affecting weight-bearing joints predominantly. Surgical management options are of concern in young growing subjects, although injection of autologous marrow into affected sites offers promising results. Other novel approaches include the use of anti-resorptive drugs and strategies for prevention, such as with lipid-lowering agents, are being explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2006.11.002DOI Listing
March 2007

Strategic approaches to osteoporosis in transplantation.

Pediatr Transplant 2004 Jun;8 Suppl 5:51-5

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Michigan State University/Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, Kalamazoo, MI 49007, USA.

Recipients of stem cell transplantation are at risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Longitudinal studies performed in adults have shown that significant bone demineralization occurs following myeloablative therapy and subsequent immune suppression. Among children and adolescents, cross-sectional analyses indicate that younger patients are also at risk for long-term bone toxicity. Strategies to detect and manage this disorder in pediatric SCT recipients are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-2265.2004.00184.xDOI Listing
June 2004

An adolescent with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Cancer Pract 2002 Jan-Feb;10(1):6-10

Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-5394.2002.101005.xDOI Listing
July 2002
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