Publications by authors named "Lenka Foretova"

221 Publications

The predictive ability of the 313 variant-based polygenic risk score for contralateral breast cancer risk prediction in women of European ancestry with a heterozygous BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.

Genet Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between a previously published 313 variant-based breast cancer (BC) polygenic risk score (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant heterozygotes.

Methods: We included women of European ancestry with a prevalent first primary invasive BC (BRCA1 = 6,591 with 1,402 prevalent CBC cases; BRCA2 = 4,208 with 647 prevalent CBC cases) from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA), a large international retrospective series. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the association between overall and ER-specific PRS and CBC risk.

Results: For BRCA1 heterozygotes the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative PRS showed the largest association with CBC risk, hazard ratio (HR) per SD = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.06-1.18), C-index = 0.53; for BRCA2 heterozygotes, this was the ER-positive PRS, HR = 1.15, 95% CI (1.07-1.25), C-index = 0.57. Adjusting for family history, age at diagnosis, treatment, or pathological characteristics for the first BC did not change association effect sizes. For women developing first BC < age 40 years, the cumulative PRS 5th and 95th percentile 10-year CBC risks were 22% and 32% for BRCA1 and 13% and 23% for BRCA2 heterozygotes, respectively.

Conclusion: The PRS can be used to refine individual CBC risks for BRCA1/2 heterozygotes of European ancestry, however the PRS needs to be considered in the context of a multifactorial risk model to evaluate whether it might influence clinical decision-making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01198-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Application of two job indices for general occupational demands in a pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Jan Hovanec, IPA, Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum, Germany.

Objectives: We investigated general job demands as a risk factor for lung cancer as well as their role in the association between occupational prestige and lung cancer.

Methods: In 13 case-control studies on lung cancer, as part of the international SYNERGY project, we applied indices for physical (PHI) and psychosocial (PSI) job demands - each with four categories (high to low). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer by unconditional logistic regression, separately for men and women and adjusted for study centre, age, smoking behavior, and former employment in occupations with potential exposure to carcinogens. Further, we investigated, whether higher risks among men with low occupational prestige (Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale) were affected by adjustment for the job indices.

Results: In 30 355 men and 7371 women, we found increased risks (OR) for lung cancer with high relative to low job demands in both men [PHI 1.74 (95% CI 1.56-1.93), PSI 1.33 (95% CI 1.17-1.51)] and women [PHI 1.62 (95% CI 1.24-2.11), PSI 1.31 (95% CI 1.09-1.56)]. OR for lung cancer among men with low occupational prestige were slightly reduced when adjusting for PHI [low versus high prestige OR from 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.58) to 1.30 (95% CI 1.17-1.45)], but not PSI.

Conclusions: Higher physical job demands were associated with increased risks of lung cancer, while associations for higher psychosocial demands were less strong. In contrast to physical demands, psychosocial demands did not contribute to clarify the association of occupational prestige and lung cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3967DOI Listing
May 2021

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Evaluation of Early Clinical Response, Pathological Complete Response Rates, and Addition of Platinum Salts Benefit Based on Real-World Evidence.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, 656 53 Brno, Czech Republic.

Pathological complete response (pCR) achievement is undoubtedly the essential goal of neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer, directly affecting survival endpoints. This retrospective study of 237 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with a median follow-up of 36 months evaluated the role of adding platinum salts into standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). After the initial four standard NACT cycles, early clinical response (ECR) was assessed and used to identify tumors and patients generally sensitive to NACT. mutation, smaller unifocal tumors, and Ki-67 ≥ 65% were independent predictors of ECR. The total pCR rate was 41%, the achievement of pCR was strongly associated with ECR (OR = 15.1, < 0.001). According to multivariable analysis, the significant benefit of platinum NACT was observed in early responders ≥45 years, Ki-67 ≥ 65% and persisted lymph node involvement regardless of status. Early responders with pCR had a longer time to death (HR = 0.28, < 0.001) and relapse (HR = 0.26, < 0.001). The pCR was achieved in only 7% of non-responders. However, platinum salts favored non-responders' survival outcomes without statistical significance. Toxicity was significantly often observed in patients with platinum NACT ( = 0.003) but not for grade 3/4 ( = 0.155). These results based on real-world evidence point to the usability of ECR in NACT management, especially focusing on the benefit of platinum salts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036281PMC
March 2021

Germline mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D and hereditary predisposition to ovarian cancer.

Klin Onkol 2021 ;34(1):26-32

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecologic cancers with the highest mortality rate over a long period. Genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer is unusually high. In the Czech Republic, causal mutation in any ovarian cancer predisposition gene is identified in approximately 30% of the ovarian cancer patients. Therefore, according to the current guidelines, all ovarian cancer patients should be provided with genetic testing. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two major ovarian cancer predisposition genes. Nevertheless, mutations in other predisposition genes, including RAD51C and RAD51D, are associated with high ovarian cancer risk. Mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D are found in 1% of ovarian cancer patients in each respective gene. Currently, identification of germline mutation in RAD51C and RAD51D is primarily of preventive importance but it potentially could make a prognostic difference. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent RAD51C and RAD51D knowledge, including the biological function, cancer risks associated with germline mutations, and recommendations for mutation carriers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.48095/ccko202126DOI Listing
January 2021

Sexual dimorphism in cancer: insights from transcriptional signatures in kidney tissue and renal cell carcinoma.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr;30(5):343-355

Section of Genetics, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), 69372 Lyon, France.

Sexual dimorphism in cancer incidence and outcome is widespread. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is fundamental to improve cancer prevention and clinical management. Sex disparities are particularly striking in kidney cancer: across diverse populations, men consistently show unexplained 2-fold increased incidence and worse prognosis. We have characterized genome-wide expression and regulatory networks of 609 renal tumors and 256 non-tumor renal tissues. Normal kidney displayed sex-specific transcriptional signatures, including higher expression of X-linked tumor suppressor genes in women. Sex-dependent genotype-phenotype associations unraveled women-specific immune regulation. Sex differences were markedly expanded in tumors, with male-biased expression of key genes implicated in metabolism, non-malignant diseases with male predominance and carcinogenesis, including markers of tumor infiltrating leukocytes. Analysis of sex-dependent RCC progression and survival uncovered prognostic markers involved in immune response and oxygen homeostasis. In summary, human kidney tissues display remarkable sexual dimorphism at the molecular level. Sex-specific transcriptional signatures further shape renal cancer, with relevance for clinical management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098110PMC
April 2021

Oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: an international cohort study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates.

Study Design: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use.

Results: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; P=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size.

Conclusion: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.01.014DOI Listing
January 2021

Morphological findings in frozen non-neoplastic kidney tissues of patients with kidney cancer from large-scale multicentric studies on renal cancer.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jun 5;478(6):1099-1107. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372, Lyon Cedex 8, France.

There are unexplained geographical variations in the incidence of kidney cancer with the high rates reported in Baltic countries, as well as eastern and central Europe. Having access to a large and well-annotated collection of "tumor/non-tumor" pairs of kidney cancer patients from the Czech Republic, Romania, Serbia, UK, and Russia, we aimed to analyze the morphology of non-neoplastic renal tissue in nephrectomy specimens. By applying digital pathology, we performed a microscopic examination of 1012 frozen non-neoplastic kidney tissues from patients with renal cell carcinoma. Four components of renal parenchyma were evaluated and scored for the intensity of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, tubular atrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and arterial wall thickening, globally called chronic renal parenchymal changes. Moderate or severe changes were observed in 54 (5.3%) of patients with predominance of occurrence in Romania (OR = 2.67, CI 1.07-6.67) and Serbia (OR = 4.37, CI 1.20-15.96) in reference to those from Russia. Further adjustment for comorbidities, tumor characteristics, and stage did not change risk estimates. In multinomial regression model, relative probability of non-glomerular changes was 5.22 times higher for Romania and Serbia compared to Russia. Our findings show that the frequency of chronic renal parenchymal changes, with the predominance of chronic interstitial nephritis pattern, in kidney cancer patients varies by country, significantly more frequent in countries located in central and southeastern Europe where the incidence of kidney cancer has been reported to be moderate to high. The observed association between these pathological features and living in certain geographic areas requires a larger population-based study to confirm this association on a large scale.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02986-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Lung cancer risk in painters: results from the SYNERGY pooled case-control study consortium.

Occup Environ Med 2021 04 28;78(4):269-278. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Stony Brook Cancer Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.

Objectives: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project.

Methods: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens.

Results: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0).

Conclusions: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2020-106770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958079PMC
April 2021

Occupational exposure to organic dust and risk of lymphoma subtypes in the EPILYMPH case-control study.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2021 Jan 25;47(1):42-51. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, Occupational Medicine unit, University of Cagliari, Monserrato (Cagliari) Italy.

Objectives This study aimed to estimate the risk of lymphoma and its major subtypes in relation to occupational exposure to specific organic dusts. Methods We explored the association in 1853 cases and 1997 controls who participated in the EpiLymph case-control study, conducted in six European countries in 1998-2004. Based on expert assessment of lifetime occupational exposures, we calculated the risk of the major lymphoma subtypes associated with exposure to six specific organic dusts, namely, flour, hardwood, softwood, natural textile, synthetic textile, and leather, and two generic (any types) groups: wood and textile dusts. Risk was predicted with unconditional regression modeling, adjusted by age, gender, study center, and education. Results We observed a 2.1-fold increase in risk of follicular lymphoma associated with ever exposure to leather dust [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-4.20]. After excluding subjects who ever worked in a farm or had ever been exposed to solvents, risk of B-cell lymphoma was elevated in relation to ever exposure to leather dust [odd ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% CI 1.00-4.78], but it was not supported by increasing trends with the exposure metrics. Risk of Hodgkin lymphoma was elevated (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.95-4.30) for exposure to textile dust, with consistent upward trends by cumulative exposure and three independent exposure metrics combined (P=0.023, and P=0.0068, respectively). Conclusions Future, larger studies might provide further insights into the nature of the association we observed between exposure to textile dust and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801142PMC
January 2021

Identification of Germline Mutations in Melanoma Patients with Early Onset, Double Primary Tumors, or Family Cancer History by NGS Analysis of 217 Genes.

Biomedicines 2020 Oct 9;8(10). Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Institute of Biochemistry and Experimental Oncology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 128 53 Prague, Czech Republic.

Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest skin malignity with a rising prevalence worldwide. Patients carrying germline mutations in melanoma-susceptibility genes face an increased risk of melanoma and other cancers. To assess the spectrum of germline variants, we analyzed 264 Czech melanoma patients indicated for testing due to early melanoma (at <25 years) or the presence of multiple primary melanoma/melanoma and other cancer in their personal and/or family history. All patients were analyzed by panel next-generation sequencing targeting 217 genes in four groups: high-to-moderate melanoma risk genes, low melanoma risk genes, cancer syndrome genes, and other genes with an uncertain melanoma risk. Population frequencies were assessed in 1479 population-matched controls. Selected and variants were characterized by functional assays. Mutations in clinically relevant genes were significantly more frequent in melanoma patients than in controls (31/264; 11.7% vs. 58/1479; 3.9%; = 2.0 × 10). A total of 9 patients (3.4%) carried mutations in high-to-moderate melanoma risk genes (, , ) and 22 (8.3%) patients in other cancer syndrome genes (, , , , , ). Mutations in high-to-moderate melanoma risk genes (OR = 52.2; 95%CI 6.6-413.1; = 3.2 × 10) and in other cancer syndrome genes (OR = 2.3; 95%CI 1.4-3.8; = 0.003) were significantly associated with melanoma risk. We found an increased potential to carry these mutations (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 1.2-6.8) in patients with double primary melanoma, melanoma and other primary cancer, but not in patients with early age at onset. The analysis revealed affected genes in Czech melanoma patients and identified individuals who may benefit from genetic testing and future surveillance management of mutation carriers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8100404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601281PMC
October 2020

Polygenic risk scores and breast and epithelial ovarian cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 10 15;22(10):1653-1666. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Exeter, UK.

Purpose: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.

Results: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.

Conclusion: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0862-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521995PMC
October 2020

Association of ionizing radiation dose from common medical diagnostic procedures and lymphoma risk in the Epilymph case-control study.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(7):e0235658. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Medical diagnostic X-rays are an important source of ionizing radiation (IR) exposure in the general population; however, it is unclear if the resulting low patient doses increase lymphoma risk. We examined the association between lifetime medical diagnostic X-ray dose and lymphoma risk, taking into account potential confounding factors, including medical history. The international Epilymph study (conducted in the Czech-Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Spain) collected self-reported information on common diagnostic X-ray procedures from 2,362 lymphoma cases and 2,465 frequency-matched (age, sex, country) controls. Individual lifetime cumulative bone marrow (BM) dose was estimated using time period-based dose estimates for different procedures and body parts. The association between categories of BM dose and lymphoma risk was examined using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for matching factors, socioeconomic variables, and the presence of underlying medical conditions (atopic, autoimmune, infectious diseases, osteoarthritis, having had a sick childhood, and family history of lymphoma) as potential confounders of the association. Cumulative BM dose was low (median 2.25 mGy) and was not positively associated with lymphoma risk. Odds ratios (ORs) were consistently less than 1.0 in all dose categories compared to the reference category (less than 1 mGy). Results were similar after adjustment for potential confounding factors, when using different exposure scenarios, and in analyses by lymphoma subtype and by type of control (hospital-, population-based). Overall no increased risk of lymphoma was observed. The reduced ORs may be related to unmeasured confounding or other sources of systematic bias.We found little evidence that chronic medical conditions confound lymphoma risk and medical radiation associations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235658PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351167PMC
September 2020

Characterization of the Cancer Spectrum in Men With Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variants: Results From the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA).

JAMA Oncol 2020 08;6(8):1218-1230

Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population.

Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected.

Main Outcomes And Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview.

Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier.

Conclusions And Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.2134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333177PMC
August 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

Needlestack: an ultra-sensitive variant caller for multi-sample next generation sequencing data.

NAR Genom Bioinform 2020 Jun 20;2(2):lqaa021. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Genetic Cancer Susceptibility Group, Section of Genetics, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008 Lyon, France.

The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the way of reaching a genome sequence, with the promise of potentially providing a comprehensive characterization of DNA variations. Nevertheless, detecting somatic mutations is still a difficult problem, in particular when trying to identify low abundance mutations, such as subclonal mutations, tumour-derived alterations in body fluids or somatic mutations from histological normal tissue. The main challenge is to precisely distinguish between sequencing artefacts and true mutations, particularly when the latter are so rare they reach similar abundance levels as artefacts. Here, we present needlestack, a highly sensitive variant caller, which directly learns from the data the level of systematic sequencing errors to accurately call mutations. Needlestack is based on the idea that the sequencing error rate can be dynamically estimated from analysing multiple samples together. We show that the sequencing error rate varies across alterations, illustrating the need to precisely estimate it. We evaluate the performance of needlestack for various types of variations, and we show that needlestack is robust among positions and outperforms existing state-of-the-art method for low abundance mutations. Needlestack, along with its source code is freely available on the GitHub platform: https://github.com/IARCbioinfo/needlestack.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nargab/lqaa021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182099PMC
June 2020

Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and risk of lymphoma subtypes: results of the Epilymph European case-control study.

Environ Health 2020 04 25;19(1):43. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, SS554, km 4.500, 09042, Monserrato (Cagliari), Italy.

Background: Evidence linking risk of lymphoma and B-cell lymphoma subtypes to ionizing radiation is inconclusive, particularly at low exposure levels.

Methods: We investigated risk of lymphoma (all subtypes), B-cell lymphomas, and its major subtypes, associated with low-level occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, in 2346 lymphoma cases and 2463 controls, who participated in the multicenter EpiLymph case-control study. We developed a job-exposure matrix to estimate exposure to ionizing radiation, distinguishing between internal and external radiation, and we applied it to the lifetime occupational history of study subjects, We calculated the Odds Ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for lymphoma (all subtypes combined), B-cell lymphoma, and its major subtypes using unconditional, polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, gender, and education.

Results: We did not observe an association between exposure metrics of external and internal radiation and risk of lymphoma (all subtypes), nor with B-cell lymphoma, or its major subtypes, at the levels regularly experienced in occupational settings. An elevated risk of diffuse large B cell lymphoma was observed among the most likely exposed study subjects with relatively higher exposure intensity, which would be worth further investigation.

Conclusions: Further investigation is warranted on risk of B cell lymphoma subtypes associated with low-level occupational exposure to external ionizing radiation, and to clarify whether lymphoma should be included among the cancer outcomes related to ionizing radiation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-00596-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183712PMC
April 2020

Diesel Engine Exhaust Exposure, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Subtype Risks. A Pooled Exposure-Response Analysis of 14 Case-Control Studies.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 08;202(3):402-411

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin and ll Centro di Riferimento per l'Epidemiologia e la Prevenzione Oncologica in Piemonte (CPO-Piemonte), Torino, Italy.

Although the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated in multiple studies, little is known regarding exposure-response relationships associated with different exposure subgroups and different lung cancer subtypes. We expanded on a previous pooled case-control analysis on diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer by including three additional studies and quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate lung cancer and subtype risks associated with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust characterized by elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. We used a quantitative EC job-exposure matrix for exposure assessment. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with various metrics of EC exposure. Lung cancer excess lifetime risks (ELR) were calculated using life tables accounting for all-cause mortality. Additional stratified analyses by smoking history and lung cancer subtypes were performed in men. Our study included 16,901 lung cancer cases and 20,965 control subjects. In men, exposure response between EC and lung cancer was observed: odds ratios ranged from 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.30-1.52) for the lowest and highest cumulative exposure groups, respectively. EC-exposed men had elevated risks in all lung cancer subtypes investigated; associations were strongest for squamous and small cell carcinomas and weaker for adenocarcinoma. EC lung cancer exposure response was observed in men regardless of smoking history, including in never-smokers. ELR associated with 45 years of EC exposure at 50, 20, and 1 μg/m were 3.0%, 0.99%, and 0.04%, respectively, for both sexes combined. We observed a consistent exposure-response relationship between EC exposure and lung cancer in men. Reduction of workplace EC levels to background environmental levels will further reduce lung cancer ELR in exposed workers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201911-2101OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465091PMC
August 2020

Respirable Crystalline Silica Exposure, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Subtype Risks. A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 08;202(3):412-421

The M. Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland.

Millions of workers around the world are exposed to respirable crystalline silica. Although silica is a confirmed human lung carcinogen, little is known regarding the cancer risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype. However, little is known regarding the disease risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype. We aimed to address current knowledge gaps in lung cancer risks associated with low levels of occupational silica exposure and the joint effects of smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risks. Subjects from 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada with detailed smoking and occupational histories were pooled. A quantitative job-exposure matrix was used to estimate silica exposure by occupation, time period, and geographical region. Logistic regression models were used to estimate exposure-disease associations and the joint effects of silica exposure and smoking on risk of lung cancer. Stratified analyses by smoking history and cancer subtypes were also performed. Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 control subjects. Lung cancer odds ratios ranged from 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.27) to 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.60) for groups with the lowest and highest cumulative exposure, respectively. Increasing cumulative silica exposure was associated ( trend < 0.01) with increasing lung cancer risks in nonsilicotics and in current, former, and never-smokers. Increasing exposure was also associated ( trend ≤ 0.01) with increasing risks of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Supermultiplicative interaction of silica exposure and smoking was observed on overall lung cancer risks; superadditive effects were observed in risks of lung cancer and all three included subtypes. Silica exposure is associated with lung cancer at low exposure levels. An exposure-response relationship was robust and present regardless of smoking, silicosis status, and cancer subtype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201910-1926OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465090PMC
August 2020

Multigene Panel Germline Testing of 1333 Czech Patients with Ovarian Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Apr 13;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Institute of Biochemistry and Experimental Oncology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 128 53 Prague, Czech Republic.

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy with a substantial proportion of hereditary cases and a frequent association with breast cancer (BC). Genetic testing facilitates treatment and preventive strategies reducing OC mortality in mutation carriers. However, the prevalence of germline mutations varies among populations and many rarely mutated OC predisposition genes remain to be identified. We aimed to analyze 219 genes in 1333 Czech OC patients and 2278 population-matched controls using next-generation sequencing. We revealed germline mutations in 18 OC/BC predisposition genes in 32.0% of patients and in 2.5% of controls. Mutations in , , , and mismatch repair genes conferred high OC risk (OR > 5). Mutations in and were associated with moderate risk (both OR = 3.5). mutations dominated in almost all clinicopathological subgroups including sporadic borderline tumors of ovary (BTO). Analysis of remaining 201 genes revealed somatic mosaics in and germline mutations in and associating with a high/moderate OC risk significantly; however, further studies are warranted to delineate their contribution to OC development in other populations. Our findings demonstrate the high proportion of patients with hereditary OC in Slavic population justifying genetic testing in all patients with OC, including BTO.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226062PMC
April 2020

Circulating tumour-derived KRAS mutations in pancreatic cancer cases are predominantly carried by very short fragments of cell-free DNA.

EBioMedicine 2020 May 3;55:102462. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Genetic Cancer Susceptibility group, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Background: The DNA released into the bloodstream by malignant tumours· called circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), is often a small fraction of total cell-free DNA shed predominantly by hematopoietic cells and is therefore challenging to detect. Understanding the biological properties of ctDNA is key to the investigation of its clinical relevance as a non-invasive marker for cancer detection and monitoring.

Methods: We selected 40 plasma DNA samples of pancreatic cancer cases previously reported to carry a KRAS mutation at the 'hotspot' codon 12 and re-screened the cell-free DNA using a 4-size amplicons strategy (57 bp, 79 bp, 167 bp and 218 bp) combined with ultra-deep sequencing in order to investigate whether amplicon lengths could impact on the capacity of detection of ctDNA, which in turn could provide inference of ctDNA and non-malignant cell-free DNA size distribution.

Findings: Higher KRAS amplicon size (167 bp and 218 bp) was associated with lower detectable cell-free DNA mutant allelic fractions (p < 0·0001), with up to 4·6-fold (95% CI: 2·6-8·1) difference on average when comparing the 218bp- and the 57bp-amplicons. The proportion of cases with detectable KRAS mutations was also hampered with increased amplicon lengths, with only half of the cases having detectable ctDNA using the 218 bp assay relative to those detected with amplicons less than 80 bp.

Interpretation: Tumour-derived mutations are carried by shorter cell-free DNA fragments than fragments of wild-type allele. Targeting short amplicons increases the sensitivity of cell-free DNA assays for pancreatic cancer and should be taken into account for optimized assay design and for evaluating their clinical performance.

Funding: IARC; MH CZ - DRO; MH SK; exchange program between IARC and Sao Paulo medical Sciences; French Cancer League.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.09.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251242PMC
May 2020

Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies.

Addict Biol 2021 01 16;26(1):e12880. Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429266PMC
January 2021

Genetically Determined Height and Risk of Non-hodgkin Lymphoma.

Front Oncol 2019 28;9:1539. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Although the evidence is not consistent, epidemiologic studies have suggested that taller adult height may be associated with an increased risk of some non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Height is largely determined by genetic factors, but how these genetic factors may contribute to NHL risk is unknown. We investigated the relationship between genetic determinants of height and NHL risk using data from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 10,629 NHL cases, including 3,857 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2,847 follicular lymphoma (FL), 3,100 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 825 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, and 9,505 controls of European ancestry. We evaluated genetically predicted height by constructing polygenic risk scores using 833 height-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between genetically determined height and the risk of four NHL subtypes in each GWAS and then used fixed-effect meta-analysis to combine subtype results across studies. We found suggestive evidence between taller genetically determined height and increased CLL risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, = 0.049), which was slightly stronger among women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31, = 0.036). No significant associations were observed with DLBCL, FL, or MZL. Our findings suggest that there may be some shared genetic factors between CLL and height, but other endogenous or environmental factors may underlie reported epidemiologic height associations with other subtypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999122PMC
January 2020

Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, natural menopause, and breast cancer risk: an international prospective cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Breast Cancer Res 2020 01 16;22(1). Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia.

Background: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause.

Methods: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

Results: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar.

Conclusion: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-020-1247-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966793PMC
January 2020

Fine-mapping of 150 breast cancer risk regions identifies 191 likely target genes.

Nat Genet 2020 01 7;52(1):56-73. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0537-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974400PMC
January 2020

Alcohol Consumption, Cigarette Smoking, and Risk of Breast Cancer for and Mutation Carriers: Results from The BRCA1 and BRCA2 Cohort Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 02 2;29(2):368-378. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in and mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of and in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential.

Methods: Using a large international pooled cohort of and mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 mutation carriers and 3,525 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 mutation carriers and 1,610 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: For both and mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HR) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk.

Conclusions: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation.

Impact: This is the largest prospective study of mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0546DOI Listing
February 2020

Association of Genomic Domains in and with Prostate Cancer Risk and Aggressiveness.

Cancer Res 2020 02 13;80(3):624-638. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Unité de Prévention et d'Epidémiologie Génétique, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in or () are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 and 171 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 and 2,880 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in . These results demonstrate that specific PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-1840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553241PMC
February 2020

BAP1 Syndrome - Predisposition to Malignant Mesothelioma, Skin and Uveal Melanoma, Renal and Other Cancers.

Klin Onkol 2019 ;32(Supplementum2):118-122

Background: BAP1 syndrome is an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome associated with increased risk of malignant mesothelioma; uveal and cutaneous melanoma; kidney cancer; lung adenocarcinoma; meningioma; basaliomas; and breast, ovarian, and prostate tumors. The BAP1 gene (BRCA1-associated protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in DNA repair via homologous recombination. BAP1 regulates the cell cycle, differentiation, DNA damage responses, and cell proliferation through deubiquitination. Somatic mutations in the BAP1 gene are common in many types of tumors.

Observation: Two families harboring a germline mutation in the BAP1 gene were diagnosed at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (MMCI). A 27-year-old index female from one family was followed-up for multiple nevi. Her mother and uncle had malignant mesothelioma, and her maternal grandmother had uveal melanoma. The index case tested positive for a BAP1 (NM_004656.2): c.217delG/p.Asp73Metfs*5 frame-shift mutation. The melanoma was removed at the age of 28 and 31. In the second family, an 11-year-old index female had two nevi removed from her head, and a spitzoid-type skin lesion was diagnosed at the age of 11. Her 34-year-old mother had multiple nevi, and a skin lesion of spitzoid-type was removed from the abdomen. Both patients harbored a BAP1 (NM_004656.2): c.123-1G>T acceptor splice site mutation (IARC [International Agency for Research on Cancer] class 4 [probably pathogenic]). Preventive measures for BAP1 syndrome should include known risks for cancer. Tumors occur early and repeatedly. At the MMCI, we recommend physical examination by an oncologist, eyes and skin examination, every 6 months; whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, including the central nervous system, every year (or low-dose computed tomography/chest and abdomen magnetic resonance imaging); annual abdominal ultrasound, breast ultrasound, or mammography; a gynecological ultrasound examination every 6 months; colonoscopy starting at the age of 45; and other suitable surveillances based on family history.

Conclusion: BAP1 syndrome is a complex cancer syndrome with a high risk of rare malignant mesothelioma, malignant skin and uveal melanoma, spitzoid-type skin lesions, and other tumors. Detection of this syndrome is essential for the survival of high-risk individuals. Supported by the grant project MH CZ - RVO (MMCI, 00209805). The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 21. 5. 2019 Accepted: 6. 6. 2019.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14735/amko2019S118DOI Listing
January 2020

GAPPS - Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Proximal Polyposis of the Stomach Syndrome in 8 Families Tested at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute - Prevention and Prophylactic Gastrectomies.

Klin Onkol 2019 ;32(Supplementum2):109-117

Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS) is a rare variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome with massive polyposis of the stomach and a significant risk of gastric adenocarcinoma. Li et al., 2016, described point mutations in the Ying Yang 1 binding site of the APC gene 1B promoter associated with GAPPS syndrome. The first GAPPS syndrome in a Czech family was described in 2016. At Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, GAPPS syndrome was diagnosed in eight families using Sanger sequencing. In all families, one mutation in promoter 1B of APC gene NM_001127511: c.-191T>C was detected. This mutation was not found in any patient with multiple colon polyposis without a detected classic mutation in the APC gene. In total, 24 carriers of this mutation in promoter 1B of the APC gene were detected. Out of those 24 carriers, 20 had massive gastric polyposis with more than 100 fundic glandular polyps diagnosed between the age of 22 and 65, 5 had already died of adenocarcinoma of the stomach (at the ages of 29, 40, 59, 60 and 64, respectively) and another woman was treated at the age of 29. Two female carriers do not yet have polyposis of the stomach at the ages of 31 and 65, respectively; one female carrier has incipient polyposis at the age of 58. A male carrier does not have any clinical symptoms, gastroscopy was not indicated because of his age. Prophylactic total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy has already been performed 6 times at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, in 5 cases without adenocarcinoma at the ages of 27, 34, 44, 51 and 66, respectively; in one female carrier adenocarcinoma of the stomach was detected in a histology specimen. Two prophylactic gastrectomies with D1 lymphadenectomy were performed at University Hospital Brno at the ages of 42 and 50, respectively. In the Czech Republic point mutation c.-191T>C (rs879253783) in the 1B promoter of the APC gene is a frequent cause of gastric polyposis with a high risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, even at a young age. Positively tested individuals are recommended to high-risk oncology clinic. A necessary part of the discussion with the patient is information about a preventive gastrectomy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14735/amko2019S109DOI Listing
January 2020